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the Amiga's interface conventions. A user-accessible file provides the ability to customize directives and run-time messages from the assembler. An AREXX (tm) interface provides "real-time" communication with the editor of your choice. A number of directives enable Macro68 to communicate with AmigaDos(tm). ReSource'030 supports the new Motorola M68000 Family assembly language syntax, and is a perfect companian to Macro68. Possibly the most unique feature of Macro68 is the use of a shared-library, which allows resident preassembled include files for incredibly fast assemblies. If you're new to Resource, here are a few facts: Resource is an intelligent interactive disassembler for the Amiga programmer. Resource will enable you to explore the Amiga. Find out how your favorite program works. Examine your own compiled code, Macro68 is compatible with the directives used by most popular assemblers. Output !ii formats include executable object, linkable object, binary image, and Motorola S records. Resource will load/save any file, read disk tracks, or disassemble directly from rrerrory, Symbols are created automatically, ard virtually aHAmiga syrrbol bases are supported. Addltionally, you may create your own symbol bases. "If you're serious about disassembling code, look no further!" The original Resource continues to be available for owners of 68000 based machines. Both versions of Resource require at least 1 meg of ram. Suggested retail prices: Original Resource, US, ReSource'030, US$_150 Requires at least 1 meg of memory. Resource The Best Disassembler The Puzzle Factory, Inc. P.O. Box 986 Veneta. OR 97487 Orders: (800) 828-9952 Customer Service: (503) 935-3709 Distributors for the U.S. and Canada Dealer Inquires Invited "Quality software tools for the Amiga

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Document sans nom 3-D Professional Scene Generator Frame Grabber Color Dithering And More!
David Duberman's Textures Plus Dr. T s KCS 3.0 Programming In C On A Floppy System Building A Voice-Controlled Joystick 0 i Ht r v r *+ f i u 7 Programming in C on a Floppy System 66 by Paul Miller Yes, even on a stock Amiga 500 with a 512K RAM expander.
REVIEWS ROGRAMMING KCS 3.0 Review 10 by Phil Saunders Dr. T's Keyboard Controlled Sequencer has significant changes.
Acting on Impulse 31 by John Steiner Impulse's Firecracker 24 board breaks the 4096-color barrier, ¥ I 3-D Professional 46 by David Duberman Progressive Peripherals' 3-D modeling, rendering, and animation program.
How Pro is 3-D Professional? 61 by Frank McMahon Simply put. It makes 3-D output a breeze.
DEPARTMENTS Editorial 4 Feedback 6 List of Advertisers 80 Public Domain Software 91 Time Out! 50 by Mark Cashman Accessing the Amiga's system timer device via Modula-2.
Stock-Portfolio 72 by G. L. Penrose Fhere's an original program to organize your investments, music library, mailing lists, and more!
CygCC 81 by Duncan Thompson An Arexx programming tutorial.
The Game of Harmony 63 by Joe DiCora A game of challenge that rewards c relaxed approach and a calm state of mind.
Future Wars: Adventures in Time 63 by Miguel Mulet Can you save humanity?
MBBM New Products and Other Neat Stuff 15 compiled by Elizabeth G. Fedorzyn A high-densify drive from Applied Engineering, enhancements to some major Commodore products, and more.
Snapshot 55 by R. Brad Andrews Race your Porsche 959 from New York to California in Sega's Turbo Outrun.
Voice-Controlled Joystick 58 by John lovine Buiid your own voice-controlled joystick!
Bug Bytes 69 by John Steiner Gold Disk’s Transcript, M2Sprint, and a new technical support person at Intuitive Technologies.
Roomers 77 by The Bandito Nintendo's Super Famicom is headed for Japan, And whatever happened to the Amiga 250?
C Notes From The C Group 87 by Stephen Kemp Plan your C programs to take advantage of the Amiga's multitasking capabilities.
FrameGrabber 18 by Frank McMahon "...this package is miles ahead.,, in ease of use, logic, and professional image enhancement."
KARA Fonts 23 by R. Shamms Mortier KARA Computer Graphics' KARA Fonts collection is here to stay.
Gradient Color Dithering on the Amiga Made Easy 24 by Francis M. Gardino A look at dithering options available on the Amiga.
Sculpt Script 26 by Christian Aubert Creating images using Sculpt-Animate 4-D.
The Art Department 38 by R, Shamms Mortier ASDG's new color image processing software system.
Scene Generator 40 by R, Shamms Mortier Brett Casebolt's new and improved Scene Generator V2.10. Breaking the Color Limit with PageRender3D 42 by R. Shamms Mortier No other Amiga animation 3-D rendering package offers such an impressive list of features.
Amazing Computing For The Commodore AMIGA1 ADMINISTRATION Joyce Hicks Publisher: Assistant Publisher; Admin. Assistant: Circulation Manager: Asst. Circulation: Corporate Trainer: Tralfic Manager: Robert J. Hicks Alisa Hammond Doris Gamble Brigitte Renee Piante Virginia Terry Hicks Robert Gamble International Coordinator: Donna Viveiros Marketing Manager: Ernest P. Viveiros Sr.
Marketing Associate: Greg Young Marketing Assistant: Lisa Friedlander Programming Artist: E. Paul EDITORIAL Managing Editor: Associate Editor; Hardware Editor: Technical Editor: Technical Associate: Video Consultant: Don Hicks Elizabeth Fedorzyn Ernest P. Viveiros Sr.
J. Michael Morrison Aimee B. Abren Frank McMahon Wiiliam Fries
Paul Michael Brian Fox Kim Kerrigan Marilyn Gagne Melissa-Mae
Viveiros Art Director: Photographer: Illustrator: Graphic
Designer: Research & Editorial Support: Production Assistant:
ADVERTISING SALES Advertising Manager: Donna Marie The
Complete Home Management System Accounting: Advanced Home
Accounting System
- Multiple Accounts Checking, Savings, Credit Cards Etc.
- Definable Categories For Incomes And Expenses.
- Easy Carry Over To The Next Fiscal Period.
- Track Tax Deductible Items Making Tax Time Easier.
• More Reports Than Other Amiga Accounting Systems.
- Graphs Income Expense And Budgets.
- Fully Indexed Files, Never Any Waiting!
- Split Transactions - Periodic Compaction
- Monthly And Yearly Budgets - Account Reconciliation
Forecasting: Verify Utility And Credit Card Charges. Future
Values Of Investments. Print Complete Amortization Tables.
Inventory: Track Vital Detail On Important Household Items.
Generate Reports Showing Home & Inventory Worth.
Recipes: Manage, Manipulate And Convert Recipes.
Organize Weekly Menus & Print The Shopping List.
Address: Complete Name And Address Manager And More.
Remember Any Important Date. Prints Mailing Labels Too!
Oniy$ 99flfi ESIGnin j * Call Or Write For More [niormatlon Designing Minds, Inc. 3006 North Main, Logan, Utah 84321 (801) 753*4947 No Copy Protection, Installs On Any Hard Disk AMIGA™ is a registered trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc. Circle 121 on Reader Service card.
1-508-678-4200 1-800-345-3360 FAX 1-508-675-6002 SPECIAL THANKS TO: Buddy Terrell & Byrd Press Bob at Riverside Art, Ltd.
Swansea One Hour Photo Pride Offset, Warwick, R Mach 1 Photo Amazing Computing For The Commodore Amiga1" (ISSN 0866-9430) Is published monthly by PiM Publications, Inc., Curran! Road, P.O. 3ox 859, Fall River, MA 02722-3369.
Subscriptions in the U.S., 12 issue; lor S24.00: in Canada 5 Mexico surface. S34.00; foreign surface lor $ 44,00, Second-Class Postage paid at Fall River, MA 02722 and additional mailing offices.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes lo PiM Publicat cns Inc., P.O. Box 869, Fall River, MA 02722-0369. Printed in the U.S.A. Copyrights August 1990 by PiM Publications, Inc. All rights reserved.
First Class or Ai-Mail rales available upon request PiM Publications, Inc. maintains tbs right to refuse any advertising.
Pirn Publications Inc. is not obligated to return unsolicited materials. All requested returns must be received with a Sett Addressed Stamped Mailer.
Send article submissions in both manuscript and disk format with your name, address, telephone, and Social Security Number on each to the Associate Editor. Requests for Author's Guides should be directed to the address listed above.
EDITORIAL CONTENT AMIGA GRAPHICS The Amiga has always been appreciated for its significant graphics capabilities.
We can see this in the way ocher computer companies have worked overtime to provide similar capability (at a higher cost). It is not until we examine the many facets of the Amiga, however, that we appreciate how deeply graphics are involved in every stage of Amiga computing.
Amiga’s early inventor, Jay Miner, wanted a computer which could perform some of the advanced graphics and simulation techniques he had seen in extremely expensive flight trainer programs. The professional flight simulator programs were fast and very graphics intensive. By establishing this goal, Mr. Miner’s efforts and creativity helped conceive the Amiga.
He reached for a single star and opened an entire galaxy for tire rest of us to explore.
The Amiga has not only provided a great assortment of flight simulators, from WWII scenarios to those involving space flight, but its inherent graphics capabilities have pushed the Amiga into video, lire arts, and more.
BEST-KEPT SECRET Commodore Business Machines maintains that the Amiga is one of the best- kept secrets in the computer industry.
Unfortunately, they are correct. However, Amiga graphics are extremly popular, Millions of people have watched movies such as Total Recall and Vo ree Men Ancl A Baby, Millions more have seen Max Headroom, Amazing Stories, or My Secret Identity on television. Yet, few' of those millions are aware that these productions have made use of Amiga graphics.
During a recent discussion with an Amiga developer in the Hollyw'ood area, I asked if we could get a few' stories on what people are doing with the Amiga. He said no one is talking. Although the Amiga is being used quite heavily in a lot of die pre- production and post-production houses, few-’ want the information known. It appears that, in many cases, the Amiga is taking the place of some very expensive equipment. The artists are reluctant to let anyone know, as they continue to invoice their customers at the more traditional and expensive rates. Perhaps the Amiga is performing its task too
There are artists, developers, and organizations which are discovering the unique nature of the Amiga daily. These people have transformed what is promised in die specifications for the Amiga into the “living”, articulate drawings, renderings, and animations we see today.
PORTRAIT OF AN ARTIST When discussing Amiga graphics, it is impossible not to mention the name Jim Sachs. Mr, Sachs is the most famous computer artist in the Amiga community. He first taught himself graphics and machine language on a Commodore 64, and is a pioneer in Amiga art. A former Mr Force pilot with no formal art training, Jim Sachs created many of the great drawings and renderings of the early days of the Amiga.
Mr. Sachs’ accomplishments include die farsighted creativity displayed in the CinemaWare hit Defender Of The Crown.
His early w'ork was found on bulletin board systems and magazine covers. He was a constant visitor to Amiga user group meetings, and an inspiration to every other artist working with the Amiga. He created the Mazda picturesused by Aegis, SachsCastle 1990(his then hoped-for expansion to his mountain home), several views of Porsches and motorcycles, and even a few scenes for a prospective new' game Time Crystal.
In an interview that appeared in Amazing Computings April, 1987 issue, Jim Sachs commented, “It turns out that the kind of art that I’m good at and the kind of art I like to do translates very' well to the computer screen.” "Derail, contrast, mostly contrast... On paper, you start with something that is w'hite and put dowm dark colors. With the computer screen it’s just the opposite; you start out with a black screen and paint with points of light.” Mr. Sachs has not kept his unique interpretation of graphics and its relationship to computers a secret. He is a major teacher at assorted
AmiEXPOs as well as a constant seminar instructor for universities.
Those interested in exploring the depths of art as it appears on our Amiga screens should not miss the opportunity to see and hear him.
HELP WANTED: ARTISTS AND ANIMA TORS 1 often receive phone calls from developers looking for a particular talent or individual to help them complete a project, I was especially happy when Alexander Eckelberry called from Oxxi inc. with a request for any artist who would be willing to help him test a new product. It appears that the people at Oxxi are seriously updating one of die products drat they acquired, and w'ould like to see diverse new' graphics created widr it for its introduction, Although I do not have access to the new product myself, 1 can assure you drat it is always a drrill to
work on a new' project before its introduction. Not only are you on the front edge of the Amiga market, but you have the chance to make suggestions and institute changes diat will make the program easier to use.
Serious artists wrho feel their work wdll benefit thisnewproduct’sintroduction should send their an on disk, as well as a brief description of their efforts to: Oxxi inc. 1339 East 28th Street Long Beach, CA 90806 ARTIST SERVICES Computimation, a product of Curt Kass’ fertile imagination, is a collaboration of artists for hire. Mr. Kass has combined the talents of animators, still artists, and musicians to create a group of artist available for large or small graphics needs.
Working with computer-based systems, drese artists are attempting to make it simple for advertisers and businesses to use high-quality Amiga graphics and animations in their presentations and advertising.
(continued oil page 80) The Best Assembler Macro68 111 I Suggested retail price: US$ 150 the powerful disassembler for Macro68 is a powerful new assembler tor the entire line of Amiga personal computers. The Amiga that has received rave reviews, Macro68 supports the entire Motorola M68000 Family including the MC68030, MC68882 FPU, now has a big brother, and MC68851 MMU. The Amiga Copper is supported also.
Like the original version, This fast, multi-pass assembler uses the new Motorola M68000 Family assembly ReSource'030 will tear apart language syntax, and comes with a utility to convert old-style syntax source code your code like no other program, painlessly. The new syntax was developed by Motorola specifically to support And it will do so even faster now, the addressing capabilities of the new generation of CPUs. Because ReSource’030 is written in native MC68030 code. This means that Macro68 boasts macro power unparalleled in products of this class. It won't run on a vanilla 68000, but will
fly There are many new and innovative assembler directives. For instance, on an A3000, or another machine with a a special structure offset directive assures maximum compatibility 68020 030 board, with the Amiga’s interlace conventions. A user-accessible file provides the ability to customize directives and run-time ReSource'030 supports the new Motorola M68000 messages irom the assembler. An AREXX(tm) interface Family assembly language syntax, and is a perfect provides "real-time" communication with the editor of companian to Macro68.
Your choice. A number of directives enable Macro68 to communicate with AmigaDos(tm}. If you’re new to Resource, here are a few facts: Resource is an intelligent interactive disassembler for the Amiga Possibly the most unique feature ot Macro68 is programmer. Resource will enable you to explore the Amiga, Find the use of a shared-library, which allows resident out how your favorite program works. Examine your own compiled code, preassembled include files for incredibly fast assemblies. Resource will load save any file, read disk tracks, or disassemble directly from memory. Symbois are created
automatically, and virtually all Amiga symbol Macro68 is compatible with the bases are supported. Additionally, you may create your own symbol bases.
Directives used by most popular assemblers. Output file formats "If you’re serious about disassembling code, look no further!"
Include executable object, linkable object, binary image, The original Resource continues to be available for owners of 68000 based machines, and Motorola S records. Both versions of Resource require at least 1 meg of ram.
Suggested retail prices: Original Resource, US$ 95, ReSource’030, US$ 150 Requires at least _ 1 meg of memory.
Resource The Best Disassembler jynSII The Puzzle Factory, Inc. jr P.O. Box 986 ¥ | Veneta, OR 97487 Orders: (800) 828-9952 Customer Service: (503) 935-3709 Distributors for the U.S. and Canada Dealer Inquires Invited "Quality software tools for the Amiga" | VISA MasterCard, check or money order accepted - no CODs.
AMIGA ard ArmgaDOS are trademarks ol Commodore-Armga, Inc. CENSUS REPORTS As a response 10 your editorial in the June, 1990 issue of AC, I would like to submit the following.
I started building electronics projects back in high school and have been tinkering eversince. My B.S.E.E. from Purdue has helped me greatly in my quest to build bigger and better projects. 1 have tried to find inexpensive solutions to some of computer electronics hobbyist’s current problems. 1 guess I've always considered myself a backyard pioneer so when i bought my first Amiga bade in 1987. It lit right in with the greater scheme of things.
In the last couple of years , I have been concentrating on building projects for my Amiga. These have ranged from such mundane things as a switch box for the selection of the mouse to an amplifier for sound output. I like to get die most out of my designs while still keeping them compact and efficient. So, my projects do go a little further than just 'bare bones’ solutions.
The mouse switch box 1 designed will allow the mouse port to connect to any of three devices, two of which can also be used with the joystick port. The stereo amplifier has an input multiplexer to allow sound input from an Amiga, a ‘Walkman’- type portable radio, or a television. This makes working with my Amiga pleasant when it’s not being used to blast die output of the latest fast-action arcade games. The amplifier also includes a preamp to allow adjustment of the volume, balance, treble, bass, loudness, and separation of die selected input signal. 1 also designed a MIDI interface. It
doesn't just have an input and output, it has one input, diree individual buffered outputs, and a switchable out diru connection all running at about 15 milliamps total.
I purchased an Amiga 2000 on April 9th. Is this "... within ninety days of the Amiga Vision announcement ...” as mentioned in the "World of Amiga..." article (v5.6, pg. 47)? If it is, what do 1 need to do to receive a copy of AmigaVision?
Jim Lundy Frisco, TX AmigaVision was announced on April 24, 1990, but wasn't released until June 30,1990. The announcement applied only to those who purchased an Amiga between the time of the announcement and the actual release of AmigaVision. Refer to Amazing Computing'sAugust issue (p. 94) for more details. ED SPEEDING UP CBM'S OSCILLATOR Most magazines have reviewed all the 68030 boards, showing Commodore’s are slower than the others. Well here's a little tip to get more speed out of the A2630 Card... CHANGE THE CRYSTAL.
It is possible to replace the 25 Mhz oscillator with a faster version. The only problem is locating the pan. I tried three electronics suppliers, and found only oscillators of less tiian 24, or more than 30 Mhz, and was starting to give up hope. While installing some boards in my A2500, I found that diere was a 28.63-MHz oscillator on the motherboard. I was able to obtain the oscillator from a Commodore service shop.
Installation is quite simple: 1) remove your 68030 Board, 2) desolder & remove the 4-pin, 25-MHz crystal on the card (using a proper desoidering tool), 3) resolder
28. 63-MHz crystal in its place, and 4) replace the card. Test
the unit fully.
Just for die record, I have the A2630 card from Commodore w 4 megs, 6.2 motherboard, A2091A HD controller w 2 megs, A2052 2MB RAM card, and Mimetics' FrameBuffer, I have installed a 28.63 Mhz oscillator, replacing the 25 Mhz version shipped with die A2630.1 haven’t had difficulties on my machine at 28 Mhz. Ray-tracing packages reveal a notable difference between a stock A2630 and the modified 28 MITz. I would say diat you should notice approximately a 10% speed increase.
I have also been using SetCpu with the options Burst and Cache on. When using the Ronin CPU Memtest, I get 11.50-11.91 reading, which beats the stock reading of
10. 5-10.96. This places the A2630 card at about the same level
as the GVP28. Although I think Commodore's might still be a
cad slower with the 100 ns chips.
SetCpu VI .6 is a ED program (available on most BBS s) by Dave Haynie. And is a must for any accelerator card owner.
1 have done 3 installations of a 28.63 Mhz oscillator. On one board widiout die shielding (the first few A2630 Boards were shipped without die metal case around die main chips), the machine would crash freeze after a 3-5 minute period. I don't know if it was the '030 Board, or die older A2090 HD controller diat caused the Gurus, but I replaced die 25 Mhz on die main processor and moved die 28.63 Mhz crystal to tiie math coprocessor (and moved the jumper). It has boosted die speed ofSculpt- Animate 4D, over a stock A2630 card.
For the price of the oscillator (roughly S7.00-$ 12.00), I feel this is a worthwhile modification to perform, and only requires a small amount of time to try. Please note that this modification will void your warrant y unless you have it done at a Commodore service center.
Andrew H. Hochheimer Wallaceburg, Ontario DPR1NT II VERSUS DPI Unfortunately Deluxe Print II does not handle printers quite as well as we til!
Would like it to. A call to Electronic Arts reveals that Dprint II expects a 120 x 120 GVP Announces a Technological Breakthrough... SERIESE THE NEXT GENERATION in SCSI and RAM Controllers for the A2000 GVP’s New SERIES IIA2000 SCSI and RAM Expansion Controllers provide the ultimate hard disk and RAM expansion solution for the A2000. Choose from two new models: Hard-Disk+RAM-Card Space (no components) for direct mounting of 3.5"- Hartf Disk Drive GVP Custom VSLI Chip Up to 8MB of FAST RAM Expansion GVP’s New FaaastROM SCSI driver and installation software is also available as an upgrade kit
for GVP’s original IMPACT SCSI controllers, for ONLY S49.95. Offers major performance increase over previous GVP AUTOBOOT EPROMs.
New Series]! 48MB Removable media hard disk drive. GVP now also offers the NEXT GENERATION removable media hard disk drive which offers increased capacity (48MB formattedl and major technological advances in cartridge air flow filtering design and robustness. Call for details.
“Letts Standardize” GREAT VALLEY PRODUCTS INC. 600 Clark Avenue, King of Prussia, PA 19406 For more information, or for nearest dealer, call today. Dealer inquiries welcome.
Tel. (215) 337-8770 • FAX (215) 337-9922 Circle 123 on Reader Service card.
¦ The Series IIA2000 SCSI “Hard-Disk + RAM-Card” State-of-the-Art integration packs a high performance SCSI controller, KMR FAST RAM Expansion and a 3.5" hard disk drive INTO A SINGLE A2000 EXPANSION SLOT!! Saves BOTH a valuable expansion slot and a peripheral bay' Incredible SCSI hard disk performance achieved through GVP's innovative new custom chip design, which provides DMA performance and unique direct dual port memory access to FAST RAM, eliminating typical DMA side effects under heavy graphics load.
Easy-to-install SIMM memory modules allow flexible memory configurations from ZERO through 8MB. Supports 6MB FAST RAM configuration for BridgcBoard users.
NEW Fa ASTROM ''' SCSI Driver offers optimum performance and includes such features as: V Supports virtually any SCSI device including, CD-ROMs, Tape Drives, IOMEGA Bernoulli drives, etc, V Fully implements SCSI Disconnect Reconnect protocol, allowing overlapping SCSI commands to be executed.
Hard-Disk-Card v Fully implements Commodore's Rigid Disk Block jRDB' standard as well as the new DIRECT SCSI interface standard.
V Removable media drive support.
Automatically senses cartridge changes and informs AmigaDOS, ensuring safe and reliable use of removable media SCSI drives.
V Allows Direct AUTOBOOT from Fast File System Partition.
* New INTUITION COMPATIBLE SCSI installation and "tuning" utility
included. Major features include: V ICON and gadget based
INTUITION interface.
T Bad Block Remapping of hard drives.
V Auto or manual hard drive partitioning and AmigaDOS formatting.
V Read and modify existing RDB parameters on hard disk.
V Simplest and Easiest SCSI installation in tne industry,
* Low parts count (through VLSI Integration] EQUALS: lower power,
higher reliability, longer life and ultimate PRICE
PERFORMANCE’ See TRADE-UP offer, The Series IIA2000 SCSI
* Same as above but without the 8MB FAST RAM capability.
* Specially designed for those users who The ULTIMATE Trade-Up
GVP today introducedI its trade_ product hnc an .a!'n°U najn t0 Further bolster up program, ieh.scerumt GVP's dominant market share hard drive market. SnF-UP program Details of GVP's new TRADE u P „ are as follows: chinninsi (USA only),
• Fo 109 P-nn trade-up to the new GVP 1 c ms nSSCSI
"Hard-Disk-Card" (without a t hv simply sending in their
present drive) by aNY manufacturer) 5VP FREIGHT,»nvEGVPor
Commodore SCSI : . Owners of any ° . Additional controllers,
are eligible tor n I s=§s?s check money t existing controllers
i . For an additional S39 eMM.ngr i( 1 can be traded-up to the
n _ indudes portoit Tor AMIGA Version 2.1: Mixed text styles!
Images in documents! Colors!
Enhanced Interface! CEI access!
"Will certainly whet a lot of HyperAppetites" Neil Randall, Amigaworld 1 90 "Its flexibility far exceeds any other program that I've used on any computer."
Robert Klimaszewski, Amazing V5.1 THINKER Write, design, plan, Multimedia Idea Processor with HyperText! Arexx Upgrades Version 2.1
l. X - 2.1 $ 25 itQ A
2. 0 - 2,1 $ 10 O U Poor Person Software 3721 Starr King Circle,
Dept 5 Palo Alto, CA 94306
(415) -493-7234 Circle 129 on Reader Service card.
DPI printer to be attached. Therefore, anything higher dian 120 DPI (dots per inch) is classified as hi-res (news to me).
The workaround for this is to go into Preferences for tile printer and set die density to a setting low enough to match 120 DPI.
If die printer driver does not have any settings such as this then you will need to figure out what combination of settings will achieve the desired results. The control is best understood in terms of width and height since each interaction functions differently.
WIDTH: This is the easiest part to control.
Amiga preferences can be manipulated to print this at full width simply by setting the Graphics 2 limits to PIXEL and setting die width limits according to the following equation.
Widh_linisL _Pi _*I sifcd_widihJn_inchcsJf nnta_Wklh_DPI For example the HP PaintJet is 180 x 180 DPI. Therefore, to print 8.5 inches wide on the HP PaintJet, the pixel width limit should be set to 1530.
Ex. 1530 pixels = 8.5 inches "180 DPI Next, when you actually attempt to print the document increase the width until the last setting before it tells you that you can’t print to the dimensions specified. On the HP PaintJet this is 5.3 inches.
HEIGHT: This one is difficult to control.
The easiest way to explain it is that you will be adjusting the Height limit in Amiga Preferences so that one inch on die hi-res printer will be equal to one inch on a low- res printer.
Essentially what happens here is that each printing pass that Dprint II makes will be forced to the dimensions specified in Amiga preferences. Therefore you will be making this forced dimension equal to that of one pass of a low-res printer. On the HP PaintJet this magic number was eight pixels.
Once you have found die correct magic number for Amiga preferences your height will be controlled by the height requester in Dprint II. Also to make sure that there is no additional interaction you should turn off the Proportional gadget in Dprint II.
In summary7 here is how I print a 8.5 x 11 sign on the HP PaintJet.
1) go into printer preferences.
2) go into Graphics 2 screen.
3) dick on die limits gadget labeled PIXEL.
4) click on the width limit requester and enter 1530.
5) click on the height limit requester and enter 8.
6) click on smoothing on gadget (personnel preference).
7) dick on OK (to exit graphic 2 screen).
8) click on OK (to exit change printer screen).
9) dick on use (to exit Preferences using current settings
without saving).
10) enter Dprint II and load desired file.
11) select print.
12) enter 5-3 forwiddi requester (max.
Width without complaints).
13) enter 11 for height requester (actual dimension once magic
number was found).
14) click on proportional to turn off.
15) click on OK to print.
Thank you, Ronn Black Laurinburg, N’C A FIX FOR PAGESTREAM FONTS: This Is in response to John Steiner's article “PageStream 1.8’’ in the June issue, Tlie solution to his assignment problem of PageStreamFonts: can be found not in the Set Save Paths option, but in the Font Manager, even chough you no longer need to make that assignment. Since 1 have not had any problems with the Set Save Path option, it was not necessary for me to make an assignment for PageStreamDrivers:.
My second point relates to his comment that "sizing and cropping of the EPS images is impossible''. While cropping an EPS image may be impossible, I have a technique which makes sizing relatively easy. This technique assumes diat you are working with the original artwork in Professional Draw. After you have completed your illustration move it to the upper left- hand corner of die page. Then select .Alter Current Page and resize the page so dial it is just big enough to hold your illustration.
It is also a good idea to keep the size of the image relatively small, about T x 2' so that when it is brought into PageStream the box fits easily onto die page. Next you have to print the EPS file. Make sure to print only the current page. If you print the entire folio, even if it is only one page long, PageStream will offset the position of your image on the printed page. Finally, when you import die EPS file into PageStream you will be given a box representing the exact size of your illustration. At this point resizing your image should not require any guesswork.
Michael Rubino
E. Northport, NY
• AC- All letters ore subject to editing. Questions or comments
should be sent to: Amazing Computing c o PiM Publications
P. O. Box 869 Fall River, MA 02722-9970 Attn: FEEDBACK Readers
whose letters ere published will receive five public domain
disks FREE.
Color scanning on the Amiga personal computer has never been so good, easy or inexpensive.
Sharp's new JX-100 portable color scanner (shown in Figure 1) is a price quality breakthrough and ASDG's ScanLab 100 (the official JX-100 controller for the Amiga) puts it to work on your Amiga 500, 1000% 2000 or 2500.
Getting the image you want is easy with the JX-100. Just place yor original under the scanner and zero in on what you want using ScanLab 100's preview mode (Figure 2).
Then, in fine mode (Figure 3), you can scan the area you selected at up to 200 dots per inch in 64 shades of gray or 262,144 colors. Figures 1 and 4 shows unretouched results, both being 18-bitplane images.
ScanLab 100 is the best video rendering tool ever produced for the Preview Scan Iii * sli tness Fine Mode Ab o u t Exi 1 Size In PxlE Hi (1th
3. 76 762 Heifrht
4. 88 888 Offset
8. 88 8.88 Space Ebytes Monocitt-orte
146. 87 3 Bit Color 448 .63 t Bit Grey
882. 03 18 Bit Color
2217. 22 Figure 2.
Progress Resolution Next 288 Amiga. It supports more video modes (including 4096 colors in Fli-Res) than any other Amiga program as well as a host of other unique features. These include:
• 208 Video Modes. • PAL and NTSC in the same program! • Six
dithering types. • Full color balancing including variable
Gamma correction. • Loads any IFF image (including SHAM,
Dynamic Hi-Res and Dynamic HAM) up to 24-bitplanes deep and
1280 by 1280 pixels in size. • New video modes including A-RES
(4096 colors in hi-res) and A-HAM modes. • Variable digital
image reduction. Overscan screens up to 768 by
592. • 68020 and 68030 compatible.
Scan Controls Cormanits 18 Bit Col or Scan Thresholds Saue Resolution 288 Load Width 752 Hoi aht 800 Space 2217.22 D i sp1 ay Preview Color Controls Exi t. Balancintf Screen Controls Dither: Sierra 3 Low Res Overscan Inasre Controls NTSC OverScan Colors HAM Portrait Reduce Inane Size M: 768 H: 408 Execute Figure 3.
Best of all, in the United States, ScanLab 100 is included in the $ 995 list price of the Sharp JX-100 scanner. For desktop publishing, presentations or desktop video, the Sharp JX-100 and ScanLab 100 is the best color input system in its price range! Call now.* ** Madison, WI 53713 Voice (608) 273 - 6585 ScanLab 100 is a registered trademark of ASDG Incorporated. Amiga is a registered trademark of Cormnodore-Amiga, Inc. This ad was created using ASDG's Art Department, ScanLab 100, and ReSEP along with Gold Disk's Professional Page. ’Requires gender changer on the A1000. "Dealer inquiries
welcome. Circle IDS on Reader Service card.
Keyboard Controlled Sequencer 3.0 by Phil Saunders The quirks and rough edges that were the legacy of KCS’s Commodore 64 and Atari ST heritage are for the most part gone.
KCS 3.0 now feels like an Amiga program, while retaining full compatibility with the Atari ST version. The addition of the MPE allows Dr. T's programs to work together seamlessly as pan of one powerful, modular MIDI system.
D* The screen layout and user interface of KCS 3.0 are greatly improved. The confusing anows which were used to scroll through tire event list in VI,6 have been replaced by a standard Amiga scroll bar. Tire mouse is much more responsive when used to highlight a section of the event list.
Many of the commands which were onscreen buttons now appear in well-organized pull-down menus. Keyboard equivalents are also provided for many commands. The layout of the items in menus conforms to Amiga standards, with file options grouped under the Project menu.
KCS 3.0 reads and writes MIDI files directly, instead of through a conversion program, as in version 1.6. Unfortunately, there is still no provision for importing or exporting SMUS files.
The remote control panel in Track mode is another useful new feature. It provides a set of transport and punch in out controls which can be detached from the Track Play screen and slid down over another screen. This is especially useful when multitasking with a patch editor or other MIDI program, because the transport controls allow you to play back and record while editing sounds and auditioning patches. The remote control also in dudes "erase last track" and “rerecord” buttons, perfect for ham-fisted keyboardists like myself.
OF significant changes from KCS1.6, Some of these are visual,
like the new pull-down menus and remote control section on the
Track Play screen. Some add significant new functions, like
the implementation of the Multi-Program Environment (MPE) and
increased timing resolution of the clock. But the most notable
improvement is in the overall feel of the program: KCS 3.0 now
runs like a finely tuned race car.
One quibble of mine is that, while the erase track menu option can be selected by die mouse, the program then requires you to type “Y” or “NP’ to confirm the erasure.
This prevents accidental erasure, but requires you to be close to the computer keyboard at all times. The “MIDI-keys" function permits footswitches connected to a synthesizer to control KCS’s transport controls and rerecord features. I bought two footswitches for my DX-7, and can now rerecord a track by just stepping on a switch. This is an incredibly convenient feature which already existed in KCS 1.6, KCS has always been one of die most powerful (and bug-free) Amiga MIDI sequencers. One of its biggest advantages is that it doesn't force the user to suucture his or her music in any
particular way. If you like the multitrack tape recorder metaphor, die Track mode provides 48 tracks that run the length of the entire song. If you create ull Cnviromiini.
Internal Sound.,, hetronone Setup., fienote Control,., Screen Colon,,.
Interna! Clock h!H Clock Sony Pointer fsmton On Stiw Ptiintw Audible Itetrcnoeie Visual Nnrjnone Count-in ¦ Activity Display Step Display Kinfiec Display It!?It Display Biice Priority QH KCS 3.0 features pull-down menus.
Incorporating an improved user interface and a number of new features, KCS 3,0 now runs like a finely tuned race car, music by stringing together patterns, the Open mode provides a flexible way of doing this. The Song mode also lets the user combine Track and Open mode sequences. These three distinct modes of operation make KCS tremendously flexible.
One feature KCS 3.0 doesn't have is graphic editing, which most of its competitors provide in one form or another. Editing is performed in KCS by editing numbers in an event list. While this is not always as convenient as graphic editing, KCS provides more ways to manipulate the MIDI data. The KCS approach is more powerful than most graphic editors because you can address all the data by using an algorithm.
With KCS (and particularly with KCS Level
II) , it is a simple matter to change all the C's in a sequence
to C 's, while at the same time increasing their velocity and
shifting them forward in time. Graphic sequence editing
simply can't provide that kind of detailed editing as easily.
All in all, KCS has more editing power than any other Amiga
If graphic editing is important to you, Dr. T's MPE provides a solution. TIGER is a separate graphic editor that can be integrated with KCS 3.0. It provides real-time graphic editing using "piano roll'' notation.
TIGER can edit any standard format MIDI tile, but is particularly well suited for KCS.
TIGER can add and delete notes while a KCS sequence is playing and can also edit pitch bend and controller data. The MPE also allows TIGER and KCS to share the same data storage area, so changes made in one program are automatically incorporated into the other. Using KCS 3-0 with TIGER is intended to provide full graphic editing along with KCS's powerful event list editing. TIGER should be available for tire Amiga by fall.
What is the Multi-Program Environment? Essentially, it is a way to allow multitasking MIDI programs to access the same data in real time. Data can be routed from one program to another, modified, and then recorded into KCS and output from the MIDI interface. The MPE allows programs to edit the same data, so it is not necessary to import and export files from one program to the next. The MPE lets KCS
3. 0 interact with other Dr. T’s programs like The Copyist,
TIGER, Phantom (a SMPTE- synchronization), AutoMix (available
with KCS & Level II), and patch editors. Essentially, the
MPE turns all compatible programs into modules in an
integrated MIDI system. All the programs work together on a
common set of data. The result is a kind of “super-sequencer”
that can add graphic editing, score printing, patch editing,
and SMPTE capabilities to the basic KCS functions. The user
can choose programs to fit his or her particular needs with
the confidence that all the programs will work together.
I have some reservations about the MPE. On the one hand, it promises to be the most capable MIDI system available for the Amiga, if all rhe parts work as planned, KCS
3. 0 will be the centerpiece of a powerful, integrated
environment which takes full advantage of the Amiga’s
multitasking abilities. No other Amiga sequencer has as much
potential. But there are also drawbacks to die approach Dr.
T's has taken.
While other manufacturers can write MPE- compatible programs, it is unlikely that many will be willing to conform to another company’s specifications. This problem is evident on the Atari ST. which has a number of competing multitasking systems. Dr. T's has jumped out in front with a capable system, most of which is available now. It is an open question whether other companies will adapt their programs to the MPE or whether they will wait for tire official Commodore MIDI manager. [Ed. Note: A spokesperson for Dr. T's has staled that the MPE was in the works before any mention of
Commodore’s MIDI manager surfaced.1 There is another problem with dre modular approach. KCS 3-0 doesn't include SMPTE synchronization or MIDI time code, features available on other professional Amiga sequencers. Instead, the user can add SMPTE synchronization with Phantom, which combines an MPE software module and an Amiga MIDI interface SMPTE synchronizer, Phantom uses a direct SMPTE lockup to synchronize with the Amiga, instead of using MIDI Time Code like other Amiga sequencers. A Dr. T’s representative said that the Phantom approach resulted in quicker and more accurate synchronization
because synchronization signals were not competing with other MIDI clata. Bur since Phantom uses both hardware and software, it may not be compatible with odier MIDI sequencers. A second, different SMPTE interlace will be necessary to sync Music-X or Passport to SMPTE. This is a big drawback for musicians who routinely use more than one sequencer. Of course, other MIDI programs would still work with Phantom’s MIDI interface and could interchange files through the standard MIDI file format. Dr. T’s reports that Gold Disk, Elan, and Steinberg are preparing programs that will be compatible with
the Phantom interface.
There are also the questions of integration and expense. While a modular system is very flexible, die pans don't always fit together as nicely as they do in an all-in- one sequencer. The cost of buying additional modules for SMPTE and for graphic editing can add up quickly. Programs that are not MPE-compatible will still multitask with KCS if they follow Amiga rules and are well-behaved. Dr. T’s has released updates for earlier patch editors so diey wall be fully MPE-compatible, Updates for patch edi- Video For Amiga G 8c G Technologies is one of the largest Panasonic Industrial video
dealers in the country. We can provide you with all your video needs, whether you are a weekend wedding photographer or a broadcast pro.
We are strong advocates of the S-VHS format and Panasonic Industrial is the industry leader for those products.
If you need an S-VHS camcorder, or an S-VHS edit system, call us and we will explain the various options. If you are currently working in another format we can show you how to adapt your gear to the S-VHS format. The high resolution of S-VHS is ideal for Amiga applications. Panasonic's WJ-MX12 mixer and an Amiga can make for some terrific special effects to enhance your productions.
Call (or stop in) and let us help you with all your video needs!
G& G Technologies 800-422-2920 333 North Street, Teterboro, New Jersey 07608 Store hours are Monday-Friday, 9am-5:30pm (EST) We accept MasterCard, Visa, American Express & COD.
In New Jersey please call 201-288-8900. Our fax number is 201-288-6881.
Be sure to visit our booth at Video Expo in New York, September 11-13.
Amiga For Video We specialize in Amiga packages for video applications.
If you have been trying to find an authorized Amiga dealership that knows video products and how they relate to the Amiga, then call us! Our knowledgeable sales staff will assist you in creating a video package that will suit your needs AND your budget.
We carry the complete Commodore Amiga line, a full selection of genlocks for the Amiga, and all the video software for any type of video project If you are in the area, we invite you to stop in and see the new Amiga 3000 demonstrated in our state- of-the-art showroom.
C* Commodore* AMIGA 3000 G& G Technologies 800-422-2920 333 North Street, Teterboro, New Jersey 07608 Store hours are Monday-Friday, 9am-5:30pm (EST) We accept MasterCard, Visa, American Express & COD.
In New Jersey please call 201-288-8900. Our fax number is 201-288-6881.
Be sure to visit our booth at Video Expo in New York, September 11-13.
Tors are available from Dr. T's by sending die serial number of your disk along with a check for $ 25 per program. MPE-compar- ible versions (VI .63) of The Copyist and Copyist Apprentice are also available for the same upgrade fee. Dr. T’s is working with Commodore on the design of a MIDI manager, and it may be that Phantom and KCS will Ire compatible with the official Commodore system. Despite the questions about compatibility, it is clear that the MPE and KCS 3-0 are a significant step forward for Amiga musicians.
A bonus program included with KCS
3. 0 serves as a quick demonstration of the MPE. AutoMLx is an
MPE-compatible program that allows the user to create auto
mated mixdowns using MIDI volume, pan, or other continuous
controller messages.
The program lias sliders to control volume ancl pan settings on all 16 MIDI channels.
By moving the sliders, you can adjust tire settings on synthesizers and record your changes into KCS. KCS will then replay your fader changes along with the song!
The program can also save a snapshot of die current settings. I find AutoMix to be very useful for adjusting the channel volume settings on my Roland MT-32. It would also be useful for controlling any MIDI sound modules. MPE-compatible patch editors will work in a similar way, allowing patch changes and controller adjustments to be recorded directly into KCS sequences.
There isn t space to list all the little changes and improvements programmer David Silver has made in KCS version 3.0. Additional significant changes include improved timing resolution (to 240 parts per quarter note), improved merging rechan- nelizalion capabilities, and provisions for MIDI control of tire Fostex R-8 tape recorder. The KCS event list now- displays notes in measure beat step format, which is much easier to edit. Also worth noting is the manual, which lias been completely revised and greatly improved. It includes numerous .Amiga screen shots and a full index. One change is
the omission of the help screens, which were left out of this version due to memory considerations.
Personally, I don’t miss them. The well- written manual more than compensates.
No program is perfect. KCS only supports 16 MIDI channels (other programs use more than one serial port to support 32 or more channels). .And while it is the most powerful Amiga sequencer, seme programs for the IBM and Macintosh include more editing features. Another caveat: KCS Silver Fox Software Presents: LUNAR Construction Disks Create your own fantastic scenes of lunar landscapes, tumbling asteroids, and sparkling stars on the Amiga with these high quality, full color images. This two disk set contains over 200 pictures, brushes, and anim brushes -- your only limitation will be your
To order your copy of LUNAR Construction Disk please send a check or money order for $ 25.00 (+$ 2.00 P&H) to: Silver Fox Software
P. O.Box 551413 Dallas, Tx. 75355-1413 Call (214) 349-1681 for
informalion and deaiar inquiries.
3. 0, like all of Dr. T's Amiga programs, uses key disk copy
protection. This can be an important issue, especially if you
run several programs using the MPE. Several other Amiga
sequencers are not copy-protected.
One impoitant note is that KCS 3-0, like KCS 1.6, is remarkably stable. I’ve experienced no crashes while mnning it. Dr. T's also reports that KCS 3-0 is compatible with Workbench 2.0, though it may be necessary to turn off the instruction cache when running the program on a 68030. They are working on a patch for the problem, and it may already be fixed by die time this review appears. KCS offers on-line help through die Berklee Macintosh User's Group. If you call their BBS at 617-739-2366 and leave the registration number of your program, Dr. T’s will validate you. This gives you access
to program updates and sequence files as well as on-line support from tlie Dr. T’s staff.
When I first reviewed KCS 1.6 (in die March '90 issue of AC), I praised its power and lamented its user interface. I felt that it was a powerful program that required too much effort from its users. The new revisions and die addition of the MPE address many of my concerns. Version 3.0 incorporates an improved user interface and a number of new features. The MPE allows TiGER and Phantom to supply the graphic editing and SMFTE features that KCS itself lacks. If you combine KCS 3-0 with other Dr. T products, it is possible to build an extremely powerful, professional MIDI system. Other
.Amiga sequencers may be flashier and slightly' easier to use. But KCS Circle 105 on Reader Service card.
3. 0 gives you die most control over how your music sounds. I
recommend it to any Amiga user who needs a professional se
• AC- Keyboard Controlled Sequencer v3.0 Dr. T's Music Software,
Inc. 220 Boylston St., 206 Chestnut Hill, MA 02167
(617) 244-6954 Price:$ 275.00 Inquiry §215 WHAT'S IN A NAME?
While our own Bandilo may have erroneously reported otherwise O'Roomers”, v5.8, p. 62). SAS Institute, Inc. will hardly be abandoning the Amiga Lattice C Compiler. The parent company, which has always been responsible for the development of tire Lattice C Compiler for tire Amiga, assumed ail product responsibility’for the compiler as ofjuly 1,
1990. And. In fact, version 5.10 of the Amiga Lattice C Com
piler has just been released Now known as the SAS C
Compiler for AmigaDOS, version 5-10 will feature, among
other enhancements, LSE Aitexx support. AmigaDOS 2.0
support, improved user interface, and improved Workbench
Changes have also been made to LC2 to improve generated code. The speed of LC1 has been improved, especially when generating debugging information with the -d option.
BLINK'S speed has been improved as well. The new version is available to existing 5.0 customers for an upgrade fee of $ 40.00. SAS Institute is providing full technical support for this recent version only. .Also in regards to tech support, effective September 1,1990 SAS will offer technical support through a 900 number (1-900-786-
7200) . There will be a charge of $ 2,00 minute. Electronic sup
port will continue through BBC.
5 15 C Compiler for AmigaDOS Price: S300.00. SAS Institute, Inc., S 15 Campus Drive. Cary, NC 27513-2414, 919) 677-8000. Inquiry =225 HIGH DENSITY DRIVE A relatively new entry in (lie Amiga market, Applied Engineering recently announced a new line of Amiga peripherals. Among them is die AE Iiigh Density Drive, the first and only high-density drive for the Amiga.
The AE HD (High Density) Drive supports both standard 880K and 1.52 meg
3. 5" disks. Perks include a 2-way LED indicator that displays
green for reading and red for writing, and smooth electronic
disk ejection to replace that rather unrefined “punch”
common to drive ejectors. And since it is tied to the
write enable func- ton, die AE HD Drive’s electronic ejector
waits until a drive completes a write to automatically eject
disks, dicreby preventing you from accidentally trashing
The drive also features complete daisy-chain capacity (from AE to another drive, or vice versa), MS-DOS compatibility’, pass-thru connectors, as well as a full one-year warranty.
AE High Density Drive.
Price: $ 239.00. Applied Engineering, P.O. Box 5100, Cairollton. IX 75011, (214) 241-6060. Inquiry *224 The entire Amazing Computing library is now available at incredible savings of over 50%!
AC Volume 1 is now available for just $ 19.95*!
(A regular S45.00 value, this first yea' of AC includes 9 info-packed issues.)
AC Volumes 2, 3, & 4 can be yours for just$ 29.95* 6QCh!
(Volumes 2,3, & 4 include 12 Issues each and regularly sell for S60.00 per volume set.)
And subscribers can now purchase freely redistributable disks** at distribution prices, so stock up!
This offer includes all Fred Fish, AMICUS, and AC disks. Pricing for subscribers is as follows: 1 to 9 disks: $ 6.00 each 10 to 49 disks: $ 5,00 each 50 to 99 disks: $ 4.00 each 100 disks or more: $ 3,00 each (Disks are S7.00 each for non-subscribers,) To order volume sets, freely redistributable disks, as well as single issues, use your Visa or MasterCard and call 1 -800-345-3360.
Or just fill out the order form insert in this issue.
'Postage & Handling for eacti volume is SAOO in the US, S7.50 for surface in Canada ana Mexico, and $ 10.00 (or all other foreign surface.
"AC warranties qi] disks for 90 ddys. No cdditiona: charge far postage and handling an disk orders. AC issues Mr. Fred fish a royalty on all disk sales fa encourge the leading Amiga program anthologist to cctvinue his outstanding work.
MORE FOR YOUR MONEY Commodore is now equipping the A3000. A2500 30. And A2630 card with some enhanced features.
Effective as of July 30, 1990, the A3000 16 and A3000 25 now come standard with a 50MB hard drive instead of the previously included 40MB hard drive. Commodore has also made the A2500 30 and A2630 card a tad mote appealing by adding an additional 2MB of 32-bit RAM to both. With these changes, the A2500 30 now comes standard with a total of 5MB of RAM, and the A2630 card comes standard with 4MB of RAM, Most important, these enhancements come at no additional cost to the consumer.
For more information, contact: Commodore Business Machines, Inc., 1200 Wilson Drive, West Chester, PA 19380,
(215) 431-9100. Inquiry: -222 Step into the picture with Vista’s
. Wliiit .you set is what you get.
V ISTA ..y ¦ Cniti-r Liiki1 Niuinnal Park ’ 4 Billion Imaginary Fractal Lanilscapes ¦ Creates Frames lor Animation ’ Intuitive Interface
• Landscape Featuring Control ¦ Yosemite ¦ Crater Lake ¦ Ml. St.
I klens ¦ Mans Oiyninus (Mars) 1 meg required • 2,0 compatible
• List price $ 99.95 Virtual alit if Laboratories, Inc. 2341
Ganador Court, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 805 545-8515 Reality
prime will never look the same again!
Circle 131 on Reader Service card.
ELECTRONIC CANVAS Dakota Corporation, which distributes a wide range of graphics tablets for the IBM and Apple markets, is now exclusively distributing the SketchMaster graphics tablet for the Amiga. Designed for all graphics applications, the SketchMaster features a lightweight pen-stylus and does not require a power supply (it is powered directly by the RS232C serial port). Thus, a very natural, clutter-free working environment is provided for artists and designers.
SketchMaster works with all mouse-driven software and is fully compatible with IBM computers. The entire package includes a high-performance tablet, pen-stylus, 4-button cursor, interface cable, 9 to 25-pin adaptor, Dakota tablet driver, and manual.
SketchMaster is available in two sizes (11.7" x 11.7” and 12” x 8"), and is backed with a 5-year limited warranty.
SketchMaster. Prices: 11.7" x
11. 7": $ 449.00, 12" x 18”: S699.00. Dakota Corporation, 235 West
Road, Portsmouth, NH03801,
(603) 427-0100. Inquiry *223 A LEARNING EXPERIENCE Well, it seems
McGee's insatiable curiousity has led the mischievous
character to the Amiga. McGee and Katie’s Farm, the first
two installments in Lawrence Productions' “NO WORDS"
software series, were recently made available for the
Amiga. It is the aim of this particular series to allow
children (mainly drose in the 2 to 6-year-old range) to
become acquainted with computers through programs that, you
guessed it, use no words.
In McGee, users can, through a simple point-and-click interface, travel with McGee through the house during the wee hours of the morning rousing tire cat, Fido, or Mom. When McGee visits cousin Katie, in Katie’s Farm, there’s a whole new set of situations, including impromptu riding lessons and high-strung squirrels.
Both programs feature outstanding graphics and sound, and are designed to reinforce object shape recognition, eye hand coordination, cause and effect, and spatial relationships all in a noncompetitive, pressure-free manner.
McGee, Katie’s Farm.
Price: $ 39-95 each. Lawrence Productions, Inc., 1800South 35th, Galesburg, MI 49053, (616) 665- 7075- Inquiry *226
• AC- FrameGrabber 256 by Frank McMahon P ROGRESSIVE
PERIPHERALS & SOFTWARE has come out with a new version of their
popular FrameGrabber digitizer. FrameGrabber 256 lets you
digitize red, green, and blue video signals and features a new
“MonoHAM” mode which allows any Amiga to display 256 shades of
grey scales. If you are familiar with the original
FrameGrabber, setting up the 256 will be a snap (the hookup is
exactly the same).
The FrameGrabber 256 connects to any model Amiga through a standard Centronics printer cable. Again, that cable is not included with this package, a definite negative in my book.
The fact is if it’s needed, it should be included.
The package does come with everything else, in addition to the unit itself: external power supply, monitor cable, multi-purpose cable adaptor, software, RGB color filter wheel, and manual.
Connecting the digitizer is pretty easy. After hooking it up to your Amiga through the Centronics cable (which is actually a printer cable), disconnect your RGB monitor cable from your monitor and hook it into the FrameGrabber 256.
Next, use the supplied cable and lead it from the FrameGrabber 256 to your monitor. An adapter comes with die package which allows you to hook the cable up to just about any monitor, including Commodore's 1080. 2002, 1084S, and 1084SD. One requirement that might be easily overlooked is an RGB monitor. You must have an RGB monitor for the setup to function properly.
The last hook-up would he a video source, inputted via the front panel. There are 4 RCA inputs "... the FrameGrabber 256 software is miles ahead of most in ease of use, logic, and professional image enhancement," in the front of the unit. They can be used for standard composite video input from a VCR, camera, or videodisc. They can also be used to input separate red, green, blue, and sync signals. On the front panel next to die 4 RCA video inputs are two control knobs for adjusting the black level and intensity of the incoming video signal.
It's worth noting here that when the FrameGrabber 256 is hooked up, die unit must stay on as long as your computer remains on, even if you’re not currendy using die digitizer. This is because your RGB monitor signal is actually running through the digitizer itself. My original FrameGrabber has remained on for 1000's of hours in the last two years, so this should not be of too much concern.
However, the quality of your RGB monitor’s signal is decreased going through all the extra hardware. This may not be noticeable under normal circumstances, but die slight blur does become noticeable when working with certain fonts in hi-res, for example. You may find it worthwhile to swap cables and bypass the FrameGrabber 256 when it is not being used for extended periods of time.
The manual includes no tutorials, but dives right into explaining what every menu option does. That's especially unfortunate because this program packs many more features than the original FrameGrabber.
While the original allowed you to jump right in and start grabbing frames, this one really needs a good basic tutorial to describe the settings and different display modes. There are many excellent options from which to choose, and a brief walk-through would have been most helpful.
Previewing your incoming video signal is as easy as hitting the spacebar. You see the incoming video through your Amiga monitor in black-and-white. To grab an image simply hit the [C] key for “capture”.
Images are grabbed quickly, considering all the calculations the program performs to create quality output.
Whilelo-res images can be grabbed in about 3 seconds, higher resolutions may take 2 to 3 times as long, which is still pretty fast. Images can be grabbed in several resolutions, including lo-res and interlace, in regular and overscan, using 2, 4, 8, l6, 32, 64, 128, or 256 colors. It is even possible to digitize in 24-bit mode for l6 million colors, although the Amiga cannot currently display 24-bit Images without adding specific hardware (such as a framebuffer).
HAM mode is also available. Hit the [TAB] key to invoke the MonoHAM mode, which converts ihe entire screen into a black-and-white HAM mode with 256 shades ol grey scales. This looks a lot smoother than the standard 16 shades of black and white we have come to expect with most Amiga digitizers.
The best way to view the different features of FrameGrabber 256 is through the various menus. One excellent feature is that nearly every menu command has a keyboard equivalent. This speeds up productivity quite a bit.
The Project Menu lets you load and save digitized images, plus pick up a part of your image and stive it as a brush to use in a paint program.
Unless you have a parallel port-controlled printer, printing your finished product is quite easy, Since the digitizer uses the parallel port, it must be disconnected in order to plug your printer in. Of course, you can use parallel switch boxes, but don't feel bad if you don’t have a box. Even though switching cables is laborious, it actually is the safest method to practice, as long as you make sure your computer is turned off before Now you can create realistic, natural looking scenery on your Amiga with Scene Generator. The above picture is an example of one of the millions of scenes that
may be created with this powerful new graphics tool. Scene Generator uses fractals to create natural scenery based on random numbers. You can change the steepness, snow and water levels, lighting angle and colors. Create everything from a desert to a snow covered mountain with lakes. The possibilities are nearly unlimited!
Available at your dealer. For credit card orders call
(916) 624-1436 now. Or send $ 49 to Natural Graphics, POB 1963,
Rocklin, CA 95677. Free shipping USA.
Circle 12S on Reader Service card, doing so. Parallel switch boxes can possibly damage a piece ofhardware, as this manual rightly points out. It’s best not to use any products that have not been specifically designed and or recommended by a manufacturer.
One feature I like is the "Set Area" command in the print menu, it allows you to set an area with the mouse that you would like to print, so you do not have to print an entire graphic.
There is also a command in the project menu to turn on joystick control. Using an ordinary joystick enables you to grab frames and preview as well as grab red, green, and blue images using various joystick directions. The settings menu allows you to save all your variables like format, level settings, window positions, palette locks, etc. I was especially interested in Paiette locks because 1 sometimes piece together presentations using Amiga Vision or other slideshow programs.
Locking the palette helps create smooth Q-ansitions during various wipes and dissolves because the presentation program doesn’t have to keep switching color patterns. Being able to save my locked set of colors, I can go back anytime and digitize a piece of video and smoothly incorporate it into an existing presentation.
The Grab Menu allows you to grab red, green, blue and or combined composite video (A color wheel is also provided with the package). This menu also activates the MonoHAM mode as well as letting you choose what input you want to grab video from. Instead of using the four inputs as red, green, blue and syncyou could have four different video inputs from four different sources continuously come in. Function keys F1-F4 allow you to instantly call up what video source you want to grab next! Automatic opLions such as AutoGrab, are also available.This allows tire Frame- Grabber 256 to constantly grab
frames as rapidly as possible. AutoAnim also lets you continually grab frames as quickly as possible to create animations. We'll get into animating in a little bit but it is important to note that FrameGrabber 256 will not capture pieces of moving video in real time (such as the “LIVE” digitizer from A- Squared). It captures pretty quick, but because there is a certain amount of processing involved, the best you could do is capture images every 3 to 5 seconds or so.
In fact, full timer options are included so you could set up your digitizer to capture plants growing or a sun setting and be able to play it back as a standard animation!
The Image menu allows you to show your current image and to set up the Format Control Window. This window is important because you will need to set your resolution and color amount ahead of time. In addition you can choose pseudo color, mono mode, or RGB mode. Dither is also fully adjustable with 3 presets (from none to Rill) as well as a requester that allows you to inputa numerical dithering amount. You can choose from different sizes to digitize in (from Rill screen to postage stamp), as well as create a full screen pattern or "video wall paper” of several different images. These can also
be animated to pop up one at a time.This creates an appearance that some one is constantly laying down strips of different video images in rows across the screen. The effect is quite impressive. The built in timer will capture images at certain intervals or constantly keep capturing until it reaches the amount of frames you have pre-specified. I created several of these animations and they loaded into Deluxe Paint III with no problem. They also can be played from within the program.
Other options in the Format Control Window are: border, mirror, datestamp (just like your camcorder!), oversampling, multiexposure, weighted, autozone, and cropdisp. These are basic enhancements that are implemented at the time of tire digitizing. Delta is another option of the Image menu. It is a powerful processor that displays the "differences” between captured images. You may have heard of "delta-compression", which is a standard ANIM function which only plays the changes from frame to frame or image to image. This can save huge amounts of memoiy in animations, or for presentations
where only a certain part of the screen needs to move. Delta lets you hunt down these changes to locate defects, delect motion, and eliminate unchanging background image clutter.
Sequencer is used to automatically switch between the various video input on the front of the FrameGrabber
256. There arc display7 options which allow you change your
digitized image to any size or position on screen. You can
also, from the Image menu, turn your pointer off if you are
going to he videotaping your captured images, jump Center is
a sort of automatic centering that can also be controlled by
the four cursor arrow keys for exact locations.
The palette is always available and I’m glad to see options such as copy color, exchange color, and color spread. The Find command in the palette window allows you to choose a color and have the color flash in the digitized graphic. It provides an excellent way to find a certain shade if you are working with many similar hues. There is also a Color Bias window which enables you to change the brightness, contrast, and the saturation of colors. Playing with the palette and color bias window gives you the option to create hundreds of different color and intensity variations. Next in tire Color
menu is the Histogram window, one of my personal favorites. It features a graphic representation of the grey level intensities of the current image, as well as a host of powerful image processing options. There are commands such as Flat, which provides better contrast in the dark and light areas of the image, hut loses some of the mid-range gray scales and Neg, which instantly converts the image to a photographic negative. Sharp is an edge image enhancement that does wonders for improving the sharpness of the final image. Average does the opposite, in that it blends the adjacent pixels
together giving a smooth watercolor feel. Edge is an edge detection process which creates sort of a line drawing of the original image. Next to tire Histogram is a set of Level controls for changing everything from the delta difference to the saturation.
I’ve worked with numerous graphic programs and can honestly say that the FrameGrabber 256 software is miles ahead of most in ease of use, logic, and professional image enhancement. The end results can be positively stunning.
The Anim menu we touched on and there are basically controls to set a timer to grab frames at certain intervals. You can also manually grab frames by hitting the capture key. Ali frames are automatically added to your animation and you can end the animation process at any time or set a frame amount before hand. A playback command is aiso provided to view your Anims. The Alarm mode gives off an audible tone before it digitizes a frame, which helps in stop motion animation.
CONCLUSIONS The screen shots that accompany this article were some of the first things I digitized using FrameGrabber
256. They were grabbed off videodisc using the overscan
interlace setting. I first grabbed them in the MonoHAM mode
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2414 Pendleton Place ¦ Waukesha. Wl 53188 ¦ 9 AM to 5 PM M-F into Photon Paint. To my surprise, they loaded with all weird colors and couldn't be remapped to look normal.
Now I'm all for new formats like MonoHAM but I can't help but feel the same as I did when DigiView came out with hi-res HAM ... what do I do with it?
About all I can do is grab them and look at them.
It’s too bad they canT be used (yet) in other programs or multi-media presentations. After I disconnected the FrameGrabber 256 to hook my printer back up, I decided to load my digitzed pics into the program so I could save them to another disk to send off to Amazing Computing for ibis article. Another surprise ... you need the FrameGrabber 256 connected and running to get into MonoHAM mode to display your 256 grey scale images. Now, we're talking "limiting”.
This excellent mode is limited to only those who own the digitizer. Eventually what I did was re-grab the frames, using only 16 colors of grev scale. To my surprise, with the advance dithering techniques and options such as sharpen, they looked almost as good as the MonoHAM images! After I grabbed them, I decided to change the normal black-and-white color spread to a dark brown-and-gold color spread, to give an added textured feel. There is currently no support for hi-res, Progressive states that it is unfeasible due to lack of adequate color bandwith, increased memory demands, and economic
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Nately, black and white digitize its really NEED tire hires mode, and it was kind of a let down that hi-res wasn't available with this current software hardware combination.
Aside from these problems, everything eventually comes down to quality, and that of the FrameGrabber 256 can’t lie beat. It allows you to capture real-time moving images with crisp quality, and also comes with an arsenal of high-powered image-processing tools; in short, Progressive's new digitizer is one that is going to be hard to top. Digi-View has always has the market cornered with the 3 primary color method (red, green, and blue), and now Progressive has implemented that same method into it's digitizer. Add to this capabilities for grabbing moving video from camera, VCR. Videodisc, in
up to 16 million colors AND animating it!
Progressive Peripherals & Software has come out with a product that, despite some shortcomings, will become their second digitizing hardware standard in the Amiga video world.
FrameGrabber 256 *AC* Progressive Peripherals & Software 464 Kalamalh Street Denver, CO 80204 303-825-4144 Price- $ 724.95 Inquiry 216 The “Videojitter” Anyone who has digitized has seen it. It's out there, and it’s bound to crop up once in awhile. No. It's not some wacky dance craze that your parents keep hoping comes hack. It’s a bigger problem.
You'll be okay if you stick to lo-reswhcn grabbing frames with the FrameGrabber 256. The original FrameGrabber, or any digitizer that captures frames ol moving video. But once von move into the interlaced resolutions, you will notice that if you hit capture, what you reel in may be a shaky, wobbly video image.
It’s no fault of the FrameGrabber It has to do with the way the video signal is constructed. Every video image is made up of frames. When you slow down a video tape you can see that, like film, it is made up of a series of frames. If you REAI.LY slow the video tape down (assuming you have a good four-head VCR), you will see what appear to be frames, but are actually fields. A frame is made up of two fields, which are interwoven together for higher apparent resolution. In fact, every other field will seem a little higher, because 11 is.
It's only one scan line higher, though, so don't feel too bad if you don’t notice. The two fields are quickly scanned to create a frame.
The problem arises from the fact that when a digitizer grabs a frame from video, it’s actually grabbing two images... two fields, which make up a frame. And if there is any motion going on in the frame, you’ll get two fields which are not identical, causing a “wobble" or “jitter" of sorts.
The solution? Well, there isn’t really one. A TV station with thousands of dollars of equipment ¦ grabs a freeze frame, and the same thing happens.
They usually revert to grabbing a field which is about the equivalent of a lo-res screen.
So. If you are grabbing video with a lot of motion, stick to lo-res. Or if you have a VCR or a videodisc player that offers a solid freeze frame, it would be the best route to go. In fact, in grabbing pics for this article.
I had to use the freeze frame on my videodisc ... too much "video jitter" otherwise. Frank McMahon Letter-perfect Graphic Accessories KARA Fonts by R. Shamms Mortier KARA Fonts fail into an Amiga category known as "ColorFonis", a trademark of the company that invented the Calligrapher font design program.
The concept was (and still is) so original and useful to Amiga folks that Electronic Arts incorporated the ability to access f ARA FONTS. ANT AMIGA ARTIST AND OR VIDEO-OBSESSED INDIVID- ual who is not familiar with these beauties is either new to the Amiga experience, or has had their eyes closed for the duration. The KARA Fonts disks have been around fora while, and can be seen in use in a multitude of formats, everything from desktop-published pieces to instructional and broadcast videos.
BEVEL SPACZ WOOD CHISEL. CHROME mi CHISEL COLUMN felwKwti sekif cast mm GRANITE MABHLE ANIM FONTS ( ew A sample of what awaits the owner otthe KARA Fonts multiple disks. In addition to several disks of extraordinary fonts, two ANIMfont flavors are available.
Colorfonts in their DeluxePaintHI program. It’s so easy to speak of something being a "standard" in the world of micro-computing, but most of the time that term is just hype. Not so with KARA Fonts. They are a standard indeed, and will probably remain so for quite some time. All of the Amiga packages that I consider worth their purchase price can manipulate these font sets. They look great in black and white as desktop publishing output, and really shine for video applications.
All of the KARA Font sets are created in hi-res. There are ways, however, to use them in any Amiga resolution (including HAM). Just be aware of what different screen resolutions do to pixelated graphics. For instance, a video-res screen (320 x uOO) is half tire width of a hi-res screen (640 x 400), This means that images created in hi-res and imported into video-res will look twice as long horizontally as they would on their original hi-res screens. Adjustments must be made to the KARA characters if you want to see them in their pristine clarity’. HAM screens come in two non-interlaced
flavors: lo-res (320 x 200) and video-res (320 x 400). We've already suggested a way to treat the latter, lo-res is even simpler. KARA Fonts loaded onto a lo-res screen can be reduced by half to attain a resemblance of their original selves (though lo-res jaggies do not do the fonts any favors). My favorite way to incorporate KARA Fonts into video-res HAM mode is to treat them first in a standard paint program like Dpaintlll.
First I compose my words, then grab them as a brush and reduce them by half.
Then I take the half-sized brush and double its vertical dimensions. I import die saved text brushes into my HAM paint program, and voila! They are in the exact proportions as the original KARA words.
The ability to outline a brush in Dpaintlll does wonders with these fonts.
One technique I use is to pick up my text after it is composed in a full brush chunk.
Next, I use the oudine function to place a dlin border around each brush. This can be used as is to pop tire brush out of a background color, or by choosing the "line" tool, to create great drop shadows.
I also experiment with the colors of the font sets. It's not difficult to change one metallic look to another, as most are just color-based. Bizarre effects can be achieved by setting your palette to multicolors and painting the characters down.
There is also a list of alternate color combinations available as brushes on the KARA disks. Resizing the brushes to half size in hi-res doesn’t hurt diem a bit.
They're as sharp as ever, giving you much more compositional space in which to shape the look of your message.
These fonts are a natural for video animation, especially reacting with grace and kindness to die manipulations one can direct in Dpaintlll. Using the "MOVE Requester" in Dpaintlll to put a KARA Font text brush through its paces never fails to give incredible results. I always turn on the maximum anti-aliasing (continued on page 2Sj Gradient Color Dithering on the Amiga Made Easy by Francis M. Gardino P l OLOR DITHERING IS THE SPATTERING OF 2 OR more colors so that the pixel colors optically mix to form additional colors. When an Amiga artist fills an area of a picture with a dithered pattern,
we call that a dithered fill. When the colors of a dither pattern are in a gradient (i.e., progressing rather smoothly from one color to the next), we call that a dithered gradient fill. Within the five popular Amiga paint programs, there are various dithering features that give you a multitude of dithered gradient fill effects.
DeluxePaint III. The Amiga's flagship paint program, has a very simple, straightforward approach to gradient fill dithering, The dither control panel can be accessed by clicking on the fill tool with the Right Mouse Button or by the F keystroke. This fill requester, although it has its limitations, can provide you with the tools to create some interesting effects.
The coarseness and smoothness of the dither can be controlled by the slider bar at the bottom of the panel.
The direction in which the dither fills the area can be controlled by selecting one of the three arrow gadgets above the slider bar. The color range (for example, from red to purple) can be dithered from the top to bottom edge, or from the left to right edge, in the area to be filled. The fill can also be dithered from the left to right edge to follow contours, thereby achieving a more rounded appearance in circles, ellipses and freehand curves. This contour fill will also follow the direction of diagonal straight line areas as well as boxes and polygons.
After creating and applying various dither fills to a picture, you can then alter them further by the use of the smearing, smoothing, blending, and shading effects in the pull down menu under Modes. By selecting the freehand tool and the largest brush in the tool box. You can smear and smooth until there isn’t anything left to smooth.
Dither options in DeluxePaint III and DigiPaint 3 and how PixMate can help to merge the effects of both In concert with these controls, DeluxePaint's color palette requester (keystroke p) allows you to control the range of colors used in the dithers, the number of colors, and the RGB value of any color within that range. The ranges and dithered gradient fills of DeluxePaint can have up to 64 colors, although you can only control 32 of them since the 32 Extra- HalfBrite colors are simply darker versions of the first 32 colors in your palette. Clicking on the arrow above the OK button reverses
the direction of the colors in your gradient fill.
As you experiment with tire various dither patterns and colors, you will notice that the colors used in gradient fills are as important to the smoothness or coarseness of your fill, as is the dither pattern selected in the Fill requester. Color ranges which have colors with 2 common RGB values throughout the range, only changing the remaining value by one increment, seem to have the smoothest results. For example, the top six gradients in Fig. 1 have the 16 RGB values R15,G0,B0, R1TGTB0, R15,G2,BO....R15,G15,BO. At this point, DeluxePaint III is the program of choice for precise control of
each RGB value in a range to achieve these results.
DigiPaint 3, a HAM paint program, does not give you precise control over every' color in your dithered fill, but it does, however, give you far greater control of the various dithered effects and directions for use in your fills. The many complex dithering features of DigiPaint provide numerous options from which to (continued on page 29) Sculpt Script Tutorial by Christian Aubert SCULPT -ANIMATE 4D IS A PRETTY powerful three-dimensional modeler and renderer. The graphic interface is easy to use but, at the same time, somewhat limiting. Powerful scripting commands built into this package, on
the other hand, give you total control over the finished product, A steep learning curve for these commands results in a situation similar to that of Workbench vs. CLL one is easy to use but has its limitations, the other is powerful but more difficult to implement and master.
Nevertheless, I have started using Sculpt's (we’ll call it this way from now on) scripting commands. The fact that they are only briefly noted at the very end of the manual makes them seem like something usable only by the very seasoned Sculpt user.
If I haven'L scared you off already, then you are in for a lot of fun. Let’s start off by designing a familiar object that is quite simple to render an old-style movie camera with tire twin film reels on top.
Line 1 makes the West window tire active one; we need to make sure of the plane we are working in for tire DISK, CIRCLE, and SPIN commands. Tty designating tire NORTH or the UP window as the active one, and you will see the difference. Line 2 discards the sky. Now7 we are ready to start our design.
Lines 3 through 19 make up the lens.
Position the cursor, add a circle of radius 40 with l6subdivisions, select tire circle, reposition die cursor, extrude to tire next position, and ungrab the circle. Repeat the extrusion again, and contract the circle in the Up-Down North-South directions. We then repeat the extrusion, select everything and name it “LENS".
Lines 21 through 26 make up the body of our camera.
Position the cur- sor.
Add a dimension 60, swap selected vertices so we end up with the cube selected, expand it in the Up- Down and East-West directions and name it “BODY".
Lines 28 through 39 make up the battery cell at the back of the camera. Position the cursor, add a disk of radius 25 with 16 subdivisions and make sure that only the disk is selected. Extrude it to its new position and name it "BATTERY”. Ungrab the object, deselect all and erase the center vertex of the battery, which is hidden by the body of the camera and only adds more faces and complexity to the object (read: longer rendering times and more memory usage).
''Powerful scripting commands built into this package...give you total controi over the finished product."
Lines 41 through 48 make lip the first reel. Make a T shape, select it. Position the cursor at the feet of the T and then spin it 360 degrees in 16 subdivisions. Select it and name it “REEL1".
Lines 50 through 54 make up the second reel. We select only ‘’REEL1”, make a duplicate of it, and move the duplicate to a new position. Ungrab it and name it ¦•REEL2".
Lines 56 through 60 set the properties of color and texture for the whole scene.
Finally, lines 62 through 72 set the resolution, viewing mode, and size of the image; determine position of the observer and target; add a lamp, and start the rendering process.
The result is a camera model that can be used in other creations. If you want a more detailed model for up-close viewing, change the number of subdivisions in the CIRCLE, DISK, and SPIN commands to higher values.
Do the opposite if you want a small object to appear in the background, or if memory considerations oblige you to show less vertices and faces.
With a little planning and imagination, you can get some pretty impressive results, and we have only scratched the surface of this language. I leave it up lo you to discover more!
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(Kara Fonts, continuedfrom page 23) function to smooth out the edges. A fast- moving animated brush, however, will hide its jagged diagonals, especially when dumped to NTSC for broadcast. (I never let a client view Amiga graphics on an RGB monitor, but choose a composite or NTSC monitor instead. That way, they get the real idea of die broadcast results.)
Anodier trick I’ve used in the past is to take my composed text and paint it down on several animation frames. I then use the ‘'Smear" tool in Dpaintlll to mess die edges on several frames in succession.
When played back, you can achieve a look that comes off as explosive edges being generated. You could use a similar technique to make KARA Fonts appear to be condensing out of a chaotic environment, or vice versa. Another thing to remember about Amiga animation techniques is to use color cycling with KARA Font compositions. The sets are so smoothly colored, and die color ranges are so evenly distributed, that color- cyded KARA Fonts take on a special glow and sparkle. I have even used sections of a KARA Font letter as a fill for other shapes, because the fills are .so well executed.
AND NOW, PRESENTING... Kara Computer Graphics is not a company that rests on its laurels. In addition to their list of fine video-font libraries, they’ve decided to produce sets ol ANIMfonts. These come in two varieties, and the incorporated fonts can be used in standard non-animated ways as well. The first set writes itself on the screen like a signature. Since this is a script-style font, it is well-suited to die animation procedure used. The second animated font set has a square, metallic look. It can be made to appear on die screen by going through a vertical turn (on the Y axis). Each
would be useful for major video-titling projects. The directions for getting die fonts to jump through theirhoops are clearly notated in die accompanying document sheets.
Experienced Amiga users will probably already be able to guess how die process works. It’s simple enough. The separate letters and symbols are saved as ANLMbrushes. One thing the docs don't menuon is that ANIMbrushes can be flipped and manipulated in other ways, so all of the possible options here are not indicated. Experimentation is heartily suggested. Although it is suggested that these fonts can be used with a long list of step-by-step referenced programs, I would strongly urge purchasers of the KARA libraries to become familiar with Dpaintlll. This seems to me to be the most useful Amiga
animation program to utilize these fonts. The ANIM fonts require at least a meg of RAM, and that means CHIP RAM.
LOWER-CASE LONGING I have only one concern about the KARA libraries, which has been with me for as long as I’ve used diese fonts: Where are the lower-case letters? Yes, die script fonts have lower-case equivalents, but not the other sets. It is a fact of graphic design that it is more difficult to read words made up of all caps than it is to discern upper-cas e lower-case combinations. This becomes even more true when a message is longer than two words. I am hoping that Kara Computer Graphics is working to bring lower-case libraries to market. When they do, I’ll be die first order on their
• AO Headlines (3-disk set): $ 79.95 HeodLines 2 (2-disk set):
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CDA (Color Dithering, continued from page 25) choose. One such option is the ability to dicher-gradient-fill a line.
The directions of the dithers in the control requester are similar to DeluxePaint, although not entirely the same, with some very unique and interesting modes and effects available (see Fig. 1). There is the standard left-to-right- edge and top-to-bottom-edge gradient fill, but there are also what they call Hot Spot controls. These allow you to specify the location of the highlight of your gradient fill. By sliding the Vertical or lire Horizontal Hot Spot control bar, you can create a gradient that goes from red to purple and then back to red again, with the highlight defining tire turning
point. This may seem like a small feature, but it is not so easy to replicate in some of the non-HAM paint programs.
The circle Hot Spot control allows you to specify the location of tire round highlight as it is applied to all shapes, not merely circles or ellipses (see Fig. 2). The transparency slider bar to tire left of the Circle 104 on Reeder Service card.
Above mentioned Hot Spot control, determines the transparency of the Hot Spot, that is, the amount of the Hot Spot color that the gradient fill will contain in its highlight.
The slider bar to the right of the Hot Spot controls determines the dither’s degree of edge transparency to the color below. When the highest position is selected, tire outer edge colors of the fill, as well as the inside, are opaque. Conversely, when at the lowest position, die edge colors are at the most transparent setting.
HAM paint programs do this by combining the applied colors with the existing picture colors to form new colors without any regard for exceeding tire 16-, 32- or 64- color barrier of tire non-HAM paint programs. These calculations have a palette of4096 colors from which to choose and display. To access these range color effects, tire Range item must be selected under tile menu item Modes.
ACDA Corporation_ 220 BELLE HEADE AVE, SETAUKET NY 11733 7el. 516 689-7722 FAX 516 689-5211
* Amiga is a trademark of CBH, Inc. The selection of colors to be
used in a color range are accessed in tire color palette
requester (click on palette tool). Only the first and last
colors of tire range can be changed by selecting the boxes at
either end of tire range, then using the Pick color gadget or
the RGB sliders in tire center of the requester. The
intermediate colors of the range are computed by DigiPaint.
Most of the time, these intermediate colors transitions are
smooth and pleasing to the eye, but sometimes they are not.
Occasionally the blends computed from one color to another, like pink to red, go by way of an unexpected color, like green.
This lack of control of the intermediate colors can be overcome by importing brushes and pictures from another paint program like DeluxePaint, where one can control all of the colors used in the desired range.
The dither patterns and smoothness controls have two gadgets each, located in the same DigiPaint control panel over the labels “Smoothing" and “Dithering". Herein lies another one of the limitations ol DigiPaint 3. There are no slider bars to control the dither pattern or smoothness.
The four gadgets control it all. Despite this lack of control, the blend possibilities remain numerous and varied.
As in DeluxePaint, DigiPaint allows you to further alter the appearance of these dithers by the use of the features included in the menu items under Modes. There lies Darken, Lighten, Colorize, Blur, RubThru, TxMap, And. Or, Xor and the many possibilities of using these effects with varying degrees of Edge and Hot Spot Transparencies. Unusual and sometimes unpredictable effects are possible when exploring this area of DigiPaint. These effects can be applied to the image after certain dithers are created, since to create a Range dithered fill, one must have the Range mode selected, under the
same menu item Modes, Through die magic of programs like PixMate and the IFF standard, you can export some DigiPaint effects to DeluxePaint, with predictable results.
Incidentally, die new 24-bit IFF standard allows you to import a 32-color brush or picture into die 24-bit image, only taking up 32 of the colors available in your new palette. So, these images should still be of use to die 24-bit artist.
Generally, if you try to simply load a HAM-produced picture into a non-HAM paint program, you will either get a message saying that it can’t be done or some other ;»?predictable result, even if you have only a few colors in your HAM picture. With PixMate, however, you can convert a 16-color DigiPaint image (such as the one in Fig. 3) to a picture usable in DeluxePaint, by following this procedure: First, paint a filled shape in DigiPaint using the various didier, Hot Spot, etc. controls, and specify7 a 16-color range from R15.G15.BO to R15.GO.BO, Even though diese may not be die col ors you
want to use in your final image, it’s important to use diem now for the conversion process. You can go into DeluxePaint later to get the actual colors you want. Save your HAM image, load it into PixMate and pull down the FIAM-to-32-color conversion command. When you load diis 32-color image into DeluxePaint, die first 16 colors will appear as black, and your 16-color palette will fill up the last two rows of die palette.
Returning to PixMate, you may want to make one small change after converting and before resaving your image. Go into the PixMate palette and change die second color to white (remember, all the others in die first half of the palette will be black).
This controls die color of die gadgets and menus in DeluxePaint; if you left this color as black, you would not be able lo see these tools on the screen. At this point, you can either make color adjustments in PixMate, or save the 32-coior IFF image and load it into DeluxePaint to adjust the gradient colors to your liking.
5 Since we at Amazing Computing™ cannot def ermine the dependability of our advertisers from their ads atone, we want your feedback. If you have had a problem wtthan advertiser In AC™, let us know! Send a complete description of your exchange(s) with the advertiser along with the names of the individuals involved and we’ll do our best to get to the bottom of things.
Ad Complaints PiM Publications, Inc. Amazing Computing
P. O. Box 86?
Fall River, MA 02722 It also is possible to load a non-HAM picture file into DigiPaint and die other HAM paint programs without any noticeable side effects, oilier than some color fringing. Once saved in the HAM paint program, however, the file becomes a HAM file which must then go through the PixMate procedure mentioned above to return to a non-HAM format.
As you can see, by importing, exporting, converting formats and making small adjustments to your color palettes, you can enhance the quality7 and variety of your images '.see Fig, 4), Experimentation with the controls in diese programs can provide the user with hours of inspiration and joy, as well as visually pleasing results.
- AC- ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Fran Gardino has a Bachelor of Fine Arts
from Mass. College ofAri and is the Art Director for the Boston
Computer Society's Amiga Culture newsletter. He is also the
developer of Ham It Up!, a color utility for the Amiga.
Professional graphic artists have frequently complained about die Amiga’s limited array of only 4096 colors. The Firecracker 24 board breaks the 4096-color barrier, as it is capable of delivering up to
16. 8 million colors to eidier Amiga RGB- or NTS C-compatible
Acting on Impulse by John Steiner 1 had telephoned Impulse and spoken with company President Mike Halvorson, and he invited me to stop by and take a look. Once the car was parked, 1 grabbed my 35mm camera and entered the lobby.
The office directory told me where to find Impulse; a few turns down the hallwav, and I was there. After introducing myself, I was invited into a workshop that sported several .Amiga systems, most of which were in some state of disassembly. I could see that these units were left open to permit easy removal and reinsertion of cards as they are being tested.
A tall, bearded young man was introduced to me as Mr. Halvorson, and he welcomed me by asking me to have a .-eat in front of a caseless Amiga 2500. The 1084 monitorwhich the Amiga was connected to showed a Workbench screen that appeared to be genlocked over a high-resolu- tion video still image, the source of which I could not readily determine.
Halvorson told me that 1 was looking at an image that was being displayed via the Firecracker 24. He explained how the video port signal from the Amiga 2500 was first passed through die Firecracker board, then out a standardAmiga video connector to die 1084, He explained that this internal genlocking capability serves two purposes.
First, the end user is able to view the 24-bit images and Amiga Workbench without requiring an extra video display monitor.
Secondly, software developers are able to use the standard operating system calls when writing software for the Firecracker board. Clarified, this means that die interface makes it easy for a developer to support the Firecracker board in a specific program. Because of the unique design of the Firecracker 24, programmers won't have to rewrite major sections of program code so that their programs can display images using this new board.
Mike went on to say that the Firecracker board supports the recently released 24-bit IFF image standard recommended by Commodore, Software that can already be used with the Firecracker 24 includes Turbo Silver, Imagine and The Art Department, among others. He also commented that the board, which is currently being evaluated for FCC approval, will ship with a 24-bit paint program called “Light". The board will be released for sale upon completion of tire certification process. It may even be shipping by tire time you read diis.
IT WAS A SULTRY JULY AFTERNOON WHEN I FULLED INTO THE PARKING LOT OF building 6870 on Shingle Creek Parkway in a suburban industrial complex a few miles north of Minneapolis. I had heard chat Impulse was preparing to release a 24-bit graphics display board for the Amiga, and I wanted to check it out in person. This was the place to do it.
The 24-bit images T saw were displayed with an image viewer program developed in-house by Impulse, The pictures were nothing short of stunning. Mike handed me a specification sheet which provided some more information about the board. According to die sheet, the standard resolution of the Firecracker 24 with 1 megabyte of RAM on board is 512 x 482 pixels. The 2-megabyte board can deliver up to 1024 x 482 pixels.
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Genlock. The Firecracker board takes up one of the normal Amiga slots in either a 2000 series or 3000 computer, and does not occupy the video slot. Halvorson mentioned that there may be a conflict with certain types of genlocks that use the video slot, which could cause problems. He went on to point out that they have tested the board with several different genlocks.
Their engineers can provide further information on possible conflict avoidance through their technical support lines, lor those who are considering die purchase of a Firecracker 24.
Once he whet my appetite for spectacular color graphics on the Firecracker, Amiga video systemusersslioutd note that the Firecracker 24 is genlockable to the Amiga as well as to other video sources through the use of a standard Amiga Halvorson went on to demonstrate Impulse's new real time 3-D image editor, Imagine. Impulse is probably best known for their premier 3-D software package, Turbo Silver, one of the best 3-D modeling packages for any computer platform. Imagine makes 3-D object creation much simpler than any other 3- D software package I have ever seen. I don't often admit to
my own deficiencies, but I have never been able to comprehend the three-view interface found in most 3- D packages, and my feeble attempts at 3-D object creation have always ended in failure.
When I first saw the standard three- view screen. 1 assumed that the Imagine interface would be as difficult and incomprehensible as the rest of die 3-D modeling programs I’ve worked with. I couldn't have been more wrong. Mike started the demonstration by using a pull-down menu choice to create a sphere, which appeared in all three views top. Side, and front. A perspective view was also visible on the screen.
Mike quickly zeroed in on the top view and started moving control points about. He then moved to the front view and moved some more points. To my amazement, the perspective view was taking on the appearance of an alien robotic head. In moments he had taken a primitive graphic and created something that looked as if it might be useful in my own video work.
He commented that Imagine is not a rework of Turbo Silver, but that it is new from the ground up. Some of ihe belter features of Turbo Silver have been included, but both, the editor and animation system are completely new.
There are two object editors, a three- view point wire frame editor that Mike had been using, and a detail editor that can not only sweep, spin and extrude objects, but can also drill, gouge, join, extract and slice them. There is even a magnetism feature that can "pull" points toward the magnetic pointer.
The animation cycle editor built inro Imagine does not involve any complex script language. Mike created a "stick man" from previously made cylinders. Once the stick man was created, Mike positioned the stick man in a walking pose, and identified that pose as key frame 1. Fie then repositioned the stick man, and identified the new pose as frame 2. The animation generation process defines all the positions in between the two key frames, and automatically creates the animated image. From this stick figure, you can create true key cell operations called cycles. Examples arc walk cycles, run
cycles, dance cycles or any other repetitive movement.
Within a few moments, the stick man was walking. He mentioned that Imagine can “morph”, or change one form into another. You can also animate object attributes, thus changing the color or texture of an object in an animated sequence.
Mike concluded die demonstration by creating a simple black-and-white logo in a 2-D painting program. The logo was saved in IFF format as a single bitplane (two color) image. He brought the 2-D image into Imagine’s 3-D editor where it could be extruded into a 3-D image, then colored, textured and animated.
Mike commented that Imagine would be shipping by the end of August and that registered Turbo Silver owners would be able to buy the program for 5150, for fiO days from the release date or date of purchase of Turbo Silver, which is a $ 200 discount off the regular retail price. Regis- MOVING SPECIAL!
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Ra So once again, you probably spent too much money on your summer vacation this year.
Well, there is something you can do to replenish your bank account in time for that next vacation write for Amazing Computing!
Do it! Share your hot new ideas with thousands of other serious Amiga users just like yourself in the pages of AC, and earn some cold, hard cash in the process!
Just call us toll free at 1-800-345-3360 (1-508-678-4200 in MA) to discuss your ideas with one of our editors.
We’ll steer you in the right direction, then mail you a packet of information to help you get started as an author.
And once you get published we’ll kick off your 1991 vacation fund!
Tered users will have been notified of die release of the program, so it’s a good idea for you to register your Turbo Silver software if you haven't already done so.
I took a few minutes to ask him about his involvement in the Amiga Developers Association. Then, Mike had another appointment to keep, so he introduced me to Michael Dammar, the Director of Research at Impulse, and the designer of the Firecracker 24. Mr. Dammer answered a few- more of my questions regarding the board’s self-genlocking capabilities, and helped me set up my 35mm camera to take a few pictures. We finished that, and it was time for me to head back to Fargo.
The Amiga Developers Association Mike Halvorson has been invok ed
• with ihe Amiga development community for some time. Over the
years, he has seen a need for a much more organized approach
toward working with Commodore, and hastened development of
Amiga hard-ware and software suppon.
Mike decided to bring his ideas into a tangible form; thus, the concept of an Amiga Developers Association was born.
The ADA w-as created with two major goals in mind: to facilitate communications between the Amiga software and hardware developer community and Commodore, and to strive for improvements in the way the Amiga is marketed and promoted. Mike felt that the developers needed an organization that could maintain complete independence from Commodore, and he enlisted the help of Doug Barney of AmigaWorld magazine to help put the organization together.
The Amiga Developers Association became a reality, and Mr. Halvorson was elected President of the ADA at its first meeting. With the newr management at Commodore fully supporting the new' organization, the ADA has found that many of its initial goals have already been achieved. The group is now changing its focus to enhance acceptance of the Amiga in specialized business applications.
The infectious enthusiasm of Mr. Halvorson and Mr. Dammer rubbed off on me, and I left w'ith the feeling that the Amiga will survive as long as dedicated companies and individuals such as these continue to make high-quality, professional products for Amiga owners.
• AC* Firecracker 24 Impulse, Inc. 6870 Shingle Creek Parkway
112 Minneapolis, MN 55430
(612) 566-0221 price undetermined Inquiry £200 Halvorson’s
already exuberant personality began to show even more
enthusiasm as he talked about how the Amiga is really a
great communications tool. Fie personally likes to refer to
the Amiga not as a computer, but rather, as a “digital
graphic imagination machine”! Communicating w'ith imagery'
bypasses any language barriers, and Halvorson believes
that developers and dealers should work to push the Amiga
into new, previously untapped market areas and business
He went on to say that everyone from Commodore itself to the smallest dealers are still marketing the computer to the wrong people. Dealers need to market to those who are probably already using Pcs to fulfill many of their business needs, but wrho also need the Amiga for what it does best graphics communication.
For example, the color graphics and sound generated by the Amiga are a lot more attractive than the LED “craw'ling" signs found in many retail stores, and believe it or not, an Amiga 500 color graphics display system can be much less expensive.
Halvorson feels that everyone needs to take advantage of the inherent creativity and marketing potential built into the Amiga. -J.S. AC V3.8 and V3.9 AC Disks Source code and executable programs included for all iirtielcs printed mAmazing Computing.
Gels In MulliForlh Parts I & II: Learn how to use Gels in MulbForth.
Author: John Bushakra FFP A IEEE: An Example of using FFP A IEEE main routines in Modula-2.
Autnor: Steve Fawiszewskt CAI: A complete Compute* Aded Instruction program with editor written in AmigaBASlC, Author: Paul Castonguay Tumblin' Tots: A comore*e game written in Assembly language Save me fa:mg oao-es n r s game. Author:Cave Ashiey Vgad: A gadget edtor that alows you to eas'iy create gadgets. The program then generates C code that you can use in your own programs.
Autnor: Stephen Verrr.eufen MenuEd: A menu editor that allows you to eas ty create menus. The program then gene'ates C code that you can use in your own programs.
Autnor: David Pehrson Bspread: A powerful spread sheet program written in AmgaBASlC Autnor Bryan Cately AC V4.3 and V4.4 Fractals Part I: An introduction to the basics of fractals with examples in AmigaBASlC, True BASIC, and C. Author: Paul Castonguay Shared Libraries: C source and executable code that shows the use of shared libraries. Author' John Baez MultiSort: SoTng and intertask communication in Modula-2.
Author: Steve Fa,wi$ zewskj Double Playfield: Shows how to use dual pLayfieijs in AmigaBASJC.
Author: Robert O'Astio ‘881 Math Part I: Programming me 68381 math coprocessor chip in C Author: Read Predmore Args: Passing arguments to an AmigaBASlC program from the CU.
Author: Brian Zupie VjjJ AC V4.5 and V4.6 Digitized Sound: Using the Auc.o.cev.ce to play cficiszed sounds m Modula-
2. Author: Len A. White ‘381 Math Part II: Part II o; programmlna
the 63831 math coprocessor chip using a fractal sample.
Author; Read Predmore At Your Request: Using the
system-supplied requestors from AmigaBASlC. Author: John F.
Welderhirn Insla Sound: Tapping the Arnica's sound from
AmgaBASlC using the Wave command. Author: Greg Stiringfeitow
MIDI Out: A MIDI oroqram mat you car. Expand upon. Written in
C. Author: Br. Seraphim Winslow Diskless Compiler: Setting up
a compiler environment that doesn’t need fioppes. Author:
Chuck Raudcns AC V4.7 and V4.8 Fractals Part tl: Part II on
fractals and graphics on the Amiga in i AmgaBASlC and True
BASIC. Author: Paul Casterguay Analog Joysticks: The cocs for
using analog joysticks on the Amiga.
Written in C. Author: Dar.'rd Kinzer C Nctes: A small program to search a file for a speefe string in C. Author: Stephen Kemp Belter Siring Gadgets: How to tap tha power ol string gadgets in C. Author; John Bushakra On Your Alert: Using the system's a!erts from AmigaBASlC.
Author; John F.Wiedemirn Balch Files: Executing batch files Irom AmigaBASlC. Author: Mark Aydellotte 1 C Notes: The beginning of a utility program in Cauthor: Steohen Kemp AC V4.9 Memory Squares: Test you: memory w.th this AmigaBASlC game.
Author: Mike Morrison High Octane Colors: Use dithering in AmigaBASlC to get the appearance of many more cod's. Author: Rowrt D Asto Cell Animation: Using ceti anknaton m Modula-2 Author: Nchtfas Ciraseiia Improving Graphics: Imprcve the ‘way your orogram looks no matter what screen it opens on. In C. Author: Richard Martin For PDS orders, please use form on page 96. Visa and MasterCard available on orders of $ 20.00 or more.
Gels in Mulli-Forth-Part 3: The third and final part on using Gels in Forth, Author: John Bushakra C Notes V4.9: Look at a simple utility program in C Author: Stephen Kemp 1D Cells: A program that simulates a one-dimensional cellular automata.
Author: Russell Wallace Colourscope: A shareware program that shews different grannie designs Author: Russe l Wallace ShowlLBM: A program that dsplays Jo-res. Hi-res, interlace and HAM IFF pictures. Author: Russell Wallace LabyrinthJI: Roil playing text adventure game. Author; Russell Wallace Most: Text file reader that will display cne or more files. The program will automatically format the text for you. Author: Russell Wallace Terminator: A virus protection program. Author Russell Wallace AC V4.10 and V4.11 Typing Tutor; A program written in AmigaBASlC that will he'p you improve your
typing,Author: Mike Morrison Glalt's Gadgets: Using gadgets in Assembly language. Author: Jelf Glatt Function Evaluator: A program that accepts mathamatical functions and evaluates them. Written in C. Author: Randy Finch Fractals; Pari III: Amga3ASIC code that shows you how to save load pictures to disk Author; Faul Castonguay More Requestors: Using system ca'is in AmigaBASlC to btf 'd requestors.
Autnor: John Wedertiirn Multi-Forth: Imp'ementing the ARP toy from Forth.
Author: Lonnie A. Watson Search Utility: A file search utility written in C. Author; Stephen Kemp Fast Pics: Re-wnting the pixel drawing routine in Assembly language for speed. Author: Scott Stein,ran 64 Colors: Using extra-haJf-brite mode in AmgaBASlC Author: Bryan Catfey Fast Fractals: A last fractal program written in C w.th Assembly language subroutines. Author; Hugo M. H. Lypperts Multitasking in Fortran: All the hard wo'kis done here so you can multitask in Fortran, Author; Jim Locker AC V4.12 and V5.1 Arexx Part II: Information on hew to set up your own Arexx programs with examples.
Autho*: Steve Gilmor.
Leggo My LOGO; A Logo program that generates a Chr-stmas fee with decorations. Author Mike Morrison.
Trees and Recursion: An introduction to binary fees and how to use recursion. Written in C. Author: Forest Arnold C Notes: A look at two data compressing technques in C. Author: Stephen Kemp.
Animation? BASICally: Using cell animation with AmgaBASlC.
Author: Mike Morrison Menu Builder: A utility to he'p build menus in you* own programs Written in
C. Author: Tony Preston.
Dual Demo: Hew to use dua' dayfields Id make your own arcade games.
Written in C. Author; Thomas tshelman.
Scanning the Screen: Part four in the fractals series. This article covers drawing to the screen. In AmigaBASlC and TrueBasic.
Author: Paul Castonguay.
C Notes: Recursive functions in C. Author: Stephen Kemp.
AC V5.2 and V5.3 Dynamic Memory!: Flexible string gadget requester using dynamic memory allocation. Autnor: Rardy finch.
Call Assembly language Irom BASIC: Add soeed to you* programs with Assembly. Aufnor: Martin F. Combs.
Conundrum: An Am gaBASlC orogram that is a puzzle-lke game, similar to the game Simon. Author: Dave Senge*.
Music Tiller: Generates a titer display to accompany the audio on a VCR record ng. Author Brian Zupke C Notes From the C Group: Writing functors that accept a varabe number of arguments. Autnor: SiephenKemp Screen Saver: A quick remedy to prolong the He of your monitor.
Author; Bryan Caoey AC V5.4 and V5.5 Bridging The 3,5" Chasm: Making Amiga 3.5' drives compatible with IBM
3. 5' drives. Author: Karl D. 3e'som.
Ham Bone: A neat orocram that illustrates programming in HAM mode.
Author. Robert D'Asto.
Handling Gadget and Mouse IntuiEvents: Mo’e gadgets n Assembly language Author: Jeff Giatl Super Bilmaps in BASIC: Holding a graphics display larger man the moitor screen. Author: Jason Cahill Rounding Off Your Numbers: Programming routines to make rounding your numoers a little easier. Author: Sedgwick Simons Mouse Gadgets: Faster BASIC mouse input. Author; Michael Fahrion Print Ulility; A homemade print utility; with some extra added features.
Author: Bnan Zupke Blo-feedbackdie detector Device: Build your own lie detector devco.
Author John lovi.oe. Do ft By Remote: Build an Amiga-operated remote controller for your home.
Author' Andre Theberge AC V5.6 and V5.7 Convergence: Pan five 0? The Fractal series Author: Paul Castonguay Amiga Turtle Graphics: Computer QrapNcs and programming with a LOGO- like graphi cs system. Author Dylan MnNamee C Notes: Doing linked list and doubly I nked lists in C. Author: Stephen Kemo Tree Traversal & Tree Search: Two common methods for traversing trees.
Author. Forest W. Arnold Exceptional Conduct: A quick response to user requests, achieved through efficient program logic. Author: Mark Cashman, Getting to the Point: Custom Intuition pointers ir, Am gaBASlC.
Author; Robert D'Asto Crunchy Frog II: Adding windows and otner odds and ends. Author: Jim Fiore Synchronieity: Right and left brain lateralization. Author: John lovine C Notes From the C Group: Doubly linked lists revisited.
Author: Stephen Kemp Poor Man's Spreadsheet: A simple spreadsheet program that demonstrates manipulating arrays. Author: Gerry L. Penrose.
F l AC V5.8 and V5.9 Fully Utilizing the 68881 Malh Coprocessor Part III: Timings and Turtx Pixel Function. Author; Read Predmore, Ph.D. C Notes From the C Group: Functions supoortirg doubly I nked lists, Author: Stephen Kemp APL and the Amiga: Programming APL on tibe Amiga. Author. Henry T. uppert Ed.D. Time Out!: Accessing the Amiga's system timer cer.ce va Modula-2.
Author; Mark Cashman Stock-Portfolio: A program to organize and track investments, mu$ iC libraries, mailing lists, etc. ir, AmigaBASlC, Author: G. L. Penrose, CygCC: An Arexx programming tutorial. Author; Duncan Thomson.
Programming in C on a Floppy System: Begin to develop programs in C w.th just ore megabyte o! RAMI Author: Paul Miller.
To be continued ... able to provide many of the solutions.
The Art Department 1.01 by R. Shamms Morrier ASDG has a long and valued history as a primary supporter and developer of Am iga products. As such, they are in a good position to oversee and address the Amiga's future DT and I )TP needs. TAD (The Art Department) is die first of many anticipated new releases toward this end, and it is a downright superlative piece of software.
TAD OF MANY FORMATS TAD is a graphic utility that translates and manipulates a host of diverse Amiga formats into standard IFF and multiple- bitplane files. It can import formats ranging from all standard IFF graphics in any resolution including HAM and overscan ( with its "Super-IFF" loader; SHAM and A- HAM as well), DV21 files (older Digi- View). Digi-View 3.0 and Digi-View Gold, Rendition (used for Caligari Professional's 32-hit, 16-million color output “Broadcast RendereD. Impulse (KGB8files written by furbo-Silver with 16 million colors in 24 bitplanes), Sculpt (the Mimetics 24-bit
format); DeluxePaint if for MS, DOS (an IBM format with 256 colors), GIF (a CompuServe format that addresses IBMs and Apples with L to 8 bitplanes of data).
The Super-IFF, Digi-View, Sculpt 4D, and Turbo-Silver loaders come bundled with the software, plus additional modules can be purchased separately. ASDG claims it will support other loaders as needed in the future, so the TAD software should be continuously upwardly modular, TAD GOES TO WORK TAD has an INSTALL option that installs it on either your hard drive or a bootable floppy. I installed it on a floppy, then also installed the Turbo Silver and Rendition loaders on the same boot disk.
The interface is user friendly, elegantly designed, and the commands are logical and easy to comprehend. A one-time cursor f reading of the manual is all that should be required for experienced Amiga users. Several sample pictures are stored on the original TAD disk for following the tutorials, however, installing the program on a bootable floppy or hard drive deletes them. They are, however, still importable into TAD from the original source.
At the top of the interface screen is a "LOAD FORMAT” selector which steps you through all of the loaders you have installed beforehand. You have to choose the one that coincides with the pictured format you are importing or it will not load.
Next are the Color Controls for Balancing, Dithering, and calling up the Palette requester.
Balancing: Clicking on this gadget brings up a requester with mam useful options. The manual gives a complete and detailed picture of exact functions of each of die balance sliders and suggests nominal default settings. Here you can increment decrement the Red, Green. Blue, Brightness, and Contrast of a loaded picture. There is also a slider named ¦‘Gamma" (whose default i.s set at 0, and which can be increased to 100). Gamma allows ou to increase relative brightness contrast of a picture without some of the anomalies associated with the brightness contrast control alone. After setting am
or all of these sliders, you hit the "Accept" button on the bottom of the requester.
Finally, the "Execute" gadget on the main screen applies the transitions to the picture that Is loaded. In a short time you are presented with the result. The nice tiling about the "Balance" controls is that you can recover votir original image without loading the picture again.
ONCE IN A WHILE. AMID THE FLOOD OF NEW AMIGA SOFTWARE, THERE APPEARS a "must have" package. ASDG's "The Art Department" (TAD) falls into that category, especially for those users involved in Amiga DeskTop Publishing and or Video. With the pending release of Workbench 2.0 and die extensive chip upgrades, the Amiga may yet fulfill its promise as a leader in DeskTop Video (DTV), and as a competitive contender for DeskTop Publishing (DTP) honors. Utilities that help it address the technical and professional DTP and DTV goals are still needed in this venture, and ASDG hopes to be THE DITHER
SETTINGS There is a total of six dithering types in TAD. And those familiar villi the Workbench 2.0 dither settings will no doubt recognize ihcm: Fioyd-Stviriberg, Burkes, Sierra, Jarvis, Stucki, and Random.
You can also select "None". Most ol the dithering functions apply to DTP use.
Rather than to video applications, although some interesting clients can be created l r video b-,- experimenting with the various dithers. With no dither at all a HAM image suffers a bit in its apparent smoothness.
Other resolutions, however, may actually be improved with this setting.
Palette: This brings up a standard Amiga palette requester with all ol the controls familiar to experienced Amiga users. You can change individual c tors, as well as setting smooth ranges of tones.
There is one setting that I really appreciate: Sorting. When pictures are digitized, their palettes often have no smooth transition from one color to the next, making it almost impossible to change ranges of color. TAD.
With the SORT option, seLs up the palette colors from dark to light or vice versa. This requester also allows you to set colors aside for genlock purposes, and to incorporate Workbench colors (for eventual display of the picture on the Workbench screen).
Again, ACCEPT EXECUTE puts the changes into action.
Load Forttat
- . . .
IFF fr-.- "*¦» - ¦ Color Controls Balancing Dither: Off CoMMands About Save Port Load Display « - ' Palette ' Inase Controls Line Art Flip H V Color To Gray Separate Exit yrsapat?p : . Ylarnir'” Screen Controls Low Res R I F HI SC Colors HAM S* y TC Execute Scale Inajre Size H: a h: 0 This is Ihe main interface screen of TAD.
ASDG is well known for their designed speed increases in hardware and software, and TAD seems to be the lucky recipient of all of their research and experience.
THE IMAGE CONTROLS Your loaded graphic may be translated to “Line Ait” (non-HAM images only), flipped vertically and or horizontally, and converted to true grayscale (for non-IFF data). “RIP" (“Remove Isolated Pixels",}, is the next gadget. It combs through a loaded image and selects those one-of-a-kind stray pixels that seem to infiltrate digitized visuals, and gets rid of them. Image Controls has an excellent ''Scale” feature, which would do well to be incorporated into all Amiga graphics software. Width and Height parameters can be adjusted either numerically or by percentage sliders, to
reduce or enlarge the loaded image. This attribute is worth the price of the software by itself. Upon activating the “Execute” command on the main screen, the graphic takes on the new dimensions.
SEPARATIONS Besides the Load'Save'Display options, TAD has a gadget called "Separate” that should be invaluable to Amiga DTP users, especially those who wish to use HAM images in an application that demands 16 million color (or as 256 gray level) output. Colors may Ire written and separated according to any of three variations: RGB (the Red, Green, and Blue components familiar to microcomputer artists), CMYK (the Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black separations common to printing professionals, also known as “four color process”), and CMY (ano- Black separation option, also known as “three color
process”). Each can be saved to a depth of four or eight BitPlanes per color. Four BitPhnes would be used for Grayscale data (256 shades), and eight for full color (24 BitPlanes or l6 million registered colors). There are also sliders that allow both UCR (“Under Color Removal", indicating the amount of color to he removed with the addition of the “K" or Black Plane), and GCR (“Gray Color Replacement”, indicating what percentage of the color removed will be added back as Black). These settings both have suggested default positions for the user not familiar with tire technical details. Two more
defaulted gadgets that allow for Magenta Yellow Ink Compensation in the separations.
VIDEO USERS So as not to leave the Amiga DTV user behind, TAD also addresses the Microlllusion’s Transport Controller software, allowing full 16 million color images to be transferred directly to video.
Of course to use this, you have to be running Microillusion’s Transport Controller software, and also be hooked up to a single frame controller and a high grade VCR. The manual offers many suggestions for using TAD's options in Amiga animation and graphic design applications.
Rounding out the controls are a series of toggles that allow' the screen to be configured to accept Low-Res Hi-Res, overscans, NTSC PAL dimensions, and various color planes (from 2 to HAM, and including settings for EHB and A-HAM variations). A speed time dial screen pops up to tile front while your decision is being processed. Some processes are instantaneous, while others take a few' seconds more. ASDG is well known for their designed speed increases in hardware and software, and TAD seems to be die lucky recipient of all of their research and experience.
TAD THE MIGHTY An ASDG product called “ReSep”, which allows images translated by TAD to be printed out with ProPage as full 16 million color graphics, will be welcomed by Amiga DTP users of Gold Disk’s Professional Page. 256 Graylevei images can also be output to a compatible printer.
TAD 2.0 will be released in die Autumn of 1990. In addition to loading all of the modular formats, it will also be able to save in the optional formats. This will increase its value and use geometrically.
Many new modules are in development.
This is qualitative professional software that needs to find its wray into the hands of all Amiga DTP and DTV users (legally). The price of the software is far below its value for Amiga artists, designers, and animators.
It has already become a standard tool in my studio, and I’m sure that it will serve you just as well. ,AC.
The Art Department: $ 89.95 ReSep: $ 59.95 Optional Loaders: GIF: $ 34.95 Dpaint II Enhanced :$ 19.95 Turbo Silver; $ 24.95; Scu pt 4D: $ 24.95 Targa 1,2,9,)0:$ 39.95 Rendition: $ 49.95 TIFF: $ 39.95; PCX: $ 49.95 Inquiry tt227 ASDG Incorporated 925 Stewart Street Madison. Wt 53713 (60S) 273-65$ $ Scene Generator 2.10 by R. Shamms Mortier MANY MONTHS AGO, I REVIEWED BRETT CASEBOLT’S SCENE Generator 1.0 on these very pages. Since that time, and due to the success of revising and marketing whai was once a public domain program, Brett lias written himself into the Amiga history7 books as an accomplished
developer of an obsessive product. Brett’s story might seem like another mystical Horatio Alger piece of Americana at first glance (you know, “small town boy7 makes good!’’), but that’s hardly the case. His story is really7 about dedicated hard work and the experience of disciplined creativity, as well as being at the right place at the right time. His company, “Natural Graphics", has used Scene Generator to develop other packages that Amiga obsessives will soon be enjoying as much as they do this package. But enough laudatory forecasting, let’s get down to digital tacks.
A FRACTAL ENGINE The idea behind Scene Generator owes its inception to none other than the renowned Benoit Mandlebrot and other fractal dimensional explorers. Fractal image generation takes on a look and feel of the natural world because it gives a certain perceived order to chaos. Also, we seem to accept the self-similar reality7 we observe in fractal graphics as '‘real”. Therefore, software that uses fractal techniques to generate imagery7 then produces images that are seemingly a cross between photographs and our day-to-day observations of reality7. Many traditional artists see these
techniques as non-art and even as threatening, in that they allow the machine itself to make certain decisions that have thus far been the prerogative and responsibility of the human artisan alone. Scene Generator may in fact interfere with the computer artist's longing to be recognized as a “legitimate" artist.
After all, if the only intervention necessary7 in the creation of a work of art is that of plugging a “seed” number into an already resident algorithm and sitting back to watch tire results, how can we call the outcome “art"? If you find yourself irate and insulted concerning artistic automata, then don’t purchase Scene Generator. The results you perceive may throw you into an aesthetic quandary7! In other words, it is definitely addictive.
This program produces some of tire most inspiring “natural" graphic digital background paintings that the graphic designer and or electronic painter will ever witness.
The interface is so simple a two year old (or even a non- Amiga user) could interact successfully7 with it. You have a limited amount of light source and element choices, and an infinite amount of numerical “seeds". Taken together, your Amiga screen can display geography that resembles arid wastes, lagooned islands, stretches of seacoast, snowcapped wilderness, and even planets on tire outskirts of unknown galaxies. You can either stop after the scenes are generated and hang print-outs on tire refrigerator, or you can export them to Amiga paint programs as luscious IFF and HAM backdrops. They
also work very well as genlocked backgrounds for video applications.
The dithering routines in this software are so fine that the Eo-Res visuals look like HAM Video-Res paintings. Real Interlace can also be toggled, resulting in about twice as much time for generation, as well as more detailed images.
Both the Lo-Res overscan and tire Interlace overscanned images port to HAM painting software (Microlllusion’s Photon Paint orNewTek’s DigiPaint). Overscan, by the way, can be set to normal or “severe", so the output can address professional video. Xine optional light source directions are possible.Each can radically alter a painting, moving it from a feeling of pleasantness and splendor to stark awesomeness.
There is a selector for setting “detail” to Medium, Hi, or Extra- Hi. The latter is always my choice, for even though it increases the generation time, it offers the most qualitative results. This program is written entirely in Assembly language (which is Brett’s area of expertise), so even the most detailed settings and resolutions render to die screen in a few minutes.
., , The results you perceive may throw you into an aesthetic quandary! In other words, it is definitely addictive.
Water can be added to the scenes, and its perceived level set. Texture can be added to the water as weli. And there is even a setting that allows “beaches" to be rendered automatically. The altitude can be input as data, giving you alternatives from a flat MidWest plain to sharp Himalayan peaks. In Vermont, our idea of scenery' wouldn't be complete without an option for adding snow. Scene generator allows this to come to pass. Where the light hits the snow, it is a brilliant white, fading off into bluish shadow in areas that are opposite from the light source. The sky can also be set to
receive whispy clouds, though I prefer to add my own skies later in a HAM paint program. Brett Casebolt has an addiction to mountain climbing and environmental issues, and no doubt all of this contributed heavily to Iris observations. These astute and appreciative observations are what fuels the internal beauty of Scene Generator.
Rendered scenes can be saved to disk in any of several formats; Settings alone; Settings plus non-overscanned picture; Settings plus overscanned picture; Settings plus severe overscanned picture (necessary for professional video work).
“Settings” allow's you to import a chosen scene's parameters back into the program. Brett is working on an animation utility’ as well, tentatively called “Scene ReAnimator”. It will allow you to move around in tine Scene Generator realm, and to save the moves as an ANIM file. Owners of Scene Generator will be able to upgrade to it at a comfortable price (release date and price not yet determined). Planned future versions will support accelerator cards with a separate program. An idea also in the realm of possibility' is saving a scene as an object file, so that 3D rendering software (like
Turbo Silver from Impulse or Sculpt 4D from Byte by Byte) can ray trace the terrain! I highly recommend this software. It is useful for Amiga artists and animators, and it is addictive to the max. Oh. One last thing. You’ll probably want to save so many' of your new Scene Generator creations that you will have to upgrade your hard drive, or purchase hundreds of floppies. Enjoy. See you in ROMulan space! Scene Generator (version 2.10) Natural Graphics PO Box 1963 Rocklin, CA 95677
(916) 624-1436 Suggested Retail Price: $ 49.95 Inquiry 220
Breaking the Color Limit with PageRender3D by R, Shamms
ago) when there wasn’t so much great software to choose
from? PageRender3D, one of an integrated series of packages
from Mindware International, has a long list of exciting
and useful features not offered in any other Amiga
animation 3-D rendering package. Over two years in
development, the attributes of Pager- ender 3D, and the
results you can obtain with it. Combine for an overall
approach and impact unmatched by any other rendering
animation package that I have had die opportunity to work
The PR3D manual is just as complete as those of other Mindware products, and just as dearly written. PR3D has a lot of parameters, though, so be prepared to spend some time studying die techniques it uses. Mindware does not copy-protect its wares.
The manual also has a complete index of terms and processes, and is spiral bound to fold out flat on your workspace. It has four main sections: an overview of program concepts, tutorials and reference material (the largest section), sample scripts, and the appendices.
By the way, no other Amiga software developer that I know starts out their manual with a quote from the third Zen Patriarch, perhaps a promise of astounding transformations to come.
TOOLS AND ICONS: A DIFFERENT APPROACH There are really two separate PR3D programs included on the two disks. One is the standard version, while the other, which runs significantly faster, is especially made for users with a 68020 chip.
As far as being visually recognizable as compared to other Amiga software of the same or similar purpose, PR3D’s tools will require you to memorize a whole new list of options. I hope to zero in on many of them in future .Amazing articles. If you are familiar with the language and concept of PR3D's sister program, PageFlipper+FX, this should decrease the introductory time spent learning this program. Even the dragbar takes on a new shape and placement, allowing you to multitask with other software. There is the Gadget Window, the PR3D CI.l scripting window (all commands evoked by the mouse can
also be input in scripted form, and mouse commands also write the command out simultaneously in scripted notation in an INFO window, forcing you to learn the syntax), and a larger CLI type “console” window. Above all of this is die display "you can create some truly stunning multicolored graphics and animations."
Screen and lire drop-down menus, so you can readily see why learning to operate comfortably in PR3D takes a bit of study.
THE GADGET WINDOW Here is a listing of some of the syntax equivalents: GO - moves the position of the observer, moving the observer point and lire view point simultaneously.
GORD - (short for "Go Around”) moves the observer around the GORD origin, and keeping the view cenLered on that origin.
LOOK - Changes direction observer is looking.
MOVE OBJECT-Moves the work object.
MOVE CTR - Moves the center of the work object.
MOVE LIGHT - Moves the light source (there are six icons on the screen that tell you at a glance what kind of a center is involved in a move: A circle for the object’s center, a double-cross for the view point, a diamond for a light source, open crosshairs for the GORD origin, and crosshairs for the coordinate system origin, and the obseivation point).
ROTATE-rotates objects around their rotation axis. A short pause and explanation is due here. Not satisfied with an XYZ Cartesian coordinate system alone, PK3D has other possible coordinate systems that can be employed in the animation process. Spherical, tetrahedral, and cylindrical systems are possible, ami objects react quite differently to rotational and other commands, depending upon the coordinate method selected.
STRETCH - stretches tire object bv an indicated factor along any or all of the axis chosen.
CYCLIC SYMMETRY - here’s where it really gets interesting. This command clones duplicates of an object around itsX, Y, or Z axis.
MIRROR SYMMETRY - clones an object by interposing a mirror plane perpendicular to the selected axis.
REPRODUCE - clones the work object.
PAINT - brings up a nicely designed requester that allows user to select and alter colors of the palette (PR3D works in all Amiga resolutions, including HAM and overscan, so the number of colors are resolution dependent).
ERASE - removes selected object (this interfaces with several possible commands: object, pick object, pick facet, UNDO, and EXIT Lhe erase mode).
DRAW creates a picture using the setup and facet files in memory'.
It’s best to rum i: off when performing large numbers of alterations, then toggle it on again when done. Does not produce a rav-traced drawing.
BRACES used tor scripting in looped directions.
There tire also up down left right arrows, and gadgets for moving forward and back vis-a-vis the picture plane, associated XYZ toggles, and alternate coordinate system gadgets. Below all of these is a slide gadget for setting numerical operators associated with many of tire gadgets listed (e.g., telling the system how far to move you in or out). There is an absolutely essential “Stop Gadget’’ that aborts changes in progress.
PR3D's other commands and selections are hidden from sight in die Title Bar’s pull-down menus, several of which are examined here: SETUP MENU AUTODRAW AUTOCLEAR (these should be toggled off when working 011 the screen. It saves time. Then, when done, just hit “Draw” in the toolbox).
Draw modes (all the options you’d ever want: ull, outlined, lines at edges, wireframe, work object enhanced so it can be seen better, and front facets only which saves redraw time. There is also a dither level selector here ... off, 1. 3, and 7).
STEREO (PR3D supports the Haitex stereo glasses and red ' blue glasses. There’s also a stereo-off setting here).
LIGHT (four settings: OFF, which allows objects to be drawn in their natural color; NATURAL, which shades objects proportional to their distance from a light source; MORE, which gives objects lighted facets inversely proportional to their distance from a light source; STRANGE, which does not prefigure distance from die source in lighting object facets).
WATTAGE (allows you to input die strength of the light source. PR3D could use more then one light source for more varied effects).
DISPLAY (here’s where you tell the system what you want die screen resolution to be. PR3D handles all Amiga resolutions. There is also a bitplane requester, offering dioices from 1 to 6).
PAGE SIZE (SuperBilmaps can be input, dependent upon the memory available in your system. Also full, half, quarter, and eighth Pages).
PAGE (dimensions and position of die upper left corner in X ’ coordinates).
DistOPP (this is a PR3D special term meaning "distance from observer to picture plane". The slider below die toolbox determines the numerical distance in centimeters).
PRINTER (allows you to set the number of columns and rows your printout will be).
GENLOCK (toggles transparency of color 0).
DEFAULT (loads the default screen settings as a lores non- overscanned 32-color screen, unless you change the default).
LIBRARY The "primitives" already included here (nine named and cwentv-one numbered figures) combined with the “Array” function allowing you to create and animate some really wild and intriguing shapes. There is also an alphabet under “Letters” and numerals under “Numbers”. These can he extruded lor quick logo production. You can also set the Disk and Drawer path for accessing your own 3D library of shapes.
THE SCRIPT MENU Scripting is reallv the heart of controlling PR3D. As you input mi use icon selections, the 3D C1J screen (always in view) translates selections into scripted format, so that in no time you are motivated to memorize the scripting commands. Scripting is actually a much faster way to produce results in PR3D. As it contains possibilities for generating images and animations diat far outstrip the icon or menu selection methods. PR3D can also be controlled through AREXX commands, which makes scripting all die more essential to learn. In the Script Menu, you can set paths for
recording, reading in. Editing, and deleting script files.
I certainly did not anticipate the quantity of new tools in my first experience with this software. My head was also turned by the way that PR3D allows dithering of palette colors, giving you a range of apparent colors in hi-res that go beyond the l6 color limitation.
It is this capability of PR3D that 1 would like to dwell upon in depth, because with it, you can create some truly stunning multicolored graphics and animations.
I like to work in hi-res (6)0 x 400). This gives my visuals the sharpness diat I desire, while minimizing the dreaded “jaggies”. A severe limitation of hi-res, however, is the Amiga’s 16-color hi-res barrier, if your objects are simple, sixteen colors can be enough to support the illusion of 3-D. It may take all of the sixteen to provide a range of darks and lights that provide smooth transitions of light and shadow, but it can be done. If your designs call for complicated multicolored shapes, however, lire situation becomes more difficult. Working in the normal Amiga 16 color hi-res
palette, you are forced to assign less palette pots (positions) to each color range.
This, in turn, severely limits the believability of the finished pseudo- 3D shapes. You could choose to work in HAM mode, but there again even the best resolution (320 x 400) isn’t fine enough for delicate shapes and diagonal angles without an appearance from tine jaggies, plus HAM animations arc usually very space intensive.
There have been at least a dozen Amiga articles dedicated to creating more colors in all Amiga resolutions by embedding dot patterns of varying densities into color brushes. By doing this, the Amiga artist can expand the apparent color ranges of an electronic painting. The technique is simple enough, and is comparable to what is called a “screen overlay” in printing. The eye sees the color plus its semi-transparent screen as a new color. Either color screens or black patterns can be used. The idea is old, and its application to Amiga painting has been documented. Only MindWare's PR3D, however,
has made this technique an operational part of a working rendering program.
PR3D reserves 28 color registers for facet colors when in lores mode (32 colors normally available without dithering). There are also seven levels of dithering possible between any two colors.
Dithering, if not chosen correctly, can look very grainy. Lower resolutions show the dithering very exaggerated as well. You can either hate tilts, or actually go for it as a specific “look”. The color of the dither effects the overall color of the image, so care must be taken in its application. You can program the dither color to change with each animation frame, altering the whole animation with shimmering colors.Now let’s take a detailed look at a hi-res example.
THE HI-RES EXAMPLE Before designing a complex multi-colored shape in hi-res, let's discuss PR3D's lights for a moment. Placement, selection, and “wattage” of a light will effect all forms in the environment , There are three settings for the light source: “Natural”, “More”, and “Strange”. Natural tries to mimic the light we experience in the everyday world. More light intensifies the apparent brightness, and is inversely proportional to the distance from the source. Strange lights are not effected by distance, only by the angle of tire source.
Setting the wattage of a light can increase or decrease the global brightness of the screen.
Now for a complex and multicolored hi-res object. To begin.
I never work on die perspective screen, but prefer a front or side viewc This allows me to adjust my objects with a finer understanding of what I'm doing. This object starts by using the cylindrical extruder to create a single shape with fifty faceted sides spun around a central point (Figure I). Notice the fine degree of shading.
Next, I've added a square frame around the top (see Figure 2), and colored it red (I make a square frame by telling die lathing function to give me only four facets). Finally, 1 have added several other 3- D color bands around my original shape. With each addition, the degree of dithering becomes more obvious to the eye. Just to complicate matters, I'll turn the view to “top” and add two vertical color bands. When complete, 1 select “Merge All” so that the whole figure can be set to revolve or animate in whatever fashion. I’ve turned it on an angle so you can appreciate the complexities of the
form and die didiering that PR3D provides (Figure 3). The whole figure can now be animated in several ways. When animation is underway, the dithering that is so obvious is superseded by the apparent motion. Ail you see are washes of color that responds to changes in the light.
Mind ware will upgrade PR3D in die near future, adding such niceties as real ray tracing and other options. If you haven't investigated PR3D on your own yet, and you are interested in Amiga graphics (PR3D frames can be saved as IFF files) and animation, do yourself a favor and consider its purchase. I have found thatMindware not only provides quality products, but great service as well. Well, that’s all for now. See you in ROMulan space.
• AC- PageRender3D Mindware International, Inc, 110 Dunlop Street
West Box 2215$ Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M 5R3
(705) 737-5998 Suggested Retail Price: $ 129.95 Inquiry 11217
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FD Software
P. O. Box 68 Blooniingdale, IL 60108 Hours M-F 11-7 Sat 10-6 3-D
Professional The tape expertly illustrates most of the
tutorial material that makes up the bulk of die user manual.
There's also an exhaustive 450-page reference manual and a
guide to .Animation Station, which is included on two of the
By David Dubennan IN CASE YOU’VE BEEN WONDERING WHAT’S IN THAT HUGE GREEN BOX YOU'VE noticed recently at the local Amiga retailer, here’s the straight skinny. 3-D Professional, developed by Cryogenic Software for Progressive Peripherals & Software of Denver, CO, contains three manuals, six disks, and an instructional videotape.
3-D Professional is a three- dimensional modeling, rendering, and animation program. It doesn't perform ray- tracing, but that's promised by the developers for future revisions. The object editor offers a wealth of options and is very well designed, permitting easy, rapid creation and manipulation of a practically unlimited variety of objects in a solid, realistically shaded mode, but no vertex- level creation or reshaping. Tire rendering engine allows a very wide range of surface choices including varying degrees of transparency and a rich selection of rendering options, anct yields great-
looking images. As for 3-D Pro’s animation capabilities, while it lets you do tweening and morphing easily, you must create text scripts to accomplish path animation.
The program isn't copy-protected and includes a hard disk installation program which works fine, but only copies enough of the example files to let you follow the tutorials. Also included is a version which works only with 68020 and 68030-based Amigas with floating-point math coprocessors, which naturally works faster.
While 3-D Pro multitasks, it prefers to have the Amiga all to itself and closes the Workbench screen if possible (you can reopen it if you like), Of course, as with all such processor-intensive software, the less that's going on elsewhere, the quicker you'll get results. 3-D Pro offers an option to toggle the screen display while rendering to speed things up even more. If you leave die screen display on, the program shows a countdown that doesn’t seem to have any direct relationship with how much time is left. And to tell the truth, 3-D Pro is a bit slow at rendering final images, even on a 25
Mhz Amiga 3000, although screen redraw in the editor is quite fast.
THE OBJECT EDITOR 3-D Professional is easy to learn, whether or not you've used other 3-D programs. When the program starts you're placed in the object editor's camera view, which shows die scene roughly as it will look when rendered. While the camera view is adjustable interactively, it doesn’t permit interactive editing of objects. For that you can switch to any of six fixed fullscreen views front, back, top, bottom, and left and right sides that allow interactive selection, movement, copying, and linking of objects. There’s also a Model view that simultaneously shows the top, right,
front, and camera views. Model view also doesn’t permit any direct editing, but you can use it to pick an edit view. The editor uses the Amiga’s i6-color medium resolution (640 x 200) mode, applying dithering to represent shaded objects. The ability to see solid objects realistically colored and shaded while editing, making adjusting of lighting much easier than otherwise, is one of 3-D Pro's many real strengths. You can also opt for wireframe or solid-color representation, both of which are faster but less realistic, and use the objects’ true colors. Similarly, you can abort a screen redraw
with a press of tire spacebar if you want to make several changes in a row. These and many other small but useful touches help make 3-D Professional a joy to use, for the most part.
Many editor commands are available from a vertical two-column icon-based toolbox at screen right, similar to Deluxe Paint's interface. The top six icons allow rotation of die camera (in camera view mode) or of selected objects in the directions right, left, up, down, clockwise, and counterclockwise. In both cases, the program uses an ingeniously designed interface for setting the angle of rotation.
When you select any of die rotation gadgets, a large circle appears superimposed over die editor screen, with a shaded portion representing the desired angle, which defaults to 90, while the current angle and rotation settings are shown as numbers in the corner of the screen. Just double click on the appropriate icon to route by 90 degrees, or move the mouse to adjust the angle with graphic and numeric feedback, clicking the button at the right setting. This scheme would have been perfect if the designer had also permitted keyboard entry of the angle. You can also pan the camera in any
direction using a mouse-keyboard combination.
There are icons to scale objects (or zoom the camera view) vertically, horizontally, or both, and optionally to scale objects by die same amount in all three dimensions. In the six edit views you can scale and pan the view using sliders at the window's edge. If you lose your objects by zooming in or panning over too far, an arrow at the window's edge shows you which direction to scroll in order to find them. There are icons to let you flip and shear objects vertically and horizontally, reverse the order of an object’s polygons (sometimes necessary for inside-out objects), and to slice objects,
which adds the extra faces sometimes needed for realistic shading. If you're familiar with VideoScape 3D. 3-D Pro uses a similar object structure in which polygons are onesided, can have more than three edges, and ordinarily must have vertices arranged in clockwise order to be visible. This results in faster rendering times if all objects use the proper structure. It is possible to force rendering of all polygons regardless of the direction they're facing, which slows rendering.
Each object has its own axis, a straight line that can be interactively set to any angle and placed anywhere. The arbitrary rotation icon then lets you rotate the object J ft • J i P'l . .. cm MU 3-D Pro's ingenious interface device tor rotation.
• • U[] EN ::d i j ¦ no no it:*.
I:-. I h ¦ ¦' .pi m mi tit ac m mi a m EX nn
* -!¦ BC 3m tut :nu uk :rn m 3IIBI Hk 3IIB Ct( 3 F1I Ml Duucnr 3
UK Ilk 3UKEHK 3 IKE 12* DIMM* 3 HI M* about its own axis rather
than the universal axes. The remaining icons let you delete
objects, toggle the grid display, return the camera to "home"
position, anti redraw the display.
Three buttons below tire icoir tools set Link, Move, or Copy mode. Use Link mode to set up (and view) hierarchical relationships between objects. To link a propellor to its plane, for example, simpiv drag a line from propellor to plane. In this example, the propellor moves the same way as the plane does, preserving tire physical relationship between the two. But can also move (e.g., rotate) independently.
Conveniently, links can be temporarily disabled via a menu com nand. Link also lets you set up light and camera tracking, a unique feature in 3-D Pro in which a spotlight or camera continually adjusts its position during an animation to follow a moving object. And while we’re on lighting, 3-D Pro allows a total of five sources, each of which can be the traditional point source or adjustable cone- shaped or cylindrical spotlights. Of course you can adjust each light’s color and intensity, and you can set a light's illumination to decrease with distance or not (like die sun), and whether it
casts shadows (the latter feature isn't yet supported in 3-D Pro). Lights can be switched on and off independently, which makes it easy to experiment with different effects. You can also set ambient light color and intensity as well as chat for an optional haze effect that "fogs out" the background.
Move mode is the default editing mode and allows for easy positioning of objects.
Click anywhere on an object and it’s surrounded by a white bounding box clearly delineating its extent and showing that it’s selected. By the way, you can turn off objects completely and show only their bounding boxes (with an identification number to keep track) for extremely fast editing a very nice touch. Click on other objects and they’re selected as well. Click on a selected object to deselect it. Or click in a blank area to deselect all selected objects. If you can't seleci an object that's "surrounded" by a larger one, you can “lock” out the larger temporarily to prevent its being
Click and drag on an object orshift-click on any of a selected group and it or they are instantly deposited in a new location. In general, die interface is quite intuitive.
Two gadgets let you lock out vertical and or horizontal movement for precise alignment. Reposition lights, die camera, and objects’ origins (rotation points) just as easily, but you can recenter an object’s origin with a menu command. You can even aim the camera interactively by dragging the line of sight, a one-pixel thick line that shows the camera direction but can Ire difficult to grab. To clone objects, select Copy and then just click and drag as in Move. You can also group, align, and split multiple selected objects.
3-D Professional abounds with friendly touches that are most useful for working artists. If you’re editing a complex scene whose redraw time is starting to bog down, you can speed things up quite a bit by letting the program turn off the display during recalculation. Or if you're in a hurry to see the final results, you can force redraw to use Extra mode settings (e.g., HAM Interlace, smoothing, etc,), which I'll describe shortly. If moving several objects, you can turn off redraw after moving only the outline indicates the new position.
You can opt for a numeric coordinate display in terms of screen pixels or world units, and toggle the display of lights, the camera, and object origins and axes. And that's not all by a long shot.
OBJECT CREATION Unlike Sculpt 3D 4D. Turbo Silver, and others, 3-D Professional doesn’tletyou create three-dimensional objects interactively point-by-point and face-by- face (an arduous process at best). But if you want fast, easy, and versatile creation of a wide variety of objects, then 3-D Professional may well fill the bill. First, tire Primitives menu conveniently shows pictures of tire built-in shapes: cube, pyramid, three complexities of sphere, tetrahedron, cone, cylinder, wheel, wedge, track trxilr WC itkim me Iraci hilt me tract Tifcr UtE tract inutt LBC tractiaj M ¦[ la tali MUE
tram la* MIC iHflittt BUC iMfkW MIC Uif bill MIC MM MC Iran It hi* IOC lwt:l 1 (ml* i fnctil m: ilmn? 01® teller: Object creation tool. Note the many parameters tor creating tree objects.
Hemisphere, torus, and line segment. While you can stretch and squash these, you can’t alter their basic structure. But even more importantly, 3-D Pro can import objects from many other programs: VideoScape3D Modeler3D, tire Sculpt series, Turbo Silver, 3Demon, Forms in Flight, AutoCAD DXF files, and even the Atari ST programs CAD 3D and CyberSculpt. The reference manual gives detailed information on importing these formats, but it’s generally not necessary because the program automatically recognizes any supported format! Also, 3-D Pro can save any object in its own or in VideoScape format,
so it works quite well as an object-conversion program.
Perhaps tire most spectacular internal object-creation capability is die fractal tree- making utility. Among the 16 user-settable variables used are branch twist and bend and leai size, angle, and bend. You can spend many productive hours playing with this part of the program alone. For the most part, the trees produced are natural- looking without being overly complex, an impressive feat. There's also a fractal landscape utility that generates realistically colored rectangular mini-worlds complete with lakes, plains, and hills you can vary the size, complexity, and overall roughness. The
Ground Creation Tool lets you create a flat ground that extends diroughout the 3-D universe, either solid- colored, checkered, or a wireframe grid.
There are also utilities for creating three- dimensional objects out of keyboard- entered text in any Amiga font or from imported IFF bitmaps. These are slow and inefficient, creating needlessly complex objects by making a separate polygon for each pixel in the text or bitmap.
The three other object creation tools are Lathe, Profile, and Conic. Lathe uses a special window that lets you create and edit an outline that is then to be spun about a central horizontal axis to create a solid radially symmetric object, much as in actual lathing. You can add points to the outline and delete them, line several consecutive points up in a straight line or create curves. The oudine is mirrored on the bottom half of the screen to give you a better idea of the final lathed object’s shape. Profile, a more powerful object creation tool, neatly combines the traditional extrusion
concept with the “cross- section" technique used by Turbo Silver's Skin and Sculpt's Unslice commands. It lets you easily define complex objects such as boats or human heads by creating any number of parallel slices or cross-sections, then covering them with a continuous skin.
Cross-sections must each have the same number of vertices. The Conic tool extrudes a single outline to a point, which seems to be of limited use.
Once you've created or imported an object you’ll want to edit it using one or more of the Edit Object requesters, a subject that occupies over 40 continuous pages in the reference manual. In die main requester you set an object's two colors, special rendering flags, surface properties, and texture, .An object in 3-D Pro has two colors, or rather two sets of colors. The first, called indirect color and used for coloring objects in the work views, is limited to the editor’s 15-color palette, of which you can edit only the first eight colors, the others being a fixed gray scale used for program
requesters, The direct color is set via 8-bit RGB sliders resulting in a choice of over 16 million colors, is visible only when rendered using direct color setting, and is accurate only when rendered to 24 bits and displayed on a frame buffer. The only frame buffer directly supported by 3-D Professional in the initial release is iMimetics' FrameBuffer. The Special Rendering Flags let you force how the object is to be rendered, such as wire frame, solid unshaded, or even invisible, no matter what the global smoothing and shading settings are. One flag lets you render an object as a shadow,
invisible itself but darkening any surfaces it covers.
The Surface Property settings include transparency, reflection, roughness, specular reflection, glossiness, and even index of refraction, which isn't currently supported. There are nine preset combinations of these which do a good job of simulating substances such as plastic, ceramic, and stone. .And since 3-D Pro doesn't support IFF brush mapping, or the application of arbitrary 2-D images to 3-D objects (as in Turbo Silver), it’s fortunate the designers have included a number of well-designed textures for applying to objects. The three texture types are Color textures such as wood, marble,
spotty and blend; the Normal textures, ripple and bumpy, which appear to change the object’s physical surface; and the Post texture, snowy, which is applied after the others. The textures have lots of user- alterable settings and most look significantly better than those supplied with Turbo Silver SV. However, unlike Silver, you can't apply different versions of the same texture to different objects in the same scene, as noted in the manual.
Actually, the textures are “global". For example, if you make several wooden spheres they'll look as though they were carved from a single block of wood and each was retained in the exact spot from which it was cawed. If you animate textured objects they appear to be moving through the texture an unusual effect, and not always a desirable one.
The Object Information requester, available from the attributes requester, displays the object’s vital statistics: the number of primitives and vertices; die current setting for rotation, scaling, and shear; tire current extents in the X, Y, and Z directions; and die origin and object ID number.
The final object requester, called the Object Show requester, lets you select parts of objects for recoloring and so on.
Normally new object settings apply to the entire object, but from here you can deselect all object polygons, then simply select die ones you want to change, or vice versa. You can only select one polygon at a time in a mediod diat’s slighdy more cumbersome dian that used by other Amiga 3-D programs, but you can rotate your object in any direction during selection without affecting the actual object's position another nice touch.
RENDERING IMA GES The Extra menu should more properly have been called the Render or Display menu, except that it leads off with the Settings submenu. The three settings are: whether or not you’re warned when memory is low; whether an audible beep is used to signal the user; and whether the program saves icons with files. You can also save and load environment files, which contain a number of other settings including tire remaining ones from this menu.
Other than that, this menu strictly controls settings for 3-D Pro’s rendering engine, called the Extra Display by the designers, including the Display command itself. From here you also set overscan, interlace, and the graphics mode for rendering: low or high resolution; two versions of HAM mode which differ in the means by which the palette is calculated; 2024 which renders to the high-resolution black-and-white monitor of that model number using 256 shades of gray; and size, which lets you set a custom screen size up to 1024 x 1024 pixels."
The Extra Rendering submenu contains 12 items arranged in several groups. The first group lets you choose the type of shading; pattern or solid, or one of two types of smoothed shading called Gourad and Phong. Alternatively, you can use a custom-written renderer, an option that will probably be used by die ray- tracing engine when it’s available. Other options determine use of the Z buffer for more accurate rendering of objects in front of each other, toggle use of direct colors, and allow IFF images to be used as foregrounds and backgrounds.
There are five different types of dithering, including Random and None, and fully ten different options for output, including Normal (the screen), IFF file, Mimetics1 FrameBuffer, and Full or Encapsulated PostScript. And of course there’s die Display command, which begins rendering.
Last but not at all least on the Extra menu are wo special real-time animation functions: Real-time Rotate which lets you control a rotating camera around the scene; and Simulate which lets you move the camera freely throughout die universe.
Both use special keyboard commands for real-time control.
GETTING TECHNICAL The Tech menu offers a number of complex options that are unique in the world of Amiga 3-D software, at least to my knowledge. Clipping determines the method by which program decides how to eliminate objects and parts of objects outside the display area the choice is 2-D, 3-D, or none. HS Sorting sets the way points, lines, and polygons are sorted before rendering in order to find out which are behind or in front die others choices are MinZ, MaxZ, AvgZ, CntP or Center Point, the default, and None. Back Face Removal determines whether polygons facing away from die camera are
rendered. With some objects you may have to force rendering of all polygons, or simply force all polygons to face die camera.
Other options include double edge removal and exact color on, which forces pixels in HAM pictures that march palette colors (e.g., black) to the palette color, which is required for genlock applications, but slows rendering.
Further Tech menu options include: the transparency buffer, which is necessary when rendering transparent objects using a Z buffer mode; angle smoothing, which smooths angles 90 degress or greater, such as a cube’s edges; curve opacity, which lends greater realism to curved transparent objects; and image filter, used to soften or “smear" an image with a 3 x 3 or 5 x 5 matrix, Finally, since 3- D Pro doesn’t normally load fully in order to save memory, accessing overlays or segments from disk as necessary, you can opt to have loaded segments remain in memory or be unloaded when not being used,
or you can just load or unload all segments.
3-D PRO ANIMATION There are two basic methods for creating animations, other than using text- based scripts, which allow you to execute almost any program function remotely, The first is manual, where you make all the changes by hand, then render the frame, then save the frame to an animation file a laborious procedure to say the least. Most users will prefer the automatic animation method, in which you make major changes in the scene, creating animation nodes that are saved as key frames, then let the computer create the in-between frames necessary for smooth motion, Options offered here
include the number of in- between frames per key and whether motion between key points is straight-line or smoothed into curves.
While 3-D Pro makes the process of creating a key frame iist absurdly easy, and you can edit each key frame, you can’t edit the animation per se. To change an animation's order of sequences, for example, you must recreate it from scratch.
Still, the ability to easily perform convincing character-style animation using tweening makes the extra trouble worth it.
The program saves animations in die IFF ANIM opcode 5 format, which is compatible with just about every other Amiga animation software. 3-D Pro can load and display any IFF ANIM file. It can also load and display IFF still images, RGB- format files from various sources, and even X-Specs 3-D picmres. You can also save and load entire scenes with all camera settings, lights, etc. The program recognizes eleven different types of files, including objects, lights, palettes, ANIMs, etc., and uses the appropriate directories that are set up during installation. This lessens the user’s burden by not
requiring (continued on page 61) Time Out!
By Mark Cashman A I N AMIGA PROGRAM OFTEN NEEDS TO BE SIGNALLED when a specific amount of running time has elapsed. In some cases, this signal starts up a suspended program; in other cases, it interrupts the normal activities of the program, causing control to be transferred to an event-handling routine.
The Amiga supports time in hardware. A high-resolution clock chip is used for detailed system timing. The video clock (VBlank timer) is used for long-term timing. Other hardware devices, such as the disc, keyboard, and mouse (usually called gameport) are also needed by the system software.
A software device a special type of program is used to control a hardware device. On the Amiga system, the software device provides a consistent method for communication with the hardware (henceforth, we will mean “software device" when speaking of a “device"). Contrast the software device with Lire other executable entities in the Amiga operating environment; Library, a set of routines, a set of pointers to those routines, or a data area for use by those routines. The routines in a library are only performed as a result of a call from a task or process; they do not “run by themselves'’.
Examples are the “intuition.library" and the “graphics. I ibrarv”.
Task a routine which is run by Exec. Unlike a library, a task does “run by itself. A task can call on other routines within or without the task object code, or it can call on library routines; further, it can send messages to other tasks or processes. A task is not able to use files which are a service provided by AmigaDOS. The AmigaDOS process is used in place of tire task, when file access is needed.
Device, a task and a library in conjunction. The task queues and dispatches messages (requests) from one or more clients to the device library routines (a regular Amiga library), which then reply to the client. Examples are the “timer.device’ and the ‘trackdisk.de vice".
Process-, a task that can access the AmigaDOS File system. Your program is a process when you start it from CLI or the Workbench.
The “timer.device" is one of the essential devices that is available immediately after startup. Oilier devices such as "keyboard.device", “gameport,device", “input.device” and so on, are also included as part of the Kickstait (or ROM (read only memory)) software.
Other devices, such as the “parallel.device", are not loaded into the system until they are needed. These “disk resident" devices are kept in die “devs:" assignment, which is normally the file “workbench: devs".
A program needs to follow these steps to use a device; Create a message port to which the device will reply to requests.
Open the device.
Set-up the request.
Send die request.
When the request is returned, do whatever is necessary.
Close die device.
The steps of setting up to use a device and to process a device reply are not difficult, but they are tedious. For diat reason. I have defined a module that provides access to the “timer.device”, just as the “timer.device'' software controls the hardware timers.
One of the most powerful features of Modula-2 is its MODULE construct. A MODULE is a container for data, type definitions, and procedures. When a module is written separately from the program diat uses it. It is called a library module (no relation to an Amiga library). It consists of two parts a DEFINITION and an IMPLEMENTATION. The DEFINITION lists (EXPORTs) those features ot the IMPLEMENTATION that are available to programs diat use the MODULE. The IMPLEMENTATION fully defines all of those diings mentioned by die DEFINITION (except for EXPORTed TYPE definitions, which appear only in the
DEFINITION). A MODULE is IMPORTed into a client module, and then die names of features of die DEFINITION can be used freely by die LMPORTing MODULE. The following are the MODULES used for the example; Timer.def DEFINITION MODULE Timer, mod IMPLEMENTATION M( DDL'LE TestTimer.mod Program module Some special terms: Client module: A module that imports a library module.
Calling task: A task that calls on the procedures of a Sibraiy module.
The following is a definition module. It describes the Timer,HandleTYPE data type and procedures available to operate on diat data type. Note die use of the suffix TATE on the name of a type.
DEFINITION MODULE Timer; Accessing the Amiga's System Timer Device Via Modula-2 IMPORT Ports; TYPE HandieTYRE; VAR Har.dleNIL: HandleTYPE; PROCEDURE Wait(Hours, Minutes, Seconds, Microseconds; LCNGCARD); PROCEDURE Opened(TimerReplyPortPtr: Ports.MsgPortPtr): HandleTYPE; PROCEDURE SendRequest (VAR TimerHandle: HandleTYPE; Hours, Minutes, Seconds, Microseconds: LGNGCARD); PROCEDURE AbortRequest (VAR TimerHandle : HandleTYPE); procedure TimeXntervalCompiete(VAR TimerHandle: HandleTYPE): BOOLEAN; PROCEDURE TnisIsTheTime rMessage (VAR Timer Handle: HandleTYPE; VAR Message: Ports .Message) :
BOOLEAN; PROCEDURE Close(VAR TimerHandle: HandleTYPE!; END Timer.
What does this tell about how to use the timer? The simplest way to use die timer is to call Wait(); the calling task will be suspended until die end of the designated interval. All of the setup and cleanup required to use the timer device is hidden within WaitC).
Another way to use the timer is to open it and use it to clock off an interval. First, it must be opened. List, it must be dosed. It can, while opened, be used, by sending a request and diecking when the request is replied to the calling task, to measure an interval of time. During that interval, the calling task remains acdve
- in the event of a problem, or some other need, the timer
request can be aborted. Another procedure is provided to check
whether a particular message is the timer reply messages. This
can be used to safely remove the timer reply message (with
Lists.RemoveO) from the message port, This might be necessary
if that port is being used to receive several different types
of messages.
In the second case, the choice of timer reply message port is left to the calling task. This provides flexibility to the calling task's operation. It may already have a message port being used for interprocess communication, or you may prefer to create one specifically for use with the timer.
For a synchronous operation (the calling task continues operation while waiting for the timer reply), the timer is accessed through a handle. The handle is an opaque data type. That is, tire client module is not allowed to depend on or access its structure.
The handle is actually a pointer to some other data structure, but because die client module cannot know the structure to which the handle points, the format of that structure can be changed without requiring changes to Lite client modules, and this is one of its primary1 benefits.
The client module is responsible for not making several requests with the same handle. It can, however, open several handles at once and use them separately.
Note the special variable declared in the definition module and set in the initialization section of die implementation module: HandleNIL. This variable is used in conjunction with the HandleTYPE. It allows the client module to initialize the timer handle to a value against which it can be tested to see if it is opened.
This will be needed in die error termination logic of the client module. It is also used in the implementation module to help protect against the use of a closed or not opened handle.
The “how” of this definition module is the implementation module.
I. VH !1T ZODevices, lODevicesUtil, Lists, HessageUtil, Ports,
Termination IMPORT Assert; TYPE HandleTYPE *
TimerDevice,timerequestPtr; PROCEDURE Wait(Hours, Minutes,
Seconds, Microseconds: LONGCARD); VAR TimerHandle: HandleTYPE;
TimerReplyMessagePtr: Ports.MesaagePtr; TimerReplyMsgPortPtr:
Ports.MsgPortPtr; DEGIN TimerReplyKsgPortPtr:-
PortsUtii.CreatePort(NIL,0); TimerHandle:*
Opened(7imerReplyMsg?ort?txJ; Ser.dReouesr (TimerHandle,
Hours,Minutes, Seconds,MicroSecor.ds); Time rRep 1 yMe s s age
?t r: “ Me s s ageUt i 1. Wait Ms g TinerReplyMsg?ort.Pt r ")
; PortsUtii.DeletePort 7inerReplyMsgPcrt?tr~);
Close(TimerHandle); AutoPrompt mjte by m m mmSTBA, r. *
!DigiSoft Hours, Minutes, Seconds, Microseconds; LONGCARD) ;
CONST SeccndsPerHour * 3600D; SecondsPerMinute = 60D; TV
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Requires 512k of memory and Kickstart 1.2 or Inter, Assert (TimerHandle HandleNIL, "Timer", "SendRequest", "Open handle in use."); TimerHandle".trtime.tvsecs:= Hours *Secor.ds?erHour + Miautes*$ econdsPerMinute - Seconds; TimerHandle".trtine.cvnicro:- Microseconds; TimerHandle".trnode.ioCommand:= TimerDevice.TRAddRequest?
XODevices.SendIO(TimerHandle); END SendRecuest; PROCEDURE AbortRequest(VAR TimerHandle: HandleTYPE); VAR AutoPrompt . US $ 295*00 DigiSoft 12 Dinmore St Moorooka Brisbane 4105 Queensland Australia Demonstration disk ...US $ 15*00 International toll free order numbers from the USA and Canada: from USA 1-800-525-2167 from Canada 1-800-663-3940 other countrics 61*7-277-3255 within Australia (07) 277-3255 FAX 61-7-277-8473 ii it orci Circle 137 on Reader Service card.
END Wait:; PROCEDURE Opened (TimerRepiyPortPtr: Ports.MsgPortPtr) : HandleTYPE; VAR Error: LONGINT; TinerKar.die: HandleTYPE; ? InerKandle:~ IGDevicesUcil.CreateExt.IO (TimerReplyPortPtr’', TSIZE (TimerDevice.timerequest) ) ; Assert(TinerHandie 9 NIL,"Timer","Alloc and Init","Allocated anale"); Srrror;s IGDevicas-OpenDevice (ADR(TimerDevice, TinerName), TimerDevice,UnitVBlank, Tir,erHandie, ODJ; Assert (Error = QD, "Timer", "Open Device", "Opened device"); RETURN TimerHandle; END Opened; PROCEDURE SendRecuest (VAR TimerHandle: HandleTYPE; IgnoreReturnedLQNGINT: LONGINT; Assert (TimerHandle I
HandleNIL, "Timer", "AbortRequest", "Open handle in use."); IgnoreReturnedL0NGINT:= lODevices.AbortlO(TimerHandle) ; Lists.Remove(TimerHandle*.trnode.ioMessage.mnNoce); END AbortRequest; PROCEDURE TimeIntervalComplete(VAR TinerHandle; HandleTYPE): BOOLEAN; BEGIN Assert (TimerHandle HandleNIL, "Timer", "TinelntervalCompiete", "Open handle in use,"); IF ICDevices.Check 10(TimerHandle) & NIL THEN Lists .Remove (TimerHandle".trnode.ioMessage. mr.Node); RETURN TRUE; ELSE RETURN FALSE; END; END TimeInterva1Complete; PROCEDURE ThislsTheTimerMessage (VAR TinorHandle: HandleTYPE; VAR Message:
Ports.Message): BOOLEAN; BEGIN Assert (TimerHandle I HandleNIL, "ThisIsTheTime rMess age", "Open handle in use."); RETURN (’ TRUE IF ¦) TimerHandle = ADR(Message); END ThisIsTheTimerKessage; PROCEDURE Close(VAR TimerHandle; HandleTYPE); BEGIN Assert (TimerHandle ft HandleNIL, "Timer", "Close", "Ope” handle in use."); IODevi.ces.CloseDevi.ee(Tir.erHandie); :ODevicisUti: .DeieceExtIO (TltiierHandle); Tirr.erKandie: = HandleMIL; EMD Close; 3EGI !i HandleKXL; MIL; END Timer.
- Vs with any real Modula-2 software project, the timer
implementation depends on a variety of other modules. Some of
these modules are library modules that are delivered with the
Benchmark Modula-2 compiler used for this project. Others are
general purpose modules which I have created to help with the
process of constructing reliable programs. In the case of tire
above module, the modules which it uses that 1 have created are
MessageUtil and Termination. Messaget til simplifies some
aspects of message passing. For instance, its WaitMsg procedure
compresses the usual: Message?!r: = Ports .WaitPojrt
ImessagePcri); Message?tr:= Ports.GetKsg(KessagePort: ; into
KessagePtr:= MessageUtil.Wai.tMsg MessaaePort); The Termination
module is used to allow separately compiled modules to properly
free up resources on task termination due to normal
circumstance or error. The Assert procedure checks tire
condition of its first parameter, and if the value of that
expression is FALSE, then the calling task is terminated with a
message. Before termination of the task, a list of procedures
registered by various library modules and the task body are
Generally, these procedures have the responsibility for freeing the resources dynAMIGAlly allocated by the module from which they were registered.
The Termination module is only used to handle the error case in this Timer module. The TestTimer main module will also use Termination to handle the normal termination of die program.
Thanks to die modularity of Modula-2 programs, it is not necessary to look fuither into these modules. Instead, turn your attention to the implementation of Timer, above.
The OpenedQ procedure returns a HandleTYPE pointer. In the current implementation, this is merely a pointer to a conventional Amiga timer device timer request block. However, a future implementation might add other components to the handle, such as a flag to indicate whether tiie handle timer request is currently sent out on a request to the timer device. Such a flag could allow die programmer to worry less about whether a program might attempt to send out a timer request more than once with the same handle before the timer device has replied to an earlier request, since it would allow the
Timer module procedures to trap and respond appropriately to such inappropriate behavior. All programs using the Timer module would benefit from such a Professional Quality Full Color Video Digitizing Pro-Res Still Video Interface
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Change, but none would have to be changed to take advantage of it. The client modules would only need to be relinked with die modified Timer module to use such improvements.
The OpenedO procedure checks that the handle object has been allocated, and if it has not, the program is aborted. This prevents the client module from having to deal with such an error which we hope will be rare.
Then die handle object is initialized via OpenDeviceO- If the device cannot be opened, the program is terminated. Note that the Timer module uses die Vblank timer, which operares in increments of l 60th of a second. A later version of this module might use the higher resolution timer. Again, such a change would be invisible to the client modules, due to the nature of modules.
Then the handle can be closed using CloseO; at that point, all resources are returned to the system. Note dial the message port for replies from the timer device is not deleted. This is the responsibility of the calling module.
Also note that there is an attempt at protection, everywhere in this implementation, against using an uninitialized or closed handle. For now. Timer depends on the programmer to ensure that an unopened handle is initialized to HandleNIL. A more sophisticated module might take care of this problem in one fashion or another, although such a solution is not easy.
Note how WaitO is built on the OpenO and SendRequestO procedures. Since it uses a private unnamed message port, WaitO just uses WaitMsgO to determine when the time interval is F-BASIC 3.0 SHIPPING NOW The reviewers have labeled F-BASIC: The FASTEST Growing FASTEST Performing AMIGA Language Beats C And Other Basics!
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Complete, rather than using the TimelntervalCompleteO and die ThisIsTheTimerMessageO procedures.
The otlier procedures are trivial. They mostly use the standard Amiga device communication routines, but their inclusion in this module takes a load, particularly that of error checking, off the logic of the client module.
And now, a test program, to verify that this library module works: MODULE Te = ;T IMPORT Ar.igaDOS?rocess InOut, Tasks, Ti.net, Termination; FROM Termination IMPORT NormalTerraination; CONST Self = NIL; VAR MessagePtr: Ports.KessagePtr; PricessPtr: A-T.icaDCSProcess .PricessPtr; TaskPtr: Tasks.TaskPtr; TinerHandie: Timer. Har.dieTTPE; XBSSSL Beginner Can Immediately Use F-BASIC
* An Expert Can NEVER Oulgrow F-BASIC F-BASIC 3.0 With User's
Manual & Sample Programs Disk Only S9935 F-BASIC 3.0 With
Complete Source Level DeBugger-OnlyS159S5 F-BASIC is Available
Only From: DELPHI NOETIC SYSTEMS, INC. Post Ott-ce Box 7722
Rapid Oty. SD 5 7 709-7722 Send Checker Money Order, or Write
For In'o Credn Cardof COD. Call (& 5| 3-iB 0791 AmlQ* i? S r*g
o' Conmpipfjre,AMIGA ir*t Timer. SendP.equest (TimerHandle,
0,0,20,0); Report ;"Timer request sent. Loop begins."); WHILE
NOT Tiner. Time Ir.tervalConsplete (TimerHandle,
TimerReply?artPtr) DC END; Report("Loop completed.");
Timer.Close(Timer.Handle); Report("Testing 10 second wait");
Timer.Wait (0,0,10, 0) ; Report("Back from wait");
NormalTermination; END TestTimer.
Note die termination procedure Terminate. This procedure checks to see if the TimerHandle is Tinier.I-IandleNTL, and if it is not.
The TimerHandle is assumed to be opened, and it is closed as part of the termination ritual.
Terminate is called by NomialTerraination, part of the Termination module from which Assert is imported. Like Assert, it calls all of the registered termination procedures to free resources allocated by eadi module.
Note that this test program does not verily that die request can be aborted. It does, however, verify the major features of die Timer module. If the capabilities of the module are increased, tests of the new capabilities can be added.
CONCLUSION ModuLa-2's library modules make it easy to codify the handling of devices and other complex hardware and software resources. In this case, timer handling and dealing with errors in the process of communicating with the timer device are hidden in the implementation of the module. The implementation is available to die programmer for improvement without change to die client modules.
Some of the choices of what services to offer, and in what way to present them are arbitrary. They will depend on tlie envisioned applications of the library module. Some of diose choices may prove to be wrong and may need to be changed as the module evolves. Of course, no programmer can anticipate everything. At least Modula-2 makes these changes fairly easv to realize.
• AC- TimerRepLyPort ?t r: Ports.MsgPortPtr; PROCEDURE
Report(Message: ARRAY OF CHAR); BEGIN
InOut.WriteString(Message); InOut.WritcLn; END Report;
PROCEDURE Terminate; BEGIN IF TimerHandle 1 Timer.HandleNIL
THEN Timer.Close(TimerHandlei; END; END Termninate; BEGIN
TimerHancle : - Timer .Har.dieNIL;
Termination.RegisterFrocedure(Terminate! ; TaskPtr:=
- rotessPtr: = AaigaDOSProcess .ProcessPtr (TaskPtr'. TcUserDsta!
; TimerReplyPortPtr:=
Pcrts.MsgPortPtr(ADR(Process?trA.prMsgPort)); TimerHandle :=
Timer .Opened (TimerReplyPortPtr) ; Report(“Ti by R. Bradley
noted here in regard to two new European imports from Elec
tronic Arts. In the past they have often taken much time and
effort to repackage games in "U.S.” boxes with new manuals.
This time, they decided to keep the original European packaging. It may not seem like a benefit at all, but in avoiding die delays and costs often associated with bringing European-born games over here, we should find more good games on our shelves sooner. And that's the good news!
TURBO OUTRUN First this month is Turbo Outrun, a sequel to Sega's original Out Run. Both games have enjoyed success as coin-op games. In the Amiga version of Turbo Outrun, you control a high-performance Porsche 959 in a race from New York to California. This is basically a race against the clock, with a few twists. Every fourth city you pass through features a special pit stop were you can add one of three options to your car: high-grip tires, a special turbo, and a high-speed engine. Each is useful for a specific part of the race, and can give you that extra edge you need to come out on top.
The graphics are drawn well, though they fall short of the arcade version. Along die route, the scenery changes based on your current locale, as well as the current weather conditions. The sound is standard the kind you would expect to hear in a racing game.
Turbo Outrun does have some of the same control problems found in other racing games. However, if you typically enjoy racing games, you should like this one.
HEATWAVE HeatWave, from Accolade, is a different son of game. It takes you from land to water and puts you in charge ofoneoffour of the most powerful racing boats in use today, in both fresh and salt water courses diroughout tile US. The focus inHeatWave is water speed. Of course, the first one through the course wins. But the game is not that simple. Just as in car races, parts break down and must be fixed during die races. But the only pit stop is at the start of the race, and your boat must be loaded with all the supplies it will need duriugihe race. Since space and weight is limited on
board, care must be taken to pick die best load for the race at hand.
The graphics are comparable to many flight simulators and use filled polygons for all shapes on die screen. While fairly simple, they do have a certain flair to them, and they are pleasing to look at. The sound is up to die task and helps get players into the feel of power boat racing.
During a race, die screen is filled with dials and knobs that provide feedback on the status of your vehicle. But the largest single portion of the screen is taken up with the main view display. As you might expect, this can be either a view over tiie bow of the vessel, or from a theoretical chase helicopter above and behind the boat, as is common with most flight simulators.
But all is not rosy. As with many racing games, the ship is very hard to control. Small movements of die joystick cause wide variations in die boat's course.
Even using the keyboard does not help that much, since each turn step represents a fairly large change in direction.
These problems make it very hard to successfully complete a course. Not only did I continually find myself going the exact opposite direction of my intended course due to steering difficulties; nearly every attempt ended with my boat crashing into the shore and exploding.
The trailing view does allow for a little better judgement of the exact location of die shore, but proper navigation is still too difficult to achieve for my tastes. An overhead map is available at any time during play, but you cannot control the ship from here.
The designers spent too much time on making the explosions clever and not enough on making the boat easy to control.
Avoid this one unless you enjoy watching ships explode.
HARDBALL II Hardball II continues anodier series by Accolade. It combines elements of action and strategy to make for an interesting baseball game.
AUTO part; Hardball II does a good job of covering all die various elements of baseball.
You have direct control over the actions of each of the players on your team. While this control usually focuses on either the pitcher or the catcher, a complete game finds the player controlling all nine positions. Eidier the keyboard or a joystick can be used for control, but the keyboard is somewhat more flexible. Unlike Eleat Wave, the controls actually work fairly well, and true mastery of die game is possible. Given the at times complex nature of the game of baseball, and the wide range of possible actions, it will take some practice.
The graphics in Hardball II are very nice. Three different views are available during play. Overhead provides the least amount of detail, but shows die entire playing field at once. The views from the pitcher and die hitter show nicely rendered three-dimensional views from each of the respecuve posidons. The graphics are clear and attractively drawn, at a fairly quick speed.
Several teams are included on the disk for use during games. An editor allows the creation and editing of your own teams, so you can input any club directly from the sports page, or from a baseball yearbook.
(Accolade did this, rather than include actual teams, to avoid paying die licensing fees Major League Baseball and the Player's Association demand for the use of real team and player names.) Games can also be linked together to form an entire season.
I once had a roommate who loved Mi- croLeague Baseball II because of its statistical detail, and I am sure he would love diis game as well. If you are a fan of the great .American summer pastime, this game is sure to provide you with many hours of year-round entertainment.
D. R.A.G.O.N. FORCE Next is another recent release for die Amiga
from Interstel. In D.R.A.G.O.N. Force, the nations of the
world have finally tired of terrorism and have putto- gedier
an elite team of counterterrorists to instantly strike against
this menace wherever it arises.
You act as controller of this powerful force. Seven of the fourteen members of the team can be used on each of the twelve included missions. While the goals of different missions might be better served by using different team members, you will likely use die same core group on each mission. Good performance during a mission, along with a lot of contact with the enemy, will improve your group members’ statistics, and make them even better the next time.
Once you pick seven team members to send on the mission, you must then outfit them with equipment. The equip- ment is free, but since each team 1 member can only carry so much weight, you must balance the armament capabilities of your group. Once you have chosen your equipment, the action be- gins. Each scenario begins after die team has been brought to the =• drop zone. They must earn" out the mission, usually eliminating opponents or destroying build- ings, and then make their way to the pickup zone before time runs out. The action itself is broken into a series of action phases. The player
decides die actions each member will take throughout the turn, and then movement and fire is acted out. This process is repeated until time runs out, or the team leaves on the pickup helicopter.
The graphics are OK. The close-up graphics use die pseudo-three-dimen- sional look I personally like, but Interstel could probably have done better. Sounds are used when shots are fired, demo charges are blown, tanks move, etc. These are well done and fit in nicely with the game background.
The game does lack real punch. The twelve included missions provide good initial entertainment, but once they are done, there is nothing more to do. The game could really have used a scenario editor. And character advancement is very minimal; playing tlirough all the scenarios only develops each character slightly as compared to what one might expect their eventual fighting potential to be. The phased movement also gets in tire way of play. It is really tedious to have to move all die forces one by one, each phase. While a move-to command is included to allow a movement command to carry over
between several phases, it is impossible to enter more than five steps of an elaborate move, requiring you to input new orders each phase if you wish to do anything except move from point A to point B. The first game to look at the same subject man-to-man combat with a smoother interface and ideally free-flowing action will gee my vote. Unless you are really into tactical games, avoid this one.
WELLTRIS The Soviet Union is getting lots of positive press nowadays, and its pervasiveness in the media has been matched in the game field. Nearly everyone has heard of Tetris, especially since it iias been translated to the Nintendo. Not content to settle for just one hit, Spectrum Holobyte has teamed up with designer Alexey Pajitnov to bring a similar game to the US.
Welltris is kind of like three-dimensional Tetris, But instead of dropping pieces down a three-dimensional well as one Tetris-like competitor does, Welltris drops die pieces down one ofthe four sides of a square-shaped well. Once they hit the bottom, the pieces slide until they are stopped by a previously dropped square, or they hit the opposite wall. The pieces can be rotated as in the original Tetris, but they can also be moved around from wall to wall, provided you have time before they hit the bottom.
When a horizontal or vertical row is filled, it is removed, and all the pieces to one side slide toward tire center of the bottom area. The goal is to get all the pieces, in one form or another, completely into the bottom area of the well. Whenever part of a falling piece remains on the side wall after it has stopped falling, that wall is marked out and cannot be used for a short period of time. The game ends when all four walls are blocked out. The game's graphics are rather simple but adequate for play. And just as in Tetris, each play level features its own detailed image of life in the
Soviet Union. Sound is simple, too, but works well, and (of course) the pace quickens as you go up in levels.
While I found the game interesting for a bit, it didn't keep my attention for hours on end, as did Tetris. Try it out in the store first to see whether or not it is a “must have" for your game collection.
WATERLOO Waterloo is a wargame like no other.
Originally developed by PSS in Europe, it has been imported by SSI to add to their well-known line of wargames.
As nearly every student knows, Waterloo was Napoleon's final battle, his military genius finally done in by the Duke of Wellington. Not only does the game cover a subject virtually ignored till now, it does so in a truly unique fashion.
Most wargames display an overhead view of the battlefield, as players move around each of the forces on their side with complete control. But not Waterloo. Its views are those seen through the eyes of the commanders (Napoleon or Wellington), from each of their actual locations on tlie battlefield.
Instead of directly controlling his units, each of the opposing commanders must send orders to his subordinates via messengers. Once an order is decided on, it takes a little bit of time before a courier can deliver the order, and for it to be carried out in battle. Even then, the commander receiving the order will act on it in his own way, possibly even ignoring it altogether, if local conditions lead him to do so.
The game covers just this one battle, from sunrise to sunset on that fateful day.
While a day may seem like a short period of time, the game is carried out in fifteen minute intervals, so an entire game does last a long time. Entering the orders can be a bit of a problem. Only eight orders can be input in each segment, a minor annoyance, but not too much of a problem. The really annoying part is drat the orders themselves must be entered in a structured English form similar to that used by most text- adventure games. Yes, it helps if you know your commanders, as well as the landscape, by name.
However, I have never really liked text parsers. Some form of reverse parser, using icons or menus for each of die available options at each stage of order construction, would have been much easier to use.
Each three-dimensional view does take a while to draw, but it is crisply rendered and gives a good feel for warfare in the Napoleonic Era. Three-dimensional boxes represent groups of soldiers on the battlefield; they are reminiscent of the imagery used by many tabletop wargames.
Overall, I found this game’s graphics and unique approach refreshing, and you should definitely check it out if you are into war- games. Unfortunately, the failure of the designers to include a more .simplified interface to control action will probably keep it from most non-wargame players.
PIRATES I have saved die best for last this month. Microprose has just released their popular game Pirates for the Amiga.
Players begin as young ship captains in their quests for fame and fortune during die “Golden Age of Piracy'”. Each player stans the game working for one of four major powers, having free reign to loot and pillage the forces of whatever countries his host is currendy at war with. Pirates has bodi the tactical and strategic elements found in nearly all Microprose offerings.
The main goal is to accumulate personal wealth, including gold, lands, and even a wife of high standing. To do this, a player must successfully captain his crew through a series of missions. All game action takes place in the Caribbean. Players begin in port at one of the colonies of their chosen country, but they have nearly complete freedom in deciding where to go from there. Visits to the governor will update the player on which countries are currently fair game. Governors also occasionally ask personal favors, such as delivering a letter to an undercover relative in an opponent's
port. These may not bring in much gold, but they do earn the respect of die Governor, and often bring land grants and increases in stature to the successful captain. Booty can be acquired in several ways; it is then sold to merchants, with the proceeds divvied up among crew members. The captain gets a lion's share.
Any ship encountered on die high seas that is defeated and successfully boarded will mm over all its cargo. Captured ships can either be added to die captain's fleet or sunk, depending on the size of the fleet and its cargo storage needs. Enemy ports are like super-rich ships, and can prove quite lucrative to any captain diat makes it past the defending forts to defeat any such garrison.
The keyboard, the mouse, and die joystick can all be used for control during play. I found that the mouse works best most of die time, diougli the joystick was most useful during die dueling segment.
Several tactical action segments are repeated throughout play.
(continued on page 95) Voice- Controlled Joystick by John Iovine RADIO SHACK HAS RELEASED A SPEECH RECOGNITION CHIP, THE VCP20Q. ALTHOUGH the chip has a limited vocabulary, it is sufficient for a joystick controller.
Voice recognition is a trendy topic. Computer scientists have worked on various algorithms for years. Neural networks recently stepped into the fray, also, with limited success.
Some approaches to voice recognition are more successful than others. We will examine one method, the speaker-independent.
SPEAKER-INDEPENDENT The VCP200 is a speaker-independent voice recognition integrated circuit. Speaker- independent means that regardless of who is speaking to the chip, the chip will recognize its commands. This is difficult to program since everyone doesritpronounce words exactly the same. Fortunately for us we don't have to do any programming. The VCP200 is already programmed to recognize a number of different commands. There is a trade off lor this convenience, most important is a limited vocabulary' that we cannot change. In addition this chip can be easily fooled by recognizing
non-command words for commands. This disadvantage, however, can be utilized to your advantage. I’ll go into this a little later.
Considered our voice recognition joystick a low-budget excursion into the world of voice recognition.
SPEAKER-DEPENDENT Speaker-dependent, in contrast, requires the user to train the computer or voice recognition circuit to recognize the user’s voice and commands. This is a more sophisticated approach, and with that lies some significant advantages. First, the commands are usually programmed by the user. Second, the command vocabulary' is possibly much larger. Finally, speech recognition is fairly accurate for the user. I plan to design a speaker-dependent system in the fuiure.
VCP200 The VCP200 has two recognition modes: the Command Mode and the Yes-No On-Off mode. The Mode of the chip is determined by the voltage on pin 19 of the VCP200, By bringing pin 19 low, the Command Mode is enabled. Bringing pin 19 high enables the Yes- Xo On-Off mode.
We will lie using the Command mode. (See table for command summary and chip pinout Fig. 1.)
VCP200 3in 4 Movement ' Cmd. Mode ' Yes-No On- Off Mode 1 Up Go Yes or On 2 Down Reverse No or Off 3 Left Left Turn A Right Turn Right 6 Fire Stop CHIP OPERATION The literature that comes with i he chip describes the VCP200's basic recognition operation. The chip performs a spectral analysis of the incoming audit»signal from 300 Hz thru 5500 Hz. From this analysis it determines the phoneme classes and srcires it in a string, Then it compares this phoneme string with phoneme strings it Iras stored on board. When it finds a match (recognition) it enables that control pin.
This is an interesting feat because this is all happening in real time.
My guess is that this chip is using a circulating serial register on the input, although that kind of information hasn't heen given.
CIRCUIT OPERA TION The circuit (see Fig, 2) is very similarto tire user schematic that comes wirh the chip. I made minor changes to some component values. Although these changes are minor there are significant when interfacing into dre computer joystick port. It appears that the computer generates sufficient RF to jam the circuit. By adding cap.
C-Yf 220 pf we can minimize this interference and obtain reliable operation.
In addition I changed the LED’s to subminiatures and increased the resistance of the current limiting resistor to minimize J ' I 2 71 3 ?
B* 5 6 3 7 T. -1 O "0 ro o o ly«No, OfOtr Motto XTAi exT«.
Ground Kjoo In GaJtoO
1. R ":V*s On
* J Lwl Turn 3p MC.
L Chip Pin Out VCP 200 FIG. A the current draw on the port. Remember you can only draw 100 nra. Max per joys- tick-port. The LED's are not essential for proper circuit operation. 1 left them in for visual indication. You will find tire visual indication very helpful when you first start using the circuit.
An on-off switch is essential, this is tied into tire +5 volt line. Without this switch you may encounter keyboard problems.
Keep the switch in an off position when powering up the computer and for all norma! Operations. To use tire circuit first load your test program or game and start it running before you turn on the circuit. Afterwards when you’re ready it) quit, turn off the circuit before you end the program.
Normal joystick operation is available with the circuit on or off. When it is on however you have visual indication via tire LED's of the relative position of tire joystick.
TRY-OUT When you have completed the circuit and have it installed, you do not need to load a joystick program to test tire circuit.
You can use die LED indicator lights. The LED connected to the command pin (see We trust you have found this issue of AC to be extremely informative and helpful in your pursuit of excellence in the design, rendering and use of Amiga graphics.
Space limitations prevent us from discussing all your graphics options here; in fact, no monthly publication has the time or space) to detail every product in the Amiga market, or even the products within a single subsection of that market.
Want to Learn Even More About Graphic Arts Products?
It’s All in AC’s Guide To The Commodore AmigdlU Published 3 times yearly, AC!s Guide is the BUT there is ONE publication that has both the time and the space to present complete descriptions of EVERY commercial and public domain Amiga product (graphics or otherwise)!
Ultimate one-stop reference for Amiga specialists like YOU! It’s the only place where you can compare one product to another, feature-by- feature, at just a glance but you’ll want to spend hours with your copy of AC’s Guidel Check out the Graphic Arts section in AC's Guide - Spring Summer ’90. You’ll find 3-D rendering, modelling, and animation packages; ray-tracing, painting, and basic animation programs; CAD systems, object editors, clip art, fonts, utilities, tutorials EVERYTHING YOU NEED to make your graphics look just like the pros’!
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Pin ou: of VCP200) will light when it recognizes that command.
If you encounter problems try holding the microphone closer to your mouth and speak directly into it. Try all the commands, to check if your encountering a problem with just one or two commands.
Also if you’re in a high noise area, that could prevent the chip from responding. In general the quieter the area the better. If all fails recheck your wiring.
GOING FURTHER The literature with the chip describes a simple latching circuit that can be added to this circuit. The latching will enable you to hold die Go and Reverse with either the Left Turn or Turn Right. This would be the same as holding your joystick in an up diagonal or down diagonal position.
If you do decide to add this I’d advise you to watch your current draw from the joystick port, keep it under the 100 ma.
Max. As I stated before, the chip can easily be fooled with non-command words. With a little forethought and testing you should be able to derive your own vocabulary' for die chip. Start with homonyms, words that sound like the command word. Such as release, rehearse, remorse for the command word reverse.
You can increase the effective range ol your microphone by increasing the resistance of the resistors R4 and R7 to 470k.
This may increase the amount of static you pick up and diat could render the circuit inoperative, but you may want to give it a tnc You also might invest in one of those headphone microphone combinations, that would keep the microphone a few inches away from your moudi.
OTHER CIRCUITS You could use this circuit as the front end to some other interesting projects. I wouldn’t advise putting this on a model electric car as a substitute for Radio-Control. I could easily envision someone running after the car yelling Stop!! Stop!! The effective range of die microphone is pretty limited.
But a voice-controlled wheelchair for the handicapped is an excellent application worth pursuing.
Parts List see schematic (Xta!)
1C pf c2 A7 pf (max) c5 270 pf c3,c4,el2 .01 uf c6, c7. Cl 1 1 uf cl .22uF r2, rS lk rl.rlS
2. 2k rlO. Rl 1 5 6k r3, r6, rl3. Rid, U6 10k rf 16k rl 2 100k
r4.r7 330k [& 10 meg LM324 Quad op-amp RS 276-1711 VCP200 RS
276-130S Electret Microphone RS 270-092 LEDs RS 276-026 XTAL
10 MHZ * 9 pin male RS 276-1427 9 pin female RS 276-1428 10
Mhz crystal can be special ordered from loca!
Radio Shack store. Or from Mauser Electronics 1-800-346-6873 PM ME332-1100 . Qm decisions about where to save files or requiring manual switching of directories via tire file requester for each different type of file used.
(3-D Pro, continued from page 49) Speaking of animation, Progressive has included Animation Station, a powerful and versatile ANIM file editor, also available separately. Animation Station is a storyboard-based editor, giving you an optional comic-strip-like display of all frames in miniature. You can move, copy, insert, and delete frames and ranges, reverse ranges of frames, and effect frame-by-frame palette and timing changes. You can save all or selected frames as IFF images, or convert a sequence of IFF pictures into an animation. Special effects include halving or quartering the size of
all or selected frames with placement anywhere on the screen, flipping, motion blur, and scrolling. And that’s not till by any means.
Once you start using Animation Station you'll find uses for it you might never have dreamed of it's that great.
By Frank McMahon All in all, the 3-D Professional package is most impressive. Despite the fairly high cost, I recommend it highly to all Amiga users interested in three- dimensional graphics and animation. Its ease of use and extensive tutorial material make it especially ideal for beginners.
The extraordinary amount of detail that went into its design marks 3-D Professional as a program with a long life both behind and ahead of it indeed, it was three years in the making.
• AO 3-D Professional Price: $ 499.95 Progressive Peripherals &
Software 464 Kalamath Street Denver, CO 80204
(303) 893-6938 Inquiry 221 AT WCTV, THE CABLE TELEVISION station
in Rhode Island where I work as Production Supervisor,
we've used a number of products produced by Progressive
Peripherals & Software. From the FrameGrabber digitizer to
the ProGen genlock to CLLMate, Progressive has consistently
put out quality products. So I must admit I was more than a
little anxious pending the release of 3-D Professional.
We’ve always used Sculpt- Animate 4-D for all our 3-D
Sculpt has advantages such as ease of use and quality output, but falls short in lack of textures and poor lighting control. Also tire fact that Byte by Byte no longer supports the series and has instead decided to concentrate on the Mac hasn’t helped either. Good software needs to be constantly updated and revised and Sculpt-Animate 4D has been in a holding pattern for about a year now. While I’ve used Turbo Silver on occasions, its complex interface and features demand more of a learning curve than we currently have time to devote. (This hopefully will be cured with Impulse’s Imagine.)
However, there is no denying the knock-outray traces thatTurbo Silver is capable of producing.
So is 3-D Professional the answer to our TV needs? Well the answer to that requires knowledge of what exactly our demands are on a daily basis. We do need a quick and easy way to produce 3-D graphics and animations on a weekly schedule. 3-D Professional's interface is built for speed. It’s easy to get around in, and quite logical in orientation.
One of the things we do most in 3- D is create logos. We output them to our Mimetics FrameBuffer in 24-bit mode and record them to 3 4 tape. To test out the program I tried several different logos that had been predesigned using Sculpt 4D. 3-D Professional will load many formats of 3-D objects, everything from Videoscape 3D (GEO) to Forms in Flight to Turbo Silver to 3Demon. This makes it easy to not only use preexisting objects and scenes you currently have, but to take advantage of tire many object and data disks currently on the Amiga market. The objects I imported from Sculpt 4D also
brought in their own 24- bit color information which is passed on to 3-D Professional. 3-D Professional handles color as “direct” and “indirect”.
The “direct'' color of each object (from a palette of 16 million) is transferred, and the “indirect” color (from die Amiga’s standard 4096) is matched to the closest color in tire standard palette, so 1 can render in true color in either 24-bit or any of the standard Amiga bitpianes.
Also, in most of the different formats tire properties of tire object (metal, shiny, dull) are also transferred in to the program. Sculpt textures work out OK (although Glass2 “true glass” does not seem to be supported), however Turbo Silver users will find, due to the infinite amount of textures possible, that their surface settings will be stripped once the Turbo object is loaded in. However, most of the textures can be easily set once the object is loaded in using standard numerical sliders to which Turbo users are accustomed.
It should also be noted that 3-D Professional does not save in either Turbo SilverorSculpt format. The reason is. Once an object begins loading. 3-D Professional doubles the object's polygons to conform to its object standards and to avoid potentially hidden surface problems I found out after 1 began importing logos that this can make for some really complex objects. This procedure is really only needed if you are using “smoothing” however, so if an object is made of hard edges it is not really a concern. The logos can be loaded in 2-D and extruded from within the program, which helps keep
down the polygon count. The program currently does not have true anti-aliasing, which is hopefully in the works for the next update. Because we render to a 24- bit board, which uses the highest Amiga resolution (746 x 484). Tire smoothing calculation is not usually needed.
However anti-aliasing in 24-bit (as in Sculpt 4-D) works magnificently when rendering because it has so many colors to work with. .Anti-aliasing usually is needed more in HAM mode.
Creating logos has proved to be quite easy in 3-D Professional. A text creation tool is provided which allows you to select any Amiga-compatible font and just type in what you want to say.
Justification and point size, as well as style, can all be set. Some logos we produce are variations on existing fonts, so being able to load in the original and alter it in 3-D is a big plus. 3-D Professional also converts any brush to a 3-D object, so 3-D Professional even allows for the import of Deluxe Paint II! Objects! The only drawback is that each pixel is converted to a four-vertex polygon.
This seems a bit too much calculating sometimes so it's best to keep the brushes small. At the station, we always need to render and produce as quickly as possible, so we run 3-D Professional on our 2300 30 with 5 meg.
Once I create a logo, the first thing ! Usually do is test out the different textures. This is where Sculpt 4-D gets left in the dust. 3-D Professional comes with several built-in textures which allow’ hundreds of different combinations by changing the colors, shape of the texture, thickness of texture or lines, transparency, roughness, refraction, reflection, specular reflection, glossiness, and more.
Using our Mimetic® FrameBuffer board we can take advantage of the ability to choose any of 16 million colors, since 3-D Professional's texture window has color sliders that allow the user to set 255 shades of red, green, and blue rather than the standard Amiga sliders which jump 7ib from one color to the next.
In the past week I've rendered several different textured objects and have had excellent results. Favorites include marble, brick, and terrain.
Terrain is actually meant to shade (using 4 base colors) from top to bottom a landscape (which 3-D Professional also generates effortlessly): white snow caps, brown mountains, green valleys, and blue lakes. However all colors are adjustable and I’ve been usingTerrain lor anything but land scenes.
By using combinations of green and red and purple, for example, I’ve been able to come up with dazzling multi-colored objects. Chrome sheens and glints of light across a roll of columns are rendered perfectly and look startling in 2-i-bit mode. This sort of multi-colored rendering is used constantly at high end 3-D houses. One thing about the many different textures is that they are tnie textures, which may cause problems during animations. Instead of the program wrapping a concrete texture on a brick, for example, it actually ‘ carves” a brick out of a concrete universe, like a cookie cutter.
The result is amazingly realistic and there is no problem panning a camera around it during an animation.
However if your camera is fixed and your object is set in motion, your object will swim” through the textured universe and the surface of the object will constantly change. This may make for some excellent special effects but is not practical for most situations. Marble is another texture I have used quite a bit.
For my money, there is nothing more professional than a l6-million-color image cast in STONE. The classy appearance of marble cannot be beat; even if die logo or title I’m producing is not made of marble, I always try to include at least a marble platform or a row of marbled balls. Different colors can be used which can simulate any kind of stone. The other day I created a killer emerald tablet. Bricks are fun too, and being able to adjust the roughness of the surface makes for some realistic-iooking brick walls.
After using 3-D Professional in the studio, I’m convinced it’s going to be a big part of our graphics future. We've always hoped a 3-D program would come along that would produce outstanding results with an easy-to-use interface. 3-D Professional is it. It reminds me of Deluxe Paint 111 a LOT. Easy and fun to use; and the more you experiment and try combinations of different commands, the more impressive results you can achieve.
Whether you are planning to purchase 3-D Pro for use at a television station, or just for home use. There is one piece ofhardware that is a must-have: the Mimetics FrameBuffer.
Since we purchased the FrameBuffer late last year, we've used it constantly with Sculpt 4-D, and now with 3-D Professional. 3-D Professional fully supports the FrameBuffer. It's even on the output menu.
The Mimetics board includes a video-in and video-out and allows your Amiga to display renderings of up to 16- million colors in hi-res interlace overscan. Words cannot describe the difference that this board makes to producing quality 3-D renderings. The output is stunning, to say the least. What's best is that the Mimetics FrameBuffer board is very low in price (approximately S500-S600), and is easily installed. For the Amiga to compete in the television graphics world, 32 colors, or even 4096 colors, just isn't going to cut it. If you are serious about 3-D graphics, this board is a must.
And 3-D Professional is a must. At our studio I've used it to produce some excellent graphics and animations quickly and easily. This is not tire kind of program that bogs you down in numbers, options, and commands. Its raw power is pumping below its well thought-out and designed user interface. 3-D Pro makes creating 3-D output is a breeze. Given the hectic nature of television, it's exactly what we need.
• HARMONY* by Joe DiCara By definition, harmony is the peaceful
coexistence between two or more objects or entities. That's
simple enough, but ihe actions necessary to obtain a state of
harmony are at times complex and contradictory. So too is
the game of Harmony. This game is in die same category as
Shanghai, Tetris, and Kikugi: a strategy puzzle. At first
glance these games seem extremely simple, even childish. Yet
upon closer examination and involvement they become complex
and very challenging, even diabolical. How can this be? Because
they devour large quantities of your time. You know what I
mean, A game is started just to pass some lime while you wait
for a download to finish or that spreadsheet to print out.
What's the result7 The “just one more game" syndrome, that's
A POD IS BORN Accolade advertises Harmony as a game of challenge, that rewards a relaxed approach and a calm state of mind. The objective of the game is simple. You man- uever a spinning sphere around and among other colored spheres, nudging together any of similar color, thus establishing a state of Harmony. But, if you accidentally allow or cause two different colored spheres to come into contact, well as they say, your problems are just beginning. It seems when these two spheres touch, a third uniquely colored and smaller sphere, called a pod, is created. Now two things can happen.
First, if you manage to glide over this new pod your energy level is increased. But, if you ignore or can’t get to the pod soon enough (there might be other spheres, objects, or more pressing tasks at hand) it grows into a full sized sphere. To add to the pressure, as time passes die spheres begin to pulsate. If enough time passes they go completely bonkers and explode, which costs you energy. Simple huh? Relaxing even! Right.
Now to make things even more interesting some spheres are attached by an elastic cord. At first that seems like an advantage, but if you bump a sphere with too much force in the wrong direction, the cord jerks the attached spheres in directions you had not planned. The result -
• FUTURE WARS* Can You Save Humani ty?
By Miguel Mulet Life can be complicated, no matter what your profession, imagine a poor window washer, who one day tires of his task of cleaning the windows on a large skyscraper. Thus, the poor chap wanders into his boss’s office, and gets more titan he bargains for - a trip into the past, as well as into the future!
“Future Wars - Adventures in Time" is a new adventure game introduced in the United States by Interplay. Apparently, the game has won several awards in France (its country of origin), and after playing the game, it is probably deserving of these awards.
In “Future Wars”, you assume the role of die window washer, who really has no idea what the fuaire holds for him. (If you don’t want to spoil die plot, skip this paragraph and go on to the next one!) Our hero stumbles onto a time machine, which transports him into medieval times. While there, he learns of a race of aliens who plan to take over the Earth. The only way he can stop them, however, is to travel through time, destroying their plan before it is put into action.
Although the plot may sound farfetched, it remains fun and interesting throughout game play. All the graphics are well done, although some scenes occupy less than 1 4 of the screen. At first this seems strange, but it gives die player an idea of the scale of the w'orld surrounding him. The excellent graphics are accompanied by digitized sounds of everything from footsteps to machinery', so you may want to turn the volume up on your stereo. Speaking of stereo, there are several parts of the game featuring a stereo soundtrack, w'hich greatly enhances gameplay. (The box claims that die
complete musical score is available on compact disc, although there are no instructions on how' to order it).
Maneuvering through “Future Wars" is performed solely through the mouse - there is absolutely no typing involved. To move your character, ail you need to do is move the cursor to the location to which you w'ould like to go and push the left mouse button. The right mouse button serves to bring up your “ACTIVATION MENU”. This menu allows you to examine objects, take objects, use objects, and speak to other characters. You can also get an inventory of die objects you are carrying. The ‘‘OPERATE” command in this menu allows you to (Hannony continued) more pods. There can be as many as three or
four spheres joined by a cord, and at times even your own sphere might become attached. To further increase your gaming pleasure certain levels have barriers of different shapes and arrangements placed randomly on the playing field for you to manuever around. Again this all seems to be no big deal, but just try it - diabolical I tell you!
There are 50 screens presenting different combinations and variations of spheres and barriers to challenge and hopefully sooth your nerves. As you probably can imagine, most of the screens will take skill and much practice to clear successfully- within die allotted time.
Fortunately the timer that causes the spheres to pulsate can be shut off allowing the player all the time needed to plan moves and strategies. This mode, called Mantra, is relaxing, fun. And challenging.
.Anyone can eventually bring about the state of Harmony, but how many movements will it take?
Concerning game play there is very little to criticize or improve upon. The control of your sphere and its action on the wrap- around playfield does take some practice, but can be quickly mastered.
While graphics are in Amigas’ low resolution mode the program uses die complete 32 color palette to produce pleasing backgrounds and nicely textured spheres and objects. Music-like sound effects are well done and enhance game play-.
Harmony is not copy protected but herein lies the only complaint. Accolade has begun to use dark red paper code sheets (red because it can not be easily photo-copied). The program asks you to match an opening game screen with one printed on the code sheet. For most of their games the shapes or patterns of objects can be readily discerned. Unfortunately Harmony screens do not lend themselves well to this process. There are no colors to distinguish one screen and its objects from rhe next. St is very difficult to select the correct screen. This is not fatal, its just very annoying.
Harmony is a pleasant departure from the standard blast’em and smash'em stuff. So the next time you have a few minutes to kill fire up Harmony. Just don't get to upset with yourself when you can’t shut it off. Diabolical, simply diabolical.
• AC* The Game of Harmony Accolade 550 S. Winchester Blvd.
San Jose, CA 95128
(408) 727-0256 Price $ 44.95 Inquiry 218 (Future Wars continued)
operate almost anything operable on the screen. Instead
ol typing "Open door” you would select "OPERATE’' and then
move the cursor to die door and click with the left mouse
There is only one other menu, and it appears if you press both mouse buttons at one. This menu is the "USER MENU”. It allows you to restart the game, select the backup drive, and load or save a game. The game is paused any time you bring up either menu.
“Future Wars" is provided on two disks, which may be copied (the manual encourages you to play' from backup disks only). It will run on an Amiga 500, 1000, 2000, or 2500 with 512K and Kickstart 1.2 or above. A blank disk or hard drive is required. Copy protection is in the form of a color picture on the back of the 5 page manual. After the game is booted, a screen which is a black and white duplicate of the back of the manual appears, asking you to identify the color of the highlighted area. You are asked to do this twice, after which the game proceeds to boot. If you’re color blind, you may
have problems with this scheme.
“Future Wars” was moderately challenging, as wrell as fun to play. The player must look carefully at each scene, as some objects are only 1-2 pixels in size. Other objects only appear momentarily, and if you're not looking at the screen at that time, you’ll miss an important item. Although die plot was interesting and had several interesting puzzles, it only took about twelve hours to get through the entire game (and I consider myself an “average" adventurer).
Even though the game was short, I thoroughly enjoyed it and felt it was worth the price, “Future Wars" features good graphics, sound, and game play, combined with an entertaining plot. Interplay states that this is the first in a series of this type of adventure game, and hopefully its descendants will be even better.
• AC- Future Wars - Adventures in Time Interplay Productions 1575
Corporate Drive Costa Mesa, CA 92626
(714) 549-2411 Price: $ 49.95 Inquiry it 219 PRESENTING WORLD OF
IN CHICAGO ? Starring ?
Amiga Hardware • Amiga Software Amiga Accessories • Seminars • Bargains FOR MORE INFORMATION Call (416) 595-5906 Fax (416) 595-5093 Rosemont O’Hare Expo Center, Rosemont, Illinois October 5-7, 1990 Friday, Saturday & Sunday 10am-5pm Pre-registration: $ 8 per day or $ 20 for 3 days Deadline for pre-registration Sept. 18 Registration at show: $ 10 for 1 day $ 25 far 3 days Registration Includes exhibits and seminars.
WORLD OF AMIGA IN CHICAGO Other upcoming events produced by The Hunter Group include COMMODORE AMIGA USERS FAIR in Valley Forge. PA. September 15 and 16,1990, and WORLD OF COMMODORE AMIGA in Toronto, November 30 to December 2.1990. Programming in C on a Floppy System by Paul Miller A F YOU HAVE AN AMIGA SYSTEM WITH ONE OR TWO FLOPPY DRIVES AND ONE megabyte of RAM or more, and have considered programming in C, you may have been turned off by compiler requirements of two megabytes of RAM and or a hard drive. This is increasingly the case with today's newer (and larger) C compilers, such as
Lattice’s version
5. 04 system. The purpose of this article is to describe how the
one- or two-drive Amiga user with at least one megabyte of RAM
can begin developing programs in C. Yes even with a stock
Amiga 500 with the 512K RAM expander.
First, decide what compiler, text editor, and utilities you want to use in your development environment, and how you want to interact with it. For the purposes of this article, I am assuming an Amiga 1000 with 1,5 megabytes of RAM, Kickstart
1. 3. ARP 1.3. two drives, and Lattice C version 5.04. (This is
the system i currently use.) Modifications for smaller systems
will be detailed later.
Yes, tlie development system will be a four-disk setup.
Don’t be alarmed, chough! It's really not that bad. The first disk will be your boot disk, and will contain the compiler, linker, libraries, and some support DOS commands to get your environment up and running. I strongly suggest you use the ARP
1. 3 commands, as they are much smaller and provide greater
flexibility in file manipulation.! Have my Preferences set to
an interlaced screen (colors set to medium-green text on a
black background, with blue and orange highlight colors) too,
so 1 can have two full files displayed at once in my editor.
If you don't like the flicker, a non-interlace display should
be OK (and require about 32K less RAM; 1-megabyte users might
consider this).
The second disk (DISK 2) will hold all of the compiler header (include) files and your most-common DOS commands, such as your editor (I use DME vT.31. Fred Fish 16S- 1691 and any background programs you might want to use.
The third disk (DISK 3) will hold all of your source code, object modules, and compiled programs.
It's true where there is a RAM disk, there is a way.
The fourth disk is a RAM disk. (1 use the ASDG-rrd RAM disk, FF 241, because it adjusts its size according to how much is in it, rather than RAD; which is always a constant size, regardless of what's in it.) This is initialized with the first disk, and the contents of DISK 2 are placed here during the installation process. Furthermore, all of your source code editing and compiling will take place here. You'll have to get into the habit of copying your modified files back onto your source code disk before you power down!
1) Make a copy of an ARP 1,3 Workbench disk (a disk with all of
the ARP commands and library on it), and erase all of the
commands, libraries, devices, fonts, etc. you’ll never use.
Label this disk “Development” or the like.
2) Make an "LC directory on the disk and put your Lattice LC1,
LC2, and BLINK in it. Make a “LIB” directory and put
c. o, lc.lib, amiga.lib. and Icm.lib in it (plus any other
modules or libraries that you might use and can still squeeze
on there).
3) Type the startup-files (Listings 1 and 2) into the “s”
directory, omitting or altering things to your liking. If you
can t get a hold of the ReadKWIK and RiteKWlK programs,
you’ll have to use a “copy DISK2: ? To vdO: all” command in
place of tire reference to ReadKWIK. (This shareware program,
written by Gary Kemper of Tigress, bulk copies an entire disk
of files in a special format, and quickly.) In this case,
DISK2: would be the volume name of the disk containing the
headers and commands (see below').
4) Put the asdg.vdisk.device into your devs; directory and
modify' the Mountlist accordingly (I have my HighCyl value set
to 107, about 880K of RAM disk space; if you have under 1.5
megabytes of RAM, you'll want to use a smaller value here). If
you prefer a different RAM disk, make sure to change
references to this one accordingly.
1) Mount the RAM disk and create three directories in it; "c”,
“t”, and “include”. Copy your most commonly used DOS commands
into the “c” directory, including your text editor, background
programs, “LC” from the Lattice disks, and any scripts you
would prefer to run from RAM.
2) Copy the compiler header files from the Lattice disk into the
include directory. If you have only' 1 megabyte of RAM. Use
Lhe compressed headers only.
3) Use RiteKWlK (if you can find it) to copy the contents of your
RAM disk onto a blank disk (or use “copy vdO: to DISK2: all"
after formatting a disk and naming it “DISK2").
DISK 3: THE SOURCE CODE DISK Format a disk, and set it up to conveniently store your source code and object modules on it. For each large project I have a separate disk with directories labeled “Source”, “Object", and “Scripts”. In the scripts directory' 1 have a file called “Environment” that assigns all of my directories and sets up the environment for that particular project. For example, my "Environment” file assigns the device WORK: to the "Source” directory, OB: to die “Object" directory, PIC: to a “Pictures" directory (if a particular project requires them), etc. At the end of my
startup sequence is an Execute command that calls this script and automatically sets up the environment for any project I want to work on.
INSTALLING THE SYSTEM To start up y'our development system run, boot, tip widi DISK 1, and have DISK 2 in the second drive. If you only have one drive, and are using ReadKWIK, wait for it to pop up an "Incorrect Disk” requester, then replace DISK 1 with DISK 2 and dick “OK" (don’t forget to change the reference from drive 1 to drive 0 in the startup script). If you’re not using ReadKWIK, wait for an “Insert volume DISK2:” requester to appear. When the files from DISK 2 have been copied to RAM, remove DISK 2 and replace it with DISK 1 (Ton a one-floppy system, so the rest of the startup script
can continue) or DISK 3, in the external drive. Now you can gel to work.
; 1.3 Kickstart ; use FAST RAM ; your ; 1.3 ; make the Resident and ARP ;resident Listing 1: startup-sequence- Don't waste money, slots, or desk space buying extra IBM-compatible or Amiga (loppy drives! The Bridge Drive Commander+ gives you direct access to all your internal and external Amiga drives Irom the Bridgeboard, and direct access to IBM type 360K and 720K drives from AmigaDOS.
Bridge Drive Commander + is totally transparent and automatic. Put an IBM type disk in any drive and use it just like on any IBM compatible! Put in an Amiga disk and return to Amiga use! Just that simple, just that last! One drive can use Amiga disks at the same time another is using IBM- compatible disks. Disks are completely usable by other Amiga and IBM-compatible computers. Al! Hardware, no software drivers to load, no precious memory or expansion slots used up. Plugs onto motherboard at internal drive connector. (No soldering or wiring changes.) Compatible with all Bridgeboards (80B8,
80286), SideCar. All accelerator boards (any 6B0x0), hard disks and other hardware and software.
Bridge Drive Commander-t- .S 97.50 MJ SYSTEMS Dept 10A, 1222 Brookwood Road, Madison, Wl 5371 1 1-800-448-4564 (24 hours MasterCard VISA) Producl names are trademarks of Iheir respective companies Circle 149 on Reader Service card.
FUNCTION KEY MACROS If you can get a hoid of a function key macro program, you can easily customize and simplify your compiling process. For example, I have function key FI bound to the macro "’1111 Dme”, so all I have to do is hit FI and type the filename to edit a file, fire same goes for F3, which expands to "execute c compile”. After I type the filename to compile, this executes the “compile” script in my “c” directory, which calls LC with my favorite parameters. Pressing F4 enters “ Blink with MakeFileAm (Am is a carriage return)", which invokes the linker (I have a MakeFile in RAM
already configured lor each particular project).
There you have it. I’ve tried to make litis as flexible as possible, with a minimal number of disk dianges. Two-drive users should only have to do one swap (switching DISK 2 with the source code disk in the external drive, after DISK 2 is copied to RAM). One-drive users will have to swap the boot disk with the source disk between compiles, but since most of my time is spent editing anyway... You might have to custom tailor the number of background programs and the size of your RAM disk to fit comfortably within your memory restrictions (remember the compiler uses over 1OOK of working memory
per pass). On my 1.5-megabyte system with five background programs and uncompressed headers, I have about 400K of memory leftover to do everything else in. A one-megabyte A500 with compressed headers and one or two background programs should have about 400K as well. Not bad for a “minimal” configuration, It’s time -where there is a RAM disk, there is a way.
C:SetPatch NIL: Paten program c:FastMeinFirst before CHIP RAM c:RTClock clock program goes here FastEonts utility Resident c:Resident pure add Shell Resident L:ASH SYSTEM pure add c:Mount vdO: NewCQN: and console Dir vdO: ramdisk ; mount the ramdisk ; initialize NewShell Window NewCON:0 0 64Q 400 AmigaShell From s:install system EndCLI NIL: and end this one ; open a new Shell Listing 2: install-system- Check to is empty IF EXISTS vdO:c DME see if the ramdisk SKI? FRCOD by checking to see EnalF file is still there.
It a r If it's empty, ; (head- ; fast 7 add ; change ; Run your ; programs ; Function key ; Screen Echo "More than one moment, please..." copy Disk 2 Echo "" ers commandsJ into it.
ReadKWIK 1 vdC: disk file copier (FF??)
LAB FROOD Path ADD vdO:c dfOilc various command paths CD vdO: to ramdisk directory Run c GOMF various background Wait 1 and utilities.
Run c FuncKey s:func.key macros, FF106 Wait 2 Run c Scree.nX clock utility, FF158 Wait 1 Run e Qmouse NIL: -Fs:QMouse.cfg ; Mouse utilitiy, FF49 Wait 2 Run c Blitz -b ; Background file viewer, FffiO Echo "Assigning Device Names..." Assign A: DFQ: E: VDO: ; put your devices here Assign LC: dfO:lc LIB: dfO:Iib INCLUDE: E:include QUAD: E: Assign t: E:t Assign DCC: dfO:Dscs LOG: dfC:s alias clear echo "*E[0;0K*S[J" alias reverse echo W*E[O;0H*E[41;30m*£[J" alias normal echo [0*GH*E[4Q,31m*c. J" Stack 10240 Echo "(Whew!)" Echo "" Echo " AmigaSheil 1.3: Lattice AMIGA ’C' 5*04 Development
Environment" Echo "" Dir Execute dfl: Scripts Environment ; execute anything else you want now NOTE: You can use PowerPacker (FF 253) to decrease the file sixes of your background programs and DOS commands to conserve disk space, if you can sacrifice disk-loading time.
• AC* iIJMSSsi€ a LETTERS FROM READERS HAVE dominated the column
over the List few issues. I always enjoy reading the mail,
however, 1 am having to become selective due to space
limitations about how much material I can put in each column.
If you have written, and you don't see your letter mentioned
here, there are a few reasons why I might not have used it.
First of all, remember there is a two to three month publishing
delay between die time I get a letter, and the time you see it
in print. Ifyou send the mail electronically via CompuServe or
People Link, the delay is cut to die minimum.
Secondly, 1 try not to pick on manufacturers regarding software bugs.
Therefore, if you point out a bug that you’ve discovered, and have no workaround for it, you will only find it mentioned if diere is a danger of loss of data or work on the part of the end user.
Remember in many cases, one person's ‘'bug" is another person’s “feature.” I tend to make an exception to my rule about not having a workaround if the problem appears to be major and die other readers might have stumbled across a workaround for it. Your letter is also more likely to get mentioned if the reader tells me that he or she has brought the problem to the attention of the manufacturer’s technical support people, and they refuse to respond or make little attempt to reply to the reader.
Remember, in many cases it is difficult or impossible for a software developer to fix some problems in a very timely fashion.
Computer software is complex and with the models of Amiga systems proliferating, and the impending changes to the operating system, program bugs are often hard to find, and hard to remove.
I often get letters from people regarding the wray a program operates.
Though the implementation of a feature in a specific fashion may well be an irritating problem to one individual, it really isn’t a “bug”. Clearly tire software was written that way, and changing die way the program operates may or may not be of benefit to die odier users. In fact, this month 1 also received correspondence from Stanley Skin in of Scottsdale, AZ on just this topic.
He commented on the negative effects of changing the way a program interface appears to the end user when making minor upgrades. Undoubtedly, Mr. Skirvin would likely be unhappy if the developer were to change the way something is being handled at the request of only a few users.
He went on to suggest that user visible changes should be introduced only if they represent identifiable improvements or correct errors perceptible to [a large number ofl users.
I have to agree with Mr. Skirvin. In fact.
I’d like to see more standardization of die user interface in general as it makes the learning curve easier to manage. I know that I will probably hear from those who feel that standardization stifles creativity, so I will add that innovation with regard to the user interface is always welcome if it improves the performance and productivity of the application. There are indeed many examples of that kind of innovation improving the general “look and feel” of a program. In any case, I will avoid reprinting comments on how a particular function in a given program operates unless you have found a
much simpler, or more powerful “workaround” to complete the designated task much more productively.
I received a letter via CompuServe electronic mail from Anthon Pang with several comments regarding Gold Disk's Transcript word processor. He bought Transcript version 1.0 for heavy duty document production.
He warns that users should be cautious of rapidly switching from edit mode to screen preview mode (where they open a scrollable custom screen) as it appears to fragment memory. Eventually, the preview mode will not function, or the system will Gum.
Mr. Pang comments that the “hr” code, to set a header on right-side pages, does not work. He provides the following workaround. Instead use a combination of “hb" (header both-sides), set to the intended header text, and “hi” (header leftside), to replace cancel the left-side effects of tire “hb" code. The same fix applies for die “fr" (footer for right-side pages). Use '“fb" & “fl”.
Transcript doesn’t handle more than 1 space between words or sentences (for example, after a period) properly, in the case where the next word or sentence wraps to die next line. The additional space(s) will cause the text to be indented.
His workaround is to simply adjust the window size to match the final output text width, to locate die unwanted occurrences.
Another workaround I would suggest is to use Global Search and Replace to replace all occurrences of the double spaces with single spaces. Be careful of this option if you have columnar material or indent paragraphs with tabs, as tabs are represented as spaces in Transcript.
Mr. Pang also provided several tips for using Transcript effectively: l) Vhen using the “ep” (eject page) code to end a page and start a new one, if it appears at the end of a page, a blank page will be generated.
2) Pages must lie in sequential order, as you cannot use the "pn"
(set page number) code once set within a document, to "jump
around”. 3)And with virtually any program, use the Save
command frequently when working with important material.
Another electronic mail reply regarding M2Sprint was received from Mr, Tom Gist, the person who originally reported a problem with the longreal function in the program. He restated his comment that he had problems with the bug under both the original 1.0 and with version 1.12. He did comment drat he would double check his installation of 1,12 to make sure he got it completely installed correctly. Other readers have commented that there is no problem with longreals in
1. 12, but they had problems in 1.0. If you are having problems
with version 1.12. drop me a note and I will let Mr. Gist know
that others are having lire same problem, I don’t know if
tlris column had anything to do ¦with it, but Intuitive
Technologies, having taken a lot of heat in these pages for
poor technical support, has hired a full time technical
support person.
Bruce Brandt is lire new technical support engineer at Intuitive Technologies. He said in a posting on People Link that he will be available in the office from 10 AM until 4 PM even- day, Monday through Friday. The phone number lie left in his posting was 408-646-9147.
Everyone complains when service is bad, and little is said when service is good.
Let me know if their support services improve, I’ll pass that information along as Well.
I received a letter from a D. Reimer of Aurora, CO who comments that he just bought the Toolbus Expansion Box from Applied Technologies and an 8-UP! Board from MicroBorics with 2 meg of RAM for his Amiga 500.
He is having a problem when he powers up his A500 with the Progen genlock hooked up, the power comes on but the computer doesn't boot. The only way he can get it to boot is to disconnect tire Progen. Power up the CPU, disconnect the monitor cable, plug in tire genlock and then plug the monitor into the Progen. He is wondering if a different genlock will solve this problem or if it is built into the A500.
Mr. Reimer fails to mention whether or not the Progcn works properly if the extra memory and expansion toolbox are not connected. I am not very familiar with either of these expansion accessories, however I do know that the Progen gets its power from the A50G power supply, if tire other accessories are also gening power from the A500 supply, it could be that the power supply is being overtaxed. Also, it is highly NOT recommended to connect and disconnect peripherals from Amiga ports with the power connected. I can say that I’ve done this myself in the past, and I can also say i have lived to
regret it. Hr any case, those are the only suggestions I have regarding this problem. Anybody else have any suggestions as to what Mr. Reimer’s problem is, and how it might be solved?
Another hardware problem was reported to me in Email by Rawli Puig. He has an Amiga 2000 with 3 meg of RAM (two meg are installed on a Spirit 8-UP! Board), IN’S Trumpcard 48 megabyte Seagate hard drive, IVS Printerface and 1 meg Agnus.
The unit was assembled at the store where it was bought. Everything works great with the exception of Digi-View 4.0 (gold), Tire program will not save files at all. Attempts to save digitized pictures cause the pointer Scon to turn to wail state and remain there.
He has called IVS, NewTek and Commodore with no success. He comments that this is practically the same system he had before in his Amiga 500. He was using a A590 Commodore Hard Drive instead of die Trumpcard. He has also noticed that some programs open different windows on the 2000 than tire 500, These are tire same programs from his A590 which were backed up with Quarterback and reinstalled on the 2000.
In a follow up letter, Mr. Puig commented that the problem appears to be related to the parallel port on the motherboard which seems to have a bus problem, along with the external diskdrive port. After changing the CIA chips (done by a Commodore Service tech) and running Digi-View again, nothing changed.
Another symptom of tire problem occured when an external disk drive was attached, every disk that was placed in the drive was labeled BAD. He commented that the service tech mentioned to him that there seemed to be a lot of problems with the 2000 boards. A technician in our local Amiga dealership here in Fargo ran across the bad drive problem on one of his customer's new A2000HD. Any drive connected to the external drive port failed to function with the same symptoms that were listed here, any disk placet! In df2: were labeled BAD. ! Ic traced the problem to a defective solder connection on
the motherboard in the external drive port connection area.
Whether or not this problem is related to Mr. Puig’s is up for speculation right now, but it appears there might be some quality control problems related to the 2000 motherboard.
Roger LeVine sent Email regarding Professional Data Retrieve. He wrote to report a bug in the printer mask editor and a workaround for it. “The manual states that if you place field names in the printer mask editor you will get a printout columnar in type, that is, each field will print to its maximum size as set in the screen mask editor, regardless of the length of the data in that field. To print only the data entered, that is “John Jones" rather than John Jones", you should enter the field names as AudioLink 16-bit Linear Stereo Audio Processor with Sound Sampling Capabilities Beta
Unlimited 87 Summit St. Brooklyn, NY 11231 Circle 126 on Reader Service card.
A string, as follows; 1) click on the string gadget 2) type in the field names you wish to appear on the given line within the siring ex. [lifSt_nm]+“ ”+[iast_nm]
3) size the string to the maximum allowable length using the
mouse just as you size a field in the screen mask editor.
"The bug is at step 3. No matter what you do, the string “snaps” back to the length of the field names. That is, the above example will print up to, but no more than, 24 characters of the combined first and last name. Anything longer is truncated. ” “The work-around for this is to add a string of spaces at the end of the field. That is, if the maximum combined length of first and last names is 40 characters the siring you enter should look like: [first_nm]+" '’+[last_nm]+‘' The quotes and the *'+” signs count.
The trick is that the spaces must be preceded by a sign, a'nd enclosed in quotes. Also, the entire line must be entered into the suing before you exit it by hitting return. In addition, the quoted spaces must be the last thing in die string.
You can then move the string about the screen to align it as you see fit, but the length is fixed.
“Using this method I was able to print a full set of mailing labels with no missing characters or line overflow."
A posting on People Link pointed out that Microsystems Software has sent upgrade notices to registered users of excellence! That it has been upgraded to version 2.0. Included with the announcement was a list of 32 “Features and Enhancements”.
The program operates faster, user alterations to die Page Setup Requester and the Print Requester can be saved as user-defined defaults, and Headers, Footers, and Footnotes can be cut, copied and pasted, among many odier features. A conversion program is provided to enable licensees of Professional Page to use those fonts with excellence!.
Ham It Up! (v. 1.01) ANEW! "The Blender" blends and saves color blushes fast!
Awotks with DlglPainl ™ and Deluxe Paint w Asixteen charts of 2S6 colots each n ARGB&CMY values given for each color Atakes the guesswork out of color selection Displays and prints gii 4096 Amiga colors!
$ 39.95" includes shipping & handling in U.S. Call or send a check or money order to: Adelta Graphics A 48 Dlghfon St. Brighton, MA 02135 A 617)254-1506 'Mass. Lesldents add $ 2 00 sales tax Dealer Inquiries welcome Circle 116 on Reader Service card.
According to the posting, the cost of the upgrade is $ 39.95 plus a minimum of $ 4.00 for UPS Ground shipping. If you haven’t sent in your registration card yet, you should do so if you want to upgrade.
Micro-Systems Software, 12798 Forest Hill Blvd Ste 202, West Palm Beach. FL 33414.
(407) 790-07~2. Inquiry =213 Both Great Valley Products and
NewTek have relocated. Contact these companies at their new
address: Great Valley Products, 600 Clark Aue, King of
Prussia. PA 19406, (215) 337-8770.
FAX(215) 337-9922. Inquiry =209 NewTek,Inc.. 215SEEighth Street, Topeka, KS 66603 (913) 354-1146. Inquiry *.210 Sunrize Industries, Los Gatos, California,
(408) 354-3488. Inquiry- = 211 According to a posting left on
People Link, Version 5.0b of the Manx compiler is out. The
upgrade does not contain any significant new features, but
rather fixes problems in 5.0a, and is free to all
registered users of version 5.0a. The upgrade is available
from the Manx BBS or by calling Manx an asking for disk
5.0b update Manx Software Systems, P.O. Box 55, Shrews
bury. NJ 07702. (201) 542-2121.
Inquiry *212 That’s all for this month. If you have any workarounds or bugs to report, or if you know of any upgrades to commercial software, you may notify' me by writing to: John Steiner c o PLM Publications
P. O. Box 869 Fall River, MA 02722-9970 ...or leave Email to
Publisher on People Link or 73075,1735 on CompuServe . _ Have
your photos, schematics, line drawings, company logos, any 2-D
or 3-D material digitized by DIGITAL FORMATIONS use your
digitized images in paint or desktop publishing programs.
• All resolutions available
• 2-4096 colors
• 100 % IFF compatible Rates are $ 8.00 for first image and $ 4.00
for any additional ones.
(Plus $ 2.00 S&H. Originals returned.)
Send orders to:__ f DIGITAL FOR MAHONS
P. O. BOX 3606 .akewood, CA S0711 -SSQS )j Circle 124 on Reader
Sen ice card.
Stock-Portfolio by G. L T f HIS PROGRAM IS NOT FOR EXPERTS. IT IS, IN' FACT, AS unsophisticated a program as you 'nil! Find anywhere. I designed it to record, organize and track the success of stock and financial transactions; you may wish to use it to catalog your audio- and or videotape and disk libraries, or perhaps for the maintenance of important telephone or mailing lists.
.Although I have personally been involved with programming since the days of the PET 2000, the .Amiga and its use of the BASIC language is somewhat different. Believing there to be many like myself who like to type in programs but are nor experts, I made this program as down-to-earth as possible. There are no fancy algorithms to puzzle over, just simple AmigaBASIC statements to follow.
You are first asked to input a filename. Do this without the ,rel extension; the extension is added by the program and can be used in any modification. For instance, suppose you wish to take a list of files,The .re! Extension enables you to select only those files, and no others. With a simple loop, you can then list them on the screen, eliminating the bother of having to quit fire program to look at the Director)'.
Next, the screen upon which all activity' takes place is set up (it is never referenced again). The section labelled start: sets up the menu called STOCKS and fills it with tire items you will need to use.
This is standard procedure, and needs no detailing, The whole program is based upon the simple use of a relative file. Unlike the 64 128 versions, a single opening of a relative file in AmigaBASIC will allow you to both read to and write from the file. Point of fact, there is really no need to close the file until all activity has ceased. However, in the interests of good programming, the old admonition of closing a file as soon as one operation is complete has been followed here. You will find a Close Penrose 1 after every' use of the file. The protocol for opening a file is as follows: OPEN
“fVI.NMS.x where the lower case "r" (in quotes) represents a relative file (it will not work with an upper case “R"). The “1 indicates die reference number of this file and this file alone. Naturally, it could be any number. The N.MS is placed there when you input the file you wish to work on. The program itself will attach a .rel to the end of the filename, simply so you can recognize relative files in your directory at a later date.
The x is quite important: it is the total of the field lengths which go to make up each record in the file. In other words, it represents the record length in bytes. This is made up any' way you wish. However, it has one proviso: items which are longer than the field length are truncated. As a corollary' to this, the field is padded with spaces when an entry' is shorter than die field length. The following line show's how we deal with this in our program: FIELD 1,12 as Nay;S,3 as Num S, 5 as Div$ , 7 as IndatS, 5 as NtowS.
Field =1 speaks for itself: 12 as NAMS indicates a field twelve bytes long which will take a string of that lengdi and no longer.
Similarly, the others take strings of varying lengths. To provide much flexibility', y'ou could make each field 250 bytes long, This would be a shocking waste of memory', however, so we use the method shown. Adding up the numbers gives us a total record length of 37, which is the number you see in the program.
It should be obvious that what we have here is a means of building files for practically anything wre can think of: mailing lists, club rosters, tape & disc libraries, recipes, library lists, and more.
You name it, and this program can do it. Very little in the way of change will be required. NANIS can stay since it represents “name"; NumS also, as it represents “number". The others can be used, changed, or discarded, as you see fit.
Here's an original program to organize your investments, music library, mailing lists and more!
Under the heading ReadData:, a short loop reads the record numbers from the file into variable x. The EOFC1) simply tells the program that we have readied die end of readable material in die file. Then the next few lines set various items on the screen, starting with INPUT "Stock ":NamStockS. This will accept the name you type in for the stock, and so on down the list. Then, to enable us to build a file in the buffer to accept diese entries, we use LSET NAMS=NamStock$ . To place the contents of that buffer onto the disc we use PUT *l,x (x being the current record number we are working with).
If you goof on entering, there is a means of recovery: simply reduce x by -1 (since the process of PUTting increments the count to the next record number), and go back and enter the items again.
This also gives us a means of wiping out complete files, by LSETting a series of NUL entries.
The Show: subprogram simply reads files and places everything on the screen in proper order. You will note that a few calculations are used here. 1 have noted these so you will know what you are dealing with.
There are three subprograms at the end of Show: which require some explanation. Use chms: to build a rectangle at the bottom of the screen which takes the two lines of text shown. A mouse routine and wo lines of IF represent the limits of that rectangle in which the mouse will be effective. The third is the scrl: loop, which SCROLLs the screen one line. The -1 at the end of the SCROLL command ensures that die screen will scroll upwards; a positive number here would scroll the screen down. The SCROLL command looks very much like the line command which we use to form a square on the screen. The
numbers used represent the limits of the section of screen that will be scrolled. SCROLL is a very versatile command. It can be used to scroll the screens, or portions of it, not only up and down, but also left and right, and even diagonally.
The SELL: subprogram is similar to the BUY:, but the LSET uses blank strings, as explained above, to fill the buffer before die PUT*1 ,x. This removes the item by overwriting it with a blank field.
When it came time to devise the subprogram to allow existing items to be changed or erased, a lot of head scratching took place!
In 64 128 BASIC, you would simply set up a loop to count an array, such as FOR 1=1 to 12:x(0=a(i),andsoon. I found this clid not work in AmigaBASIC, and knowing so little about the use of the language by the .Amiga, I was in somewhat of a quandary at die time (recently, a method of using this technique has been developed: I hope to detail it in a future program). My solution was to transpose NAM$ =NameStock$ , etc., so that it set up a buffer to accept die input. Then, when the changes were made, the whole lot was transposed again, and it worked just fine.
The Printit: sub does just that, prints it out to paper. If you look carefully at the show: and printit:, you will see some similarities. In both we invoke the PRINT, or LPRINT USING formula to enable our items to be printed in die spaces we need.
One point needs mentioning here. If you run out of ideas in trying to come up with names for your subprograms, AmigaBASIC will accept Line Numbers. They must be consecutive, and although I have never found die need to use them (fertile imagination, I guess!), I would suspect that they would have to fo'low a logical sequence with die named subs else dire things could happen as a result.
(Listing follows)
- -Stock-Portfolio Listing- CLS WINDOW 2,"PORTFOLIO",,15 In5*"
Welcome to PORTFOLIO. " COLOR 3,: Ir.-LEN CnS) LCCATF 1, (40-
(In 2) I PRINT InS LOCATE 2,(40-(In 2)) PRINT " - " COLOR 1,0
(25,20)- (605,175),,R LINE(15,15)-(6:5,160) , ,S PAINT 123,19),
:COLOR 0,1 Sturt:
MENU 3,0,1, "STOCKS."
FOR 1=1 TO 1 : X = a(I) MENU 8,1,1,*5(1) MENU 8,2,1,aS (2) MENU B, 3, lraS (3) MENU 6, 4,1,aS (4) MENU 8,5,1, a$ (5) MENU 5, S,l,aS (6) NEXT I ON MENU GOSUB selection MENU ON DELAY: GOTO DELAY selection: OX MENU(1) GOSUB buy,sell,Show,change,printit,quit RETURN buy: GOSUB SCREENCLEAR OPEN "r",*1.NMS, 37 FIELD 1,12 AS NAMS.3 AS r.umS, 5 AS divS, 7 AS Indat5,5 AS InitS,5 AS nowS »1 ReadDatal: GET 11,X IF EOF (1) THEN PRINT :GC70 Entry X=X+1 GOTO ReadDatal Entry: LOCATE 4,8 PRINT SPACES(60) LOCATE 4,31 COLOR 1,3 :PRINT "ENTER NEW STOCKS," :COLOR 1,0 LOCATE 6,6 :PRINT "current record No is: ";K-1
FOR 1=6 TO 13 LOCATE 1,15 PRINT SPACES (50) NEXT I FOR 7“14 TO Ic LOCATE 1,6 :PRINT SPACES(45) NEXT I LOCATE S, 6 INPUT "Stcck ";NamStoc3cS LOCATE 9,3 INPUT "Number ";NumStOCkS LOCATE 10,6 INPUT "Dividend";DivShareS LOCATE 11,6 INPUT "Date ";Date3cught$ LOCATE 12,6 INPUT "Cost InitCostS LOCATE 13,8 INPUT "Current ";NowCost$ LSET NAMS-NamStockS LSET nur.S“NunStocXS LSET divS-DivShareS LSET Ir.datS*OateBouchc5 LSET Init$ =lnitCostS LSET nowS=NowCostS PUT 1,X X*X-1 LOCATE 15,6 PRINT "record "X-1;NAM5;" stored."
aS»"S? * . ":B$ «"* . i":c$ ="S 1 . "
ccp0:col=0:co2=0:co3=0:y=0:z=0:D=0:da-0 OPEN "r", 1,NKS,37
FIELD 1,12 AS NAMS,3 AS num5,5 AS divS,7 AS IndatS,5 AS
InitS,5 AS now$ X=1 ReadData: GET 1,X IF EOF (1) THEN GOTO
(5)DATES;SPC(3)"No "SrC (2)"Divi-"S?C(2)"Pay-
"S?C(5)"Orig"S?C(3)"Nev "SPC (3)"RECORDS =: ";X-1 PRINT
“SPC (1)"Total"SPC(6)"Gain" PRINT TAB (5)"-" LINE (438, 22* -
(562, 32),, S FOR 1=1 TO X-i GET *1,1 IF I 12 THEN GOSUB chms
REP: co-VAL (r.umS) ¦VAL(InitS) col *VAL (num. S • VAL
(novS) co2“ccl-co ‘No of shares times initial price.
'No of shares times current price.
‘Capital gain.
'Dividends payable per annum.
‘Total dividends per annum.
‘Total capital gain.
’Total current value.
'Dividends payable per month.
C o 3 «VAL (d i v 51 »VAL (fiura$ ) da=da- -co3 y=y+co2 z=z-ccl D=ca I2 PRINT TA3 (5)NAMSSPC(4)numSSPC(2)divSSPC(2)IndatS; PRINT SPC(2)InitSSPC(2)nowS;:PRINT SPC(2)USING a$ ;col; PRINT SPC (3) USING 3S;=o2 NEXT I COLOR 1,0 LINE (26,145;-(603,174),,BF COLOR 0,1 LOCATE 20,5 PRINT "TOTAL VALUE OF STOCKS: USING C$ ;z LOCATE 22,5 :?RINT "GAIN OVER LAST ENTRY; USING cS;y LOCATE 20,47 PRINT "ANNUAL DIVIDENDS : USING a$ ;da LOCATE 22, 4?
PRINT "MONTHLY DIVIDENDS USING a£;D CLOSE 1 The Hraeger Company Processors LOCATE 4,4 :GCT0 start LINE (26, 146)-(603, 174 ,,3 $ 25.00 $ 65.00 $ 70.00 $ 40.00 $ 70.00 $ 25.00 $ 55.00 68020 68020 68020 68030 68030 68881 68881 DRAMS 12 MHZ 25 MHZ 33 MHZ 16 MHZ 20 MHZ 12 MHZ 20 MHZ LOCATE 20, 22:PRINT "Click Left Better, here to scroll."
LOCATE 21,22:PRINT "Hold button for conemucus scroll."
Chins 1: MOUSE CN IF MOUSE*0)=C GOTO chmsl X-M0U5E(1} :y-XCUSE(2 J IF X 29 AND X 602 THEN IF y 145 AND y l~c THEN GOTO scrl GOTO Chrr.sl END IF scrl: FOR S=»D TO 7 SCROLL 2B,47)-(6D2,147J,0,-1 NEXT S LOCATE 1”, € ell: COLOR G,; LINE(2?,22)-(503,175) , , BF COLOR 1,0 OPEN "r", Ur NWS, 37 FIELD 3 1,12 AS NAM5, 3 AS num.S, 5 AS divS,” AS lndatS,5 AS InitS,: AS nowS X=1 LOCATE 4,5 PRINT SPACES(60) LOCATE 4,33 PRINT "REMOVE STOCKS."
”;NAM$ LSET div$ ="" LOCATE 11,6 LSET IndatS-"" PRINT "2 SHARES nutr.S LSET Init$ “"” LOCATE 12,6 LSET now$ ="" PRINT "3 DIVI divS LOCATE 13,3 PUT l,VAL(nS) PRINT "4 DATE "jIndatS LOCATE 12,S rPRINT SPACES(32) LOCATE 14,9 LOCATE 15,3 PRINT "5 COST "; I n i 15 PRINT “Any mere to remove?
LOCATE 15,5 PRINT “6 NOW nowS INPUT *Y N";Ans2S LOCATE 17,3 IF UCASES (Ar.s2S) ="Y" THEN N arr.StcckS-NAMS LOCATE 21,5 Nurr.ScockS numS PRINT SPACES(32) DivShareS=div$ GOTO ASKIT Date3oughtS"Ir.datS InitCostS=InitS END IF NowCost$ =now5 done: COLOR 1,3 :PRINT * CHANGE WHI COLOR 0,0 256Kx4-80 DIP ZIP 256KX4-10 DIP ZIP Unconditional 30 Day Guarantee
(800) 245-2235 (602) 820-5330 Circle 116 on Reader Sorvlce card.
INFO-PACKED VIDEO FOR PROFESSIONAL VIDEO WITH YOUR AMIGA ONLY $ 19.95 EACH $ 34.99 FOR BOTH Add S2.50 per video for Shipping & Handling CA krudisLi PH*u Add It «)« ui p*f %iAn.
Send Check Or Money Order To: MICH A El.ANGELO PRODUCTIONS 1755 EL CERRITO PL. 403
order - (2131 874-7404 You can FAX us at - (213) 874-4460
Circle 127 on Reader Service card.
INFO-PACKED VIDEO FOR PROFESSIONAL DIGITIZING We Also Do Quality Customized Digitizing $ 100 Per Picture IFF Computable Send pictures la be dieitiwd to Hie address on the Icil or call LOCATE I,6 PRINT SPACES(30) NEXT I GOTO prt3 dcne3: G0SU3 SCREE!.’CLEAR GOSUB menuchoice CLOSE 1 RETURN SCREENCLEAR: COLOR 0,0 LINE (27,22)-(603,174),, 3F COLOR 1,0 RETURN renuchaice: LOCATE 12,30 :COLOR 1,3 :PRINT "NEXT MENU CHOICE." :COLOR 1,0 RETURN print it: GOSUB SCREENCLEAR E5="?LEASE SET PAPER AT PERFORATION.* F$ ="TURN ON PRINTER TO START."
LOCATE 10,61 2-LEN(ES| 2 :PRINT ES LOCATE 12,61 2-LEN(F$ ) 2 ;PRINT FS LOCATE 14,81 2-LSN(H$ ) 2 :PRINT HS ASK4 : aS=INKEYS: IF aS="" THEN ASK4 LOCATE 16,61 2-LEN(GS) 2 :PRINT GS :COLOR 0,1 OPEN nr", tl,NM$ , 37 FIELD 11, 12 AS NAMS, 3 AS num$ ,5 AS divSr7 AS Tndat$ ,5 nS Ir.it$ ,5 AS now?
LOCATE 7,6 INPUT "Re-enter item THEN RETURN.(I
10 , 17 :INPUT jNamStockS IF ANS3S="2n THEN LOCATE 11,17
ANS3S="3" THEN LOCATE 12,17 :PRINT SPACES (19) : LOCATE 12, 17
(19) :LOCATE 13, 17 :INPUT ;DateBought$ IF ANS3S-"5" THEN
;InitCostS IF ANS3$ »"6" THEN LOCATE 15,17 :PRINT SPACES (19) :
div$ =»Di vShareS LSET lndat$ =DateBought$ LSET Init$ »InitC03t$
LSET now$ =NQwCostS PUT 1,X repl: LOCATE 19,49 :PRINT " LOCATE
GOTO Count3 IF UCASES(ANS351¦ "S* THEN GOTO done3 count3: X=X+
1 FOR 10 TO 16 LPRINT TAB(5)DATES;SPC(3)"No. "SPC(2)"Divi-
"SPC(2)"Purch"SPC £4)"Orig"SPC(3)"New ” LPRINT
TAB(5)"Stock"SPC(8)"Shares"S?C(2)"dend"SPC(3)"Date"S?C(5)"Co3t"S?C 5)"Price
"SPC (1)"Tocal"£?C(6)"Gain" LPRINT TAB (5)"-"
co-0:co1=0;co2=0:co3»0:y»0:z=C:D=C:dm=0 FOR 1=1 TO X GET 1,1
‘No of shares tir.es initial price.
'No of shares tines current price.
‘Capital gain.
Co=VAL(num$ )¦VAL(InitS) col=VAL(num$ )*VAL(ncwSi cc2=col-co co3=VAL(divS) *VAL (nur,S) D=D+co3 y=y+co2 z=z+col dm=D 12 'Dividends payable per annum.
'Total dividends per annum.
‘Total capital gain.
‘Total current value.
'Dividends payable per month.
• AC* R O by The Battdito [The statements and projections
presented in “Roomers”are rumors in the purest sense. The bits
of information are gathered by a third- party source from
whispers inside the industry. At press time, they remain
unconfirmed and are printed for entertainment value only.
Accordingly, the staff and associates of Amazing Computing™
cannot be held responsible for the reports made in this
column.] THATS ENTERTAINMENT Is Electronic Arts having a little
trouble selling cartridges? The Bandico hears that they got
many unhappy remrns on one of their early shipments. Seems
Nintendo is in the process of developing something similar to
Eas offering, and the dealers decided they wanted Nintendo's
cartridge rather than the one from Electronic Arts.
Whoops! Maybe the cartridge business isn’t quite as easy as they drought... .
On die other hand, there is some good news. Electronic Arts has shipped their first two Sega Genesis cartridges, Budokan and Populous. To celebrate, EA gave each employee a Genesis machine and a Populous cartridge. Well, it certainty beats the usual T-shin, that’s for sure. It seems that drey'll be developing a number of new titles on the Amiga (mostly in Europe) and bringing drem to the Genesis.
Elsewhere in the fun-filled world of entertainment software, Mediagenic is falling on hard times after all dre recent troubles (detailed here recently).
Speculation is that drey may be sold at a rock-bottom price. Will Electronic Arts seize the opportunity to eliminate a rival and expand their product line of cartridges in one swell loop"' Don't he surprised if it happens. Or, the buyer may be Software Toolworks, which is flush with cash after an $ 80 million public offering (Software Toolworks recently made dre Inc. i 00 list of the fastest-growing companies).
CARTRIDGE Wj RS REVISITED Nintendo will release its 16-bit Super Famicom in Japan this November, thus paving tire way for an American intro in
1991. The Super Famicom uses die 65816 CPU that can handle a game
cartridge with as much as 12 megabytes of memory (current
carts run about 512K at die most).
The screen resolution is twice drat of the Nintendo, and it plays stereo sound. Of course, it won’t handle standard Nintendo carts, so you'll have to buy all new carts at about $ 50 a pop. The machine should sell for around $ 175 dollars in dre U.S., or possibly less. Apparently, Nintendo has finally felt dre heat from the NEC and Sega machines.
WEST CHESTER BULLETIN The changes inEurope may affect our frienc die Amiga. According to informed sources. Commodore expects to sell 350,000 Amigas in reunited Germany between June 1990 and January 1991- The East Germans are expected to buy huge numbers of Amigas with their saved-up ostmarks (which were convened to West German marks on July 1). At least, that's the theory. The Amiga is surely selling better than ever in Germany. Copperman will try to duplicate the German success story over here. Does that mean we’ll see Amigas being sold in supermarkets? Stranger Things have happened.
Commodore is also moving aggressively to capitalize on events in die rest of Eastern Europe. They plan to sell Amigas and C64’s in those countries. The C64 is the perfect machine to market there, since it can be sold for less dian any other computer. Commodore is working on plans to customize die C64 for the various countries over there; Poland is a prime target, as is die Soviet Union.
Developers are breadiing easier over Commodore’s cancellation of the C65, dieir new model of the C64. It’s finally dead," sighed one developer with relief. “That's one less mistake we have to worry about."
The C65 could have confused the marketplace and made it difficult to sell Amigas. It's also reassuring to note that Commodore isn’t repeating die mistakes of the past. Say, maybe they could sell die C65 technology to Atari. They could call it the Stjr, put a chiclet keyboard on it, and sell it as the ultimate home computer... (!)¦ Nah.
Nobody would be that stupid, would they?
And whatever happened to the Amiga 250, the game console? Well, the prototype has been put in mothballs ibr now. The current thinking Ls to keep moving the Amiga 500 price point downwards through tire mass market channels, hoping to repeat the C64 phenomenon. That is. Get the price down to where sales shoot up. The A500 will lie die game console, if the price gets low enough. The Bandito thinks this is a fine idea. After all, 3-5” disks are just as easy to use as cartridges, with the advantage that a game can be on more than one disk. And you get a keyboard, to boot. Leave the game consoles to
Nintendo, sex. The Bandito.
The Amiga 500 Professional is a sign of Commodore’s new marketing thrust.
Here’s how it breaks down: die Amiga 500 goes into the mass-market channels and ends up being heavily discounted by Christmas (look for a $ 399street price). To help the dealers, they will offer the Amiga 500 Professional, with 1 megabyte ot RAM (the daughtercard is factory installed).
Funny thing the motherboard has room for I megabyte of RAM. But Commodore installs the daughtercard instead, which has to cost more. Why?
So. The latest strategy' is to keep dealers happy with the A500 Professional, the A2000and 2500. And the A3000, and attack the consumer market with CDTV. This time, it looks like Commodore may be able Memory Management Amiga Service Specialists Over three years experience!
Commodore authorized full service center. Low flat rate plus parts.
Proudly affiliated with ... The Memory Location 396 Washington Street Wellesley, MA 02181
(617) 237-6846 Circle 186 on Reader Service card.
To pull it off. Widi IBM introducing a surefire flop for a home computer and Apple not far behind, 1991 could be a very good year for Commodore.
Will we see a new round of TV commercials this Christmas after the less- than-enthusiastic response last year? The word is yes, according io The Bandito’s sources. With Commodore trying to move units through the mass market stores, they can’t afford not to.
While we’re talking about hardware, the Bridgeboard AT, with its 8 Mhz 80286 CPU, is looking pretty' pathetic these days (we won’t even think about the original Bridgeboard). But now' that the Amiga is establishing itself as its own machine, die Bridgeboard is less and less important to CBM’s marketing strategy'. It’s possible we may see the 386 Bridgeboard, but The Bandito thinks we won’t. Hey, if you want IBM compatibility, buy a cheap clone and hide it under the desk. OK?
A portable Amiga prototype is under development at Commodore, but there are no plans to bring it to market right now.
The Bandito thinks it would be more sensible to modify the A500 to make it easier to carry around, and perhaps attach an LCD screen. That idea has been kicked around before, and perhaps it will get somewhere in the next year. The word is dial Commodore plans to be more aggressive about developing and introducing new hardware in the future.
While you’re adding up the advantages of your favorite computer, don’t forget to include this one: the Amiga is the only computer that can run AmigaDOS, MS-DOS, Macintosh, and UNIX. And there’s the C64 emulator and the fabled Atari ST emulator, as w'ell. Now all we need is an Apple II emulator, and all die bases are covered... but the best games are still on the .Amiga. Don’t hold your breadi wailing for KickStart 2.0 in ROM. It may not be until January that you can upgrade your A2000 with the new' Denise and the new ROMs.
The A4000 is shaping up to be a killer machine for late 1991. According to data gleaned by The Bandito. Currently, it's designed to occupy an A3000 case, but with a 50 Mhz 68040 on the motherboard. This baby should really scream! Also planned is a revision of the classic Amiga graphics to allow true 24-bit color with a specialized graphics accelerator (not the normal blitter).
Hey' Commodore, while you’re on a roll, The Bandito has some suggestions for you. All new- Amigas should have a 31.5 kHz video port and a SCSI port. And while you’re at it, how' about a 68030 version of the Amiga 500 a really' high-powered, compact machine. And be sure to provide a slick expansion chassis for the A500 that provides at least 3 card slots. California Access showed off their version at AmiEXPO, and it looked rather slick: 4 Zorro slots, room for a hard drive and memory expansion.
Let’s take a look at what’s happening widi Commodore's new monitors. Of course, you’ve already heard about the 1950, their multiscan monitor introduced with the A3000, But Commodore will also introduce the 1930, a VGA-only monitor with sound ports on the side, in die near future. This plugs into the 31.5 Khz port on the A3000 and w'orks fine in all modes; it's cheaper than the 1950 and has a finer dot pitch. So why buy a 1950? Well, for those A500 2000 owners who have die new Denise chip, multiscan monitors are required to access the low'er 15 Khz signal (which includes all die old modes ant!
1280 x 200 1280 x 400) video out. If you have an A3000, the 1930 looks like a better choice riian the 1950.
While AmigaVision is drawing good reviews from the press and industry analysts, it’s not going over so well widi other developers of multimedia software.
They are understandably steamed at Commodore for getting into the software business and competing against them.
Look for some revisions to other multimedia products to give them a clear competitive edge over AmigaVision.
Speaking of multimedia, wdll Showmakerbe a bust? The price is rumored to be $ 395, which is very high in the Amiga market. And with a free AmigaVision... one has to w'onder. Still, Gold Disk seems quite confident. We’ll just have to wait and see how many high rollers are waiting for expensive software.
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TOASTER TIMES Of course, rhe hottest news in town is still the Video Toaster. The Bandito hears that some units should ship by tire time you read this, though of course nowhere near enough to satisfy the demand. Elan worked on the real-time effects software package, and we can expect more cooperation between the two companies in the future.
Think of what Elan Performer could Ire like using a Video Toaster.
HOME COMPUTERS REVISITED Meanwhile, Apple is introducing the Macintosh Classic, the same old stuff in a new case at a slightly lower price (supposedly, Apple coughed up a million bucks for tire rights to the name). Haven't any of these guys been out in the real world lately? Air A500 with an Amax is cheaper than this puppy, and has color to boot. The Bandito thinks that Apple will keep trying with this, unlike IBM, because Apple just doesn't have anything else to fall back on.
They have to sell a cheap Mac to get their unit sales up. But drey may have to keep revising it to get it right.
In other world-shaking news, Atari is set to release the Atari TT (their 68030 machine) in this country very* soon. Sales may well reach the dou ble digits by tire end of the year. The Bandito calls it the Stealth computer, in reference to all the press coverage it has received. A bit expensive fora doorstop, don't you think? Perhaps it's just right for someone on a military' budget, BREAKING THE SPEED BARRIER The Motorola 68040 chip release has been pushed back to October. Expect the first Amiga boards before Christmas. Watch those 3-D renderings appear in a few seconds instead of a few
hours. The speed of these boards will blow you away. That is, if the price tag doesn't slay you first. Expect to pony up at least 52,000 to be the first on vour block with a 68040 Amiga.
CD-I, CDTV, CD CONFUSION DEPT. Motorola and Philips announce that Buy IB IMB X l chips, get I DRAM 1MB X1-80 $ 9.59 DRAM 255K X 4-80 $ 9.95 SIMM 1MB X 8 $ 95.00 ZIP 256K X 4 $ 9.95 Shipping add $ 3.00 C.O.D. add $ 4.00 California residents add 6.75% sales lax AMCS BOX 6981 Salinas, CA 93912-6981 Gall (408)443-1287 Circle 106 on Reeder Service card.
Tire CD-I chip will be available next year, coinciding with the release of the hardware. Full motion video decompression on die fly will be pan of the chip, although of course yrou'!l have to compress things ahead of time (using a mondo computer and plenty' ol time).
How' are CD-I developers responding to CDTV? Very positively. At least, here’s something drev can make a product for and not have to wait forever before it comes out. And CD-1 machines require very expensive development systems and licensing fees, drings drat don’t normally make a lot of friends. After all, if you’re trying to get people to support a new set of hardware, you shouldn’t charge them an arm and a leg for a development system.
Not to mention the fact that the tools are in the "flint knives and bearskins" stage, as Spock called it.
And Commodore is bending over backwards to get software for CDTV. Their ace in the hole: CDTV will be upgradable to CD-I; at least, that's the plan. It’s possible that CDTV may' be fully CD-I compatible by- Christmas 1991 - On the drawing hoard: how about a handheld version of CDTV? A small CD- ROM player with an LCD screen and a few' keys, similar to Sony’s Data Disentail.
Possible applications in many areas, according to the Bandito’s informants. It certainly is exciting.
The Bandito wants that CD-ROM drive for ordinary Amigas soon, but it may not he available until after Christmas. Look for a retail price about 5400 or under, say those in die know, A REAL 3-D PACKAGE Progressive Peripherals has found a wav around the shell space problem create a box that takes up a whole shelf for dteir 3-D animation software. The Bandito is certainly impressed by the packaging; it even includes a videotape. The box is a cube about 12" on a side now that's a real 3D object for you.
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Amazing Computing V5-9 ©1990 79 List Of Advertisers (Editorial Content.continuedfrom page 4) Mr. Kass said there is a great demand for the services of his small company, and a particular need for more musicians. Anyone either interested in providing their artistic talents, or who need such a source of professional Amiga graphics and animation should contact: Curt Kass Computimation c o Ontological Survey
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The facility will be housed in the Art Education Area on the Milwaukee campus of the University to provide instruction to undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral students in tire use of computers in the instruction of art at the elementary', secondary, and college university levels.
Commodore is providing Amiga computers and peripherals, in the form of a research grant. The AEEIM Lab (pronounced “aim lab") will research the use of computers in the design, articulation, and implementation of curriculum. Anyone interested in assisting Mr. Kass in this effort by providing materials, etc., should contact him at the above address.
IN SUMMARY In its use by accomplished professionals willing to teach others. And in tire university and business worlds working together to create better training facilities, the .Amiga has established itself as a true too! Of die graphic artist. And there is a need for these talents.
From product design to product marketing, die Amiga artist is necessary' to provide the presentation power that business needs both in and out of the computer industry.
The need for Amiga artists was anticipated by Mr. Sachs in 1987: “Everybody’s going to be starving for artists real soon.” His words are stronger today than when he first said them. We need more people pushing the capabilities of the Amiga as they stand today and anticipating the possibilities of tomorrow. The Amiga offers a great opportunity, but every artist should understand the need to work hard, understand the media, and then let their imaginations soar.
As new hardware and software products become available (there are several scheduled for introduction shortly), the Amiga will maintain die edge that it has over other computer platforms.
Yet. All the advances in the world will do little good without die fire and the imagination of the artist. Each of us carries the desire to produce some bit of beauty. The Amiga makes it possible. You make it happen.
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Please use the Reader Service Card to contact those advertisers who have sparked your interest. Advertisers wont to hear from you. This is the best way they have of determining the Amiga community's interests and needs. Take a moment and contact the companies with products you wantto know more about. And, if you wish to contact an advertiser directly, please tell them you saw their advertisement in Amazing Computing For The Commodore Amiga Advertiser Page Reader Service Number AC DA Corporation 29 104 AMCS 79 106 ASDG 9 108 Action Graphics 79 113 AmiEXPO CHI 119 Beta Unlimited 71 126
Delphi Noetic Systems 54 117 Delta Graphics 71 118 Designing Minds 2 121 DigiSoft 52 137 Digital Formations 71 124 Eschalon Development CSV 125 FD Software 45 109 G&G Technologies 12,13 122 Grapevine Group, The 34 147 Gross Roots Video Production 79 112 Great Valley Products 7 123 Hunter Group, The 65 111 InterComputing 35 114 Krueger Company, The 75 116 Memory Location. The 28 107 Memory Location, The 78 186 Michaetangelo Productions 76 127 MJ Systems 68 148 Natural Graphics 20 128 One Byte 84 135 Poor Person Software 8 129 Puzzle Factory, The 5 168 Safe Harbor Software 21 134 Silver Fox
Software 14 105 TDA The Desktop Advantage 53 110 TRSL 22 130 Virtual Reality Laboratories 17 131 THE LIST OF APPLICATION PROGRAMS WHICH can be controlled by Arexx, William Hawes's implementation of the REXX programming language for the .Amiga, grows longer each month. Clearly, REXX has caught the attention of Amiga software developers and users, and it promises to soon become as pervasive a feature of the Amiga world as C programming and the IFF file format.
CygCC An Arexx Programming Tutorial by Duncan Thomson Still, despite the recent surge of interest in REXX for the Amiga, there has been a noticeable lack of really useful Arexx programs in the public domain. The examples that have appeared tend to be short and with limited function, and it is difficult to see die real power of this new language from these somewhat trivial examples. The program described in this article is intended to provide a more thorough example of an .ARexx program. .An example which demonstrates Arexx’s remarkable power to he together multiple application programs
into one new super-program. The article will be of interest to diose who just have a genera! Interest in Arexx and its capabilities, to those who are in die process of learning to program with Arexx. As well as serving as an Arexx programming tutorial. The program presented in this article provides a function which many users may find very useful; it combines the Lattice C compiler and linker and the CygnusEd editor to provide an integrated program development environment.
The program we will be presenting is called CygCC. (The name comes from "CygnusEd editor and C Compiler".) The program provides an integrated development environment, so that after editing a C source file, the compiler and linker can be invoked with a single key press without leaving the editor. Error messages appeal' in an editor window, while die lines of source code containing the errors are automatically located in the source file window.
As owners of Lattice C V5.0 will know, a similar capability already exists with die Lattice Screen Editor (LSE). Why then would anyone go to the trouble of adding this capability to another editor? Simply because most programmers already like and are used to a particular editor, and are fed up with learning new ones. I myself already use four different text editors (EDT for VAX VMS, vi for UNIX, WordStarfor die IBM PC, and CygnusEd for the Amiga), and the last thing I want to do is learn another. I am sure that many odier programmers out there feel the same way. Learning, yet another, new
set of editor commands is not high on their list of priorities. So instead of learning to use LSE, I chose to use Arexx to add the capabilities of LSE to die CygnusEd editor.
What if you do not already use CygnusEd? Then you have die chance to really learn Arexx programming by modifying CygCC so that it works with your own Arexx-compatible editor. With a bit of work, you should be able to come up with TxCC for the TxEd editor or, as soon as die Emacs hackers build an Arexx interface into Emacs, ECC for Emacs. Similarly, if you have a C compiler other than Lattice, you are also in luck. You get to learn Arexx programming by modifying CygCC to work with your own compiler.
Before going into the details of our programming example, let us examine the features of Arexx in general. First, Arexx is a general purpose high level programming language. It has all the necessary constructs, such as 1F-THEN-ELSE and DO-WHILE, to facilitate structured programming. It supports subroutines and Function calls, which may even be recursive. It is implemented as an interpreter, like BASIC, rather than as a compiler, like C. This makes program development and debugging easier at the cost of less than lightning-fast execution speed. Of course, just as compilers have been created
for BASIC, a compiler version of Arexx could appear one day. However, since the most significant feature of the language is its power to control application programs.
Execution speed will probably not be a critical factor for most Arexx programs, since the computationally intense grunt work can be done by the Arexx application programs. Because of this, dte need for a compiler is diminished, and the interpretive approach works quite nicely.
As we have stated, Arexx s most significant feature is its ability to communicate with and to control other programs. At first, this ability seems a bit mysterious, but the implementation of this bit of magic is actually quite simple. It is made possible by the Amiga’s true multitasking operating system. You are not likely to see an implementation of Arexx for MS-DOS, or even for die Macintosh - chalk up another first in the microcomputer world for rite Amiga! So how does it work? First, the application program, “host" in Arexx terminology, must be designed to work with Arexx. This might seem
like a serious limitation, but it is actually quite a trivial task for a software manufacturer to add an Arexx interface to their product, and the list of Amiga applications which support Arexx is constantly growing. To communicate with Arexx. The host creates a public message port which Arexx can send messages to. (Messages and message ports are features of AmigaDOS, but if you are not familiar with them, do not worry, you need not know how it works in order to write Arexx programs - this is for background information only.)
When the Arexx interpreter comes across a line in an Arexx program which it does not recognize as an internal Arexx statement, it assumes that it is a command for the host. It packages the command up in a message, which is sent to the host's message port, The host treats commands received at this message port just as if they had been entered from die keyboard or with die mouse, so that the full power of the application becomes available for use in your Arexx program.
For controlling programs which do not include an Arexx interface, such as the Lattice C compiler, we have one more trick up our sleeve. That is the ability to issue DOS commands from within an Arexx program. There are some limitations on diis, due to the fact that the Amiga Shell nor the CLI does not have a built- in Arexx interface. The most significant limitation is the inability of an Arexx program to obtain die result code set by a DOS command. This makes it hard to tell whether the command succeeded orfailed. It is reported diat in AmigaDOS 1.4, the Shell will be updated to include 211
Arexx interface, so that it can act as a true Arexx host. Also, a Shell replacement which includes an Arexx interface, called Wshetl, is currently available from William Hawes, the maker of Arexx. However, we will see in the example program diat the Arexx AmigaDOS interface works fairly well even without these solutions.
Communications between Arexx and odier application programs (hosts) is two-way. In addition to accepting commands from Arexx programs, as described above, hosts can also invoke Arexx programs. This two-way communication makes it possible for Arexx to replace the macro languages that are often included in applications to allow users to customize them to meet their own needs. The user can write an Arexx program which when invoked by die host, turns around and sends back to the host a series of commands which carries out the desired function.
There are mo advantages to replacing application-specific macro languages with Arexx. First, macro languages included with applications, such as editors, spreadsheets, etc.. tend to be somewhat crude and limited in their programming features, while Arexx provides all the power of a structured, general purpose programming language. Second, .ARexx will soon provide a common macro language which can be used with almost all Amiga applications, so that users will not have to learn a new' macro language each time they acquire a new- tool.
THE EXAMPLE PROGRAM Without further ado, let us take a look at the programming example. Figure One show's the structure of our project, which consists of four modules: CygCC, ReadErrors, NextErr, and Find- Wind. CygCC is die module which runs die compiler and linker.
When the user invokes CygCC, the source file will be saved. The compiler will then be run widi this source file as input. If the compilation is successful, the linker will be run. CygCC will open up a new editor window, dded Compiler_Window, and will invoke ReadErrors to copy into this window any error or warning messages produced by the compiler and linker. After the compilation is complete, CygCC will invoke NextErr to highlight die first error message in Compiler_Window and ro simultaneously locate the line containing die error in die source file window-. The user can then repeatedly
invoke NextErr to advance through die error messages, and to locate and correct his errors in die source file, one by one. FindWind is a little utility routine which is used by the other modules to look for a named editor window.. CygnusEd allows Arexx programs to be “bound” to function keys, so that pressing die key invokes the program. The user will find it convenient to bind CygCC to one key, and NextErr to anodier. In this way the compiler can be invoked with one keypress, and errors can be located and viewed with another keypress.
FIND A WINDOW-FINDWIND Since FindWind (shown in Listing One) is die simplest of our four modules, let us tackle it first. FindWind is an Arexx funcdon which will return a one to its caller if it can locate a specified editor window (called a “view" in CygnusEd terminology), and a zero if it cannot. Since it is our first example, we will look at it in some detail. It begins, as all Arexx modules must, with a comment. Comments in .ARexx are begun with a " *" and ended with a just as in C, The first executable statement in FindWind is die following: if address () --= 1 re;::-:_ced' then resurr.
C This is an example of the IF statement. The purpose of this statement is to find out if the current host is the CygnusEd editor.
FindWind is only designed to be called from a CygnusEd application, so il the current host is not CygnusEd, then die function will simply quit, returning a zero to indicate failure. To determine the current host, we use the built-in Arexx function addressO.
This function returns a string giving the name of the current host.
We compare this wridi the host name used by CygnusEd: rexx ced. The operator for inequality is ' Note that, unlike C and Pascal, Arexx allows us a great deal of flexibility in manipulating strings, including die ability to directly’ compare diem. If the two strings are not equal, the THEN clause of the statement is executed, causing FindWind to return to the caller with a result of 0.
Next we come to: arc window name This illustrates the ARG statement, which is used to obtain the arguments which have been passed to a function. A statement of the form "arg al a2 ...” assigns to the variable al. The value of the first argument, to :t2. The second argument, and so on. In our case the variable window_name is now set to whatever value was given when FindWind was invoked. Note that we do not need to declare variables, we just go ahead and use them at will.
The next statement is one case of die OPTIONS statement which is used to set various options which control the execution environment. For now, all we want to do is allow' the host to send back results after we send commands to it. This is done with: opt;'r.a results The next pair of statements is our first example of a host command: 'Status 66' , * Get number of views *} num_views = result The Arexx interpreter will not be able to recognize the command “Status 66", so it will send it off to the current host (which we know is CygnusEd). The status command is part of the CygnusEd Arexx
interface that is used for getting information from die ediLor. Different values following the command indicate requests for different pieces of information. The value 66 indicates that we want to know the number of “views”, or editor windows, in existence. Since we have enabled die return of results from the host, the result of die command will appear in a special variable called (you guessed it) result. The next statement simply saves this value in a variable called num_view's. ForC and Pascal programmers, creating variables like this, without having declared them first, takes a bit of
getting used to, but it is actually very convenient. BASIC programmers, of course, will find this approach quite natural.
Some readers may be wondering at this point about the use of die apostrophes in die above code. In Arexx, either apostrophes or quotation marks may be ’used to delimit literal strings. Examples of these are Texx_ced' and ‘Status 66', We have used the apostrophes to make these into literal strings to prevent Arexx from attempting to evaluate them as variables.
Now we come to something a bit more interesting: a loop construct. What we want to do is loop through each of the editor window's until we find the one we want. This is accomplished with the following code: * Loop until found specified view or out of views " found = 0 do for num_views until found 'Status 21' * Get view r.arr.e * if upper (result) =v;indcv_r,ar:e ther.
Found = 1 else 'Next view' end We are using the variable found to keep track of whether we have found the window we are looking for. In Arexx, a value of zero is interpreted as FALSE and a value ol one is interpreted as TRUE, so we initialize found to zero to indicate that we have not found our window yet. The loop is accomplished with a DO statement. The DO statement is a very- powerful Arexx construct that has several forms. The form we are using will cause the body of the loop, all the statements between DO and END. To be carried out num_views times, or until found becomes true. The body
of the loop is easy: t0 understand. We get the name of the current editor window' using the '’Status" command w'e saw- before. If it is the name we are looking for we set found taie, which wall get us out of the loop, if it is not the one we want we send the “Next view” command to the editor to advance us to the next window. Note the slightly different form of the IF statement used here. 1 his one has an ELSE clause, which works just as you would expect it to.
Now W'e are done with FindWind. All that remains to do is to pass back to the caller the result of the search, which is contained in the variable found: return found THE MAIN MODULE: CYGCC Now' we’d better dive in and look at the main body ol our example program, the module CvgCC (Listing Two). We begin by defining a couple of variables: stacks!2-r ~ 40000 The variable nl will be used to write new-line characters on output. Note how- we can set a variable to any arbitrary hex value by following a string of hex digits by an X. Next w'e check, as we did in FindWind, to make sure that CygCC is
being invoked from within the editor: if address ()*-=' rexx_ced' then do say 'This program. Must be run from within CygnusEd' say 'Press return to continue...' puli answer exit end This time, if the host is not what we expect it to be, we provide an error message to the user with the SAY command and use the PULL command to wait until the user presses die return key. Note tire use of the DO - END construct here to include several statements within die THEN clause of the IF statement. In PASCAL this would have been done with a BEGIN
- END construct; in C widi the use of curly braces. In Arexx it
is die ubiquitous DO statement which does the trick.
The next statement is one we have seen before; cpricr.s resulcs This is needed to allow the host to pass result strings back to our Arexx program.
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Preliminaries completed, we proceed to get some information from die editor widi the following: 'Status 17' nlines = result ’ Number of lines in file V 'Status IS' fulir-.ame = result * lull path and name * ‘Status 20' pathname = resu_t * Path only " ‘Status 21' filename = result * Name only ' Now we have got various forms of the name ofthe file that die user was editing when CygCC was invoked. The next group of statements is used to check that die user was actually editing some file, and that its name ended in ".C", as we expect from a C source file. We also perform some
manipulations to strip off the ".C” extension and make sure that path ends in a or a “ The code should be self-explanatory. Note the use ol some of Arexx’s rich library of string manipulation routines: lastposO to get the location of die last appearance of a given character in a string, lengdiO to get the length of a string, rightO and leftO to extract ending and beginning substrings from a string, and upperO to translate a siring to upper case. Also note die use of die “11" operatorto concatenate strings. Strings can also be concatenated simply by writing them one after the other, but in
that case a blank will be inserted between the two strings.
* if filename hasn't beer, defined* we can not go on * if filename**'' then do 'Okayl Source file name not defined' exit end * Strip the .C extension and get bare file name • barename = w dotpos * lastpos(1filename) if dotpos 0 then do ext - right(filename,length(filename)-dotpos) if upper(ext) ™ 'C' then barename = left(filename,dotpos-1) end * If name didn't end in ".C" * if barename='' then do 'Okayl Error: Filename does net end in ".C"' exit end * ‘ ake sure pathname ends in a or a ' ' * if right! Pathname, 1 ) -- then pathname = pathname II' ' The “Okayl" command that appears in
the above code fragment is a CygnusEd command which brings up a requester containing the given message and waits for the user to click on the requester before continuing.
We have already seen how information can be passed between Arexx modules by means of argument passing. The next few lines illustrate another method of sharing information.
The NextErr function will need to know how many lines were in the source file when it was compiled (we will see why later).
We cannot simply pass this information to NextErr as an argument, since NextErr will be invoked as an independent program directly by the user as he steps through and corrects his errors one at a time. Our solution is to use an Arexx facility called the clip list. Information can be saved in this permanent, globally accessible storage facility by using the setclipO function. We will see later how the information is retrieved with the getclipQ function.
- Save the number of source lines or, clip liso, for use by NextErr " call setciipt ’CygCC_NLires', nlines ) Before we can compile, CygnusEd must be told to save the file to disk, where the compiler can get at it. This is easily accomplished with a single editor command: 'Save' The next step is to create a new editor window which the compiler error messages are going to appear in. If the window already exists (front a previous compilation perhaps), then we delete it with a “Quit” command and open a new one. We then use the CygnusEd “Text" command to insert a message into the new window
telling the user that we are about to compile his file.
If ?indWind( ‘Comp:ler__Kindovr' ) then 'Quit i' 'Open new' 'Open Compiler_Window' 'Text Compiling' fullnamellnl Some of die error messages produced by the linker contain escape codes which will mess up the CygnusEd window, so we tell CygnusEd to make escape codes invisible: * If escape codes are visible, make then invisible * 'Staius 34' if resale then 'Esc codes visible' r Toggle off * Now at last we can run the compiler. The Lattice compiler actually consists of two phases, called LC1 and LC2, The first step is to run LC1, as follows: address commend, 'c:stack' stacksize nl, ‘lc:lcl
t:phasel -oquad:' fullname The above statement is worth looking at in detail. Arexx statements are normally placed on one line, but in this case we have one statement which is split into three lines. The comma at the end of a Sine serves as a continuation marker, telling Arexx chat tlie statement is continued on the next line. The statement is ;t special form ol the ADDRESS command, which has two uses: to switch between different hosts, and to send DOS commands.
The keyword command tells Arexx that we are using die second form here. The keyword must be followed by a string containing the DOS command to be executed. In the statement above the command string is built by concatenating together a number of strings. (Remember that Arexx simply concatenates together strings which are written one after another.) Bodi literal suings, such as ‘C:stack’, and variables, such as stacksize, nl, and fullname, are used. Remember diat nl is a variable which we created earlier to contain the new-line character, hexadecimal OA. By inserting this in the middle of a DOS
command string, it is possible to issue multiple DOS commands at one time. The first command increases the stack, so that the compiler will not choke on a big source file. The second command runs the first phase of the compiler, redirecting compiler messages to the file TiPHASEI, placing the compilation output in the QUAD directory, hi your DOS startup sequence you should have T assigned to .some place you use for temporary storage, such as the directory RaiVLT, When you set up your C compiler, you also should have assigned LC to die directoiy containing the compiler, and QUAD to the
director)' you want to olace compiler intermediate files in. Making QUAD be RAM will speed up compilation, but be careful; remember that you will have the compiler, the Arexx interpreter, and the CygnusEd editor, containing your source file, all in memory at one time. I have got a standard one megabyte A2000, and if I assign QUAD to be RAM, I will run out of memoiy when compiling a medium size source file. Luckily I also have a fast hard disk, so I simply assign QUAD to a directoiy on the hard disk, which is almost as fast as using RAM.
Once the first phase of compilation is complete, we go and read the compiler messages, from TTHASEl, and copy them into the window we have created. This task is carried out by die routine ReadErrors. We will see how this routine works later. For now, all we need to know is that it will return the number of error messages the compiler has output. We will store the number of errors in a variable called cc_err_count.
Cc err_co’j:-:t: = EeaaErrors ( 'tiphasel', 'LC1' ) It no etTors were detected in the first phase, we proceed to run the second phase. The code for this is similar to the code we used to run the first phase: address commandr 'c:stack' stacksize nl, 'Ic:lc2 t:phase2 quad:' I !barename cc_err_count = ReadErrors ( 't:phase2', 'LC2' ) If no errors were detected in the second phase of compilation, we can run the linker. We get a bit tricky here - we use die Arexx built-in function existsO to look for a file with die same name as the source file and an extension of “.LNK”. If it exists, we use
this as the command file which contains all the options needed to run the linker. If not, we just supply a default set of options to the linker, as follows: * If a linker command file exists * if exists pathname I|barenamej I'.Ink' ) then do * Insert message to tell user we are linking * 'Text Linking WITH' pathnamelIbarename II'.lnk'|Ini * Link using the command file * address command, 'c:scackr stacksize nl, 'c:cdr pathname nl, 'ic:blink t:link WITH', pathname! Ibarename I r .Ink' end; else do * Insert message to tell user we are linking * 'Text Linking' pathnamel IbarenanelI'*o'I
Ini * Link using default options, libraries, etc. *7 address command, 'c:stack' stacksize nl, 'lctblink t:link FROM lib:c.o', 'quad:'IIbarenamei !'.o TO ‘pathnamelIbarename, 'LIBRARY lib:1c.lib lib:amiga.lib BATCH' * Read the linker error messages * lnk_err_count = ReadErrors ( 't:link', 'LINK' ) Now the grunt work is all done. All that remains is to show die user the results of the compilation. If we had compiler errors, the thing to do is to locate die first error in the source file, so that the user can begin to correct die errors. This is done by commanding the editor to move to the
top of die compiler message window, and then calling our function NextErr, as follows: * Find -he firsc error ir.ersage * ’3eq :¦ 1 file' Verk block' call xsacErrt) On the other hand, if we had no compiler errors, dien we were either completely successful, or we had linker errors. We issue an message telling the user what happened, and dien use CygnusEd’s “Okay2:: command to allow the user to delete or keep the compiler window with a click of die mouse button.
The code is as follows: if lnk_err_count=0 then message = 'Success 1' else message = 'Link Failure...' * Quit, allowing user to either delete error window or keep it * ’Okay2' message 'Delete compiler window?'
If result then 'Quit V else do * Hove to top of error window * 'Beg of file' ’Mark block' * Make source file window active * FindKindl filename ) end There is onlv one executable statement left in CygCC, and you can guess what it does: exit THE ERROR READER - READERRORS The module ReadErrors (Listing Three) is called to read the compiler or linker error messages, which have been redirected to a file, and to transfer the messages into an editor window. The messages are written in the error window in a format which wall be easy to read and interpret in the module NextErr.
Most of die code in ReadErrors is quite similar to the code wre have seen in the previous two modules, so rather than go through it line by line, let lis just examine die most interesting points, ReadErrors provides our first example of file I O. The file containing the compiler messages must be opened and then read, one line at a time. To open the file, the Arexx built-in function openO is used. The first argument to openO is a logical name, which will be used to identify the file from now' on. The second argument is the actual file name, and the drird argument is how' we want to access the
file. In diis case we want to read die file, so die third argument is set to Read. The openO function returns TRUE if die file was opened successfully, and FALSE otherwise. In the following code we open the file and check the result. If die result is not TRUE (the tilde means "not"), dien we give an error message and abort die program.
* Open input file - quit if we can not open it * if -open infile, err file ‘Read' ) then do 'Oksyl Unable to oper. File:' err_*;ile exit end Once die file has been opened, we use the readlnO function to read lines from it, and the eof() function to determine when all lines have been read from the file. You will see that the structure of ReadErrors looks like this: open( ir.file, err_file, ’P.eid* ) insuring = readinI infile do until eoft ir.file ) ...process tine data in variable instring ir.string = readlnt ir.file ) er.d This shows how file input is accomplished. Output is accom
plished in a similar fashion.
The second point of interest in ReadErrors is the use ol internal functions. Let us take a closer look at how subroutines (called functions in Arexx terminology) are handled. There are two ways that functions can be called in Arexx, either explicitly, with the CALL statement, or implicidy, by simply referencing a function in an expression.
Call rr.ysubl arcs ] ¦ explicit subroutine call ¦ x = yoursubt ar as ) * implicit call * No matter how' a function is called, Arexx applies the same procedure for finding it. First, Arexx looks for the subroutine name, followed by a colon, within the current file. This is called an internal function, and is illustrated in ReadErrors by the functions(ReadLinkErrorO, ProcessFlagLineQ, and ProcessOth- erLineO- If Arexx cannot find a function this way, it checks for a built-in function. We have seen many instances oi built-in functions - openO, eofO, and readlnO for example. If the function is
not a built-in function. Arexx checks available function libraries and function hosts, which we have no examples of in this program. Last, Arexx looks for a file on disk with the same name as the function. ReadErrorsO, FindWindO, and NextErrO are all examples of this type of function.
The last point of interest in ReadErrors is the use of the PARSE command, which provides great power for breaking up strings into their component parts. This instruction has many different forms and options. One of these forms is illustrated by' the code we used to break up a compiler error message, contained in the variable instring: parse var instring fname line_num severity . Message This line of code beaks up instring into substrings using blank space as delimiters. The first substring is placed in the variable fname, the second in line_num, the third in severity, and the remainder of
instring is placed in the variable message.
THE ERROR LOCATOR - NEXTERR The last of our modules is NextErr (Listing Four), which highlights the next error message in the message window, and jumps the cursor to die line containing die error in the source file window. If y'ou have been able to follow the explanation of the previous three modules, then you will find the code of NextErr self-explanatory. The only point worth noting is the use of the GetClipO function, which corresponds the SetClipO function used in CygCC. We use GetClip to recover from the clipboard the number of lines which were in the source file when it was compiled.
Using this information, NextErr can correctly find the line containing the next error, even if the user has added or deleted lines in the course of correcting previous errors.
IN CONCLUSION... The CygCC program presented in this article was intended to provide an in-depth introduction to Arexx with a really functional example program. There are several interesting aspects of Arexx that wre could not address in the space of this article - compound variables, interactive tracing, and function libraries, to name just a fewr. Nevertheless, readers who have followed through the example code should now' have a good idea of how' Arexx can be used to bring several different application programs together into one coherent wdiole. Of course, the only wrayr to really' learn
a new' programming language is to begin to use it yourself. As wras mentioned at the beginning of this article, if y'ou use a different editor or programming language, a good starting Arexx project might be to adapt the CygCC program to work w'ith your editor and language.
The Cy'gCC program is placed in the public domain, and you are free to use it as you wish. But if y'ou do come up with improvements or new versions of CygCC, or some new' Arexx programs of your own, please consider placing them in the public domain, so that wre can all use them. Since Arexx is implemented as an interpreted language, programs must be distributed in source code format. This means that there probably w'ill not be much Arexx code wnitten by commercial developers, so for our supply of good Arexx programs we will be relying on that great Amiga resource: shareware and public domain
(continued on page 88) PROBABLY EVERYONE WHO PROGRAMS ON THE AMIGA, whether professional or amateur, knows that the machine is capable of multitasking. Although, this is a well-known accomplishment for the Amiga, many programmers (even professional ones) fail to consider that this also means it is possible to run the same program simultaneously perhaps a program that you wrote. The reason I mention this fact is to illustrate the point that you will have to plan for this event while you write your C programs (as well as those in any other language).
If you are writing a program that opens a data file, have you planned on “sharing'’ this file, or do you expect to have exclusive access? This is an important question to ask yourself. Sharing the data file sounds simple enough, but what happens when the file is changed by your other seif (or another program)? Does the possibility exist that one program can change something in the file, only to have it changed again by the other? These are important questions and will be application-dependent. If the file in question is being updated in some “batch” mode, with numerous revisions on a series of
records, then you may have a potential problem. Although this is probably more likely to be a problem found in a network environment rather than multitasking, you may not be there to operate your software, and your client may not know of the potential harm of running the program again simultaneously.
What you do in a situation like this depends upon a number of factors. If tire operating system offers a method of file control, then that can be used. If it is pretty much left to the programmer then you have to develop your own techniques. One simple solution involves developing your own version of file protection.
With a control file (or even the first record within tine data file) you can indicate if the file is in use. With this method, you would first check to see if it is okay to proceed by examining the ‘‘in-use” indicator (this could be a character, a signature word, or any- specified data that you can read and examine). If access is allowed, you would change the indicator and store it back into the appropriate place so a simultaneous run of the program would result in the second program handling the situation.
Determining that the file was in use might call for waiting until the indicator is changed, or simply terminating the run, You probably should offer an override capability in the event that the indicator can be changed if a previous run did not complete successfully and left the in-use indicator on accidentally.
This technique can actually be carried even further and used to indicate specific areas within a file that are in use, rather than simply marking the entire file. Essentially, you could include indicators on each record and allow access to all of the file except the record with which your program is currently working. Many networking (and DOS) environments offer diese features automatically through system calls and do not require you to make room in your data files for the indicators.
Another file event that is often overlooked by many programmers in die multitasking (and networking) environment is in creating files for outpu ting information, like reports. Suppose you have written a program drat takes a document and builds an index on some specified key words drat might be found within dre text. The index file that you build has to be given a name. If you elect to use a “hard-coded" name like, INDEX.FIL, you have a potential hazard. If a subsequent run of your program begins before tire first completes you will clash in the output file, probably producing incorrect
Usually, it is best to avoid these situations by allowing the user to specify output flies when possible. It is not difficult and probably could be made into a library' function diat you could include in ail your programs without having to duplicate the effort.
The same type of tiring can occur with programs that employ temporary files. J have seen this happen on several occasions with programs doing sorts on large data files. Often it is impossible to read an entire file into memory and sort it, so temporary files are required to complete the task. You can see what will happen if the program assigns the same name (or series of names) to its temporary file(s). If another task is started with the same program then you may end up deleting or changing the temporary file(s) without the other task knowing; or having it done to your fiie(s) by the other
Temporary files are, unfortunately, a must for many programs. Since they are “temporary” files, it is probably unreasonable to expect die user to type in a name each time one is required. However, you can avoid these problems by-including a few more instructions In your code. First, develop a function (or determine if there is one already in your C libraries) that will produce a file with a unique name. This usually involves some text and numbering scheme, like TMP00001.TMP. Within some loops, you would create a name (like the one above) and then check to see if a file by that name already
exists. If one does, then you start over and create another name (like TMP00002.TMP) and try again. Eventually, you will develop a unique name that can be created for your temporary file.
(NOTE: If you do decide on tills method you may want to use a random number rather than beginning sequentially as I have demonstrated. This will improve your chances of getting a unique name on the first few tries.) Remember to remove any temporary files that you create when you are finished with them. There is nothing worse than a disk full of junk.
Listing Two (CNotes, continued) These are some of the things that you need to consider when writing programs that do file manipulation, Of course, there are many others and ! Do not necessarily offer these suggestions as the best solutions. You, as the programmer, have to determine how to handle these situations in your programs. The point diat I want to stress is that file relationships need to be considered during program development. I don't like it when programs 1 use have these problems and you probably have had the same experience.
So, diink about howyour program will react if it “meets itself during a run.
• AC* (CygCC, continuedfrom page 86) Listing One
- FindKind - find a '.endow (vie*) and xske do active.
* (must be run from CygnusEd) Input: argument: name of window
* Returns: 1 if success, D otherwise * The current address must
be rexx_ced * if address!) *•= 're:-:x_ced' then return 0 t*
Get the arguments * arg window_nar.e * Allow host to return
results * options results 'status 65' * Get number of views
* num_views *= result * loop until found specified view or
out of views * found - C do for num_views until found ’Status
21' * Get view name * if upper(result)°windcw_nane then found
n i else 'Next view' end return found * End FindWind * CygCC
- Run the compiler from within CygnusEd editor AREXX program
written August 1989, by Duncan Thomson This is the main driver
of a program which invokes the Lattice C compiler and linker.
It must be called from the CygnusEd editor.
The following AREXX programs are also required: FindWind - finds a particular CygnusEd window ReadErrors - copies compiler messages to window NextErr * advances to next error message and corresponding line of source code * Define some miscellaneous variables we will need * nl = 'G.VX st&cksize » *50000 * Make sure the crrent host is CygnusEd * if address()-¦'rexx_ced' then do say 'This program must be run from within CygnusEd' say ’Press return to continue...' puli answer exit end f* Allow CygnusEd to pass status variables * options results " Get info about current file from CygnusEd *
'Status 17' nlines = result * Number of lines in file * 'Status IS' fullname = result * Full path and name * 'Status 20' pathname 3 result ¦ Path only * 'Status 21' filename * result • Name only • * If filename has not been defined, we can't go on * if filename3'' then do 'Okayi Source file name not defined' exit end * Strip the . C extension ar.d get the bare file name V barename = w dotpos = lastpos('.', filename) if dotpos 0 then do ext = right(filename,length(filename)-dotpos) if upper(ext) = 'Cf then barename = left(filename,dotpos-1) end • If name didn't end in *.C" * if
barename='' then do 'Okayl Error: Filename does not end in rt.C"' exit end * Make sure pathname ends in a or a ' ' * if right ( pathname, 1 ) * then pathname = pathname II1 ' * Save the number of source lines on clip list, for use by NextErr '!
Call setclip( 'CygCC_NLinesr, nlines ) * Save the file, in the current directory * 'Save' * Open compiler window to show messages in *!
If FindWindI 'Corapiler_Windowr ) then 'Quit 1' 'Coer, new' 'Open CcmpiIer_Window' 'Text Compiling' fullnamelIni * If escape codes are visible, make them invisible * 'Status 3 J' if result then 'Esc codes visible' !* Toggle off * * Run the 1st phase of the C compiler ¦ address command, 'c:stack' stacksite nl, 'lc:lci t:phasel -oquad:' fullname cc_err_count = ReadErrors( lt:phase1', 'LC1' ) * If first phase completed with nc errors * if( cc err count“0 ) then do * Run the 2nd phase of she C compiler * address command, 'c:stack' stacksioe nl, 'lc:lc2 t:phase2 quad:' I Ibarenar.e
cc_err_ccur.r = ReadErrors ( 't:phase2'r '122' ) * If 2nd phase completed with no errors ¦ if i cc_err_cour,t»0 ) then do * If a linker command file exists • if exists ( pathname IibarenameiIInk' ) then do * Insert message to tell user we're linking * 'Text Linking WITH' pathname I barenamei I'.Ink' ini ' Link using the command file * address command, 'c:srack' stacks!re nl, ’c:cd' pathname nl, ’lciblink t: link WITH.', pathname|Ibarenamei I'.ink' end; else do !* Insert message to tell user we're linking * 'Text Linking' pathname I ibarenamei I'.c' I nl * Link using default
options, libraries, etc. * address command, ’c:stack' stacksioe nl, ‘Ic:blink t;lir.k FROM iib:c,o', 'quad;'Iibarenamei]'.c TO 'pathname! Ibarename, ’LIBRARY lib;lc.lib lib:amiga.lib BATCH' end * Read the linker error messages * lnk_err_count ~ ReadErrors ! 't:link', 'LINK' ) end end ¦ Show user the results of the compilation ¦ if co_err_count 0 then do * Find the first error message * ’Beg of file' ’Mark block' call Next Err () end; else do if lnk_err_count«0 then message = ‘Success!'
Else message = 'Link Failure...' * Quit, allowing user to either delete error window or keep it ¦ v0kay2' message ’Delete compiler window?'
If result then ’Cult 1' else do ¦ Move to top of error window * 'Beg of file' ‘Mark block' • Make source file window active * FindWind filename ) Listing Three ReadErrors - process the output of LC1 or LC2 1st stage or 2nd stage cf the Lattice C compiler) cr the linker.
To be invoked by CygCC, the CygnusEd compiler invoker.
NOTE - works with Lattice C version 5 inputs; err_flie - file containing compiler outputs fiie_type - what type of output are we reading: LC1, 1C2, or LINK Output; returns the number of error messages found not counting warnings) * Allow host to return results * options results * Get the arguments * arg err_file, file_type !* ASCII character definitions... * nl « 'OA'X * New Line * flag_char =¦ '93'X • C error messages contain this ¦ ese_ehar = ’IB'X • Some link messages contain this * * Find the view to put the messages into • if -FindWind 'Compiler_Window ) then do * Quit if
we couldn't find window * 'Okayl 'Jnafcle to find Compiler_Window' exit end * open input file - quit if we can't open it • if -open( ir.fiie, err_file, 'Read' ) then do 'Okayl Unable to cper. File;' err_file exit end • Read lines from input file, until none left *.
Iine_cour.t-C err_count»0 column=0 instring = readini infile ) do until ecf( infile ) ’ Skip first two lines of "banner" text * line_count = lir.e_count + 3 if line__count 2 then * If we are reading the output of the linker * if file_type='LINK1 then call ReadLinkError() else do f* Else, must be compiler output * ¦ If the string contains the flag character * flag_pcs » index( instring, flag_char ) if fiag_pos 0 then call ProcessFlagLineO else call RrocessOtherLir.e 0 end ¦ Get the next line of input * instring = readln infile } end I* Now get rid of the error file * cl_res = close(
infile ) address ccmmar.d 'Delete' err_file return err_count * end of function ReadErrors * ReadLinkError; * If line contains an ESC character or "error" *y if index instrir.g,esc_char) 0 , . Index(upper(instring) , ' ERROR') 3 then * It's some kind of linker error message * err_count = err count l * If the line is not blank • if instring--'' then ‘ Copy it ir.to the editor window • 'Text' instring I Ini return I* End of function ReadLinkError * ProcessFlagLine: * If this is a system error message V if index instring, 'Stack Overflow* ) 0 then do 'Text System « Stack Overflow
» - Mini err count = err_ccunt-l er.d; else do * This is a line of the user's C scurce with the error position marked by the flag character * column = fiag_?cs end return * End of function ProcessFlagLine * ProcessOtherLine: * If previous line contained a flag character * if colunn 0 then da * Current lire contains file name, line num., etc.* parse var instring fname line_nun severity . Message * Reformat error message into Cygnused window * 'Text' left severity, 9) ’ « ' I Imessage '» ', fname line_num column I Inl if severity-“'Warning' then err_cour.t=err_ceunr-rI column = 0
end; else do * Look at the first word on the line • parse var ir.string firstword .
If firstword-'Module' then MOVING?
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* Net an error - it's 1C2 module site message 7 'Text' instring]Ini else do S* We assume it's seme kind of error 7 errecount = err_caunt+i if firstword-'CXERR:' then * This is an internal error message 7 'Text Internal Error number:', line_num '» * 'I ini else * It rust be an "Operational" message 7 'Text Operation «' instring ’» * 'llnl end end return * end of function ProcessOtherLine 7 * end of ?roc 1C1 Out 7 Listing Four' NextErr - finds the next error message in the compiler output window and then positions the cursor on the error in the source window Called by CygCC, the
CygnusEd compiler invoker.
Also can be called directly from CygnusEd editor.
Inputs and outputs: none * Allow host to return results *7 options results * Find the window 7 if -FindWind ‘Compiler_Window' } ther.
Return else do * Unhighlight previous error message 7 'Mark block' * Look for the next error message 7 ‘Search for « ' if result- 'RESULT' then do ‘0kay2 No more errors... Delete Compiler_Kindow?'
If result then 'Quit 1' else do 'Beg of file' ‘Mark block' end return end * Highlight the error message 7 ‘Mark block' 'Search for »'; 'Right'; 'Right'; ‘Right'; * Get the contents of the error message 7 'Status 55' t* contents of current line 7 err_line ¦= result ¦ Parse err_lir.e to get filename, line, and column ' parse var err_line . '» ' fname line_num column * If error line contains a valid filename 7 if fname"-'’' then do ' Strip path from filename to get window name V wname = right(fname,length(fname)-lastposfname)) wname = right (wname, length (wname) -lastpos (’ ', wname) )
* Try to find the program window- 7 found = FindWind ( wname ) ¦ If there was no window corresponding to file 7 if ( -found ) ther. Do S' Look for the source file in default dir 7 if exists fname } then found = 1 else do * Maybe it's an INCLUDE file 7 if exists! 'INCLUDE:'I Ifname ) then do found = 1 fname = 'INCLUDE:'!1fname end end * If we were able to find the source file 7 if found then do * Open a new window on it *7 ’Open new' ‘Open' fname end else do * Inform the user of our troubles 7 ‘Okayl Unable to find source file' return end end * If we were able to find the source file 7
if found then do !* Compensate for lines added or deleted to source file since it was compiled, we presume here that these changes occur BEFORE the current error location 7 'Status 17' * current lines 7 Iines_now - result lines_orig = getciipl 'CygCCNLines' ) line_num = line_r.um + ( lines_ncw - lines_orig ) * Move cursor to location of the error 7 'Jumpto' line_num column end ' end if not internal error 7 end return * End program NextErr *
• AC * « Vol. 1 No. 1 Premiere, 1986 Highlights include: "Super
Spheres", An Abasic Graphics Program, by Kelly Kauffman "Date
Virus", by J Poust "LZ-Term", An Abasic terminal program, by
Kelly Kauffman "Miga Mania", Programming fixes & mouse care, by
P. Kivolowitz "Inside CLI", A guided insight into AmigaDos, by
G. Musser 9 Vol. 1 Xo. 2 19S6 Highlights include: "Inside CLI:
Part Two", InvestigatingCLl & ED,byG. Musser "Online and the
CIS Fabitc 2424 ADH Modem", by j, Foust "Superterm V 1.0", A
terminal program in Amiga Basic, by K Kauffman "A Workbench
"More" Program", by Rick Wirch
* Vol. 1 Xo. 3 :9S6 Highlights include: "Forth!", A tutorial
"Deluxe Draw!!", An AmigaBASIC art program, by R. Wirch
"AmigaBASIC", A beginner's tutorial "Inside CLI: Part 3", by
George Musser
* Vol. 1 No. 4 19S6 Highlights include: "Build Your Own 51 4"
Drive Connector", by E. Viveiros "AmigaBASIC Tips", by Rich
Wirch "Scrimpen Part One", A program to print Amiga screen, by
P. Kivolowitz
* Vol. 1 No. 5 1986 Highlights include: "The HSI to RGB
Conversion Tool". Color manipulation in BASIC, by S. Pietrowicz
"Scrimpcr Part Two” by Perry Kivolowitz “Building Tools", by
Daniel Kary 9 Vol. 1 No. 6 1956 Highlights include: "Mailing
List", A basic mail list program, bv Kelly Kauffman "Pointer
Image Editor", by Stephen Pietrowicz “Scrimpcn Part Three", by
Perry Kivolowitz “Optimize Your Amiga Basic Programs For
Speed", bv Steve Pietrowicz
* Vol. 1 No. 7 1986 Highlights include: “Try 3-D", An
introduction to 3-D graphics, by Jim Meadows “Window Requesters
in Amiga Basic", by Steve Michel “I C What I Think", A few C
graphic progs, by R, Peterson “Your Menu Sir!", Programming
AmigaBASIC menus, by B Catley “Linking C Programs with
Assembler Routines", bv Gerald Hull 9 Vol. 1 No. S 1986
Highlights include: “Computers in the Oassroom", by Robert
Frizelle “Using Your Printer With The Amiga" “Using Fonts from
AmigaBASIC", by Tint Jones “Screen SaVer", Monitor protection
program in C, by P. Kivolowitz “A Tale of Three EMACS". By
Steve Poling “.bmap File Reader in AmigaBASIC", by T Jones AC's
BACK ISSUE INDEX 9 Vol. 1 No. 9 19S6 Highlights include: "The
Loan Information Program", A BASIC program for your financial
options, by Brian Catley "Starting Your Own Amiga-Related
Business", by W, Simpson "Keep Track of Your Business Usage for
Taxes", by J- Kummer "Using Fonts from AmigaBASIC: Part Two",
by Tim Jones "63000 Macros On The Amiga", by G. Hull 'it Vol. 2
No. I, January' 1987 Highlights include: "What Digi-View Is...
Or, What Genlock Should Be!",byj.
Poust "AmigaBASIC Titles", by Bryan Catley "A Public Domain Modula-2 System", by Warren Block "One Drive Compile", by Douglas Lovell "A Megabyte Without Megabucks", An internal megabyte upgrade, by Chris Irving » Vol. 2 Xo. 2, February 19S7 Highlights include: "The Modem", Efforts of a BBS sysop, by Josph L. Rothmnn "The ACO ProjecL...Graphic Teleconferencing on the Amiga", by S. R. Pietrowicz "Flight Simulator II: A Cross Country Tutorial", by John Rafferty "A Disk Librarian In AmigaBASIC", by John Kerman "Creating And Using Amiga Workbench Icons", by C. 1 lansel "Build Your Own MIDI
Interface", by Richard Rae "AmigaDOS Operating System Calls and Disk File Management", by D, Havnie "Working with the Workbench", by Louis A. Mamakos 9 Vol. 2 No. 3, March 19S7 Highlights include: "An Analysis Of The New Amiga Pcs (A2000 & A500)", by
J. Foust "Subscripts and Superscripts in AmigaBASIC", by Ivan C.
Smith "AmigaTrix", Amiga shortcuts, by W. Block "Intuition
Gadgets", by Harriet MavbeckTolly "Forth!". Put sound in your
Forth programs, by Jon Bryan "Assembly Language on the Amiga",
by Chris Martin "AmigaNotes", No stereo? Y not?, by Rick Rae
it Vol. 2 No. 4, April 1987 Highlights include: "Jim Sachs
Interview", by S. Hull "The Mouse That Got Restored", by Jerry
Hull and Bob Rhode "Household Inventory System in AmigaBASIC",
by B. Catley "Secrets of Screen Dumps", by Naikun Okun
"Amigatrix 1J", More Amiga shortcuts, by Warren Block 9 Vol. 2
No. 5, May 1987 Highlights include: "Writing a SoundScape
Module", Programming with MIDI.
Amiga and SoundScape in C, by T. Fay "Programming in 63000 Assembly Language",by C Martin "Using FuturcSound with AmigaBASIC", Programming utility with real digitized STEREO, by J. Meadows "Waveform Workshop In AmigaBASIC", bv J. Shields "Intuition Gadgets: Part II", by H. MaybeckTolIv
* Vol. 2 No. 6, June 19S7 Highlights include: "Modula-2 AmigaDOS
Utilities", by S. Faiwiszewski "Amiga Expansion Peripherals",
by J. Foust "What You Should Know Before Choosing an Amiga 1000
Expansion Device", by S. Grant “6S000 Assembly Language
Programming", by Chris Martin V Vol. 2 No. 7, July 1987
Highlights include: "Video and Your Amiga", by Oran Sands III
“Amigas & Weather Forecasting", by Brenden Larson "Quality
Video from a Quality Computer", by O. Sands "Is IFF Really a
Standard?", by John Foust “All About Printer Drivers'', by
Richard Bielak “63000 Assembly Language", by Chris Martin t
Vol. 2 No. 8, August 1987 Highlights include: "Amiga
Entertainment Products" "Modula-2 Programming'' "Assembly
Language" "Disk-2-Disk", by Matthew Leeds "Skinny C Programs",
by Robert Riemersmn, Jr.
Vol. 2 No. 9, September 19S7 Highlights include: “Modula-2 Programming", Raw console dev. Events, by S Faiwiszewski "AmigaBASIC Patterns", by Brian Catley “Programming with Soundscape", by T. Fay "Bill Volk, Vice-President Aegis Development", interview by Steve Hull “Jim Goodnow, Developer of Manx 'C'*, interview bv Harriet M Tolly
* Vol. 2 No. 10, October 19S7 Highlights include: “Max Headroom
and the Amiga", by John Foust “Taking the Perfect Screen Shot",
by Keith Conforti “Amiga Artist: Brian Williams", by John Foust
“All About On-line Conferencing", by Richard Rae “Amiga BASIC
Structures", by Steve Michel “Quick and Dirty Bobs", by Michael
Swinger “Fast File I O with Modula-2", by Steve Faiwiszewski
“Window I O", by Read Prcdmore »' Vol. 2 No. 11, November 19S7
Highlights include: “Jcz San Interview" StarGlider author
speaks!, by Ed Bercovitz "Do-it-yourself Improvements To The
Amiga Genlock" "AmigaNotes", Electronic music books, by R. Rae
"Modula-2 Programming", Devices, I O, & serial port, by S.
Faiwiszewski "68000 Assembly Language", by Chris Martin “The
AMICUS Network", by John Foust "C Animation: Part II", by Mike
Swinger “SoundScape Part III", VU Meter and more, by Todor Fay
"Fun with Amiga Numbers", by Alan Barnett “File Browser”, by
Brvan Catley Vol. 2 No. 12, December 19S7 Highlights include:
“The Ultimate Video Accessory", by Larry White "The Sony
Connection", by Stewart Cobb "CLI Arguments in C", by Paul
Castonguay "MIDI Interface Adaptor", by Barry Massoni
"Modula-2", Command line calculator, by S. Faiwiszewski "Am
igaNotcs", Audio changes made in the A5OO&A2OQ0, by Rick Rae
"Animation for C Rookies: Part III", by M. Swinger "The Big
Picture", Assembly language programming, by Warren Ring
"Insider Kwikslart Review", RAM k ROM expansion: Comments k
installation lips, by Ernest P. Viveiros, Sr.
"Forth!", DumpRPort utility for your Multi-Forth toolbox, by Jon Bryan
* Vol. 3 No. I, January 1938 Highlights include: "AmigaNotes",
Amiga digital music generation, by Richard Rae "C Animation:
Part IV", by Michael Swinger "Forth", Sorting out AmigaCHIP and
FAST memory, by John j Bryan "The Big Picture", CL1 system
calls and manipulating disk files, by Warren Ring "68000
Assembly Language Programming Create a multicolor screen
without using Intuition routines, by Chris Martin "Modula-2
Programming", by S. Faiwiszewski "The Ultimate Video
Accessory': Part II", by L. White "FormatMasien Professional
Disk Formatting Engine", by
C. Mann "BSpread", Full featured AmigaBASIC spreadsheet, by Brian
Catley Vol. 3 No, 2, February 19SS Highlights include: "Laser
Light Shows with the Amiga", by Patrick Murphy "The Ultimate
Video Accessory1. Part 111", by L. White "Hooked On The Amiga
With Fred Fish", by Ed Bercovitz.
"Photo Quality Reproduction with the Amiga and Digi- View", by Stephen Lebans "Balancing Your Checkbook With WordPerfect Macros", by
S. Hull "Solutions To Linear Algebra Through Matrix
Computations", by Robert Ellis "Modula-2 Programming",
Catching up with Calc, by Steve Faiwiszewski "6S0QQ Assembler
Language Programming", by Chris Martin "AiRT", Icon-based
program language, by S. Faiwiszewski ¥ Vol. 3 No. 3, March
1988 Highlights include: "Desktop Video: Part IV", by Larry
W'hite "The Hidden Power of CLI Batch File Processing", by J.
Rolhman "A Conference With Eric Graham", edited by John Foust
"Perry Kivolowitz Interviewed", by Ed Bercovitz "Jean
"Moebius" Giraud Interviewed", by Edward L. Fadigan "PAL
Help", AIQQQ expansion reliability, by Perry Kivolowitz
"Boolean Function Minimization", by Steven M. Hart "Amiga
Serial Port and MIDI Compatibility for Your At 000", by L
Ritter and G. Rentz " Electric Network Solutions the Ma trix
Wav", by Robert Ellis "Modula-2 Programming", The gameport
device and simple sprites in action, by 5teve Faiwiszewski
"The Big Picture", Unified Field Tneory by Warren Ring » Vol.
3 No. 4, April 19SS Highlights include: "Writing A SoundScape
Patch Librarian", by T. Fay "Upgrade Your A1000 to A500 2000
Audio Power", by H. Bassen "Gels in Multi-Forth", by John
Bushakra "Macrobatics", Easing the trauma of Assembly language
programming, by Patrick J. Morgan "The Ultimate Video
Accesory: Part V", by Larry White "The Big Picture, Part II:
Unified Field Theory", by Warren Ring 'The Big Picture,
Unified Field Theory: Part III", by Warren Ring "Modula-2",
Termination modules for Benchmark and TDI compilers, by Steve
Faiwiszewski "6S0OO Assembly Language", Peeling away the
complication of display routines, by Chris Martin 'The Command
Line: The First Installment", by Rich Falconburg
w. Vol. 3 No. 6, June 1988 Highlights include: "Reassigning
Workbench Disks", by John Kennan "An IFF Reader in
Multi-Forth", by Warren Block "Basic Directory Service
Program", ProgrammingaUernative to the GimmeeZeroZero, by
Brvan Catley "C Notes from the C Group", A beginner's guide to
the power of C programming, by Stephen Kemp An Amiga Forum
Conference with Jim Mackraz The Amiga market as seen by the
"Stepfather of Intuition."
The Command Line: Exploring the multi-talented LIST command", by Rich Falconburg
* Vol. 3 No. 7, July 1988 Highlights include: "An Interview
with'Anim Man Gary Bonham"by B. Larson "Roll Those Presses!",
The dandy, demanding world of desktop publishing, by Barney
Schwartz "Linked Lists in C", by W. E. Gammill "C Notes from
the C Group",The unknown "C" of basicobject and data types, by
Stephen Kemp W Vol. 3 No. S, August 1988 Highlights include:
"The Developing Amiga", A gaggle of great programming tools, by
Stephen R. Pietrowicz "Modula-2 Programming", Libraries and the
FFP and IEE math routines, by Steve Faiwiszewski "C Notes from
the C Group: Arraysand pointers unmasked", by Stephen Kemp
"TrackMouse", Converting a standard Atari trackball into a
peppy Amiga TrackMouse, by Darryl Joyce "Amiga Interface for
Blind Users", by Carl W. Mann 'Tumblin' Tots", Assembly
language program, by David Ashley Plus A Look At Amiga
Entertainment It Vol. 3 No. 9, September 19SS Highlights
include: "The Kideo Tapes", A Georgia elementary school puts
desktop video to work, by John Dandurand "Speeding Up Your
System", Floppy disk caching, by Tony Preston "Computer-Aided
Instruction", Authoring system in AmigaBASIC, by Paul
Castonguay "Gels in Multi-Forth, Part II: Screenplay", by John
Bushakra "AmigaNotes: How IFF sound samples are stored", by
Richard Rae "C Notes from the C Group", Operators, expressions,
and statements in C uncovered, by Stephen Kemp ¥ Vol. 3 No. 10,
October 1988 Highlights include: "The Command Line:NEWCLI: A
painless way to create a new console window", by Rich
Falconburg "Record Keeping for Freelancers: A Superbase
Professional Tutorial", by Marion Deland "On The Crafting of
Programs", Optimization kicks off our series on programming
savvy, by David J Hankins "Bob and Ray Meet Frankenstein",
Create, animate, and metamorphose graphics objects in
AmigaBASIC, by Robert D'Asto "Digital Signal Processing in
AmigaBASIC", Perform your own digital experiments with Fast
Fourier Transforms, by Robert Ellis "HAM k AmigaBASIC", Pack
your AmigaBASIC progs with many of the Amiga's 4096 shades, by
Bryan Catley "CAI Computer Aided Instruction: Part II", by Paul
Castonguay Vol. 3 No. 11, November 1988 Highlights include:
"Structures in C", by Paul Castonguay "On Tire Crafting of
Programs", 5peed up your progs, by D. Hankins "Desktop Video
VI: Adding the Third Dimension", by L. White "More Linked Lists
in C: Techniques and Applications", Procedures for managing
lists, storing diverse data types in the same list, and putting
lists to work in your programs, by Forest W. Arnold "BASIC
Linker", Combine individual routines from your program library
to create an executable program, by Brian Zupke Vol. 3 No. 12,
December 1988 Highlights include: "The Command Line: What to do
when the commands of AmigaDos fail", bv Rich Falconburg
"Converting Patch Librarian Files", by Phil Saunders "The
Creation of Don Bluth's Dragon's Lair", by Randy Linden "Easy
Menus in Jforth", by Phil Burk "Extending AmigaBasic", The
useof library calls from within AmigaBASIC, by John Kennan
"Getting Started In Assembly", by Jeff Glatt "C Notes From The
C Group: Program or function control coding", by Stephen Kemp
"AmigaDos, Assembly Language, And FilcNotes", Weapons in the
war against file overload; accurate, descriptive file naming,
by Dan Huth % Vol. 4 No. 1, January 1989 Highlights include:
"Desktop Video", by Richard Starr "Industrial Strength Menus",
by Robert D'Asto "Scrolling Through SuperBitMap Windows", by
Read Predmore "Sync Tips: Dot crawl, the Amiga and composite
video devices", by Oran J. Sands "Stop-Motion Animation On The
Amiga", by Brian Zupke "The Command Line: New and Improved
Assembly Language Commands", by Rich Falconburg "Painters,
Function Pointers, and Pointer Declarations in C", by Forest W.
Arnold "Death of a Process", Developing an error-handling
module in Modula-2, by Mark Cashman if Vol. 4 No. 2, February
19S9 Highlights include: "Max Morchead Interview" by Richard
Rae "A Common User Interface for the Amiga", by Jim Daviess
"SPY:Programming Intrigue In Modula -2", by Steve Faiwiszewski
"Sync Tips: Getting inside the genlock",by Oran Sands "On the
Crafting of Programs: A common standard for C programming?", by
D j. Hankins "C Notes from the C Group: An introduction to
unions", by Steven Kemp "The Command Line: Your Workbench
Screen Editor", by Rich Falconburg "An Introduction to Arexx
programming", by Steve Faiwizewski « Vol. 4 No. 3, March 1989
Highlights include: "Fractal Fundamentals", by Paul Castonguay
"Image Processing With Photosynthesis", by Gerald Hull
"Benchmark 1: Fully Utilizing The MC6SSS1", Part I:
Turbocharging the savage benchmark, by Read Predmore "Breaking
the Bmap Barrier", Streamline AmigaBASIC library' access with
Quick-Lib, by Robert D'Asto "Double Play'", AmigaBASIC program
yields double vision, by Robert D'Asto 'The Video Desk: The
Amiga meets Nikon Camera", by Larrv White
* Vol. 4 No. 4, April 1969 Highlights include: "AmtEXPO Art and
Video Contest Winners", by Steve Jacobs "Adding the Not-So-Hard
Disk", by J P. Twardy "The Max Hard Drive Kit", A hard drive
installation project, using Falomax's Max kit, by Donald W.
Morgan "Sync Tips: A dearer picture of video and computer
resolutions", by Oran J. Sands "Passing Arguments",
5tep-bv-step on how to passdata from the CLI to AmigaBASIC, by
Brian Zupke "Creating a Shared Library'", by John Baez « Vol. 4
No. 5, May 1989 Highlights include: "The Business of Video", by
Steve Gillmor "An Amiga Adventure", The globetrotting Amiga in
Cologne, Germany, by Larry White "Uninterruptible Power Supply
(UPS), Part I", by Steve Bender "Building Your Own Stereo
Digitizer", by Andre Theberge "MIDI Out Interface", by Br.
Seraphim Winslow "Digitized Sounds in Modula-2", by Len A.
While "Sync Tips: The secrets hidden beneath the flicker mode",
by Oran J. Sands "Insta Sound in AmigaBASIC", by Greg
Stringfellow "C Notes from the C Group: Formatted output
functions", by Stephen Kemp If Vol. -1 No. 6, June 1989
Highlights include; "Adventures in Arexx", by Steve Gillmor "At
Your Request: Design your own requesters in AmigaBASIC",bv John
F. Weiderhirn "Exploring Amiga Disk Structures", by David
Martin "Diskless Compile in C", by Chuck Raudonis "(UPS), Part
11". By Steve Bender "Programming the '881 Part II", A
discussion on how to calculate Mandelbrot & Julia sets, by Read
Predmore "C Notes from the C Group: Ways to avoid problems when
passing parameters between functions", by Stephen Kemp H Vol. 4
No. 7, July 1989 Highlights include: "An Inside look at
UltraCard”, by Steve Gillmor "Adapting Analog Joysticks to the
Amiga", by David Kinzor "Using Coordinate Systems: Part II of
the Fractals series addresses the basis of computer graphics",
by Paul Castonguay Plus A Look At Amiga Entertainment Vol. 4
No. 8. August 1989 Highlights include; "Getting Started in
Video", by Richard Starr "C Notes: Directing programs via the
Command Line", by Stephen Kemp "Executing Batch Files in
AmigaBASIC", by Mark Avdellotte "Building a Better String
Gadget", by John Bushakra "On Your Alert: Using System Alerts
from BASIC", by John
F. Vviederhirn « Vol. 4 No. 9, September 1989 Highlights include;
"Digitizing Color Slides And Negatives on the Amiga", by Ron
Gull "Improving Your Graphics Programming", by Richard Martin
"Cell Animation In Modula-2", by Nicholas Cirasella "More
Requesters In Amiga BASIC", bv John R Wiederhirn "DeluxePaint
111 The Inside Story", EA's Dan Silva tells how DeluxePaint
111 evolved, by Ben & Jean Means "Amiga In Desktop
Presentation", Presentation techniques to enhance your
meetings and seminars, by John Steiner "Multitasking In
Fortran", by Jim Locker "Gels In Multi-Forth: Part III", by
John Bushakra
* Vol. 4 No. 10, October 1989 Highlights include: "Better
TrackMou.se", A true one-handed trackball mouse, by Robert Katz
"Conference with Will Wright and Brian Conrad of SimCity fame",
edited by Richard Rae "A1Q00 Rejuvenator, Conference with
Gregory Tibbs", edited by Richard Rae "APL & the Amiga", by
Henry Lippert "Saving 16-color pictures in high-resolution",
Part Three of the Fractals series, by Paul Castonguay "More
requesters in AmigaBASIC", by John Wiederhirn "Gialt's
Gadgets", Adding gadgets ir. Assembly, byjeff Glatt "Function
Evaluator in C", by Kandy Finch "Big Machine On Campus",
Flumboldt State University in Northern California goes Amiga,
by Joel Hagen.
"Typing Tutor", by Mike"Chip" Morrison in C', by Stephen Kemp "APL & the Amiga, Part II", by Henry Lippert "FastPixO", A faster pixel-drawing routine for the Aztec C compiler, by Scott Steinman "64 Colors in AmigaBASIC", by Bryan Catley "Fast Fractals ", Generate Madelbrol Fractals at lightning speed, by Hugo M.H. Lyppens "Multitasking in Fortran", by Jim Locker « Vol. 4 No. 12. December 1989 Highlights Include: "The MIDI Must Go Thru", by Br. Seraphim Winslow "View From the Inside: Bars&Pipes", Bars&hpos designer gives a tour of Blue Ribbon Bakery's music program, by Melissa Jordan Grey
"ARexx Part II", by Steve Gillmor "A CLI Beginner's Questions Answered", by Mike Morrison "Trees and Recursion", by Forest W. Arnold "C Notes from the C Group", A look at two compressing data techniques, by Stephen Kemp "The Command Line; Exploring commands in AmigaDOS", by Rich Falccnburg "Amiga Circuits", The techniques required to input information via the parallel port, by John lovine « Vol. 5 No. 1. January 1990 Highlights include: "The Making Of The 1989 BADGE Killer Demo Contest Winner, The Sentinel", by Bradley VV. Schenck "Animation For Everyone", by Barry Solomon "Animation With
Sculpt-AnLmate 4D", by Lonnie Watson "Animation? BASICallyl", Using Cell animation in AmigaBASIC, by Mike Morrison "Menu Builder", Building menus with Intuition, by Tony Preston "Facing the CLI", Disk structures and startup-sequences, by Mike Morrison "Dual Demo", Programming an arcade game, by Thomas Es helm an "Scanning The Screen", Part Four in the Fractals series, by Paul Castonguay "IPs Colder Than You Think", Calculating the wind chill temperature, by Robert Klimaszewski m Vol. 5 No. 2, February 1990 HighligJits include: "A Beginner's Guide to Desktop PublishingOnThe Amiga", by John
Steiner "A Desktop Publishing Primer", Clearing up some of the mystery surrounding printers.
"Resizing the shcll CLI Window", by William A. Jones "Call Assembly Language from BASIC", by Martin F. Combs "You Too Can Have A Dynamic Memory'', Flexible string gadget requester using dynamic memory allocation, by Randy Finch "An Amiga Conundrum", An AmigaBASIC program for a puzzle-like game, by David Senger "View From The Inside: Scanlab", ASDG's Ptesident shares the development of ScanLab, by Perry Kivolowntz "AMiGANET", by Emest P. Viveiros, Jr.
Vol. 5 No. 3, March 1990 Highlights include: "Screen Aid", A quick remedy to prolong the life of your monitor, by Bryan Catley "An Introduction to MIDI", by R. Shamms Mortier "The Other Guys' Synthia Professional", review by David Duberman "Passport's Master Tracks Pro vs. Blue Ribbon Bakery's Bars&Pipcs", by Ben Means "Micraillusions' Music2X", review by Rob Bryanton "Diemer Development's C-ZAR", review bv R. Shamms Mortier "Dr, T's Keyboard Controlled Sequencer", review bv Phil Saur.ders "MusicTitlcr", Generating a titler display lo accompany the audio on a VCR recording, by Brian Zupke »
Vol. 5 No. 4, April 1990 Highlights include: "Handling MS-DOS Files", Adapting your Amiga to MS- DOS using a 5.25' disk drive, by Jim Locker “Bridging the 3.5" Chasm", Making Amiga 3.5” drives compatible with IBM 3.5 drives, by Karl D. Be Isom "Bridgeboard Q & A", by Marion Deland "Handling Gadget 6c Mouse IntuiEvents", More gadgets in Assembly, by Jeff Glatt "Ham Bones", Programming in HAM mode in AmigaBASIC, by Robert D'Asto "Gambling with your video, Amiga-style", Problems with trading genlocks with your friends, by Oran Sands "Distant Suns", review by Mike Hubbart ¥ Vol. 5 No. 5 May 1990
Highlights include: "Commodore's Amiga 3000", preview "Newtek's Video Toaster", preview "Getting started With Deluxe Video III", tutorial by David Johnson "Do It By Remote", Building an Amiga-operated remote controller for your home, by Andre Theberge "Turn Your Amiga 1000 Into A ROM-based Machine", by George Gibeau Jr. K Dwight Blubaugh "Super Bitmaps In BASIC", Holding a graphics display larger than the monitor screen, by Jason Cahill "Rounding Off Your Numbers", by Sedgewick Simons Jr "Faster BASIC Mouse Input", by Michael S Fahrion "Print Utility", by Brian Zupke e Vol. 5 No. 6, June 1990
Highlights include: "Convergence", Part Five of the Fractal series, by Paul Castonguay "C++: An introduction to object-oriented Amiga programming", by Scott B Steinman "APL and the Amiga: Primitive Functions and Their Execution", by Henry T. Lippert "Amiga Turtle Graphics", by Dylan McNamee "Building A Rapid Fire Joystick", bv John lovine "The AM 512", Upgrade your A500 to a 1 megabyte machine, by James Bentley "PagcSlream 1.8", review by John Steiner "WordPerfect Macros", by Mike Hubbartt "Mail Order Macros", Addressing envelopes using WordPerfect macros, by Armando Cardenas "DigiMate III",
review by Frank Me Mahon 'if Vol. 5 No. 7, July 1990 Highlights include: "Commodore announces CDTV" "Apples, Oranges,and MIPS; 68030-based Accelerators For The Amiga 2000", by Ernest P. Viveiros, Jr.
"PLxound", review by R* Shamms Mortier "Hyperchord", by Howard Bassen "Exceptional Conduct", Quick response to user requests, through efficient program logic, by Mark Cashman "Poor Man's Spreadsheet", A simple spreadsheet program that demonstrates manipulating arrays, by Gerry L. Penrose "Tree Traversal and Tree Search", Two methods for traversing trees, by Forest W. Arnold "Crunchy Frog II", by Jim Fiore "Getting to the Point: Custom Intuition Pointers In AmigaBASIC", by Robert D'Asto "Synchronicity: Right & Left Brain Lateralization", by John lovine "Snap, Crackle, & POP!", Fixing a monitor
bug cn Commodore monitors, by Richard Landry % Vol. 5 No. 8, August 1990 Highlights include: "Mimetics' FrameBuffer", review by Lonnie Watson "The VidTcch Scanlock", review by Oran Sands "Amigas in Television", The Amiga in a cable television operation, by Frank McMahon "Desktop Video in a University Setting ", The Amiga at work at North Dakota State University, by John Steiner "Credit Text Scroller", review by Frank McMahon "Graphic Suggestions", Other ways to use your Amiga in video production, by Bill Burkett 'Title Screens That Shine: Adding light sources with DeluxePaint III", by Frank
McMahon "The Amiga goes to the Andys", by Curt Kass "Breaking the RAM Barrier", Longer, faster, smoother animations with only one meg of RAM, by Frank McMahon "fully Utilizing the 6S881 Math Coprocessor Timings and Turbo_Pixel functions", by Read Predmore "APL and the Amiga: Part IV",by Henry T. Lippert "Sound Quest's MidiQuest", review by Hal Belden The Fred Fish Collection Due lo the increasing size of the Fred Fish Collection, only the latest disks are represented here. For a complete list cl all AC. AMICUS, and Fred Fish Disks, caia'oaed anc c'oss-relerenceti for your convenience, please
consul) the current ACS Guide To The Commodore Amiga available a! Your local Amazing Dealer.
Fred Fish Disk 315 BosngQemo Demo verson ol 3 neat came due for refease in March 1990, H is My ftmcforvai but ne pay time is Emited la free minutes per pay. Verson 0,30. Binary oYy Aetna Kevin Ken, Alternate Realties DTC A utility providing a simpfe calendar which can hdd and show appointments. It nay be useful in managing your lime, its chef goals were to provide day, week and month at a g'ance ter any date between in .iDOOi and 1201,9999, defauffiflg to the arrant date. I; s menu driven and fairly easy to use. Includes SouTOe r Fortran. Aufior: Mich Wyte, Amiga px by Genn Everhart See Heir A
program to go a spectrogram cl a sarpied sound He. Ths is a graph wth :ne on ere axs. Frequency cn me other and the sound intensity at each pcinl determining the pud color. With source in C. including FFT routine. This is version 1 .1. Author Darrel I. Johnson FrctfFrtPiMS Car A wtnSmensional ful screen scraing racng game with rest so four chard stereo sound and overscan. !pr either NTSC cr PAL Arr gas. The goal is to gutee you- car around one ol ten sdected tracks. Each track has its indvdual hgh score list Version 2.0, binary only. Author: Anders Ejenn FieWindow A ecrnplowly public domain
file requester which may be used in any program, even commercial ones, it uses dyn AMIGA lly aifecaled memory to held the fie names so the oty tmrtaior* ts the amount cf memory a variable, induces a tier option to limit display cl filenames to only cres w.tn a spaefe extension. Names are automatically sorted whfe they are be ng read and di splayed VI .10, includes source. By: Anders Bjenn Mini Blast A shoot'em up game which runs just fine in a multi- tasking environm errt. At last you can enjoy a satisfyng megabtost whfe you are writing a bonng essay. Shoot anydung that moves, and il 4 doesnt
move, sheet 1 anyway. V1.00. binary only, 3y.
Anders Bferin Sys A game tw.it on the addcdve game FONGO but with several added features. You have been assigned the demanding task of cleaning viruses Irom your SYSOP's hard disk. To kill a virus, you simply k-ck a disk at it. There are fifty different levels, and on each level, the speed win increase and the viruses will be smarter and start ta hunt you V2-10. Binary ody. By; Anders Bjenn Frgd Fj5h Disk £7 Cmarual A compete C manual ?cr the Amiga which describes how to cpen and work with screens, windows, graphics, gadgets, requesters, alerts, menus, IDCMP, sprites, etc. The manual consists
oI mere than 20*3 pages in 11 chapters, together with more than 70 fully executable examples with source code When unpacked, the manual and examples nearty ffl up three standard An iga fcppes This s vers-x
1. 00 and incudes source lor a’! Exampes. Author; Adders Bjerirt
Fred ashFsfc 339 Cpp Tins is a copy cl the Decus cpp, poned to
the Amiga. This cpp is more powerful and compete than either
c( the built in cpp’s m Manx of Lattice C. Ths is an update :o
the version cn disk 28. Il has had some ANSI features added,
includes source By: Martin Minow, Cxal Sc-bed SASTcbs Various
sIBMissens from ‘Sick Amga Soft’, induces some virus tods,
some screen racks, some smal games, and miscaJanecus utiiies.
Tndudes source in assembly and ModJa-ll. Author: Jorg Six!
SID A 'very comprehensive directory utilfty tor mo Amiga that supports at -east a couple of dozen dtferont commands lor operating on files. Version 1,06.
Binary only. Author; Timm Marwi Fred Fish Disk 339 PCQ A freely reosjOutabe. Self compiling, Pascal compiSer for the Amiga. The only major feature cf Pascal that is net implemented is sets. This is version 1.1c, an update to version 1.0 on disk 183. It is much enhanced arid about lour times faster, includes tee compiler sourcearte example programs Author: PsfickQuato ftorthC A compete Feoy redistributable C err.vcrimeni lev the Amiga based on the SczoOcn Ltd C coupler.
Chariie Gbos assentfer, tne Software Dsttferys inker, and perrons from other sxrcoc. Ste.tehas puffed ewenyflntng toother and added some enhancements in the process. Version 1.0. parta!
Source on-y. 3y: Stove Hawtin, ot. Al.
Pip'd A library cf C functions useful for sc'enti'ic plotting on the Amiga. The Slrcyis Lattice C compatible. Contour pot: ng. Three dimensional Hotting, axis redefinition, log iog plotting and ntul- pe succagos a-e a few of Piptet's features. Tne pots can be d splayed on a monitor a sent to a graphics fife tor subsequent printing Th=s is version 2.5. and update to version 1.00 on FF222. This verson includes a greatly improved intuition interface, preferences supped lor hardcopy, several new device drivers, and the capability of adding additional device drivers easily, inctodes source.
Author: Tony Richardson SpeakfifS m Demo version ot SpeakerSim 2.0. a loudspeaker CAD program. Sinvjfetes vented (Tbefe-Snail aid cosed be* systems. Also smutetes 1st 2nd. And 3rd order high 3rd low pass fillers Binary only. By: C-ssdents Fred Fish Disk 341 P2C P2C is a tool lor translating Pascal programs into C, It handles The foflowing Pascal dialects: HP Pascal, TurtoUCSD Pascal. DEC VAX Pascal, Oregon Software Pasca!2. Macintosh Programmer’s Workshop rases’. SuiBerkefey Pascal. Modula-2 syntax is also supplied. Most reasons ale Pasta! Cragmmsa-e converted ins luEy functional C whch wtii
cccp-te and run with no further .modifications. VI .13 Includes source. AuteO" Dave G lfespie, Amiga port by G. R. (rred) Walter ftted.Fish PjsL3j2 IE This is an icon edior which can t-eaie arte modify icons in to 54 jr2DD pixels in size (also dual render}, t ear. Set stack sire. Pcs.csn cf can (a'so free-Ex ting |, default ico'. To tod types and contrd over opened
w. rteow, it can also generate the C sarce code behrte we con 'y
program incluscn. Verscn 1 0. Binary ocJy, source avaitaWe
from author. Autnor: Peter Kiem Sksh A ksh-lke shelI Icr the
Amiga. Some of its features include command substitution,
shell functions with parameters, aliases, local vanab'es.
Local functions, Ixal aiases, powerful control struct jres and
tests, emacs style ir«e edipng and history fenefcons. LO
teoVectcn, p;oes. Large vanety of buft-in commands, llnx style
w-lccards. Unix style fitorume conventions, flename compfeicn,
arte coesi stance with scripts irom other shells. Very well
documented- Verson 1.4, an update to vefston 1.3 on disk 309.
Now features include a “tiny* version, a working case
construct, support lor resident commands, smaller and faster
externa! Commands, and more. Binary only. Author: Steve Keren
Scftfont Converts portrait set feet s lor H P La serJet ccm
patibfe laser printers to landscape tornat. "hsisan update to
FF227. Hctodes sx-xe. Author Thomas Lynch E[Bd_EiBfi£i5jLlj3
SnakePit A simple, yet addictive game in which you must get
the snake (you) elf cl the screen. There are, however, some
rough spots and some obstacles that may need to bo overcome.
Excellent example 0! A game that is as System frenzy as
pcssidfei with source}. By: Vchaef 5nz SohSpa.n Soft Span EES
program. Intuitive, comrrand-Sne based mer.u system with
message Bases, uodowm leads, fife a edit system, extensive
he:p system, etc. This is shareware version t .0. binary only,
lartce C scurce code available from the author, Aulhor: Mark
Wolfskehl Stoc .9rok-' A program that helps you Wow the recent
'able of exchange from one (w more) share!sk But of course you
must tell the Anoa the recent tab'e d exchange e'.ery day.
Requires Am.gaBASlC. Brtary crty. Autnot Mchaei Haneb Du Fens
nun be? 0! Disc blocks used in selected f tes or directories.
Modified from original version on disk 43 to make output m ore
readable, and handle *C exit. Includes source. By; Joe
Mueller, enhancements by Gary Duncan Get I mage An enhanced
version of *gf from tfisk U, It now locks iv tne GRAB marker,
n the brush fife, instead of assuming that it s at a spcofic
pace, sets up the Piire°ick value to the Lmaje structure, arte
deletes any unused biplanes to save memory
a. te disk space. Ixludes sour®. Aunor: Mite Farren, enhancements
by Chuck Drarte MemFrag Displays number of memory chunks'sizes
to show memory fragmentation. Chunks a'e displayed as 2”N
bytes which is a rough guide butsta usetof.
This is an enhanced ver&on of ‘rrags’ from disk 59 Incfydessource. By. Mke Meyer, enharcementsby Gary Djncan Roses A program thjt dra ws sine rose s, Ijnpfamants an algorithm given in the artce 'A Rose is a Rose... by Peter M. Maurer in American M.athemarcal Monthly. Vot 64, No, 7,1537, p 531. A sine rose 1$ a graph of the pbar equation 7 ¦ sin(n*d)‘ lev varicus values ol n and d. Author: Carmen Artrw Urrshar Tts prog-te.m ext'SCS fees from Unix shar archives.
It sco'es over s-milar prcgrtms by being snail and fast, ha-ten; exiraocn cf subdrectctees.
Recognising a wide varfery of serf arc cat shar formats, arte handing large fiies spread across several sriar fies. This is versioo 1.3. an update to the version on disk 287. Includes C source. Author: Eddy Camofl VcEd A Voice (Tone) Ecfcior lor tne Yamaha 4 Operator series synthesizers. Binary cr=y. Source a iatfe from auftor. Autior: Chuck Erarte X2X Cross cort-verts between MotordaTnteiT ekjrarw ASCli-hex ffes These Sfes afetypxcaiy used cr down-line-loaing into EPROMS, or tor tensmssion wh,ere bnary files ca'usechacs.
Handles SI. 52, S3. INTEL inc USBA records).
Tektronix (inc extended). Source included. Author: Gary Duncan Fretffian.Plaft.ig A1 A nice tittle text editor that is last, simple 10 use, arte very Am.'gaTzed. Tfes is version t.50. an update to FF 228. Rwth lots of new features, bug fixes, and other h-.pecvements, Binary only. By : Jean-Michei Fc geas CassEti Cassette tape label printer, indudes source in GFA Baste. Author: Thors ten Ludwig FME Palch to AlocMemJ} to allow badly designed programs wfteh requesl fast mem wiffiouf necessity to be run on 572k machines, includes source in assembler. Author: HoSger Lubtz GoWB Very smat (295 bytes}
anj effective replacement for the wel known IcsadWB’ and *EndCLT command pa r. Ths release Exes a severe twg in Lhe first version which used to guru il run out ot a senpt, includes source in C, Author: Olver Wagner PacketSuppcrt A link library, lor use with Lattice C, providing a few functions to handle DOS packet postage. Includes source. Author: Olr tr Wagner PatchNTSC OSSitoatewthegrowngnum.berofPAL display programs to be rjn cn NTSC mechinet, WJ patch the toottgn CpenSaeerY) function to assre screens with PAL height to be opened in interlace mode, includes source in assembler.
Author; Oliver Wagner Text Paint Sec end ma|or release of tlx? Ansi editor. All major bugs have been fixed, arte a bunch 0! New options have been added, e.g. possibility 10 reload ansi files a* CLI mo&jtes, A color option, optimusd keyboard layout, new drawng modes, nght mouse button support (tike DduxePaintj and n-xh more.
Binary cn'y. Shareware. By: Otver Wagner Timetest Working example to shew re time() and gmtimef) functions of the Lattice C support library, includes source in C. Author Oliver Wagner WBD Possibly the smaiest utility to set the workbench saeen to any depth. Includes Source m C- By: Oirver Wagner Fred Fish Disk 347 Cursor A 3-pass BASIC Comp'ier for BAS 1C programs written in Amiga BASIC, does not yet supocrt all of the BASIC commands but is able to comp Se itsei f. This is version 1.0, includes source. Author: Jurgen Faster Drip Dr-.p is an arcade style game with 15 foors (levels).
You must move along the pipes 0! Each foor and rust them Jo advance to the next level Every 3 floors competed will entitle you to a bonus round where ert-a drips can be won. An ertra Cnp wll also be awarded for every 13,000 points. Binary cay. Author: Art Skfes FretfFjgh pigk ColaRsq Describes the update to the ctforiibrary and has an example program, with source, that demonstrates its use. Author: Dissidents Software DiEfliar Ths is a deT.o of the d ss dents shareware ten editor. Verson 1.1. brta.7 cn’y. Author: Drssteerts Software
D. sSecretary This program can be used 10 fife jntermaacr in a
fife casi.n*:' f pe en .ronmerc tt is wefi su-eo icr ;cbs
suc-h as mamtanng a tes catalog, cr user group membership,
etc. hefuded is a data Elect the library catalog, disks l to
310. Version 'Wanda*, binary onfy. Autnor: Dissidents Software
FilslO Coots ns updated files fa version 16 ol re d-ssidents
requester library. There is a bug fix to the liOra-y as well
as a new function. See FF257 tor tne competedocumenation
andexanpfes. By; Dissidents Software ILBMLia Contains updated
files fa the Ss5dents i;bm.i brary on FF237, wjh new lib
features and a new library, A so included tsa much improved
(better organized) doc fife, and new C exarrpes that show hew
to use the library for any kind of IFF f ie. See FF237 for
other exam pies. Author. Dissidents Software In Sts'.Lbs A
program to copy fies ts the USS: dr of a Poet dsk. Can be used
10 create a handy installation program (hate disks especially)
tor programs that reed dsk-based libraries. Rtc vdes source.
By: D-.ss-Cents Software SAMP An IFF sampled sound format
designed tor professional music use. Tl can to used fa tG-bit
samples, multiple waveforms, etc. Indudes a SAMP reader writs-
shared library, interface routines, and programming examples.
Arso includes a program to convert 8SVX ta SAMP. Author:
Dissidents Software Frctf Fan Disk 343 MED A music editor much
!.ke SoufteT-acker A so-ng consists of up to 50 Stocks cf
muse, wfticn can be played m any order. Ed trig features
include cut!
Pasta copy Tacks Of blocks, changing the vibrato, tempo, crescendo, arte rote volume. Other features include swiiching of the bw-pass-f Jter on or off cn a per song basis, arte a cute little animated pointer cl a guy Pong “jumping jacks* in time to the music1 Version 2.00. an itodateto vers;cn t.l l on FF255.
Now rcljdes fitel sejree, Attexx: Teija Kr,-uner FrtdFtihDlaK3M toons A large variety of toons for many uses, cf practical every flescrption. Most are animated. By: BraCey
W. Schenck MemMometer A program that opens a narrow window arte
graphically displays your memory usage tike a gauge. Based on
Wrracs, by Terras Rokicfa.
Version 2,1 Q. includes saxce. Author Howard Hu3 Sttohey This shareware progrc-T loads in IFF images and aeates charted patterns from toem la use in counted acss-sst t anc other forms ol needfewcrk It requires cr.a megabyte of memay to run, and works besl with a good high-resofutcn printer lor printing the pa items, Thu S'jIChery was written with The Directa and the Projector is included. Version
1. 21. Author; Bradfey W. Schenck TrackLtis Two unities that oeal
wito dsk tracks. Tcopy ccoes one cr mere ti-acks from ore disk
a a refer, arte is usefJ for copying part cf a Soppy dsk ‘Into
RAD: during bootup. Tfife creates a dummy file which ‘marks* a
specked range of tracks, preventing Amiga DOS Ircm using inem
and alfewngthem to be used lor raw Irackdsk data. Includes C
Author: Eddy Carroll Ead.EiatiBiift.25l PDC Publtefy Distributabie C (PDC} is a ccmpJeta C com- plation syster. Including a compiler, assembier, tinker, libvarian, and numerous uUities, documerta- tiori fifes, libraries, and header Res. PDC supports many ANSI features induing at ANSI preprocessor directives, lunctcn prctolypng. Structure passrxg arte assignment. In add 1 ton it supports Lattice C compatible Ibcafi pragmas, precompled header Ides, biritin functons, and stack checking code.
V3.33 ixfedes sour®. Byr: Lcnel Hummel. Paul Petersen, eta!.
FfedFish Disk 352 MG Beta versaon cf mp3, refucng Are*i support. This is probably the most stable beta fa the next year, as many new features are going in afte- ths. Amga- cn’y release, Sources compressed with lharc to fit on the dsk. Update tcF"147. Author: Mike Meyer, et al.
Pn.T.Handler A custom PRT; dnve wriqh offers easy angle sheet support as wel as United data spoo' rg Version l ,5. An almost entirely rewritten updie to FF232. Todudes source in C. Autna: C’af Sanhel Tree Walk Ffetree waltong subrcjtine designed to be tost, robust, and not use a id 0 f any critical resource.
Includes both a CLI interface to that routine the form cf a find-like utility that uses C expressions instead of Unix-like Sags, and a program lo tell you if S rectory trees will ft on a given disk, or bow many extra brocks you 11 need il they won't, includes sou-ce Update to FF2SS. Author: Mike Meyer FrgtfFijh Dj5UB AztecA-p An Arp package fixed » wqrk with the 5.0 release cf the Aztec C compter. The original Manx support files were ireompfete, contained bugs oreventing them Irom waking properly and had the wrong linker formal. Includes source, Author: Ofaf Barthel ComoDisk A dsk conpresston
disk compression package wvrit-cri! Was written to be tost and easy to use, Includes an Arp arte an totuton -rtnface. Includes source in C'. Anther: O'-af Bartxri NonhC A campleio freely recSssributabf® C environment fw me Amiga based cn me So2cbon Ud C car. Pier, Chart® Gods assembler. Me Software D&ilery's tinker, and portons from ether sources. Steve has pulled everything together and added some enhancements m me access This is verson 1.1, an update to verson 1.0 on disk 340.
Partial source only. Author Steve Hawirn. Et.al. Fred Fish Disk 354 FastBii! A sma'l tool to speed up Wider operations by uo to 60*™, Verson 1.0, binary only. Auihor Rati Ttenrer Key Macro A keyboard macro program, configurable via a text Tile, tlwtt also supports hotkey program execution. You can map up to eight functions to each key, including keys such as cursor keys, the return key, els. Version 1 A, an update to version 1.0 on disk 325, which fixes the bugs in version 1.0. Incudes source in C Author:OlaJ Barths' UandefMflunains A program rat renders tftree-d.Tensonai images ol blowups of
tie Mandelbrot set. Incudes several example images. This is version 10. An updateto version l .1 ondiss 255. Shareware, binary onfy. Author: Matnas OrTmam Mem Guard MemGuard is a Mem V atch like program which has teen rewritten in assembly language for mam mum speed and eificiercy. Unlike MemWatch. MemGuard does no; run as task in a dummy loop but rather as a iow-leve! Interrupt routine which is capable of happing memory trashing even before exec might know of it and evert wtvletask switching is farbidden. Version Lila, an update to version II! On disk 325. Binary only. Author: Raff T banner
MXMLJb An example Amiga shared tbrary compi'ed. Win Azteo C 50. Th's ibrary contains base supped functions employed try programs such as Key Macro or PrrtHarxf er. In short: mxmJteary ts the standard MXM system support library. Version 34.14. includes source Autnor: Oiaf Banhel Effd.EigtLBisUH Berserker A viruskiiler which checks for certain conditions indicating possible virus infection. Different from other programs ol this kind. Berserker does not rely on checksums only, it wal also check the possible virus behind the altered checksum. Therefore even new viruses with old tn'edon methods can
be traced and resident tods are not touched. Induces source in assembly language. Author: Rail Tbanner Image Editor A sim pie sc use graphics editor which alows you to craw and save images sphtes as assembler or C source code. Induces IFF support, undo, and an icorvy functbn. Another leature is the smaS memory usage so you can use multitasking even on a 512K machine.
Maximum ptfture size is 156*53 pa els. This is verson
2. 4 and includes source. Author: Robert Junghans load imago An
IFF ILBM reader that accepts over scanned pictures, allows you
to sc ol around in the bitmap it the picture is larger than
the current display, works cn both PAL and NTSC machir.es.
supports co'cr cycling usirg interrupt code, and supports
printing of image portions. Version
1. 11. update to ve*sion 1.9 on disk 2S1, indudes source.
Author. Ofa! Barftel RemHostLib Thsis a shared ttrary package to srnptly re Arexx host creationmanager,entpotefijre Rexx-message parsing is a sp rcbded making it pcssbe to control Afian iron programs such as AmigaBASlC (can you imagine Am BASlC ControLng AnigaTeX?}. This is version 3-4.12 which has been recompiled and made a lot shorter using Aztec C 5.0, an update to verson 1.6 on disk 325. Incfuces source. Author: Olal Bartne!
SoundEd-tor An 8SVX stereo sound fie editor written in assembly language for speed and minimum size, Version V.8, binary only. Author: Howard Dortch, Mike Const, Mad Gerald TrackSafve A Trackd sk patch which removes all known bugs, and one unknown so far. And patches she Trackdisk task to allow various enhancements, such as reading good sectors from partially bad tracks, write verification, write protect simulation, auto motor off, auto update and lum.hj oft cf-ckirg.Other features are MFM-upate and V O by non- cri p buffers, mis is version 1.3. an utxfate ol verpon I.0crdsk3i2. Includes
source mC and assembler. Author, Dirk Reisig Trcn Another game about the iightcycte race sequence in the science fiction computer f.lm 'Tron'. Cne or two payers and other options. Written in GFA-BASIC and 1ft on compiled. Version 1.1, binary onfy. Author: Dirk Has so fad Fish PI5U5S Agorhytnms An algorithmic composition program that improvises music o er a MIDI interface connected to the seria' port.
A MIDI interface and synthesizer are reeded. The music iKes rot have a strong pulse, and does m: reseat motifs or mekxtes. Put can oe very pretty. Version i ,0 with source in C, and sample data files. Author: Thomas E. Janzen Nconm A communicatcns program based on Comm ve’sion
1. 34, by DJ James, wtui lots of very Hce enhancements A'so
includes several auxJary programs such as AddCaJi. Ca'i into,
GenList, PbConvert, and RaadMaiL This is version 1.9, an
update to version 1,8 on disk 230.
Binary only. Author. DJ James. Daniel Bloch. Torket Lodberg, etal.
Empire Empire is a mJtjpfayer gamecf execration, eccnomcs.
War. Etc. which can fast a couple of mentis. Car be played airier cn tre local keyboard or remotely through a modem, This is version 2.1 w, an update to version t .33w on dtsk 325. Changes ncOde a dem-server system, a chat CB node, realtime private player to player messages, and other enhancerents, Binary only.
Author: Chris Gray. David Wright Peter Langston fad Fish Disk 359 Elcb Another screen back, Makes red drops of slime fow down your screen. Version 1.1. includes source in C. Author: Guido Wegener OPSSc OPS5c is a compiler lor the expert system language OPS5. The compter takes OPS5 source code as input and creates a C source coce tile to be compiled to create an executable Arbitrary C code may be finked wtfs the executable and executed as a resit a’ firing rues. The system's strong pore is its soeed and as a result it sometimes has large executables and targe memory requirements. A! Least 1
Meg. Of memory is suggested. Binaries on'y lor compter and run-time library.
Verson 1 03a. Requires a C compler. Authors: Bemie J. Lolaso. Jr. Dan M ranker and Arun Chandra.
Pipeline A game like the commercial game Pipe dream3 (Pipe mania). Needs a joystick and PAL foplay. High scores are saved to disk. Vers-cn 1.C. includes source. Author Andre Wiehmann, iSnapshot. Continued from page 57) Ship sailing and the dueling segment are the most common ones. They are fairly easy to carry out, though I never did completely grasp what I was doing during the duel, I just mastered an approach that worked.
The graphics are clear and fit in well with the setting, while the digitized sounds are wonderful. The seashore sounds that play during loading almost make you want to look out a nearby window to see if the tide is coming in! While I could single out a few areas for improvement, the game is enjoyable as is.
The four different difficulty levels and selection of playing decades make for a flexible game with a great deal of variety.
Several historical missions are also available where you can compete against the records of real captains. I recommend this game highly.
STIK-GRIPPER One last item. A short while ago, 1 got a device called a Stik- Gripper, which is designed to hold r. joystick firmly in place.
Clearly, this is something that can come in handy in many games.
I finally put it together last week, and here is my report.
It is a fairly simple design, made out of metal parts that fit together snugly. On the whole, die Stik-Gripper lacks the visual appeal of most modern-day computer products. When the whole thing is put together, the base mounts on tire edge of your computer table and the joystick is then mounted in die top section.
I had a bit of a problem attaching the base, since die table 1 have my Amiga on has a vertical block about an inch-and-a-half in from die edge. The device hooked up fine in die area at the comer of my table where there is no block. The top part accepts nearly any joystick, though 1 did have some trouble putting one of my largest in (one that already had rubber suction pad feet, so I was not too worried). This is, in fact, a rather useful device. And the price is definitely reasonable.
• AC* ReDate Scans a risk and dates eacn drectory accord ng to
the most recent item contained within (ret including info
fies), Idea: ‘cr .se aftera COPY ALL CLONE, where the
directories are CREATED ratierthan copied and Dus b$ « neir d
ate information hpuoes source in assembler. Author: Jim
Burarfie'd RcadRpute Revision of trip planner program to find
'best road route- between any two point; of travel The user is
encouraged to customize files CITIES and ROADS to suit travel
interests. This is version 1,5. An update to the original
versicncn disk 251, and makes provision for very large cty
menus and itineraries. You might Ike !o use Res Irom disk 323
(Mayes Deizer). Also includes RoadScan, a checker lor RoadRcwte
files (CITIES and ROADS). Vory large f.les may contain goofs
(dies vdith no roads, re same read entered twee, etc.l, or
ooi5t.es direct road not as fas: as miti* point). Tnese are
ported out, together wtn a-eis where users might wish lb .rake
economies m the data base, includes source m
C. Author: vim Byfterf d ScanlFF Scans through an IFF fife,
identifying the e’er, ents, Faste* than standard utility
iF:Cfleck since it uses Seek, tut does not do IFF Checks
dstaiJed forrrat checking, intended for use as a Template'
from which programmers can code their specific application.
For example, an expanded version has been used to extract
instrument data from music files. Includes source in
assembler. Author: Jim Butterfield ViewQir A L i ST type cl
utility showing contents of a fli sk cr cirectory. Fcr
c'.fectories, show SIZE. For Ees, takes a aiefc look and
identifies TYPE if possible. Update to cnginal version cn risk
251. New works with SPAT for pattern matting, and has a steal
style cnange, includes sourne r, assembler. Author: Jim
Butterfield Fred Fish EsE 353 Abndge An interim solution lb An
m-5 rcortpa'abil-ty probfems.
Lder.tiJes the origin of an Arvm-5 f.ie and modifies if to laDitate easy exchange between AniMagic, Videoscape.
Animation Staton, Dpaint III, Animation: Edr.or( 1.15), The Director. SA4D. MpvieZ.0, Photon Paint 2.0 and Cel ArJmator. Fully intuiticnalized interface, fu'l Arexx supper: including a ‘Fod Arexx’ cpficnif you start Arexx after runr.irg A Bridge. This is version 1.0, shareware, binary only. Author: Ron Tarrant, Mytnra- rations An.mat on and So-ftware DICE Dilcn's integrated C Env omeni A 0 frontend. Pro- prccessor. C compter, assembler, inker, and support !ors"?$ . Also mcJudes !he ed tor. Dme. Features include ANSI ccmpatehty. Many code optmizabofts, anc automl routines [user routines called
during startup before main is ca-'edj. TH$ is ersfln 2.02. sharewa*e.
Binary only, Author: Matthew Dl lcn Text Pius A word processb’ for the Arnica, with both German and English versions. TextPlus enables you to write letters, books, programs etc. in a very easy and comfonab'e way. Version 2.0, binary only. Author: Marin Stepper Turbo Outrun SEGA 1B10 Gatev ay Drive Son Mateo, CA 94404
(415) 571-7171 (to order) Price: $ 49.95 Inquiry 201
D. R.A.G.O.N. Force Interstel IS 10 Gateway Drive San Mateo. CA
(415) 571-7171 (to order) Price: $ 49.95 Inquiry 202 Waterloo SSI
675 Almanor Ave.
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
(408) 737-6800 Price: $ 59.95 Inquiry A203 Heat Wave Accolade 55C
S. Winchester Blvd.Ste. 200 Sen Jose. CA 95128
(408) 985-1700 Price: $ 44.95 Inquiry A204 Hardball il Accolade
550 S. Winchester Blvd Ste. 200 Son Jose. CA 95128
(408) 985-1700 Price: $ 44.95 Inquiry 205 Wefltris Spectrum
HoloByte 2061 Challenger Drive Alemeda. CA 94501
(415) 522-3584 Price: $ 39.95 Inquiry 206 Pirates MICROPROSE 180
Lakefront Drive Hunt Valley. MD 21030
(301) 771-1151 Price: $ 44.95 Inquiry 207 Stik-Gripper Duggan
DeZign. Inc. 300 Quaker Ln. Ste. 7 Warwick. R! 02886
(800) 343-1223 (to order) Price: $ 18.95 Inquiry 208 &MIGA & AC
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Freely Distributable Software: Subscriber Special (yes, even the new ones!)
1 to 9 disks $ 6.00 each 10 to 49 disks $ 5.00 each 50 to 100 disk $ 4.00 each 100 or more disks $ 3.00 each S7.00 each for non subscribers (three disk minimum on all foreign orders) Amazing on Disk: AC*:., .Source 4 L'stinjs V3.84 V3.8 ACM. .Source 4 Liebngs V4.4 AC*3.. .Source $ Ustings V4.5 & V4.6 AGM.. .Source & Listings V4.71VA8 AC*5.. .Source a bslmgs V4.9 AC*6.. .Source & Listings V4.10 & V4.11 AC*7.. .Source S Lstmgs V4.12 a V5.I AGSB.. .Source & Listings V5.2 4 5.3 AC49.. .Sou-ce 4 Ustings V5.4 5 V5.5 ACK10 ..Source4 Listings V5.S 4 5.7 InXOCKulation Disk: IN*1 ...Virus protection AC t1
..Source & Listings V5.8 & 5.8 Subscription: S_ Back Issues: $ _ 14 15 16 17 13 19 10 11 12 3 9 3 6 25 2 AMICUS ; PDS Disks: 25 25 21 22 23 7 & 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 4 6 47 NA 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 55 67 68 69 70 71 72 62 S3 &4 85 86 NA 88 83 90 SI 92 S3 94 55 96 97 107 1C8 103 110 1** 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 132 133 1 34 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 157 *ES 153 '60 16’ 162 1 63 1&i 165 i£€ 157 158 169 170 171 172 182 163 184 165 185 187 168 139 190 191 192 193 194 155 156 197 207 208 209
210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 232 233 234 235 236 237 233 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 257 258 259 260 261 252 253 264 255 266 257 268 259 270 271 272 262 283 284 235 235 287 258 239 290 291 292 253 294 255 296 297 207 308 3CS 3iQ 311 312 313 314 3*5 316 317 318 313 320 321 322 332 333 334 335 335 337 33c 339 342 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 357 353 359 360 (NA Denotes disks removed from the collection)_ 23 24 48 49 73 74 98 59 123 124 143 149 173 174 193 199 223 224 248 249 273 274 296 299 323 324 343 349 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 2(X) 225 250 275 300 325 350 3 4 5
28 20 30 53 54 55 7B 79 NA 103 104 105 123 129 133 153 154 155 573 179 ISO 2C3 2C4 205 223 229 230 2:3 254 255 276 273 2B0 jCG 30- jOs 32S 329 330 353 354 355 1 2 25 27 51 52 75 77 101 102 126 127 151 152 176 l77 201 202 226 227 251 252 276 277 301 302 226 327 351 352 Fred Fish Disks Total: Please complete this form and mail with check, money order or l credit card information to: PiM Publications, Inc.
P. O. Box 869 ¦ Fall River, MA 02722-0869 Pleass allow 4 to 6
weeks for delivery Complete Today, or Telephone 1-800-345-3360
THE yjp1 ww j] 77 I v- 7» ’ I ++* PERSONAL COMPUTER SHOW
October 5-7 at The Disneyland Hotel Anaheim, California AMIGA
Sponsored by W O R Admission includes the Exhibition,
Seminars, Keynotes & Amiga Artists Theatre!
120 Amiga Exhibitors Featuring State of the Art Software and Hardware, at the lowest prices!
Master Classes Available in Amiga Graphics, Video, MultiMedia, Animation, Rendering and Publishing!
Seating for Master Classes is limited; call for schedule and availability before registering.
PRE-REGISTRATION DEADLINE IS SEPTEMBER 21,1990 (No cancellations or refunds after deadline) For Hotel Reservations Call the Disneyland Hotel at (714) 778-6600 Hotel reservations deadline: September 19,1990 For discounted airfares, call American Airlines at (800) 433-1790 and give them this ID: 12Z 04F
Register by Mail using the coupon below or Call 800-32-AM1GA Nationwide or 914-741-6500) For Your Ticket to The Arnica Event!
N Yes, I want to come to AmiEXPO-California name COMPANY ADDRESS CITY Saturday Sunday Fridav One day - $ 15 Two days - $ 20 Three davs - $ 25 Registration is $ 5 Additional At The Door STATE ZIP For MasterCard or VISA Payment Master Class! Es) - Fist Class and Time - $ 60 Each Expiration Dale_____ Account Number Name ax it appears on card: Signature _ Make Check or Money Order Payable to: AmiEXPO 465 Columbus Ave., Ste. 285 Valhalla, NY 10595 MAW Total Amount Enclosed L Ml m U M Title Page Title Page is a new video titling package for the Amljga. It will finally allow you to create screens full of
effects possible once only m your imagination! If the ’look’ you want is not m-our age, simply create it! Modify text, effects, patterns, brushes, pa e er backgrounds. If that’s noi rith rainbow letters. So if wha come experience Title Page.
Jouch of fantasy you need,
- Supports all video modes, except H igrselectabie overscan level
- Create copper display lists allowing thousands of extra colors
per screen pe ppte ja c6te " ybyadezJ"*', C I’ancienrie C
- Apply 40+ effects to text, hrdshes, or images
- Use standard Amiga fopti.
X rara&re s VT'A rirX Le train Vest plus agreable!
- Includes 9 regular fqgfs in 3 sizes PLUS 4 coiorfonts in 2
| - Keymap support allows you 15-use accents player with 45 different transitions
- U ev5r 65 AreJcx commands to customize Title Page to yourneeds
- Includes an Arexx compatible slideshow functions properly omany
512Kb remeniberpdrthat everyone's Title Amiga.
Needs are not tTuTSHffieTso we included a variety of features for users with more memory ff ft and faster CPUs Onty $ 199.95 For more ESCHALON = information call; DEVELOPMENT === (514 340 9244 Circle 125 on Reader Service card.
Esdialon development Inc,, 110-2 Renaissance Square, New WestminsterB£., V3M 6K3 CANADA, TEL: (5 4) 340-9244. Dealer inquiries wqjcome. Title Page and Esphalon, DevelopmenUogo are Iradernarks ol Eschalprv Development Jnc. Olher productnames and brands are trademarks and or registered trademarks-of their respective companies.. 1 Vol. 3 No. 5, May 19SS Highlights include: "Interactive Startup Sequence", by Udo Pemisz "AmigaTrix III", by Warren Block "Proletariat Programming", Public domain compilers, by P Quaid "The Companion". Amiga's event-handling capability, by
P. Gosselin 2 Vol. 4 No. 11, November 19S9 Highlights Include:
"The Amiga Hardware Interface", bv John lovine "The Command
Line: Examine the features in the AmigaDOS 1.3 Enhancer
software package", bv Rich Fakonburg "C Notes from the C
Group: Creating your own libraries Fred.Fish.Pi5k Kqyfcoarc
Functons to translate RAWKEY tolxton m essages into
usabfekeycodes. TransJabofi into Modula-2 cl C source (by
Fabbian G. Duloe, III} on disk 291. Version
1. 0. Includes source. Author: Fabban G, Dufoe 111, Peter Graham
Evans RKMCorrpanon A two disk set 0! Ma!er.aJ created by
Commcdore lor use with the 1,3 reason cl the Amga Rcf.l Kerne!
Reference Manual, boraries arte Devices, published by Add
son-Wesley. Almost 300 fifes, inducing 0 source code exarrpes
and exeatabies, have been packed into two Stare archives, one
for each disk cf the two disk set. These exampes are not
public ctoma n, but may be used and distributed tnder the
CondiScns speclted n the copyrights. Author: Ccmmo* dcxe
Business Machines. Inc. Fr&flfiili.DM345 Crobots A game based
on computer progxammtog. L'riike area® type games whch requite
human input cofitroT: rg some objea, all srategy in Cncbcts is
condensed into 3 C language pocran that you design arte write.
:c control a robot whose mission is to seek out. Track, and
destroy other robots, each running dilfertnt p ogtems. AS
robots ate equally equpped, and up to four may compete al once
This is version 2 3w. An update to FF331. 3inary only, Steurce
ava4ibte f'cm author. Aunoc Tom Ponoexter. A r,igj versicn by
Davte Wright 3 .OSD. an update to FF313. Induces source.
Author Vanous. Major enhancements by Matt Qfton
ToBeCcninied...... In Conclusion To the best of our knowledge,
the materials in this library are freely distributable, Th s
means they were either publicly posted and placed in the
public domain by their authors, or they have restrictions
published in their files to which we have aahered. If you
become aware of any violation of the authors’ wishes, please
contact us by mail.
Tnis list is compiled and published as a service to the Commodore Amiga community for informational purposes only. Its use is restricted to non-commercial groups onfy! Any duplication for commercial purposes is strictly forbidden. As a part of Amazing Computing™, this Eist is inherently copyrighted. Any infringement on this proprietary copyright without expressed written permission of the publishers will incur the full force of legal actions.
Any non-commercial Arrt ga user group wishing to duplicate this list should contact: PiM Publications. Inc,
P. O.Box 869 Fall River, MA 02722 PiM Publications Inc. is
extremely interested in helping any Amiga user groups in
non-commercial support for the Amiga.

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