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for Amiga photographers, as they act as color filtering tools: Cyan filters out reds, Magenta filtersoutgreens, Yellow filters out blues, and Complement gives you a color negative. WHO SHOULD INVESTIGATE MACRO PAINT? Any Amiga owner who desires to experiment with 24-bit painting (e.g., anyonewhoownsaNewTekToaster, or any other device that incorporates 24-bit art and animation). Anyone who uses ASDG's Art Department or Art Department Pro, because the images that Macro Paint produces can easily be translated into any other Amiga format (and some non-standard Amiga ones as well). Any Amiga visual person who simply must own every new painting program that is introduced to the marketplace, and who doesn't care about sleep anymore. PROBLEM AREAS A famous (or was it an infamous?) Amiga

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Amazing Computing Vol 06 03 1991 Mar

D ANIMATION RENDERING SYSTEM COLUMNS New Products And Other Neat Stuff 8 by John Rezendes An advanced ray-tracing module for 3-D Professional. Plus. Bars&Pipes gets a price reduction, and DCTV is released. Digital Creations' DCTV Bug Bytes 20 by John Steiner More workarounds for some popular programs. Roomers 35 by The Bandito Is NewTek getting a run for their money with Digital Creations' V-Machine? Diversions 39 Night Shift, James Bond: The Stealth Affair, and Wolf Pack top the list. Medley 63 by Phil Saunders Learn how to load and modify MIDI files with your sequencer. PD Serendipity 68 by Aimee B. Abren Create your own menus to save to the bootblack with MenuWriter. or convert IFF pictures to C or assembly with IFF2Source. C Notes From The C Group 85 by Stephen Kemp Working with functions in C. REVIEWS Spirit Technology's HDA-506 13 by Mike C. Corbett A less expensive alternative for Amiga 1000 & 500 owners. Macro Paint 17 by R. Shamms Mortier Lake Forest Logic points toward the future with Dynamic hi-res. Lake Forest Logic's Macro Paint An Impulse To Imagine 22 by R. Shamms Mortier "To say, 'Imagine is packed with features' is an understatement."

Top Form 26 by Jeff James Designing Minds' dedicated form publisher. Quarterback Tools 45 by John Steiner A disk and file repair program to help fix system crashes and accidental file deletions. - IN THIS ISSUE Winter '91 CES 30 Commodore's CDTV receives worldwide press attention as CDTV developers demonstrate upcoming releases and Amiga games developers present their latest creations. NewTek's Video Toaster: A New Era In Amiga Video 48 by Frank McMahon A complete tour of the Video Toaster. Ultrasonic Ranging System 71 by John Jovine The sonar system project continues this month with the assembly of an ultrasonic ranging system. In all the world there is only one product like NewTek's Video Toaster-and the Amiga's got it. This month. AC presents the first In-depth review and analysis of the Toaster In action at a commercial coble TV studio. See page 48. PROGRAMMING Writing Faster Assembly Language 78 by Martin F. Combs Mr. Combs completes his discussion on how to speed up programs with assembly. Programming In Amiga BASIC: Conditionals 88 by Mike Morrison Using the IF/THEN statement in AmigaBASIC.

t DEPARTMENTS Editorial Content 4 Feedback 6 List of Advertisers 80 Public Domain Software 93 And Furthermore 96 With these results. there is no need to touch up this picture in a point program. See article entitled "An Impulse To Imagineon page 22. I Cover by E rnest P. Viveiros. Sr. AMAZING DEALERS These worldwide Amazing Dealers carry A11mzi11g Computlng "'the best resource for inforruauon on the Amiga"'. and AC'. Guide To The Commodore Amiga. the complete :\miga product uide. To become an Amazing Dealer. please call: Amazing Computinq'-' is also available in most B. Dalton Booksellers, B. Dalton Software Stores, Crown Books, Software Etc., selected WaldenBooks Stores. and Walden's Software Store locations. IF A PICTURE IS WORTH A 1000 WORDS, and you enjoy reading about the most important computer of the 90' s, imagine die thrill of watching a television show dedicated to the Amiga. That's right, Amiga lover. Once a month, the first Tuesday of each month, at 11 pm EST, for an entire hour, the AMIGA VIDEO MAGAZINE is now being broadcast into your home, via satellite, on Spacenet 1, Channel 21 to over 5.5 million receiving dishes in North and South America. Don't have a satellite dish on your roof? No problem! Order Video Tapes of the show! VHS tapes of the AMIGA VIDEO MAGAZINE can be mailed to your home, each and every month, so that you can keep abreast of the latest and most exciting developments in the Amiga community. What does the AMIGA VIDEO MAGAZINE cover? Software and Hardware Reviews, User Profiles, Tutorials, Application Features, Game Reviews, AMIGA News, the AVM Art Gallery and much more. From the latest 3D ray-tracing and animation package to the most powerful productivity programs to the fastest hard-drives to the neatest games. The AMIGA VIDEO MAGAZINE covers the newest and most exciting AMIGA applications, in a moving video medium that lets you see how these programs and peripherals really work!

Don't wait! Order your first issue now and get a glimpse of the hottest television show around. The only television show dedicated to the AMIGA computer. AMIGA VIDEO MAGAZINE!!! Don't miss our March 91 show exploring NewTek 's VIDEO TOASTER Group Discount available to AMIGA USER GROUPS Dealer Inquiries Welcome. Call (212) 724-0288 .- _ONE Month-$_15 _ 6 Months- _ 1 Year-$_120 Address- City State Zip __ Make check or money order payable to: CVF PRODUCTIONS 200 W, 72nd St.,, Suite 53 New York, NY, 10023 Amiga is a registered trademark of Commodore-Amiga lnc.i.and is used with their permission. AVM is produced by computer Linked Images and is not connected with Commodore-Amiga, Inc. Circle 118 on Reader &!rvlca card. \EDITORIAL CONTENT NewTek's Video Toaster And So Much More The Toaster It's here!Well,actually NewTek's Video Toaster has been out and available in quantity for the last few months. So you may wonder why Amazing Computing has waited until now to present an article on a piece of hardware that has been considered by some ind us try observers to be the supreme Amiga application. AC has always maintained that only final release products will be reviewed.

The Video Toaster has been shipping with gamma release (pre-final) software. After waiting several months for NewTek to supply us with a final version of the Video Toaster for review, we procured a gamma release model for our Video Consultant, Frank McMahon, and he began the review process. Why did we review the product at that stage? If a gamma release product is made available and is being sold to the public, it is our obligation to review the product as is. Nevertheless, as this issue neared deadline, NewTek released the final software (Vl .0) along with a new manual. Mark Randall of NewTek was instrumental in providing us with the updated software and manual, but it was NewTek's founder, Tim Jenison, who provided a complete Video Toaster, software, and manual for any lastminute corrections and background. A Long Time Coming Most Amiga fans have been hearing about the Toaster for years. From whispers first presented in AC's "Roomers" column to NewTek presentations at Amiga trade shows, the Toaster became the most anticipated hardware item in the Amiga market. It even beat CBM's Amiga 3000. By most accounts, the VideoToastertookaboutthree years to get from the first hints of its existence to market, Three long yet1rs. Few of us can imagine the incredible strain that Tim Jenison and his team must have been under as they worked to complete the Toaster.

From fears of high RAM prices to the problem of a changing Amiga platform (New'Iek introduced the Video Toaster hardware in its final preproduction form at the same time that CBM introduced the newly designed Amiga 3000), NewTek not only had to deal with the difficulties of developing a "TV station-on-a-card", but they had to defend the Toaster's tardiness. 4 AMAZING COMPUTING During the final stages of NewTek's efforts, I traveled to Topeka to view their work firsthand (see the May 1990 issue). The people of NewTek had completed their initial tasks and were certain the final product would be shipping in six weeks. It did take longer, but in the meantime they demonstrated the Toaster to broadcasters, cable operators, and video technicians. The Toaster received recognition and awards at every show. With all this behind NewTek, the Video Toaster is more popular than ever. Stories are appearing in PC and Mac magazines, and the Toaster has even been displayed at MacWorld. In his review, Frank attempts to unravel the mystery of the Toaster to demonstrate what it can (and cannot) do for us all. The More Although the Toaster article comprises a rather large portion of this issue, there are other areas you do not want to miss. In" And Furthermore" (page 96), there is news of GVP's announcing their first software product, SCALA. This European presentation package is about the easiest Amiga package to use we have seen thus far. Also in "And Furthermore", we discovered Commodore's new "Gold Service" program for the Amiga 2000, 2000HD, 2500, and 3000-series computers. These "Professional Systems" will be backed with a free one-year, on-site warranty if purchased after February l, 1991 and activated through an Authorized Commodore Reseller.

On page 22, R. Shamms Mortier reviews Impulse's Imagine package. As he writes, "This is truly a piece of software that allows you to get to what the Amiga does best-creative work." There is also information from CES and Commodore's worldwide introduction of CDTV as well. (Yes, CDTV has even more features and software titles). In truth, this has been one of the most demanding issues we have ever created. Itis everything that we set out to create: it is a magazine we would want to read. Enjoy. ;al:/( Don Hicks Managing Editor A.m:::ing IAmpullng For Tbe IAmmodon.- Ml/GAADMINISTRATION Publisher: Assistant Publisher: Joyce Hicks Robert J. Hicks Admln. Assistant: Alisa Hammond Circulation Manager: Doris Gamble Asst. Circulation: Traci Desmarais Corporate Trainer: Virginia Terry Hicks Traffic Manager: Robert Gamble lnErnatlonal Coordlnalor: Donna Viveiros Marketing Manager: Ernest P. Viveiros Sr. Marketing Associate: Greg Young Programming Artist: E. Paul EDITORIAL Managing Editor: Associate Editor: Hardware Editor: Technical Editor: Technical Associate: Senior Copy Editor: Copy Editor: Copy Editor: Video Consultant: Art Director: Photographer: Illustrator: Research & Editorial Support: Production Assistant: Don Hicks Elizabeth Fedorzyn Ernest P. Viveiros Sr. J. Michael Morrison Aimee B. Abran John Rezendes Paul L. Larrivee Jeffrey Gamble Frank McMahon William Fries Paul Michael Brian Fox Alisa Hammond Richard Guillemette ADVERTISING SALES Advertising Manager: Donna Marie Advertising Associate: Ross Kiefer 1 508-678-4200 1-800-345-3360 FAX 1-508-675-6002 AITlazmg Gem fDI The Commod01e Amiga"' llSSN 0886-9480) is published monlllly by P.M PW!o;:ations. Inc Curram Rooo. P.O. Bo869. Fall Ril'er. MA 02722-0859. Siolls: in !he U.S 12 issues fer S24.00: in Canada & Muico. surface. .00; loreogn surlace ror 00 SecOlldClaSS Postage paid at Fal P.er. MA 02722 and 00d1tional mllling offices POSTIIASTEA: Ser J a llress cl\a11ges !O PiM l'lll:lications Jnc. P.O. llol 6'i9. Fail River, MA 027220869. Printed in the U.S.A Copyrigllt:tlFebn.iary, 1991 by P1M P1caDons. Inc. All rights reser;ed. First Class or Air Ma'I rates available n req.,est Pi!.\ Publicatons. Inc. mainlains lhe right ta refuse any adrertising. P1M F'i.tllica)ons Inc. is ii oti ll reium unsoOciled mall!rr.als All rli'C!Sled rett.rns mU51 be ewived with a settaekl'essed Stai'Oped mailer. Send article submissions in bOth manU5Cfip: anddisli lonnal wi1h yow name. address.1elepl'one.andSocialSecur11y N"'1lber on each ID Ille Associate EOiior.

Requests for Au1hors Guides st.iukl be dec!ed to me add1ess lis!ed aooe. AMIGA"' is a registered 1radema11 DI CommodQ1eAmiga. Inc. Draw Your Own Conclusions Pro Vector Features: Extremely friendly user interface. Flexible freehand drawing tool. Easy to use Bezier Curve tools. Flow text to any path. Completely User Configurable. Undo up to 255 steps, (limited only by available memory). Create up to 256 separate layers that can be named, locked, hidden, edited and rearranged. Multiple project windows with cut, copy & paste functions. Create true hollow objects (transparent holes}. Editable fill patterns. Runs on any Commodore Amiga model with 1 meg. or more of RAM. (AmigaDOS 1.3 and 2.0 compatible) Copyright 1990, Taliesin, Inc. We think you'll find that Pro Vector is an indispensable tool for any Amiga artist. Pro Vector is a fast, intuitive object-oriented drawing program for all Amiga models. Pro Vector is a true professional illustration tool which a I lows "jaggy-free" de vice-independent output. ProVector offers a complete array of easy-to-use tools to provide a surprisingly natural feel to creating professional quality illustrations on the Amiga. Pro Vector allows you to reach beyond the boundaries of screen resolution to produce "Computer Art That Doesn't Look Like Computer Art" . (unless you want it tol) With the unique Pro Vector dithering option you can show 256 colors on-screen from a pallete of 16 million, even in interlace mode! And, Pro Vector offers many more features. So, visit your favorite Amiga dealer and take a look at ProVector. We think you'll agree that ProVector defines a new "State-of-the-Art." Magnetize objects for precise alignment of joints. Import Pro Vector drawings directly into Saxon Publisher 1.1 & PageStream 2.1. Export drawings for use with many other Amiga graphics and publishing programs in Pro Vector (IFF-DR20), Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) or IFF-ILBM formats (includes ability to produce super bit maps). Supports any Amiga Preferences printer.

Includes custom HPCL driver. Import any IFF-ILBM image for tracing, including HAM. User definable grid size with Grid-Snap option. Pro Vector is a trademark i1.lf Taliesin, inc, Amiga is ,1 registered tradcn\:"lrk of Commodore-Amiga Inc. PostScr.pt is 1 registered trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc ARe" is a trademark of \Vishlul Thinking. Inc Saxon Publisher is a registered trademark al Saxen Circle 112 on Reader Service card. 256 on-screen dithered colors, palette of 16 million. NTSC and PAL compatible. Fully multi-tasking, ARexx compatible, includes several useful ARexx macros. Special effects include smoothing of straight-line objects into curved objects. User selectable measurement system (Inches, Pica, Centimeters). Extreme magnification for detail work. Keyboard shortcuts for most operations. Not copy protected, install on any hard drive. c.->: Tal1es10, Inc P. 0. Box 1671 - Ft. Collins, CO 80522 (303) 484-7321 RECURSION OR REPETITION? This letter is in regards to the article titled "Programming in AmigaBASIC: The Shotgun Approach Revisited". I question Mr. Morrison's use of the word "recursion" to describe his programming examples. I do believe that there is some confusion as to whether he means recursion in the classic computer science sense or he is describing repetition. Recursion, in the classic sense, is a function which calls itself, not a series of repeated steps. Although they are similar, recursion and repetition are markedly different. Recursion, for example, can be an operation such as traversing a binary tree, or generating the Fibonacci sequence. Or, as in the following example, N! (N factorial). Example. (pseudo code) function factorial{n) if {n=ll then return 1 else result= n factorialln-lJ return result end if I'm certainly not trying to detract from this fine article; I just question Mr. Morrison's use of terms. Recursion, in a true computer science sense, is not 6 AMAZING COMPUTING ee1ae merely a series of repeated steps. Many languages don't support recursion (i.e., COBOL, FORTRAN, and most forms of BASIC). Though it can be simulated, recursion is not an inherent part of the language. Tony Kennedy Reading, PA -We received several letters regarding Mr. Morrison's error in using the term recursion instead of iteration (repetition). Please look at Mr. Morrison's article this month for an npology.-Ed. KICKSTART 1.3 Are you aware of any programs (in Fred Fish maybe) that will read the ROMs in a 500/2000/3000 and create a Kickstart disk for a 1000? This seems like it would be a simple program.

I am still using 1.2 because I cannot find a Kickstart 1.3, despite all my friends with 1.3 ROMs. Also, do you know if the new 2.0 will be available on a Kickstart disk or if it will even work without ECS? I have had my 1000 since 1985 and would like to keep it alive and kicking. Jon Loschke Gainesville, FL -First, Commodore is planning to haue an AmigaDOS solution for tlle 1000 sometime ill the [uiure. Meanwhile, 2.0 is planned for immediate release for the 500, 2000, and 3000. Yes, 2.0 will work without the ECS chips, however they are recommended to get tlte most out of 2.0.-Ed. Black Holes I have been playing around with various Mandelbrot programs and have found that Mande!Vroom found on FF 215 is a really powerful and versatile program. So much for the plug. Now, I read somewhere recently about someone exploring the Mandelbrot set and "discovering black holes". Can you explain what is meant by this? You have been especially helpful in answering questions in the past and I hope you can answer this one. For the uninitiated, using such programs can give you really interesting and beautiful graphics. I recommend you try some out. C. A. Barringer Crescent City, FL -We asked Paul Castonguay, a contributing author of Amazing Computing, to heip us answer this question. "Black Hole" is the name given to a certain pattern found as one explores the (continued on page 16) by John Rezendes The Hills Are Alive . The Blue Ribbon SoundWorks, Ltd. has reduced the price of its music software package, Bars&Pipes. At press time, it lists for 9.00 but as of February 14, 1991 Bars&Pipes will sell for $_199.00. Blue Ribbon hopes this price reduction will prompt more entry level users and hobbyists to experience and explore Bars&Pipes' approach to music composition. Concurrent with this price reduction is Blue Ribbon's release of a yet Bars&Pipes Professional more sophisticated composition tool, Bars&Pipes Professional. Bars&Pipes Professional enables the recording of an unlimited number of tracks and notes. 8 AMAZING COMPUTING Capabilities include global clipboard editing, cut, paste, mix, copy, toolize, punch in/out, loop, mark, and time shift. Advanced composition enhancing, editing, arranging, mixing, and syncing in Bars&Pipes Professional extend the creative possibilities and level of productivity available to today's Amiga musician. All registered Bars&Pipes users can upgrade for .00. Bars&Pipes, price: $_199.00; Bars&Pipes Professional, price: 9.00. tiBlue Ribbon SoundWorks, Ltd., 1293 Briardale NE, Atlanta, GA 30306, (404) 377-1514. Inquiry #218. Some Things Just Get Better Progressive Peripherals & Software has expanded the power and versatility of 30 Professional by releasing an advanced ray tracing software module. As it interfaces directly to the original program, this new module can be put to use quickly and easily, and is available free of charge to current 3-D Pro users. The module will be included in future releases at no extra charge. The 3-D Professional ray tracing system produces umbras and penumbras capable of rendering fuzzy shadows, blurred transparencies, reflections and refractions, giving more realism to 3-D objects. User-adjustable settings-such as variable rates of antialiasing, definable screen regions, image sizing, and number of rays per pixel-are also available. All ray tracing features are accessible through a single screen, point-and-dick interface. The 3- D Professional ray tracing system includes Beauty and Functionality Redefined ":,,NF// SERIES II A500-HD+ llle Next Generation in Amiga500 Add-On Peripherals Tum yaur A500 i into a Serious and Mare Fun Computing Tool Today! GVP's New SERIES II A500-HD+ is The Ultimate in Hard Drive, Memory and Expandability for your Amiga 500. Major features include: Leading Edge Same high-tech custom VLSI and FAAASTROM" features as GVP's new Series II A2000 SCSI-RAM Produces.

Foresight Unique new "Mini-Slot':" brings out all the ASOO expansion bus signals, allowing for exciting future expansion options- the only intelligent alternative to risky "Pass-Through" functionality. Reliability Includes internal fan to keep you cool and robust power suppll ensuring your ASOO power supply wil not be overloaded. GVP will not compromise on quality and reliability I Memory Expansion Internal RAM Expansion up to 8MB using easy-to-install SIMM memory modules. Sleek Custom injection-molded styling perfectly matches your ASOO for unequaled beauty and elegance, setting a new standard for A500 peripherals. Stale-af-the-Art New I"high internal hard disk drive; available from 40MB through IOOMB. Performance Provides no-compromise hard disk performance which until now has never been seen on the ASOO. Seeing is Believing Take one for a Test "Drive" at your nearest GVP Dealer today! I_ unn'ITr - Take a Look under the Hood Game Switch: Enables RAM while enabling full game compatibility. Exlemal SCSI Port Allows up 10 7 SCSI devices to ht attached. 1"-High Factory-installed Hard Disk Drive: 40MB through IOOMB. "Mini-Slot": For future expansion options. GVP's Custom VLSI Chip. GVP's FAAASTROM SCSI Driver. r> Internal RAM Expansion: Up to BMB Internal Fan: Keeps you running cool Dedicated Universal Input Power Supply: Included. t:all for Special End-User Trade-Up Details! Reinforced 86PIN Card Edge Connector

Educalional pricing program now available. Serles u FAASTROM a"d GVP ate trademarks o! Gre;it Valley Products, lilt Amiga and A500 a1e registered trademarlts ol Commodor&-Amiga. Inc

GREAT VALLEY PRODUCTS INC. 600 Clark Avenue, King of Prussia, PA 19-10. For more infonnalion. or tor nearest dealer, call today. Dealer inquiries welcome. Tel. (215) 337-8770 FAX (215) 337-9922 Circle 123 on Reader Service card. software and a comprehensive manual. Progressive Peripnerals & Software, 464 Kala111atl1 Street, Denver, CO 80204, (303) 825-4144. Inquiry #222. Capital Video? Digital Creations has released DCTV, its new video display and digitizing system for the Amiga. Using the Amiga chip memory as its frame buffer memory, DCTV creates a fullcolor NTSC display with all the color and resolution of television. DCTV works with all popular 3-D programs in creating animations which can be played back in real time. Other features include display and capture of fullcolor, 24-bit, high-resolution images, the ability to capture a video frame from any color video camera in 10 seconds, and the ability to convert DCTV images to or from any IFF display format. Paint, digitize, and conversion software are all included and I MB is required. DCTV, price: 5.00. Digital Creations, 2865 Sunrise Boulevard Suite 103, Rancho Cordova, CA 95742, (916) 344-4825. Inquin; #217. Don't Judge This Book By Its Cover! Windcrest by TAB BOOKS has just published Desktop Video Production, an insightful 196-page work by professional film/video producer and Amigaphile Michael Brown. Brown examines how state-of-the-art video technology has combined with the most recent developments in personal computing to make possible the desktop production of broadcastquality animated film shorts, homemade music videos, presentation graphics, corporate promotional and training films, television commercials, and more. Hardware, software, utilities, and the expansion capabilities of "The Renegade Microcomputers" (as Brown affectionately refers to the Amiga and Macintosh lines in his opening chapter) as pertains to desktop video production are covered. Helpful descriptions of the complete range of cameras, camcorders, videotape recorders, edit controllers, video digitizers, sound recorders, and synthesizers are also presented, as is production guidance in planning, budgeting, blocking, rehearsing, lighting, and editing.

Amiga lovers, don't be fooled by this book's cover (an Apple Computer is pictured); our favorite computer gets equal-if not top-billing! Desktop Video Production, price: $_16.95 U.S, .95 Ccmadian. TAB BOOKS, Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17294-0850, (800) 822-8138. Enquiry #219. It's Gr-r-r-eat! Great Valley Products has just introduced its Series II RAM Expansion Board for the Amiga 2000. The Expansion Board comes with 2MB of auto-configured RAM, expandable to 8MB. It also supports a 6MB configuration for maximum memory utilization for Commodore's A2088/2286 Bridge- JO AMAZING COMPUTING Serles II RAM Expansion Board DCTV The Latest Craze & Those Good Old Games Merit Software has two new releases this month, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles and Classic Board Games. That's right-America's favorite "Heroes In A Half Shell" have come to the Amiga, in the form of an entertaining electronic crayon game. Contained in this deluxe computer coloring book are thirty Ninja Turtle pictures which can be colored and then printed as custom banners, calendars, pictures, and personalized stories. This program also serves as a helpful educational tool in providing children with interesting descriptions of each stop on the musical Ninja Turtles' current "World Tour".

Classic Board Games features new twists on three standards: chess, checkers, and backgammon. Each of the games in this package can be played at three difficulty levels; a player may play against the computer or against another player on that computer, or against a board users. Series II RAM Expansion Board, price: 9.00. Great Valley Products, 600 Clark Avenue, King of Prussia, PA 19406, (215) 337-8770. lJJquiry #227. The Best Assembler Macro68 Macro68 boasts macro power unparalleled in products of this class. There are many new am innovative asserroler directives. For instance, a special structure offset directive assures maximum compatibility with the Amiga's interface conventions. A user-accessible file provides the ability to customize directives and run-time messages from the assembler. An AREXX(tm) interface provides "real-time" communication with the editor of your choice. A number of directives enable Macro68 to communicate with AmigaDos(tm).

Like the original ve!n. ReSource'030 will tearapa your code like no other program. And it will do so even faster now, because ReSource'030 is written In native MC68030 code. This means that it won't run on a vanilla 68000, but will fly on an A3000, or another machine with:a 68020/030 board. Suggested retail price: US$_150 Macro68 is a powerful new assembler for the entire line of Amiga personal computers. Macro68 supports the entire Motorola M68000 Family including the MC68030 and MC68040 CPUs, MC68882 FPU and MC68851 MMU. The Amiga Copper is supported also. This fast, multi-pass assembler supports both the old and new Motorola M68000 Family assembly language syntax, and comes wtth a utility to convert old-style syntax source code painlessly. The new syntax was developed by Motorola specifically to support the addressing capabilities of the new generation of CPUs. ReSource'030 supports the new Motorola M68000 Family assembly language syntax, and is a perfect companian to Macro68. Macro68 is compatible with the directives used by most popular assemblers. Output file formats include executable object, linkable object, binary image, and Motorola S records. If you're new to Resource, here are a few facts: Resource is an intelligent interactive disassembler for the Amiga programmer. Resource will enable you to explore the Amiga. Find out how your favorite program works. Examine your own compiled code. Possibly the most unique feature of Macro68 is the use of a shared-library, which allows resident preassembled include files for incredibly fast assemblies. ReSource will load/save any file, read disk tracks, or disassemble directl from memory. Syrrtlols are created automatically, ard virtually all Amiga syrrbol bases are supported. Additionally, you may create your own symbol bases. Requires at least 1 meg of memory. "If you're serious about disassembling code, look no further!" The original ReSource continues to be available for owners of 68000 based machines. Both versions of ReSource require at least 1 meg of ram. Suggested retail prices: Original Resource, US, ReSource'030, US$_150 R

BestDlsasssm - er The Puzzle Factory, Inc. P.O. Box 986 Veneta, OR 97487 Orders: (800) 828-9952 Customer Service: (503) 935-3709 Distributors for the U.S. and Canada Dealer Inquires Invited "Quality software tools for the Amiga" VISA, Mas1erCard, check or money order accepted- no CODs. Amiga and AmigaDOS are trademarks of CommodoraAmlga, Inc. Circle 129 on Reader Service card. remote computer via a modem. TeenagM11tm1t Ni11ja Turtles, price: $_19.95, Inquiry #220; Classic Board Games, price: .95, Iuquin; #221. Merit Software, 13635 Gamma Road, Dallas, TX 75244, (214) 385-2353. Other Things Get Better, Too As of February 1st, registered owners of versions of Soft-Logik Corporation's PageStream prior to PageStream 2 (version 2.1) must pay $_100.00-up from .00-to upgrade to the latest releases of the professional desktop publishing package. The present upgrade includes support for AGFA Compugraphic's !ntellifont hinted out-line font technology, a full set of 4 program disks, a completely new manual, and more. SoftLogik Corporation, 11131 S. Towne Square, Suite F, St. Louis, MO 63123, 1-800-8298608. fllquiry #223. Pirates Beware! Practical Solutions, Inc. has announced the release of Safekey, a new innovation in copy-protection technology. An advanced command set allows more sophisticated encoding, which provides a higher level of security on all computers using a standard RS232 port. With Safekey, all communications are handled by the operating system, making hardware differences between host systems inconsequential. Safekey does not interfere with the ability to make backups or in hard drive installation, and allows other serial devices to connect via its pass-through port. Depending on the sophistication of the system, the user has the choice of three models. The copy protection features can be implemented so the application executes only with a Safekey connected. Snfekey, models priced from .00 lo .00. Practical Solutions, 1135 N.

Inquiry #224. SpeakerSimphony dissidents has released version 2.1 of SpeakerSim, the only professionallevel loudspeaker CAD program available for the Amiga. SpeakerSim allows hobbyists, designers, and J2 AMAZING COMPUTING enthusiasts to create or optimize loudspeaker systems using either sealed or rented system models. Release 2.1 extends the power of this package in a number of different ways. First, you may send plots to any HP7475-type plotter, PostScript laser printer, Epson Hl-80 plotter, or Preferences-supported printer using either a serial or parallel interface. This allows users to continue to work with SpeakerSim while the plot is being produced. Second, SpeakerSim now features an extensive ARexx interface, allowing it to be used as a calculation engine because virtually every aspect of SpeakerSim can be controlled via ARexx.

This includes all attributes and system parameters, as well as the ability to load and save configuration, macro, driver data, and IFF-ILBM files. Finally, SpeakerSim now includes ten programmable ARexx macro keys which can be used to launch ARexx scripts. These scripts can be used to control other ARexx programs or SpeakerSim itself. Registered users may upgrade to version 2.1 for . SpeakerSim, price: $_112. dissidents, 730 Datues Avenue, Utica, New York 13502, (315) 797-0343. lllquiry #225. What Is An Extremely Helpful Video Pavilion? Future Touch has announced shipment of The Presenter, a fully integrated multimedia kiosk. The Presenter's components include: a 16MHz, 32-bit CPU with SMB RAM, a 50MB hard disk, an internal genlock, a 19-inch color touch-screen monitor, a coupon dispenser, a laser disc player, a video- and color-calibration system, and a development package that includes authoring software, a paint program, and a titling program. The key component is the laser disc player driver, which enables the use of a low-cost laser player and cuts cost without impacting performance. The Presenter is targeted to both V ARs and end users since it can be easily configured in a variety of ways to suit a wide range of applications. Future Touch will customize The Presenter to meet VAR and end-user requirements.

The Presenter, price: ,600.00. Future Touch, 192 Laurel Road, East Northport, NY 11731, (516) 757-7334. luquiry #226. CORRECTIONS! It has been brought to our attention that the following error appeared in AC VS.12, December 1990: In a paragraph on NEC's new PCVCR in the Roomers column, beginning in the third line down from the top of page 63, The Bandito states, "It offers single-frame accuracy for about ,000." Actually. the product offers singleframe accuracy in the search function, but not in the edit function. In the Fall!Winter'90-'91 AC'sGUIDE To The Commodore Amiga, an incorrect address was given for SportTime Computer Software on page 316. The correct address is: Sport Time Computer Software, 3941-E South Bristol Street Suite 551, Santa Ana, CA 92704, (714) 966-0207 or (800) 752-9426. We would also like to note the following changes to information provided on SportTime products in that same issue. On page 108, the price given for College league Option Module was $_19.95; the actual price is $_14.95. On page 129, the price given for Side-View Game Module was $_19.95; the actual price is $_14.95. On page 131, the price given for Stable Owners Option Module was $_19.95; the actual price is $_14.95. On page 118, the price given for Jockey Competition was $_19.95; again, the actual cost is $_14.95. Finally, two additional products from SportTime should have been listed in the Fall/Winter '90-'91 AC's GUIDE: Track 2 works with any Horse Racing Module, with all-new animation and 128 new horses. Ust price is $_14.95. Track Designer allows you to break away from traditional oval tracks by creating an unlimited variety of race tracks of varying shapes, distances, and difficulty. It comes with its own track player so that you can use your newly created tracks with any Horse Racing Module. Includes "saddle" 3-D graphics so you can experience each race from the horse's back.

List price is $_14.95. We apologize for these errors, and hope that no major inconveniences resulted. We hope that these corrections are found to be helpful.-Ed. A less expensive alternative for Amiga 1000 and 500 owners: Spirit Technology's HDA-506 a miga 1000 owners tend to be an adventurous lot. Either we bought a new computer that was untried in the marketplace, or we bought one knowing ii had been orphaned. No matter what the situation, we have lived with the fear that support would some day dry up completely. And compared to owners of higher priced machines, we also tend to want more economical hardware expansion for our systems. This is doubly true with hard drives, which tend to be the most expensive add-on a person will buy. In light of this, Spirit Technology has produced the HDA-506 interface for the Amiga 1000 and 500 computers. This system allows you to use the less expensive ST- 506 interface hard drives that are so popular in the IBM PC world.

At this point a little explanation is in order. ST-506 isa standard interface by which the computer communicates with the hard drive. This standard is most popular on the IBM PC and its compatibles. There are other standards, the most common in the Amiga community being SCSI (pronounced "scuzzy"), which stands for Small Computer Systems Interface. The major problem with SCSI interface drives is their cost. They are more expensive (per megabyte) than the ST-506 drives that are manufactured in much greater volume. A typical 40 megabyte SCSI drive will normally cost about $_100 more than a 40 megabyte ST- 506 drive. by Mike C. Corbett Another important thing to know is that there are two standard methods of encoding data (the way it is physically written to the disk), called MFM and RLL. MFM is the more common and older of the two methods. RLL was devised as a way to squeeze more data into the same amount of space, giving about a 45% improvement in the amount of data that can be written onto any given MFM disk. Because RLL gets more into the same space it will also provide an equivalent increase in data transfer speed. SCSI does have advantages over ST-506, the most important one being transfer speed. A SCSI drive can typically move data between itself and the computer at least two times faster than a comparable ST-506 drive. However, as stated before, they are more expensive and for many of us the jump in speed and capacity from floppy drives to the ST-506 hard drive is more than enough to take our breath away. The system tested for this review has shown a peak transfer rate of about 310,000 bytes per second as measured by the Dperf2 program. A typical SCSI disk will do over 600,000 bytes per second and an Amiga floppy drive can tra nsfer about 12,000 bytes per second. The HDA-506system includes everything you need except the hard drive itself.

The best way to set up your system is to acquire your hard drive first and then order the appropriate HDA-506 system, accounting for MFM or RLL encoding. This is important to know when talking to Spirit Technology because a disk that is certified for MFM only will not work reliably with an RLL controller. An MFM controller will work with an RLL drive, but then MARCH 1991 13 your nice 40 meg drive will suddenly become yournotas nice32 meg drive. The drive tested with this system is a 42 megabyte KPTI model PT351 from JB Technologies. When ordering be sure to specify the OMTibrand controller. The alternate controller Spirit ships is a DTC brand. I first received the OTC controller and found its performance to be unacceptably slow, making my hard disk into little more than a very large floppy. This slowness is caused by the read/write head being stepped (moved) 1 cylinder at a time, instead of being positioned directly to the needed The HDA-506 system is a good way for owners of Amiga 1000 and 500 computers to get a reliable and inexpensive hard drive system. position. Stopping at each track can take a long time when the hard drive has over 800 cylinders. I also recommend purchasing the autoboot option with the system.

This allows the computer to boot Workbench from the hard drive, and at it is money well spent to ban the Workbench floppy from your system. The HDA-506 system consists of an enclosure for your hard drive, the HDA-506 interface, an ST-506 controller, the enclosure for the electronics which fits on the expansion port on the side of the machine, the cables that conned the controller with the drive, and a software disk. Assembly of the system does not require a lot of technical knowledge, but if this is your first project then you may want to get the help of a more experienced friend. The installation manual is well thought out and detailed enough to enable almost anyone to just follow the steps for assembly. Once the system is put together you are ready to tum the system on and begin the software portion of the setup. For J4 AMAZING COMPUTING Amiga 1000 owners, assuming everything was pu ttogether properly, you should see the hand and disk screen asking for the Kickstart disk as usual. The HDA-506 software disk is then inserted at the Workbench prompt. Before the drive can actually be used it must first be prepared by performing a low level format and then an AmigaDOS format. The low level format is the procedure that defines the physical location of where the data will be placed on your drive. This is done by the supplied HDFormat program. This is where I have my first gripe. In the IBM world, most low level programs available will allow you to enter any known bad blocks before performing the low level format. This allows the disk controller to "map out" or make unavailable any areas that you know about at the lowest level.

It is common for even a brand new hard drive to have a few imperfections and it is useful to be able to tell the computer about them before it tries to use them. Having this capability would result in an improvement in overall reliability of the system as a whole. Spirit has tried to address this problem by allowing the HDFormat program to perform a verification on the disk after the low level format has been done. However, the verification process does not always catch weak spots that look good for a short time after the low level format but decay into unreliability after a few hours. This is a problem that should be addressed in a future revision of the HDFormat program. Once the low level format is completed the high level or AmigaDOS format must be performed. In order to do this we come up against the second problem I have with this product. In order for the Amiga to address any device, said device must have an appropriate entry in the system "Mountl.ist" file. In the latest version of their software Spirit Technology has provided a program to assist in the creation of this "Mountl.ist" entry, but I found the software cumbersome and difficult to use. There was too much difficulty in determining if a proper entry had been created and there was no confirmation when the new entry was added to the "MountList" file. If the Auto boot option has been purchased there is one step left to perform. The script" ABootlnstall" is executed from the Shell (CU) which installs the necessary system files on to a small partition on the hard drive. This small partition is necessary because the Amiga must be able to read in the device driver files before it can understand anything other than the standard file structure of a normal Amiga DOS disk.

A device driver is really a program that tells the computer how to "talk" to a piece of hardware. Without these device drivers the Amiga only knows how to read the standard Amiga DOS file format. Almost inevitably, as a hard drive ages some areas will become unusable. Because of this Spirit has included a program "MapBad" to scan a hard drive partition and mark any new bad blocks as unavailable. This is an invaluable program since it prevents data loss by not allowing anything to be placed on those bad areas; no hard drive system should be without its equivalent. It is a good idea to run this program periodically just to help make sure that you don't get a nasty surprise someday. The HDA-506 system is a good way for owners of Amiga 1000 and 500 computers to get a reliable and inexpensive hard drive system. Any questions that arose during setup were quickly dealt with by their technical support staff. Although there exists some room for improvement in the installation software, Spirit Technology has produced another piece of hardware worthy of your attention. ACHDA-506 Price: 9.00 Inquiry #210 Spirit Technology 220 West 2950 South Salt Lake City, UT 84115 {800) 433-7572 KPTI hard drives PT338 32. l MB MFM: 5.00 PT351 42.8 MB MFM: 9.00 PT357R 49. l MB RLL: 9.00 PT376R 65.5 MB RLL: 9.00 Inquiry #211 J B Technologies, Inc. 5105 Maureen Lane Moorepark, CA 93021 (802) 529-0908 (Feedback, continued from page 6) Mandelbrot set. By exploring we menu selecting different coordinates and magnifications. Tflese "Black Holes", when found, appear to have no end wl1en magnification is increased, thus givi11g an eudlesspiral effect. Tire term "Black Hole" is not officially recognized by mathamatician, but is a term that lwbbyists have given to these interesting patterns. To find a "Black Hole" 1 try these coordinates: real coordinate .3395 imaginary coordinate -.0510 . l'M IMPRESSED! First, I would like to thank you for providing the Amiga community with an excellent magazine.

You do a fine job of covering everything there is to cover. Let's face it, with the Amiga being able to do almost everything, it takes quite a bit of work for you to cover it all as well. Second, I am impressed by the article in the May issue, "Do It By Remote". This is something that I have always wanted to try, perhaps because I have read too many science fiction books. Not having much experience in electronics, I was greatly pleased to find out that the author, Andre Theberge, was providing some assistance in the way of parts. Only, how am I to get in touch with him? No where in his article, nor in the follow-up letter in the August issue, was an address given for him. Nor was it mentioned that we could write him through you, which I am now attempting (I hope). Could you please either forward his address to me, or even mine to him. Alton Deslandes Ontario, Canada -You may contact Andre Theberge or any author liy sending a lefter to their attention in c/o Amazing Computing=Ed. 16 AAIAZINC COMPUTING HOMEMADE STARTUPSEQUENCE I recently bought an autobooting hard drive for my older ASOO, forgetting one important fact.

While I waited for my 1.3 ROM to arrive, I developed the following boot-disk startup-sequence to reduce boot time as much as possible. Perhaps it might be useful to others with non-autobooting HDs. SetPatch >NIL: r FastMeirFirst BindDrivers defdisk dhO: ;defdisk is a PD program ;that reassigns the system ;disk and relevent ;directories ta the ;specified device. This ;can also be done by ;ASSIGNing sys:, C:, ;devs:, I Ibs r , fonts:, L:, ;and S: to the device ;directories. These ;directories, of course, :must exist on the device ;and contain the files ;necessary to your ;startup. runback c:execute dhO:s/startup-sequence ;This turns over the ;startup procedure to the ;startup-sequence on your ;HD, which should contain ;the rest of your usual ;startup commands. Be sure ;to change all path ;references in dhO:s/ ;startup-sequence so the ;system references files ;on your HO. endcli >nil: It's not autobooting, but it saves about two-thirds of my startup time compared to booting exclusively off a floppy. The longer your startup-sequence, the greater the savings. Gerald H. Morris Los Osos, CA -We supply an altematioe to defdisk on AC disk #13 called movsys by Paul Kienitz.-Ed. All letters are subjl'c/ lo editing. Queslions or comments slwuld be sent to; Ama:i11g Computillg P.O. Box869 Fall River, MA 02722-0869 A/Ill.: Fmilmck Readers whose leiters are publisli!'d will receive five public domain disks free of c/rarge. Macro Paint: Pointing Toward The Future Let's begin om Iook at the fu lure by recounting some so-called "impossibilities" of the past: First, people viewed as pure fantasy the idea that an Amiga paint program could be designed so that one could work in observable oversea n.

Then Microillusions released Photon Paint. Later, some held as inconceivable the notion that affordable and professional animation software could be combined with painting tools on the same disk. Then Electronic Arts introduced DeluxePaint III. Color cycling in HAM was also an impossibility, until Seven Seas released Doug's Math Aquarium and MathAmation. HAM ANIMbrushes, an allegedly unachievable configuration, promise to swing and sway in OXXI's Spectracolcr. How about real-time, 4096 color painting in hi-res on your Amiga monitor? Surely, at least this is a certain impossibility! As an experienced Amiga artist and animator, I thought I had seen the last of new Amiga paint programs. Apparently not, because in recent months we have seen the introduction of half a dozen new packages. Macro Paint is one of them, and a unique one at that. Apparently motivated by the cries of Amiga artists and video obsessives for more on-screen colors in non-HAM resolutions, the Macro Paint developers have presented a whole new host of possibilities. One of these new formats is Dynamic hi-res, which allows 4096 colors in the Amiga's hi-res mode (with or without overscan and/or interlacing). This is a standard that NewTek's Video Toaster can manipulate and paintingly play with, and it just happens to be the same format that Macro Paint addresses. Now, the Toaster does not allow for real-time viewing on your Amiga screen (an "irnpossi- by R. Sham ms Mortier bility"), but Macro Paint does. No need to purchase another monitor to see the result. To perform its magic, Macro Paint requires a lot of memory.so 1 meg Ami gas probably won't be able to play this game well. A minimum of two is suggested for adequate tool use, and the more the merrier.

The software is not copy-protected, can be copied to your hard disk, and responds well to accelerator boards. A necessary patch must be added to your startup-sequence, unless you are working with the new 2.0 Kickstart/Workbench. The manual is extremely brief, and lacks tutorials; however, the tools are dearly explained and detailed. Macro Paint sports the now standardized tools and icons, but also adds a Displaying an Image in Macro Point. few new ones to the game. These are toggled on from the toolbox and from special pull-down menus. Toolbox choices also have keyboard equivalents. The Text mode operates in an unexpected way: after typing your choice of text data in an entry box and hitting the return key, you must hold the left mouse down while a search is made to disk for the proper font. This is a bit redundant and time-consuming, as it would be better to have the chosen font loaded in permanently, and also worth while to have the text "float" freely before being pasted in. Perhaps this will be redressed in a future upgrade. Macro Paint does not recognize anything but standard Amiga fonts (no ANIMfonts or ColorFonts).

As to the latter, that really is a shame. Can you imagine being able to create a page of hi-res ColorFonts (like KARA fonts) whose metallic colorations varied in the vertical plane? Determining and sizing "Regions" (areas of the screen set aside for selected processing commands) is a special at- tribute of Macro Paint. Regions can be saved to disk, but not moved. They can be used as areas where pictures will be loaded, or for more esoteric image processing. Another special and new drawing feature that Macro Paint users can enjoy is the "Halftone" option. This is not halftoning as recognized by printers and MARCH 1991 J 7 this area. The Macro Paint manual devotes fully half of its pages to ARexx commands and procedures. The manual probably suffices as much as a tutorial for ARexx as it does a reference for Macro Paint, making one suspect that the developers are hoping that ARexx enthusiasts add modules to the program. Macro Paint will load any Amiga IFF graphic, including HAM paintings and brushes, and translate them into hi-res. You may have to resize them, but they will appear on the screen. I experimented by loading in and resizing several video-res HAM paintings, and it worked fine. Pictures can be saved as Dynamic hi-res or standard 24-bit files. The manual advises using ASDG's Art Department for conversion to other formats, an exercise I also accomplished successfully. Brushes may be loaded in and saved, and also rotated, flipped, and resized. Brushes can also be lightened, darkened, tinted, made into 16- level grayscale monochromatic images, and pasted on the screen as normal, blended, additive, or subtractive colors. A Dynamic hi-res color spread created In Macro Paint.

experimentation, very professional effects can be created in this manner. There are two stenciling gadgets that also operate in a manner new to Amiga paint programs. One allows you to paint only on the chosen background color, while the other protects the background color. Many Amiga paint programs are ARexx-intensive these days, and Macro Paint is one of the heaviest contenders in publishers, but rather a unique tool specific to this program. There are two gadgets on the toolkit that alternately turn one or the other scanline off, creating shading effects on area fills, which Macro Paint calls a "Halftone". A nice way to use these features is to overlay halftoned areas on lop of other halftoned areas, achieving semi-transparent layers of color, and even moire-like patterns. With a little Continue the Winning Tradition With the SAS/C' Development System for AmigaDosEver since the Amiga" was introduced, the Lattice" C Compiler has been the compiler of choice. Now SAS/C picks up where Lattice C left off. SAS Institute adds the eXJ?erience and expertise of one of the world's largest independent software companies to the solid foundation built by Lattice, Inc. Lattice C's proven track record provides the compiler with the following features: ,. SAS/C Compiler ,. Macro Assembler _ Global Optimizer ,. lSE Screen Editor ,. Blink Overlay Linker ,. Code Profiler ,. Extensive Libraries ,. Make Utility ,. Source Level Debugger ,. Programmer Utilities. SAS/C surges ahead with a host of new features for the SAS/C Development System for Amiga.DOS, Release 5.10: ,. Workbench environment for all users ,. Additional library functions ,. Release 2.0 support for the ,. Point-and-click program to set power programmer default options ,.

Improved code generation ,. Automated utility to set up new projects. Be the leader of the pack! Run with the SAS/C Development System for Amiga.DOS. For a free brochure or to order Release 5.10 of the product, call SAS Institute at 919-677-8000, extension 5042. SAS nrl SAS/C art n'glstmd trnrlemru-k:i or S1\S l rt.U1uie lne., Cary, NC, USA OUr brand and product names are lrademaru and registered r.Wmarb of m.ir resp!' riH hold "'- SAS Institute Inc. SAS Campus Drive Cary, NC 27513 Circle l 26 an Reader Service card. 18 AMAZING COMPUTING REGIONS As stated before, Regions are special to Macro Paint, and they can be heavily processed with a variety of tools. Macro Paint is constantly remapping the screen as you paint, but Regions can also be selectively remapped when desired. If you select to have either the whole screen or just an inner area made into a region, that area can be flipped horizontally and vertically.

It can also be either sharpened (colors reduced) or smoothed (colors added) for effect. Like brushes, regions can be lightened, darkened, tinted, and monochromed. There are also four color choices that might be a welcome addition for color-processing purposes (desktop publishing) and for Amiga photographers, as they act as color filtering tools: Cyan filters out reds, Magenta filtersoutgreens, Yellow filters out blues, and Complement gives you a color negative. WHO SHOULD INVESTIGATE MACRO PAINT? Any Amiga owner who desires to experiment with 24-bit painting (e.g., anyonewhoownsaNewTekToaster, or any other device that incorporates 24-bit art and animation). Anyone who uses ASDG's Art Department or Art Department Pro, because the images that Macro Paint produces can easily be translated into any other Amiga format (and some non-standard Amiga ones as well). Any Amiga visual person who simply must own every new painting program that is introduced to the marketplace, and who doesn't care about sleep anymore. PROBLEM AREAS A famous (or was it an infamous?) Amiga developer once told me that all 1.0 releases of software are just advanced BETA releases,meaningthatit's always in 1.1 and above that a package really starts to show its stuff minus glitches, plus the incorporation of feedback from users.

If you are running an older Amiga 1000 that has only 512KofChip RAM, you will find that Macro Paint does not appreciate your system as much as it does a 1 or 2 meg Amiga. One area I found in need of some tweaking was in the initial setting for overscan in the screen size/resolution menu that pops up first. If you leave the Create your own fractal worlds! Scene Generator is the most realistic fractal landscape software available for your Amiga. The above picture is an example of one of the millions of scenes that may be created with this powerful graphics tool. Scene Generator uses fractals to create natural scenery based on random numbers. You can change many factors including the steepness. snow and water levels, lighting angle and colors. Pictures are compatible with other Amiga graphics software and make nice backgrounds for animation and painting. . produces the most photographically realistic fractal landscapes I've seen on a computer screen.", .info magazine, October 1990 Natural Graphics P.O. Box 1963, Rocklin CA 956n USA Phone (916) 624-1436 Reg. .95 Now only .95 postpaid FAX (916) 624-1406 Clrcle 108 on Reader Service card. overscan "height" set to 440, you can't touch the colors in the palette. By setting it to 430, you can just reach them, and with no overseen (600 x 400), everything's fine. The toolbox/menu viewport cannot be moved as in Digi-Paint and other Amiga programs. If it could, this overscan problem could be solved.

FUTURE UPGRADE ADDITIONS? First on my list of new features would be the addition of CoiorFonts. The program is a natural environment for composing screens of multiple Color Font sizes and colors for videographic production and genlocking equipment. Secondly, I would love to see a dithered colorfill option. Imagine a smooth hi-res background with hundreds of color variations! An animated digital timing dock could be added so that time-consuming operations could be notated (for that important coffee break). As of now, the program does not multitask. All Amiga programs should be able to multitask. Lastly, there is a ready market of Innovision's Broadcast Titler 2.0 owners just waiting for Macro Paint to handshake with them. BroadcastTitler2.0 also has the capacity to display hi-res graphics in expanded palettes of color, and Lake Forest Logic should check this out. All in all, Macro Paint is a nice addition to the selection of Amiga paint programs. It definitely sets many necessary conditions for the next round of Amiga painting software, and it is a useful utility to other products on the market. It's always nice to look forward to the upgraded release of a product after it's been field tested and soaked in user feedback for a while, and I'll be waiting to see what future releases of this product will bring. ACMacro Paint Price: $_139.95 Inquiry #228 Loke Forest Logic, Inc. 28101 Ballard Rd., Unit E Lake Forest, Illinois 60045 (708) 816-6666 {Macro Paint Vl .1, not yet released, will fix the overmm problem, and will also include ColorFonls.-Ed.J MARCH 1991 19 UPGRADES ;;u FIXES UPDATES NEW RELEASES RECENTLY, I RECEIVED several letters from readers with bug reports. Richard Botello of San Antonio, TX wrote to warn lntroCAD Plus users of a bug that caused his system to crash, resulting in the subsequent loss of a drawing. He had selected a triangle element he created from graphic primitives and, after executing the hatch command, realized that he had not grouped the elements he selected. After the crash occurred, he found, through experimentation, that if he tried to hatch a single graphic element, a crash would occur.

The simplest workaround to this problem, according to Mr. Botello, is to be sure that more than a single graphic primitive is selected before the hatch function is selected. PREVIOUSLY IN "BUG BYTES" (VS.10, October 1990), there appeared a report on the inability of the game Treasure Trap, from Electronic Zoo, to worked on an Amiga equipped with a Supra Memory Expansion card. A letter from Asha De Yelder of Guerneville, CA sheds some light on this situation. To run the program without having to remove the expansion memory from the computer, locate a program called "NoFast" (this program is not the same as "NoFastMem" found on the Workbench disks). Run the NoFast program and reboot with Treasure Trap in dfD:.

All fast memory will be disabled for the 20 AMAZING CoMJ>UTING by Joh11 Steiner duration of the game. Mr. De Yelder suggests that NoFast can be found on local BBS systems, commercial information services, or on a public domain disk collection. LON GOWEN OF MESA, AZ wrote reporting on a problem he found in both the Lattice and Manx C compilers. He demonstrated the problem using code compiled for version 5.0 of the Aztec C compiler (C68K), running under AmigaDOS 1.3 on an A1000. The problem occurs when an attempt is made to copy a constant character array from one location to another when the length of the array is an odd number of bytes. The compiler attempts to perform the copy but, during the process, the address register is set to point to the stack at an odd address location. After the pointer is set, a MOVE.L instruction-the destination of which is that odd address-is attempted. The system will crash with an odd-address exception. The obvious solution, according to Mr. Gowen, is to simply avoid the use of odd-length character-constant arrays. Use an extra element in the array, even if the program doesn't need it. He comments that both the Lattice and Manx compilers should report an illegal function call or other error when this problem occurs. A follow-up letter from Mr. Gowen reports that the Manx version 5.0b fixes many errors, including the odd address error mentioned above. He goes on to write that registered Manx users can obtain the new version by writing to Manx's technical service department.

Version 5.0b does not fix the erroneous use of integer variables as pointers, however. JOSEPH MCCARTHY OF TROY, AL wrote to remind me of an undocumented option when using AREAD and A WRITE commands. In an earlier edition of "Bug Bytes" (V5.10, October 1990), I reported that you could use CrossDOS to transfer files to the Bridgeboard. The command "AREAD DIO:FOOBAR.EXE C:FOOBAR.EXE" will transfer the file, but it will also convert non-Amiga characters to their Amiga equivalents, an undesirable occurrence for IBM executable files. When copying executable files in this fashion (files ending in .EXE), terminate the AREAD or AWRITE command with "/B", which will prevent the conversion from taking place. The correct usage would be "A READ DIO:FOOBAR.EXE C:FOOBAR.EXE /B". MERRILL CALLAWAY of Albuquerque, NM wrote describing a problem he has when using RUNBACK to execute the program Faccll. If he runs these two programs together on his system, problems arise when CLIMate and some other programs are run. Increasing the stack size improves matters, but never solves the problem completely. Some programs, when activated with RUNBACK (Faccir among them), cause the shell that ran them to fail to close with an ENDSHELL command. Mr. Callaway found this to be true with both Amiga DOS 1.3 Shell, and William Hawes' WShell. He has an Amiga 2000 with a Pacific Peripherals SCSI card, a Seagate ST138N hard disk, and a Supra RAM A2000 4 meg RAM expander card with 5 megabytes total. Please write if you have ever had any problems with been rewritten to support Workbench 2.0. The latest version even allows programs to be launched from within ScreenX if used with Workbench 2.0.

There appears to be one problem with the new program: many people have reported that it crashes upon shutdown. It appears that more stack memory needs to be reserved before the program is run. You can change the stack in the .info from the default 4096 bytes to 10,000 or 20,000, and that should solve the problem. If you run the program from the CU, just set the stack before you run ScreenX. ScreenX-the freely redistributable program designed to capture and save into IFF format any currently available Amiga screen-has been updated to version 3.0. these programs run in concert, or can provide any help, explanation, or workaround. A PRESS RELEASE issued by Designing Minds announced Top Form version 2.0 (see product review, page 25 of this isssue) and an upgrade to Roll 'em, the company's electronic teleprompter program. Owners of Top Form version 1 may upgrade by sending in their original disks with a check or money order in the amount of $_18.00; they will receive the update and a new manual by return mail. Roll 'em now uses Mirrored Fonts as standard. Owners of Roll 'em without these fonts may send their original disk to Designing Minds; the new fonts will be added to their disks at no charge. Desigr1i11g Minds, 3006 North Main Street, Logan, UT 84321, (801) 7534947 voice or FAX. Inquiry #200 STEVE TIBBETI, AUTHOR of the popular VirusX, and other "X" -series programs, has updated ScreenX to version 3.0. ScreenX is a freely redistributable program designed to capture and save into IFF format any currently available Amiga screen. It has ANIMATION: JOURNEYMAN, from Hash Enterprises, is now shipping. All registered Animation: Journeyman customers should have already received the upgrade, along with a brand new manual.

New features of the program include a new design for action, resizable channel windows, improved character interface, and enhanced display and selecting features. Other advancements include improved zoom function, foster redraw, 24-bit output, and numerous bug fixes. Animation: Journeyman runs on the A2500 and A3000 only, and requires 3 megabytes of RAM. If you haven't registered your copy of Animation: Journeyman, you should do so soon in order to receive the latest upgrade. Hash Enterprises, 2800 E. Evergreen Blvd., Va11co11vcr, WA 98661, (206) 573-9427. Inquiry #201 A RECENT ISSUE of WordPerfect Report announced the pending availability of a maintenance update to Amiga WordPerfect 4.1. The powerful word processor will reportedly support Workbench 2.0. The update also includes a print preview feature. The preview program can be executed from within WordPerfect or as a separate program. By printing a document to disk using the Preview printer definition, and then choosing the Preview option, the file can be viewed as a representation of a printed page. Users with extra memory can execute Preview inside WordPerfect. A status line feature has also been added which will show the character or code immediately preceding and following the cursor.

This feature, called "Status Line Codes", can be toggled on or off and will let you examine codes while in the document screen. Registered WordPerfect Amiga users may obtain the maintenance update for $_15.00 plus a .00 shipping charge. WordPerfect Corporation, 1555 Nonn Teclmology Way, Orem, UT 84057, (801)226-4147. Inquiry #202 PROGRESSIVE PERIPHERALS & Software has mailed an update to registered 3-D Professional owners that includes a new Ray Tracer module, and associated manual. Here is yet another example of the importance of mailing in your registration card. Progressive Periphemls & Software, 464 Kalamatt: Street, Denver, CO 80204, (303) 825-4144. Inquiry #203 IF YOU OWN The Art Department from ASDG, check Peoplelink's Amigazone or your favorite service or BBS for the TAD patches. This archive will update all registered versions of TAD to version 1.0.3. The Art Department and Art Department Professional are both highly capable graphics manipulation programs. ASDG, lnc., 925 Stewart Street, Madison, WI 53713, (608) 2i3-6585. Inquiry #204 If you luive any uorknraunds or bugs to report, or if you bww of ar1y upgrades to commercial software, you may write to Jolin Steiner, c/o Amazing Computing, P.O. Box 869, Fall River, MA 02722 . or leave EMail to Publisher 011 People Link or 73075,1735 011 CompuServe. ACMARCH J99J 21 An Impulse To Imagine by R. Shamms Mortier M IKE HALVORSON, THE CEO AND "VIP" OF IMPULSE, has a personality that is reflected in the products he dreams into existence. That is, either you love 'em or you don't-there is no middle ground. Personally, I admire Mr. Halvorson because he is very vocal about where he thinks Amiga software should be going, and whether you agree with his observations or not, he pulls no punches in saying exactly what he believes. When I interview him, all I have to do is to ask one question, then sit back and write like mad. He often flavors his responses with a colorful and at times spicy Chicagoan vocabulary that adds to the enjoyment of listening.

As for the products Mr. Halvorson's flagship Impulse develops, I have long sung their praises from the rooftops, especially those of Turbo Silver. My love for Turbo Silver has been an obsessive but sometimes frustrating one, because it has never quite delivered everything it promised. I was first driven to the edge of madness by the way that it handles animation, and then by its convoluted manual. I overlooked those difficulties, however, because Silver (in all of its generations) produces such sweet and evocative stills, replete with shining surfaces, specular drops of light, and colors worthy of a rainbow. I came to rely on other software to generate animations from my imported Silver still frames. Mr. Halvorsonfinallyranoutof room to incorporate the entire spectrum of desired options and changes in the Silver upgrades. It got to the point where continuing to rework Silver would have been more time consuming and expensive than starting again from scratch, so the decision was made more than a year ago to do just that. Silver continues to be a tremendously successful product, with as many registered users overseas as the market can bear, so risking a whole new venture was not without its anxiety. Add to that the clamor caused when Imagine failed to ship on the date originally targeted (prompting Impulse to send out a lessthan-satisfactory late beta version), and you had the makings of a potential trag- 22 AMAZING COMPUTING edy.

Would the "real" Imagine 1.0 live up to what we have come to expect from the Halvorson "engines of transformation"? Packed City! It seems the newest game in town is to market software that does everything from A to Z, with enough room left over on a single disk to store the complete Library of Congress! Impulse demonstrates its mastery of this practice with the release of Imagine. The disk is not copy protected, but just to discourage wouldbe pirates, the user's name is placed at the top of the initial introduction screen when the program boots. There is, by the way, a nifty (and quite simple) installation procedure that allows you to target the program for either "vanilla" (68000) or accelerator board (68020/3068881 /82) usage. To say Imagine is "packed" with features is an understatement; for all that it does, it really defies comparison with any other Amiga 3-D package. Yes, it does all of the things that any generation of Silver is able to accomplish (and in a much more friendly fashion), butitalso includes (drum roll and cymbals, please!) full 3-D character animation! "Character Animation" is distinguished from other kinds of computergenerated animation because the "characters" or "actors" that you create can be choreographed toemulatenaturalorganic movements. I'll explain a bit about how Imagine accomplishes this a little lateron. Sins of the Elder Redressed In addition to the complexityofTurbo Silver's animation interface and its confusing manual, there are some other aspects of that program that take some getting used to. For one, it does not multi task easily. The program has always worked more slowly than I would like, though recent releases have made better use of accelerator boards.

Well, Imagine multi tasks like a charm, and really flies along, tooespecially the accelerated version. The Imagine manual, penned by Rick Rodriguez, is only some seventy pages long, but is a model of clarity (and empathy) for the user. Experienced Silver owners will recognize much of the material, but there are so many new ways to handle old things in Imagine that every user should go through its manual once. In fact, new functions-such as 3-D character animation-areaccompanied by extremely detailed tutorials that demand a good run through. I normally prefer to see an index, but can live without one in this case. The manual appears to be much too thin to adequately address all that Imagine is capable of, but Mr. Rodriguez is entitled to take credit both for explaining what is necessary in a clear and concise fashion, and for incorporating a weal th of detailed graphics along the way. Dedicated Environments Imagine allows you to: Create 3-D images from scratch. Add object attributes-re flee ti on I refraction, texture mapping, !FF-Brush wrapping, specularity, etc.-to those images. Manipulate all of the objects as to rotation, placement and sizing in near-real time. Place any selected objects from your stored library of images in a scene, including global data such as horizon and azimuth colors, and ambient light. Light the scene with located and colored sources. Set a number of frames so that the scene can be fully animated, encompassing both camera movement and "actor" choreography. Develop a stored library of choreographed primitive basic actors, to which any objects can be applied, resulting in near organic looking movement potential. These actions are accomplished on five dedicated editing screens: Project, Detail, Forms, Cycle, and Stage.

The Project Screen After the Introductory Imagine screen (that with your name emblazoned at the top) slides up, the next place to go is usually the Project screen. It is here that projects are both started and continued (from previous saves). It's also at this juncture that you tap into the Parameters Rendering Requester. This allows input as to generated image size, resolution, save/ format, and save paths for stills and movies, Here again, lmagine's save/load operations are much simpler and more intuitive than Silver's. The neat thing about this requester is that the Project "Modify'' command gives you repeatable access to it, meaning that you can continually adjust the parameters u nt ii your picture or movie looks just right. Movies, by the way, can be saved either in lmagine's proprietary format (meaning they can be played from this screen), or in the standard ANIM format (meaning they cannot). I usually save mine in ANIM because I like to tweak them in an Amiga paint program. There is also a toggle gadget here for those who have Impulse's "Firecracker 24" board in their system. If that board isn't present, the gadget is ghosted. Images are saved without icons, so I usually have Glacier Technologies' "Icon Magic" running in the background so I can generate ".info" files. Images are also saved from the get go, whereas in Turbo Silver, you have to hit the "S" key while the image is displayed on the screen to save it. The Detail Editor The Detail Editor screen includes some territory familiar to Silver users. Here, new objects are created with points, lines, and polygonnl "faces". There is a new Boolean "slicer" that allows you to automatically assign polygonal faces to objects, and a tutorial that explains its use. A new "Magnetism" tool aids in the creation of smooth curves, and can even be used to create terrains filled with rippling mountains. It is also here that lathing and extruding operations (now very familiar to Amiga 3-D enthusiasts) take place, all with accompanying tutorials for the novice.

Some new tools are "Conform to Cylinder" and "Conform to Sphere", which numerical indicators for size and reflectivity. Bricks, Checks, Wood, and other choices are present, and the process is fully detailed in the manual. creates shapes unexpected as well as intuited. The Attributes Requester-a familiar device to Silver users-lives on this screen, though it has been streamlined and clarified in Imagine. Amiga artists and animators have come to expect the option of wrapping IFF brushes around 3- D objects; it probably determines whether or not a 3-D package will ultimately reach its market potential. Usually, this can mean an extra disk worth of code, or at least a fat portion of a program. Imagine allows IFF wrapping without bloating the size of the program in the least, and it all happens on this edit screen (the manual clearly explains how this is accomplished). Imagine's "Texture Mapping" capability refers to the special textures that are contained in its texture library, replete with The Forms Editor Nothing like Imagine's Forms Editor screen exists in Silver, or anywhere else as far as I know. This is the place where more organic forms are created, all from a generic starting point which is a sphere with user input slices and points. There are three basic things that can be done: edit (move) points, add them, or delete them. You would hardly think that these tools would be enough to create spectacular 3- D forms, but they are. By experimenting awhile, you can push and pull at these spheres and save them one by one until A HAM overscon stlll-notretouched by a paint program-from a generated sequence. MARCH 1991 23 AMIGA 3-D: ON THE COMEBACK TRAIL! Well, it's true it never really subsided totally, but there hasn't exactly been a flood of new 30 programs in the Amiga market over the last year or two, either. The kings of the hill have always been Videoscape 30, Turbo Silver, and Sculpt-30/-Animate 40. These programs have been advancing slowly and, for the most part, if you wanted to do 3- 0 on the Amiga, you had to use one of them. Well, no more. First, rumors are flying about the Mac version of Sculpt being ported back to the Amiga this year. Good news for those both hoping for an upgrade 10 "40" and cursing the company for shifting gears lo enter the Mac world.

Second, competition in the rest of the 3-0 world is really heating up. 3-0 Professional burst out of the gates with an extensive array of features and direct 24bit support, not to mention excellent manuals and an included instructional videotape. Caligari is now available in several versions. from consumer to broadcast. Lightwave 30, part of the Video Toaster setup, is poised to turn the masses onto 3-0 rendering. Companion programs to these 30 packages are growing in their scope as well. OigiWorks 30, Pixel 30, and similar programs create 30 objects from IFF pictures, a feature so popular most new 30 programs now include it. The program Interchange, used to convert one program's objects to another, is trying to keep up with it all via updates. 3-D tillers such as Video Titler 30 and 30 Text Animator are gaining popularity. 30 terrain/landscape programs such as Vistapro and Scene Generator let you create your own worlds. And lastly, the big news-Imagine is out!

We're just starting to use it in our studio and already I can tell it's going to be a "keeper". Lately I've been getting a lot of mileage out of Jmagine's brush-mapping features. Since Imagine allows up to 4 (count 'eml) brushes to be mapped onto any object. I'm currently producing some ads for our cable channel which feature a wall of images taken from different pay channels. I used to do this in OeluxePaint Ill with perspective, but in Imagine I can add light sources to create a convincing "gleam", set the walls to reflect nearby objects or images, and make the wall itself a texture such as marble, glass, or plastic. It's also incredibly easy to position exactly where on your object the brush will appear, and how large it will be. The boolean method of allowing objects to be used as "cookie cutters" to create new objects, or to map a face onto an existing object. is excellent as well. One drawback I've noticed is the method used to input numbers for attributes such as colors and textures; it needs to be replaced with mouse sliders like those used in other parts of the program. As my past articles readily confirm, I am not the biggest fan of the Turbo Silver family. I have always felt that there is an excellent program in there, somewhere, struggling to get out. Unfortunately, a steep learning curve as well as a large cluster of unorganized features have kept me at bay, until now. While there is still a learning curve associated with Imagine, it's definitely not as steep, and our production team has been able to learn about ii while expending limited time and encountering few hassles.

The Imagine interface is logical, organized, and provides so many variables that the possibilities are truly endless. The output in HAM and 24 bit is, as standard, truly beautiful. The road has been rocky but the end result is worth the wail. Impulse has created a natural extension of the Turbo Silver family that is not an excellent program struggling to get out of an intertace+it's just an excellent program. And it's out!-Frank McMahon A look at lmagine's Detail Edit Screen. 24 AMAZING Co1ttPUTJNG you have all of the necessary elements for a true character. There are various ways to manipulate data points, and even though the manual presents a nice tutorial, there is a learning curve associated with getting it the way you want it. All of the editing screens present you with four viewstop, front, right, and a special perspective view. What makes the perspective view special is that it reacts to any changes made in theobjectinstantly! And that's not all. It also has sliders which function to tum the view in perspective so it can be appreciated from any angle' There's more. By selecting a shaded function, you can get an instant grayscaled and shaded, fullscreen perspective view. Any of the four editing screen views can be instantly enlarged to fill the entire screen, and then moved back in place when needed. The Forms Editor screen allows you to design 3-D images that match anything you can Imagine. The Cycle Editor This is it-the heart of Imagine's magical kingdom. There is presently no other software that allows you to do what can be accomplished here (the only software that does anything even close to this is Hash Enterprises' Animation: Apprentice, not nearly as user-friendly or as downright intuitive as Imagine).

To put it simply, the Cycle Editor allows you to build choreographed archetypes, movement figures that you can later assign any objects to. You can, for instance, build a walking figure and set it in motion. Later, you can assign any head or other body part to it that you desire, so that one Cycled form can be the action component of an infinitevarietyofcharacters. Imagine(!)a whole library of body parts and a whole library of scu I pied 3-D elements to plug in at will. Bring on the movie cameras! The parts are hierarchically attached, so once assigned, the movement of one part brings the movement of connected parts into play. Thus, when a hand is lifted, the forearm and shoulder follow in a smooth, believable motion. Hips sway as legs walk, and a torso bends when the figure crouches. The manual sports a full tutorial demonstrating the construction of a walk cycle. The entire animation can be previewed in wireframe right there on the screen in real time, and tweaked for the finest results. Of course, you can set any objects up in an involved and connected hierarchy-3-D polygons, planets, !FF brushes, text-an endless and addictive panoply! The Stage Editor Of course, it does no good to merely set a figure in motion in a single, stationary location. An actor also needs a directed path of movement to follow on the set. The Stage Editor allows you to load in all of the necessary characters and props, and then set the animated Cycled actors onto moving paths. As in the Cycle Editor, all movements can be previewed in wireframe in real time before anything is committed to storage and taping. Yes, the entire scene can be updated and previewed in real time, and the camera view can also be displayed.

A special scripting menu can be accessed here for the extreme fine tuning of positions, sizes, movements, and any of the other necessary final ingredients. All of the Editing screens take advantage of special commands that are always in view at the bottom of the screen: R=Rotate, M=Move, S=Scale, L=Local, W=World, X-Y-Z Axis, and Space=Set/ ESC=Abort. This means that objects, cameras, paths, and props can be moved and repositioned in real time by selecting their appropriate axis and using the simple onscreen commands. In Conclusion 1 tipped my hand at the beginning of this article by telling you that I am biased in favor of Impulse products, the result of long hours spent with Turbo Silver in all its incarnations. I have not, however, allowed that predisposition to blind me, and so spent at least 150 hours with this software before undertaking this review. Except for one time when I hit a series of wrong commands, the software never crashed on me. You do have to take care when generating stills or ANIMs that you have enough memory left, or else polygons have a way of disappearing from your images. The remedy here is to save your project and reboot the program before generating images, and obviously, to have as much RAM as you can afford! I came away amazed, and more addicted to Amiga art and animation than ever. My expectations for an upgrade? Pretty basic. I still would like to see an index in the manual.

I also prefer Silver's way of allowing you to set a target point for the camera, and also cast my vote in favor of incorporating Silver's alternate camera settings (wide-angle lenses, etc.). I'm sure the Martian mind of Mr. Halvorson has much more in store for Amiga folks in the future (including a super animation that he is working on at this very momentl). You certainly have to admire him for giving so much of his creative juices to the Amiga community, and once you see Imagine, you will come to share my enthusiasm for the man and the company behind it. This is truly a piece of software that allows you to get to what the Amiga does best-creative work. ACImagine Price: 0.00 Limited time upgrade offer for registered Turt:>o Silver users; $I 50.00 Inquiry #207 Impulse, Inc. 6870 Shingle Creek Parkway II I 12 Minneapolis, MN 55430 (612) 566-0221 - High quality RGB output for your Amiga These images are completely 11nretouebed photos taken from a stock 1084s RGB monitor. They are pure RGB. nol smeary composite. No other graphics expansion device offers so much performance and costs so little! And all the software to run it is free. Even upgrades! There's not enough room lo cover all the great features of this system. so here are just a few. System Features: Paint. render. cvt Ip slw 18124 bit "pure" modes 2561512 color register modes RGB pass through Screen ovrlay/underlay Screens pull up/down & go rront/back View with any JFF Vr Animate via ANIM or Page Flipping 'Works with

sonware supplied provides edge enhancement, blur; various convolutioas. and much more. BLACK BELT SYSTEMS Call 140613675509 for more information. 398 Johnson Rd Glasgow. MT 59230 SALES: 18001 TKAMIGA International Sales 1406) 3675513 BBS: 1406) 367ABBS FAX, (406) 367AFAX Circle 101 on R&ader Service card. MARCff 1991 25 0 ne of the most lucrative and hotly contested segments of the MS-DOS software market is that of form generating software. Software capable of quickly and easily creating the thousands of forms that an average business requires every year is in high demand, and MS-DOS customers have spent millions on fulfilling their needs in that area. What about Amiga owners? Many Amiga owners use their Amigas in business every day, and most of them must create and disseminate the same logjam of paperwork that their MS-DOS counterparts contend with. Until just recently, Amiga owners who wanted to use their favorite computer for form publishing were forced to use traditional desktop publishing software packages (which are overpowered for the job, or simply too expensive) or word processing and paint programs (which may lack adequate line-generation and text-creation abilities, respectively). But several recent entries in the Amiga market are striving to rectify this unfortunate situation. Top Form, a new dedicated form publisher from Designing Minds, is one of them. 26 AMAZING Cosertrrmc orm by Jeff James .

I Insert Or lypf over leKt Or Hinua Dl'aving Block Cut, Copy, Sort or Fol'Nt Paste Block Inmt Roi.' Or Columl Line Duv Ro11 Or Columl BoK Or GJlid Pathrn Lelt/Riaht/Center/DeciNl Justify Go To ROv I SUl'Ch And Replm Dehte Ro11 Or Columl top: Top FonTI's Moln screen bottom: Top FonTI's Help requester The Top Form package includes a spiral-bound, 109-page manual, a warranty registration card, and two unprotected diskettes within a textbook-sized box wrapped in a color slip cover. Hard disk owners will be pleased to hear that Top Form is fully hard disk installable via an included hard disk installation script. Once installed, Top Form occupies a little under 2 megabytes of hard disk space. The manual states that you can use Top Form on any Amiga with at least 512K and a single floppy drive, which is true. But after using Top Form on both 512K and expanded Amiga systems, I strongly recommend that you have at least 1 megabyte of RAM and two floppy drives before trying Top Form for yourself. After the program has loaded, Top Form's main form creation screen appears. The layout of this screen will be familiar to many Amiga owners, with two columns of icons draped on the far rightsideofthescreen,n la DPaint. When activated, the menu bar at the top of the screen displays Top Form's pull-down menus. The strip of icons at the right (identified by the term "control panel" in the Top Form documentation) allows a user to access nearly all of Top Form's formgenerating features with the dick of a mouse button. Icons to toggle between insert and typeover text modes are present, along with those which allow the user to draw lines, boxes, grids, and simple graphics. In addition to the icon-driven control panel, most of Top Form's features can be accessed through a combination of keyboard shortcuts (most functions can be activated by pressing the Fl through F10 function keys), or by selection from pull-down menus. In addition to form-creation tools that enable line, grid, and box drawing, other helpful and useful features are available to users.

An ability to merge both ASCII format text and ASCII format data into Top Form from popular Amiga word processor and database programs, respectively, is implemented, as well as a math macro utility which can be used to automate mathematical operations needed on entered numerical data. Several unique and useful features for customizing formssuch as an incrernentor value feature (which allows you to print forms such as invoices with incrementing numbers) and a date-and-time-stamping option- and boxes drawn in Top Form always connect smoothly and perfectly. Once you have created a form using the line-and box-drawing tools, you can access the layout menu option in the project menu to adjust some form parameters. Similar to a word processor's "page setup" option, this feature is used to enter and edit decimal and standard tabs tops for text, set the maxim um nu mber of rows and columns, specify horizontal or vertical printing, turn on the UNTIL JUST RECENTLY, AMIGA OWNERS WHO WANTED TO USE THEIR FAVORITE COMPUTER FOR FORM PUBLISHING WERE FORCED TO USE TRADITIONAL DESKTOP PUBLISHING SOFTWARE PACKAGES OR WORD PROCESSING AND PAINT PROGRAMS. are also included. The handling of large amounts of text is facilitated by Top Form's search and search-and-replace functions, which help you catch lastminute organizational errors in text before you send a completed form to your printer. Many forms created for corporations and other organizations prominently display a company logo or letterhead, and Top Form, at first glance, appears to have the ability to import IFF graphics for this purpose. On the control panel is an icon titled "Logo", which is obviously in tended to allow users to add IFF graphics to adorn their documents. Unfortunately, when I clicked on this icon I got a requestorstating "Logo is not available.

Watch for next release!" While Top Form does include a rudimentary drawing tool for creating acceptable (if not awe-inspiring) graphics, better drawing tools and a capability to import IFF color graphics would make Top Form much more useful. One useful feature of Top Form's drawing tools is worthy of note here: using what the box cover describes as "intelligent logic", lines, grids, incrementor function, and even start an "auto-save" feature. Unfortunately, changing any of these options requires the user to forsake the Amiga mouse and resort to keyboard entry. A greater dose of "Amigatization" needs to be applied to Top Form to make the program easier to navigate through. To be honest, the feature in Top Form that I most looked forward to using is that which provides the ability to "fill in the blanks" of previously created forms. Instead of printing out the form and then manually filling in the blanks with a pencil or pen, this capability allows users to enter appropriate data in to a form before printing, resulting in a completed form that looks much more professional than one covered with ink stains and lead smudges. To use this feature, Top Form requires that you create "bookmarks" indicating where on a form you want the data to be input. Unfortunately, implementation of this feature presently leaves much to be desired. The manual offers little in the way of a tutorial on the subject, and I tried in vain for nearly an entire afternoon to get MARCH 1991 27 an acceptable result.

Only after a call to Designing Minds' friendly and helpful technical support staff was I finally able to get the bookmarks function to work properly. Top Form's interface initially appears to offer a full complement of point-andclick features. The inclusion of this iconladen control panel and pull-down menus are evidence of the developers' attempts to make Top Form easy to use. However, it has been said that "beauty is only skin deep", and Top Form's limited adherence to point-and-click simplicity can be viewed in that context. For example, you can easily choose to print a form by using the mouse to select that option from the pulldown project menu. But once you've selected that option, you must verify your choice to print by manually typing in a "Y" or "N" via your keyboard. Top Form's interface, although entirely functional, may take some time to get used to. Thankfully, Top Form does offer a limited on-line help capability through the "help" pull-down menu on the main screen. The "View Attributes" menu option displays salient printer information like the currently selected printer driver and the special text attributes that the chosen printer is capable of, such as underlining, subscripts, italics, etc. Another help option lists the keyboard equivalents of Top Form's main functions, which are all conveniently located on each of the Amiga's ten function keys. On-line help is a welcome addition to Top Form, although I wish it was more extensive. Instead of simply listingwhateachfunction key does, it would be more helpful if this option provided longer descriptions, including an example of each key and its functions.

To print a form, you first must create one from scratch, right? Wrong! Thanks to the more than 100 ready made forms provided in the Top Form package, that doesn't have to be the case. Beyond that, Top Form is shipped with a generous 127 form examples, including forms for daily planners, bowling leagues, sales reports, etc. Nearly all of the ready made forms are done well, and most of the forms an average user might ever require can be found here. These prepared forms can also be modified easily to fit most users' exact needs. Ultimately, the proof is in the printing, so to speak, and by this measure, Top Form lives up to its name. Top Form ignores preferences printers, instead relyingupon nearly two dozen custom printer drivers which Designing Minds supplies with Top Form. Top Form utilizes your selected printer's built-in line- and character-generating ability, resulting in clear and crisp, "Jaggie-free" output. While Top Form's method of printing is by no means as flexible as that of PageStream and ProPage (which utilize structured font 28 AMAZING COMPUTING Circle 134 on Reader Service card. technology to achieve smooth output), it still produces clear and crisp results.

I tested Top Form on a Citizen GSX-140 24- pin dot matrix printer (using the Epson LQ driver), and all the forms generated were crisp and easy to read. Printer drivers for the most popular printers, as well as a rudimentary Postscript driver, are included. For Top Form owners who don't have a printer supported by Top Form, a printer driver generation utility is included. Dabbling with printer control codes is not a job for the uninitiated, but the accompanying documentation in the Top Form manual is fairly helpful. A friend of mine who also purchased Top Form reports that Designing Mind's technical support staff was very cooperative in he! ping him create his own cus torn printer driver. When I contacted Designing Minds for help with the bookmark function, a spokesman informed me that Designing Minds is in the process of adding several enhancements to the program. Features which might appear in the next revision include support for ARexx, a visible onscreen grid to aid users in making tables, and the implementation of the "logo" function, which would allow users to import small IFF graphics for use as logos. Some of the requestors are being redone, with a special emphasis on Top Form's data and text importing and exporting capability. When asked about the possibility of supporting Amiga bitmapped fonts, the Designing Minds spokesperson informed me that this is not presently being considered, mainly due to the poor printed quality of bitmap fonts. However, they do plan to fully support any advancements in AmigaDOS concerning vector-based Amiga fonts. As it stands, Top Form is too unwieldy and difficult to use to be of much benefit to an Amiga novice, or to someone who has only a very a limited need for creating forms. If you simply need to create a few forms during the course of a year, there are several easy-to-use alternative solutions available.

For novice Amiga AMIGA - COMMODORE I REPLACEMENT CHIPS, PARTS ANO UPGRADES I 8520A CIA $ 17.95 A2000 Heavy Duly Power Suppty$_147.00 8364 Paula .$ 39.95 A2000 Keyboard $_114.95 1.3 klCKS!art ROM .$ 29.9:; KeyllOartl tor A1000 $_129.95 8362 Denise -112 Bright .$ 39.95 A500 Keyboard $_109.50 5719 Gary Upgrade .S 17.25 Service Manual A500 S 36.50 256 4180NS Dip $ 6.95 Service manual AHlOO $ 29.95 1 x 4 MEG180 Zip!A3000) .$ 47.95 Service Manual A2000 S 39.00 A501 512K RAM &lard $ 69.95 Amiga Diagnostician . S 14.95 256 x 4 BO(Static Zip A3000) .$ 7.95 Schema1ics Available .$ CALL 68000 16 MHZ $ 35.00 68881 -16 MHZ $ 75.00 68020 16 MHZ .$ 75.00 68881 20 MHZ , . $ 69.00 68030 25 MHZ $_191.00 58882 16 MHZ $_129.00 AMIGA UPGRADES - ECS -1MB '"FATTER AGNUS" CHIP (8372A) wilh FREE Chip Puller and NEW step-by-step 10 minute lnstructtons. .50 p'us UPS MEGACHIP 2000 A 2000 upg!"lloe boartt allows 2 MG ol chip RAM !Uses new 2 MB AGNUS). You ow gel double the enc RAM to custom ships, more graphics and d.g11ized aooo. exce1:em tor asplaying graphics. soeeness 1sta11a11on. lludes tree chip p11er. We even buy back your aid 1 MG AGNUS. 9.0D (Bcloro Rebatol AMIGA 1000 REJUVENATOR UPGRADETap lhe ultimate power of yor Amiga 1000-ulihze (ECS) Enhanced Chip Set Fanar Agnus. 2.0 K1ckslart ROM. more RAM (1 MB), clOci baaery baekup. simple solaerless insia:1a11ar. 100% compal:b111y w lh all proooc1s.sottware 9.00 (Plus UPS) Sena !01 th0 data sheet -

YOUR AMIGA 500 POWER SUPPLY is rea11y ii liny "35 wansupply By ade!1ng anyi'"9 mare lhan lhe 512K plug-in board ever taxes 1he capacity ol 1he supply" To avoid problems, consider our !as1es1 selling Am:ga upgrades: ASOO Heay Duty s,tchr.g55 wan 01pu1 S69.95 or tna Big Foor 150 wa:1 dual swlchable. !an cooled suppr1 (drives 5 hard I opp1es) .95 IMPORTANT CATALOG ANNOUNCEMENTCall I or your new FREE 30 page cataloq of speciali1y items for Amiga, Commodore and IBM. This lree calalog corualns: low cos! replacement chips, upgrades. 34 dagnoslic products, tulonal VHS tapes. inter1aces. heavy duly power supplios (tor A500 and A2000} and other wodwide products you won"! find anywhere else. Dealers, use your letterhead. ltI THE GRAPEVINE GROUP, INC. 3 Cheslnul St. Fax 914-357-6243 SuHem, NY 10901 We ship Worldwide 1-800-292-7445 - 914-357-2424 Prices subjec1 lo chango Circle 147 on Reader Service card. users, Pen Pal (Brown-Wagh) couples capable form generation with "fill-in-theblank" ease of use, along with a full-featured database and graphic word processor. Amiga publishers who currently own Gold Disk's Professional Page or SoftLogik's PageStream can easily create their own forms, or use the third-party templates available from SoftLogik (for PageStream), or Corwyn International's UltraForms for both PageStream and ProPage.

A more consistent user interface, coupled with easier access to Top Form's more advanced features (such as bookmarks) and the ability to print IFF graphics would go a long way in prompting me to give an across-the-board recommendation for this promising package. Certainly, if you need to grind out dozens of individualized forms a year, Top Form does have several powerful features. The bookmark and merging functions (for both text and data) are invaluable, the extensive macro abilities are essential for large form publishing projects, and the wealth of prepared forms make Top Form a good choice for industrialstrength form generation. Top Form is undoubtedly loaded with a wide ranging suite of powerful features, and if you can get past the steep learning curve and put up with a few of the program's idiosyncracies, Top Form is an excellent new tool for those who want to rely more heavily on Amigas to do their business. ACTap Form Price: .00 System requirements: 512K RAM; disk drive Inquiry #208 Designing Minds 3006 North Mein Street Logan, UT 84321 (801) 752-2501 MARCH 1991 29 Winter '91 CES CDTV: Developers And Consumers Say "YES"' At CES! LAS VEGAS, NEV ADA was once again the scene for the Winter Consumer Electronics Show. But Commodore Business Machines, Inc. was impatient to announce COTV (Commodore Dynamic Total Vision) to the interna tional consumer press. CBM scheduled their big press conference for the evening before CES began.

Irving Gould, Gail Wellington, Nolan Bushnell and a host of other Commodore executives rolled out their worldwide introduction of CDTV. CDTV is Commodore's latest edition to the expanding line of ha rd ware products based on the Amiga. (Commodore's remarkable UNIX-based machine comes in next). CDTV combines the technology of the Amiga and the storage capabilities of compact disc to create a new consumer product for learning and entertainment. Irvin Gould, Commodore International Limited's chairman and chief executive officer, called CDTV "a revolutionary new product category that transforms consumer electronics and computer technology into a powerful new media that will enrich and enhance everyday life." Mr. Gould was standing before a packed audience of press and industry notables. Gail Wellington, Director of Special Projects for Commodore I ntema tional, Ltd., noted the large assortment of software developers for CDTV and introduced the newest, Grolier. The Grolier Electronic Errcyclopediacontainsall 21 volumes of Grollcr's Academic American Encyclopedia on a single CD-ROM. Nolan Bushnell, general manager of the Consumer Interactive Products division of Commodore International Limited, noted in a companion press release, "The search and retrieval capabilities provide immediate access to information. Parents and children will have fun doing homework assignments or simply 'thumbing through' the information."

Some of the new features available in this latest release of CDTV include screens designed by Jim Sachs, one of the Amiga's 30 AMAZING COMPUTING most famous artists. His audio screen (used whenever a standard CD is placed in the unit) displays a CD image and a section to list the tracks. As the user chooses the tracks (or the CDTV performs a shuffle), the numbers are displayed in small blocks. Once the CD is activated, a play head hovers over the appropriate disc area and a "laser" beam is seen traveling from the head to the disc and reflected back to the head. If the disc is stopped and removed from the player, both the head and the disc slide off the screen. When playing audio CDs it might be important to check if they areCD+G. CD+G refers to hidden graphic tracks that are encoded on the compact disc. Several compact discs currently contain these hidden graphic files that play like a slow music video, but CDTV is one of the few consumer-priced units that will display these secret graphics. CD+MIDI is another special feature of CDTV. It appears that some artists have encoded their music with MIDI information that will allow the listener to play the music through MIDI keyboards and create entirely different sounds. This feature was being constantly demonstrated by Mike Lehman, author of UltraCard and a developer for CDTV. One of the other gr ea tfea tu res demons tra ted for CDTV is its built-in capability to allow software to be written in a multitude oflanguages.

Several developers are taking advantage of this feature at launch; however, once CDTV is available, every developer will be able to create a single piece of software that can be used on any CDTV around the world. There was good news for Amiga 500 owners. Commodore displayed the A690 (working title) Amiga 500 peripheral that will allow Amiga 500 owners to use CDTV. Unfortunately, no firm pricing has been set for this peripheral, scheduled for a June 1991 release. Amiga 2000 and Amiga 3000 owners will need to wait longer for their access to CDTV. Although Commodore executives say that a device is under development, no one would offer an expected delivery date. While Commodore is unwilling to quote expected sales figures, it is interesting to note the degree of support and the talent working on CDT\! products. Walt Disney Computer Software and Grolier lead a large number of developers who have adopted the CDT\! format. One of the longest-awaited products forCDTV has been Tiger Media's Airwave Adventure-The Case of the Cautious Condor. Tiger Media President Laura Buddine stated that the product was ready and waiting for the final release of CBM's CDTV. Based on a 1930's-style murder mystery with vintage comic book characters and scenes, "'Condor'",stated Ms. Buddine, "is the first title to be developed specifically with the interactive capabilities of optical disc pla tforms in mind."

Tiger Media is also the producer of the CATS CD Manager which was instrumental in developing CDs using Sun Microsystems' SPARCstations. Barney Bear Goes To School will be Free Spirit Software's first product for CDTV. Available at CDTV' s release, Barney Bear Goes ToSchoo1(.95)isa very popular children's interactive game that teaches how to get ready for school, safety, and participation in learning activities. Merit Software will release two products for CDTV, their Classic Board Games and All Dogs Go To Heaven Talking Crayon. Classic Board Games contains the three favorites Chess, Checkers, and Backgammon, completely redesigned forCDTV with play updates available in six different languages French, German, Japanese, Spanish, Italian, and English). All Dogs Go To Heaven Talking Crayon is based on the animated film by Don Bluth. Music and words from the movie are available in all 30 pictures and children can obtain audio instructions at the touch of a button. Merit is an old hand at developing electronic crayon software; this is their sixth package. With over46 packages available by the release of CDTV and with hundreds now under development (Commodore has announced that there will be two hundred titles by Christmas 1991), COTY has a vast assortment of products coming forward.

NewTek Can Be In Two Places At Once As if it was not enough that NewTek attracted large groups of people to their booth at CES, they were doing the same in San Francisco at the January MacWorld Exposition. Offering digital effects at CES easily attracted video and consumer dealers, but New'Iek's presence at MacWorld gave the Toaster/ Amiga combination exposure in the Mac market as a video peripheral for the Macintosh. According to NewTek executives, the features of the Toaster I Amiga are exactly what Macintosh owners want and are far less expensive than products available for the Macintosh. rhat's Entertainment! Beyond CDTV, CES had thousands of other exhibitors, the largest assortment of which were game manufacturers. With Nintendo occupying an en tire pavilion, and other hard ware producers maintaining extremely large booth areas, the event was like a magnet for anyone producing entertainment software. Most developers provide products for more than one platform, yet in the past it was very difficult to find Amiga software at CES. Today, however, there are a growing number of developers who do not want to miss the opportunities of developing entertainment software for the Amiga. Here are just a few of the many we uncovered.

Accolade announced a new distribution agreement with U.S. Gold, a leading entertainment software developer in Europe. U.S. Gold will be supplying Accolade with four new titles scheduled to be available by April 15, 1991Gold of the Aztecs, International Soccer, Vaxine, and Rotox, Accolade also announced the release of several new Amiga games of its own. Jack Nicklaus Presents The Great Courses of the U.S. Open is the latest add-on disk for Jack Nicklaus' Unlimited Golf & Course Design and Jack Nicklaus' Greatest 18 Holes of Major Championship Golf. In addition, Accolade has promised HoverForce, Jack Nicklaus Presents the Major Champion- Clockwise from upper left: Compact audio discs wllhCD+G; CDTV liHes ready for launch; The A690 CDTV peripheral for the Amiga SOC. ship Courses of1991, Les Manley In: Search for The King, Altered Destiny, and Gunboat: River Combat Simulation . They should all be available this month. Access Software Inc. announced the release of several new games. Mean Streets is an "Interactive Detective Movie" set in San Francisco in the year 2033. The interesting thing about this new game is that it was developed using full size sets, more than 30 actors, models, and extras, new techniques to digitize both sound and motion, and custom designed scale models. With the use of innovative video technology, Access has proven that today's game programmer is getting closer than ever to cinema directing. California Dreams' Amiga games included Blockout, the 3-D strategy and reaction game, and, appropriately enough, Vegas Gambler.

Vegas Gambler offers four of the most popular casino games in astound- ing detail. Test your luck in Vegas without losing a dime. But you could lose your heart over California Dreams' next release, Street Rod II. Remember your first car and how you fixed her up to run with the best? If you do, or if you never had the experience and want to live it now, Street Rod II (.95) is a racing construction set and simulator in which you buy any one of25 authentic cars and then customize it for road racing. Solidarity (.95) is rnorethana phrase at California Dreams. With this new graphic political simulator you form a Polish trade union during the dangerous days prior to the formation of the Solidarity trade union. As former members of Solidarity, game designers at the PZK development group in Warsaw, Poland used their personal experiences and memories to bring authenticity to this interesting creation. MARCH 1991 31 AC' s TECH Dealers AC's TECH For 111e Commodore Amiga is available now at the following Amazing Dealers. lf your local Amiga dealer is not on this list- tell them they should be! If you are an Amiga dealer and would like to carry AC's TECH at your location, or you can't find AC's TECH in your area, call us toll free at: 1 -800-345-3360 Best Electronics The Creative Edge Professional Micro Systems Page One Newstand Lauer Todd Computer Anchorage. AK East Ketchum. ID Baltimore. MD Albuquerque, NM Solutions Newtown, PA Alabama Computers Etc. D Software & CADDs Software Advantage Computer World Huntsville, Al Bloomingdale. IL Rockville, MO Las Vegas, NV North Digital System Danville. PA The Computer Image Franco Computers Skylight Software Computer House Birmingham, Al Peoria, IL Belfast. ME Sparks, NV Pittsburgh Computer Store Pittsburgh. PA Commodore Connection Megabyte Computer Works Better Mousetrap Computers M.A.S.T. North little Rock. AR Springfield. IL Fllint, Ml Sparks, NV Software Hut Philadelphia, PA Computer Concepts Micro Tek Book Nook Amagination Gosnell, AR Bradley, IL Allen Park. Ml New York, NY Some Hole in the Wall Philadelphia. PA Capri Products Company Micro Ed Enterprises Book Center of East Detroit Global Software Burlingame, CA Chicago. IL East Detroit, Ml New Hyde Park. NY Micro Limits Warwick. RI Commodore Land Ring Software Direct Access Leigh's Computers Alhambra, CA Geneva, IL Novi, Ml New York, NY Software Connections Warwick, RI Computer Nook Software Plus Michigan Software McAleavys Newstand San Bernadina, CA Wheeling, IL Novi, Ml Somerville. NY The Computer Place Woonsocket, RI Dataphile Software Plus Chicago Norman Business Control Peavy's Enterprises Watsonville, CA Chicago, IL Systems Latham. NY AVCOM International Grand Rapids. Ml West Columbia, SC Harding Way News Software Plus West Ray Supply Stockton.

CA Hanover Park. IL Rite Way Computers Plattsburg, NY A&E Software Warren. Ml Groves. TX KJ Computers Computer People The Microworks Granada Hills, CA Michigan City, IN Slip Disk Buffalo. NY Lee Kaplan Metropolitan Madison Heights, Ml Computer Micro Galaxy Computer Products Unlimited The Computer Cellar Richardson. TX Santa Rosa, CA Ft. Wayne. IN Slipped Disk Albany. NY New Baltimore, Ml Software Library Amazing Computers of CPU Inc. Video Computer Center Wichita Falls. TX Denver Inc. Indianapolis, IN Sohwarehouse Rome. NY Denver, CO Kalamazoo, Ml The Computer Experience Digital Arts Video Computer Inc. San Antonio, TX Computer Discount Bloomington, IN Ye Olde Computer Shoppe Rome, NY Denver. CO Ypsilanti. Ml Discovery Xerox Computer Center World Wide News Fairfax, VA lnfotronics Indianapolis, IN JMH Software Rochester. NY S. Woodbury. CT Maple Grove. MN Universliy Bookstore Von's Computers Fairborn Home Computer Blacksburg, VA Amazing Computers West Lafayette, IN Miller Computer Service Fairborn. OH Tampa. FL St. Paul, MN Virginia Micro Systems Mr. Horan's Computer Lab Infinity Computing Woodbridge. VA Amicomp Computer Center Louisville. KY Specialists In Columbus, OH Oviedo. Fl Hopkins, MN Nibbles & Bytes Computer Works Merical Computers Tacoma, WA Commodore Country Middleton, MA Valiant Inc. Centerville. OH Pinellas Park. FL Stillwater. MN Omni International HCS Computer Center North Coast Programming Seattle, WA Computer Image Pembroke. MA National Computer Center Willoughby, OH Miami, FL Ocean Spring, MS Tech Star LCA Video & Computer Second Hand Soltware Kent, WA Computers Plus Center Computers R Us Oklahoma City, OK Daytona Beach. FL Norwood. MA Lincoln, NE Computer Software Center Comm Shack Milwaukee. WI Software South Inc. The Memory Location Double E Computer System Salem, OR Savannah. GA Wellsley, MA Omaha, NE Fox Valley Personal Techno World Computer U.S.E.R.S. Computers Tycom fnc. Digna! Connection Computers Springfield, OR Oshkosh. WI St. Mary's, GA Pittsfield, MA Dover. NH A TD Software TMW Computer Center The Musician Buried Treasure System Eyes Sayre, PA Wausau. WI Macon, GA Rockville.

MD Nashua, NH The 64 Store Capita! Classics Circle Computer SDA Computers Garden Stale News Ephrata. PA Hurricane. WV Atlanta. GA Silver Springs, MD Cliffside Park, NJ ABI Computer & Video New Age Computers Computer Basics Manta Inc. Software Concepts Hermitage, PA Nampa, ID College Park, MD Eatontown, NJ Electronic Connection Village Computer Center Reading, PA Cedar KnoHs, NJ Technically Speaking, It's the First. Check out the Contents . . premiere issue, on sale now: January, 1991 Vol. 1 No. 1 + Advanced Disassembling: Magic Macros with Resource + Building the VidCell: 256 Grey-Scale Digitizer + An Introduction to Interprocess Communication with ARexx + An Introduction to the ilbm.library +The Use of Recursive Programming Techniques in Conjunction with DOS and EDIT for Hard Disk Backup +The FastBoot Super Boot Block: Creating a Bootable, Recoverable RAM Disk + AmigaDOS for Programmers + Adapting Mattel's PowerGlove to the Amiga + Using Proportional Gadgets from Absoft's FORTRAN vAll Amiga! vAll technical! vAll original! V' All pro_grams included on disk! v Be sure to get your copy today . before they're ALL GONE! Get the Premiere January 1991 Issue for $_14.95. Charter One-year Subscription - Four Issues - only .95! (limited time only) A C's TECH - from ttte Amiga technical information publishing leader - P.i.M. Publications, Inc. Top to bollom: The audio screen for compact audio discs; Optional CDTV track boll and wired control; CDTV's multilingual selection screen. Cinemaware'sTVSports: Baseball will be ready in time for spring training. With practice modes for batting, pitching, and fielding, as well as the ability to trade players, TV Sports: Baseball (.95) will bring network action play to the Amiga next month.

In May, Cinemaware will follow with theirreleaseofEnemy Within (.95). Enemy Within keeps players in touch withbu t not always in control of-the action. In this offbeat spy thriller you deal with subplots as active as the main theme, and each person's personal agenda can have a devastating effect on your own. Rollerbabes, a high-spirited romp of roller derby and so much more was also announced for the Amiga, but a specific release date was not given. Interplay's Castles (. 95) will let you explore the world of thirteenth-century castle building, but it will not be available for the Amiga until August 1991. Available sooner (April 1991) and a bit more modem is Cruise For A Corpse (.95), in which a cold-blooded murdereraboard the yacht of a wealthy Greek shipowner stalks and kills the magnate's guests. In the future, everyone will play the TV game show Lexi-Cross, a game with a lovely robot and letter tiles, but Amiga owners will be able to buy it in May. Dvorak on Typing (yes, that is the Dvorak) teaches touch typing throughstepby-step lessons with graphics and audio feedback. While Dvorak on Typing(.95, Amiga version in June 1991) does not promise to make you a nationally recognized computer columnist, it does promise 34 AMAZING COMPUTING to make you a more confident touch typist. Back To The Future II (.95) leads an army of new Amiga releases planned for this year by Konami. Back To The Future II follows the adventures of Marty McFly and Doc straight from the feature film.

Theme Park Mystery (.95) is your dream come true, if your dream is to inherit a deserted theme park from your mad uncle. Super C ($_19.95) continues your arcade activities against alien foes like the Jagger Froid and Red Falcon's brain. New World Computing, Inc., the creators of Nuclear War, is about to bring its highly popular King's Bounty to the Amiga. King's Bounty is a role-playing/strategy game where triumph comes with conquest and conquest comes by besting villains on four continents. Ocean is offering an entire universe of new games, including F29 Retaliator (.95), Nightbreed (.95), Billy The Kid (.95), Battle Command (.95), The Untouchables (.95), and Lost Patrol (.95). Spectrum Holobyte's Flight of The Intruder (.95) is also now scheduled for the Amiga; it brings Steven Coon ts' tale of Vietnam fighting through 36 missions. There was also a hint that Red Phoenix would be developed first for the IBM and then for the Amiga, although the new Falcon 3.0 is scheduled only for the IBM. UBI Soft announced a game of stacking balls and advancing levels, Pick'n Pile (.95). Balls fall from the sky and must be stacked in columns of the same color. Get them stacked, they disappear, and you move to the next level Pro Tennis Tour 2 (.95) is your entry into the advanced world of professional tennis. Virgin Mastertronic has taken the bizarre world of Lewis Carroll to new levels. Travel the world of Wonderland (.95) as Carroll's most famous character, Alice. Also soon to be released are Guild of Thieves and Corruption, and Fish! All three Virgin releases are the products of Magnetic Scrolls. Virgin also promised Overlord (.95), the simulation game that allows you to settle and develop an entire universe.

Soon-to-be-released en te rtainmen ts include: Mindcraft' s The Magic Candle Vol. 2: The Four and Forty (.95); The Secret Of Monkey Island and Secret Weapons Of The Luftwaffe from Lucasfilm Games; and Armada2525,D.R.A.G.O.N.Force,andStar Fleet II from lnterstel Corporation. ACR 0 [171e statements and projections presented in "Roomers" are rumors in the purest se11se. Tire bits of information are gathered liya thirdparty source from whispers inside tire industry. At press time, they remain 1111co11firmed and are printed for entertainment value only. Accordingly, the staff and associates of Amazing Computing'" cannot be held responsible for tire reports made The Bandito wants to caution those of you out there who think that Commodore may be introducing a new Amiga in the UK: it isn't necessarily so. While they have announced the Amiga 1500 over there, it's really just a marketing strategy. They've taken an ordinary A2000, added a second floppy, put on a new nameplate, and presto!-a new computer! Why would they do such a thing? Well, the Brits are notoriously frugal when it comes to buying hardware, so Commodore hopes that they'll be more likely to buy this than the A2000HD, which is more expensive. Of course, they're bundling software with it to make the deal more attractive. The European hardware market continues to evolve, and there are some changes in buying habits. Of course, the Amiga has been the leading format for entertainment software in Europe for some time, with the Atari ST in the number two slot and the IBM PC clones corning in a distant third. However, the IBM PC and its clone army recently threatened to take away the number two slot from the Atari ST. Atari is dismayed 0 by The Bandito to find its market share sliding away in its strongest market. The Bandito hears whispers that they may concentrate more of their corporate resources on the Portfolio and the Lynx, the best-selling areas of its many product lines. The eventual fate of the Atari ST?

The Bandito knows of some landfills that could use bulking up . The hardware business changes rapidly, and yesterday's hot product is today's lemon. Sometimes the rapid pace of change even obsoletes a product before it even comes to market. Such is the case with the oft-rumored A250, the cartridge-based version of the ASOO. The A250 has been shelved, probably forever. The idea now is to make COTY the low-cost game/education/home machine. This is not a bad idea, as putting games on CD-ROM is far more attractive to manufacturers than cartridges. First of all, CD-ROMs cost about a piece in quantity, compared to $_10 a piece for carts. Also CD-ROMs hold about 500 times as much information, which is not inconsiderable. The only advantage carts have is their nearinstantaneous access time, while CDROMs are almost as poky as floppy drives. The solution is a clever use of the 1 megabyte of memory in COTY to buffer images and sounds, though this is not always possible. It's possible that CDTY may even replace the A500 entirely at some point in the future, if sales warrant. Though R s The Bandito thinks it is more likely that Commodore would just keep moving the price of the ASOO downward, keeping it below that of COTV.

Target pricing for the COTY introduction in the spring has been dropped to 9 list. At the same time, the price of the ASOO system may continue to move downward to make room for CDTV at the higher price point. COTY is on a fast track, but don't look for any improvements in the hardware. Special software compression/ decompression routines could make a huge difference in the output. The Bandito has heard of some topsecret work at an unnamed Amiga developer, where they have created a software compression scheme that can get 15-frame-per-second video in a quarter-screen window at HAM resolutions. Oh, and that's with audio. Sounds like the perfect thing for CDTV, doesn't it? No extra hardware needed. But it does point out another problem: standards. The Amiga needs a motion video standard to get ready for the future of computing and it would be best to put one into place now before a zillion competing standards mess up the marketplace. While we're on the subject of standards, the ancient IFF standard needs revamping. Let's devote some attention to this again, Commodore! Among the many things lacking are a new standard for object-oriented files, MARCH 1991 35 animation files, 3-D object files, rendering information, and multimedia files. Also don't forget better instrument and sound files; the 8SVX standard is far below the best quality possible on the Amiga. Though CDTV is late, the era of CD-ROM is fost approaching for the Amiga: HyperMedia Concepts has announced that the entire Fred Fish software library will be available for the Amiga on CD-ROM.

The disk contains the data of all 410 floppies in the Fred Fish collection in ready-to-use format and in ZlPed format for use by BBS SYSOPS. You get all this for only . Hyper Media Concepts also plans to offer updates with all the new Fred Fish disks every four months, which will cost only for registered owners. Of course, you have to have a CD-ROM for attend WOCA while Amiga dealers should be able to offer some very good prices on Amiga hardware from Commodore. The same letter mentioned that Commodore would like to have a second show in the Fall on the West Coast. Yet Commodore did not mention which group they would sponsor for the event. It is important to note, however, that Commodore's emphasis is on a professional show in a high-traffic area. This eliminates AMI Shows' Oakland site. Also, if AMI Shows doesn't cancel their show in New York, it could mean full support for The Hunter Croup throughout North America. All of this should not hurt AMI Shows. Their European operations are doing much better than their US ones. None of the US shows have drawn even half the attendance or exhibitors of the European shows. It seems Digital Creations-with product developments aimed squarely at Digi-View and the Video Toastermay be giving NewTek a real run for their money. your Amiga. The disk is designed for use with my Amiga-supported ISO 9660 standard drive and Commodore's CDTV. Currently, Xetec provides an internal CD-ROM model for 0 (external for 0); these can be connected to any compatible SCSI interface. They include over 500 megabytes of PD software, including the Fred Fish disks up through #380. Amiga Show Wars The two giants of Amiga trade shows are still set to run their New York shows only three weeks apart. AMI Shows and The Hunter Group have both marked New York as a prime spot for a trade show this Spring with the casualties being a divided market and a confused audience. While Amiga World has sanctioned the Amiga World EXPO (surprise), Commodore has placed their full support behind The Hunter Group's World Of Commodore Amiga. In a letter to all developers, Commodore stated they would support dealers and developers with special meetings and on-site stocks of machines. This means developers have a better reason to 36 AlllAZING COMPUHNG Toast of the Town The Video Toaster is the main topic of discussion in the Amiga community these days, but it's also blazing hot in some unexpected places. There have been several articles in the PC magazine press. John Dvorak has written about it in PC Magazine and MncUser.

They're not really standard Amiga magazines; however, BYTmagazine did a really fancy review of the Video Toaster with some glowing remarks. Rumors in Hollywood say the device may save tens of thousands in production costs for special effects. Meanwhile, it is rumored that Commodore is promoting the Video Toaster and plans to make as much hay as possible. Look for special promotions, bundling deals, and advertising support. Already, many Amiga dealers are centering their advertising campaigns around the Video Toaster, using the lure of Amiga video to drag people into their stores. While NewTek's Video Toaster has captured so much media attention, Amiga third-party developers are creating additional video products for the Amiga. While some products are attempting to replace the Video Toaster, others are seeking to improve it. One rather cautious Amiga developer is determined to offer a fix for the Toaster's TBC synchronous input problem. The company hopes to have a prototype to display at the next World Of Amiga in New York. The V-Machine project at Digital Creations is going strong and they have just launched DCTV with raves from Amiga users all over. It seems Digital Creations-with product developments aimed squarely at Digi-View and the Video Toaster-may be giving NewTek a real run for their money. Although the V-Machine is currently planned with a 00 price tag, the "V" reportedly eliminates a lot of the annoying problems the Video Toaster has with TBC input. And how about that new device that Progressive Peripherals is planning for video production-The Video Blender? Even though the name adds to the "kitchen" flavor of the Amiga market, resources at Progressive are very excited about its "very-soon-now" release. Video is not the only song Progressive Peripherals is singing these days. Rumor has it that the entire staff of Progressive have been working hot and heavy on a very large assortment of Amiga products. While some have been announced and not shipped, others are not even whispers.

The word is that Progressive's products will advance the Amiga into a truly professional arena. Look for some exciting news in the next few months. All of this activity comes al an important point in the history of the Amiga. The installed base of Amigas has finally hit the 2 million mark. Compare this to about 6 million Macintoshes, and perhaps 60 million MS-DOS machines. Yes, the Amiga has quite a ways to go yet, but the next year or two looks good. The Amiga will finally be accepted as a business computer . for the business of video. And video is becoming an increasingly important medium of communication. Look at the numerous catalogs available on video, video magazines, and even the growth of cable. It's amazing how much video is created each year, considering how expensive a video is to make. When the Amiga makes editing video as easy and co Structured Cli17NoArJ ltJ1!!WJI / Electric Guitars A Sports ', Tropical Fish .}, Skulls q World Peace Fur use in Prulfraw. Prof'age, and Page Stream 2. l $_19.00 Includes S/H in the USA (CA residents add $_1.05 sales tax) Stntl dut:J: or monei, ordc111: Lazer TechInk Post Office Box 9471 Anaheim, CA 92812 Di-11li!r inquiries welcome Circle 106 on Reader Servi co card. inexpensive as it has made video effects, the result will be a boom in video production. Corporations of all sizes will have in-house video production and businesses large and small will use video extensively. We can't even imagine some of the uses that will be found for video, once it's cheap and easy to do. The magic number seems to be $_10,000. That was the magic number for Apple; for under ten grand, you could get a Macintosh and a LaserWriter which gave the ability to produce professional-looking documents.

Commodore needs to shoot for that same magic number: a complete video editing system for under that amount. Right now, the cameras and video recorders needed are a little too expensive, but the prices should be dropping fast. The Bandito thinks you'll be able to put together this dream system in 1992. Every computer has its own niche in the market. The IBM PC and clones are the computer of choice for spreadsheets and word processing. The Macintosh is the computer for desktop publishing. And the Amiga is the only computer for graphics and video. Sure, with the right hardware and software you can make any of those computers do most anything. The point is, people think of each computer in terms of its strength. And the Amiga's strength has always been graphics and video. Now with all of the Amiga developers creating video tools that just can't be found on any other computer, this is the Amiga's ticket to respectability, and Commodore intends to run with it. Point Wars There are some new faces showing up to take part in this lucrative battle: Macro Paint, boasting the first Dynamic hi-res painting capability (see review, page 17 of this issue), is an interesting entrant out of left field. And what of the top dogs in this battleground, the venerable DPaint III and Digi-Paint 3? New versions will emerge this year, say The Bandito's informants. Bits and Pieces Dept. Commodore's advertising blitz for the holiday season that just past was a huge effort.

The main thrust revolved around getting Nintendo owners to move up to an Amiga 500. A hot new video for dealers, half a million direct mail coupons, and bonus packs of software aided their cause. It seems that just as The Bandito warned, the Macintosh ROMs necessary for A-Max and other Macintosh emulators have disappeared due to Apple's new policy and the arrest of the counterfeiter. This has put plans for AMax II Plus on hold, for now. [Editor's Note: Sorry, Bandito. A spokesperson for ReadySoft Inc. not only i11formed us that rnrre11t sales of A-Max II are doi11g very well, but RcadySoft is also goiirg full steam a/read 011111/ future product develop111e11ts.J EXPAND! EXPAND! EXPAND! MEMORYIBOARD UNIT 2MB 4MB 8MB 1x880 SIMM s 55.00 110 210 400 256x480 6.50 104 200 384 1mx180 6.50 104 200 384 256x180 1.75 112 192 384 256x480 SC ZIP 9.50 152 296 576 1mx4-80 SC ZIP 45.00 180 360 680 ICD AdRAM 540 109 199 299 ICO Ad RAM 2080 119 199 279 429 RAMWOAKS 2000 109 189 269 429 IVS META4 259 349 GVP II HCISOM HO 549 649 749 929 AdSCSI 20B0/40M HO .449 549 649 829 AE HD 3.S- DRIVE .189 ICD AdSPE ED 239 DL EXPRESSIMNP!FAX 199 ICD AdlDE 119 DL 20001MNPIFAX . 159 FLICK FREE V . 329 TRUMP500 PR0/4DM HD 519 Ad RAM 560012MB . 199 SUP RASOOXP/40M!512K 629 AMIGAVISION 89 ORDERS: 800-735-2633 VISNMC1COD INFORMATION: 408-6262633 FAX: 4086260532 VISIONSOFT POBOX22517.CARMEL.CA9J9Z2 Circle 116 on Reader Service card. COLOR RIBBONS & PAPER Color1: Bl.eek, Rad, Blue, Grun, Brown, P1pl1, Yellow Ribbons: I T-Shlrt orlce each I Bleck Color Ribbons Brother 1109 95.9g-r-00- Citizen 200/GSX 140 4.00 5.00 I . 7.50 Citizen GSX 140, 4-Color Epson MXJFXJRX 80/85 3.75 4.50 6.75 Okidata 182/192 I 5.00 7.50 6.00 Panasonic 1190/1124 5.00 7.50 Commodore MPS Call For : Price Star NX1000 I 3.50 4.50 ., 6.75 Star NX1 000, 4-Color 6.25 10.00 T-Shlrt (liBll Tr1niltf) RibbonColor1: Black. Rod, 1i U1, Gretn, Brown, Purplt, Y1llow COLOR PAPER Color Piper 200 tli@e11 HIOrttd Brlh! Pick: 1/2111 Pillot Pick: 1/2111 C ilor C.rtlotPoper: 100 1hNll C ilor Binner Paper: 45 ft.roll l10.9Gpk I H.9G pk ' 7.9Gpk s up11 RAMCO COMPUTER SUPPLIES P.O. Box 476. Manteno. IL 60950 U.SA (USA) 800-522-6922 or 815408-6081 (Canada) 600-621 5444 Circle 120 on Reader Service card. A new company is planning a similar board that goes in an IBM PC, though it costs $_1,000.

Why not buy a Mac for that price? The Bandito hears that Mac ROMs may well be licensed out to other companies, so that they may again become available. Here's an exciting news flash: Trip Hawkins is no longer the president of Electronic Arts! Trip is now CEO and Chairman of the Board, while Larry Probst, formerly in charge of sales, handles the day-to-day operations as Chief Operating Officer. What does this mean? Well, don't look for any vast changes right away. But the Bandito expects that Electronic Arts will seek to expand its very profitable distribution business (they control over a third of all entertainment software sales in the U.S.) and perhaps minimize its not-sosuccessful publishing group. There are a few bright spots in their in-house publishing division, though. PowerMonger (see "Diversions", page 39 of this issue) and The Immortal are good solid Amiga titles, and the upcoming Centurion: Defender of Rome looks to be a winner.

Your goal is to make sure that the manufacturing quota is met-and exceeded, if possible. If you are Games reviewed this month: Night Shift James Bond: The Stealth Affalr Wolf Pack PowerMonger Harpoon successful, large cash bonuses await you. If you fail, there is nothing left but to pick up your pink slip and start looking in the "Help Wanted" section of the classifieds. The playing screen represents the BEAST, the machine that produces the figures. But since the BEAST breaks I I I Jomes Bond: The Stealth Affair Night Shift down frequently, you'll have to keep a watchful eye on the entire operation. This involves picking up tools you find scattered throughout the factory, repairing the machinery, and sweeping away irritating little lemmings which are also trying to foul up the works. The BEAST is about two-and-a-half screens high by one screen wide, and loaded with things ready to break. MARCH 1991 39 PowerMonger You'll have to master the best paths to certain sections of the machine, without getting yourself injured. All this just to earn a few bucks! Night Shift certainly provides a lot of action, and in varying forms. Each shift not only increases the quota of what is to be produced, but changes the items and the colors of them. In order to get things running, you must first learn how to set each switch, and then decide in which order to tum them. As you get further along in the shifts newer areas are revealed to you, thereby forcing you to constantly improve your skills. 40 AMAZING Co.uPUTING Wolf Pock The graphics are nice, but not breathtaking. The BEAST is portrayed in enough detail that you can figure out what and where things are, but there is a learning curve. A soundtrack plays in the background, supplemented by different alarms which sound when parts of the BEAST break down. The sound effects and soundtrack can be toggled off with a function key, if you have a need to play the game in the wee hours of the morning! Overall, I enjoy Night Shift, although I still have a long way to go before I complete all the shifts. The game is a nice alternative to all those arcade shoot-' em-ups, and it does stimulate a measure of brain activity in requiring you to memorize switch settings and the like. If you are on the prowl for a different type of arcade game, sign up for this Night Shift. The Stealth Affair by Mig1tel Mulet The premise here is that someone just had to have a Stealth fighter for themselves, and since they cannot be purchased, that certain someone has thieved one from the good ol' United States. In hopes of retrieving the stolen aircraft quickly and quietly, the CIA has called in a few favors .including "borrowing" Agent 007 from the British Secret Service.

Thus starts The Stealth Affair. Here you play Agent 007 in search of the missing aircraft. Your search begins in a small Latin American country where the plane was suspected to have landed. Of course, "Q" has sent you the usual care package, which includes such nifty items as a passport-forging machine, rocketlaunching cigarettes, and a cutting pen, just to name a few. The Stealth Affair is the latest from Delphine Software and Interplay, creators of the adventure Future Wars. They share the same "Cinematique" system, where no typing is necessary to issue commands. To move James, all you do is point to where you want to go and click. Issuing commands is as easy as pressing the right mouse button, whereupon a list of possible actions is displayed. Point and click again, and away you go. The graphics are good-about the same as in Future Wars-with some scenes larger than others. Sound effects are used with good results, but (here again) are not spectacular. Unfortunately, the pop-up menus are difficult to use. Unless your cursor is positioned in a particular area of the screen, you may find yourself unable to issue certain commands. Although this is not a fatal error, it is fairly annoying. Game play is just average, and despite the fact that I am a big fan of James Bond, this game failed to keep me interested. Wolf Pack by Miguel Mulet At the outset of World War ll, millions of tons of supplies in the process of being shipped from the U.S. to England were lost to enemy U-boat attacks.

These German submarines attacked the convoys relentlessly, usually in small groups at night. For this reason, one infamous group of Uboats became known as the "Wolf Pack", and that is where this game from Broderbund Software gets its title. You have the option of playing either the commander of the group of submarines, or the commander of a group of surface vessels. Naturally, your strategy varies depending upon which role you play. I found play on both sides to be interesting and for the most part, evenly matched. Wolf Pack comes with twelve prepared missions, as well as a construction set that allows you to create your own scenarios. The main screen allows you to set a number of parameters, such as which of the preset missions to embark on, which group of ships you'd like to command, whether it will be a day or evening mission, and even the year of the attack. Early on, Allied destroyers had no sonar, so it was easy for the subs to sneak in and attack ships prior to being detected. Once you set up your game, you are transported to the bridge of the first vessel you command. There are several easy ways to move between ships, and you can issue commands from any ship in the fleet. Your mission goals are displayed on a small teletype, and after that, it's up to you on how to achieve them. Everything is mouse controlled-from the firing of your torpedoes to the crash dive needed to avoid a rapid volley of depth charges. At the end of each game, the computer assesses the losses of opposing ships versus your own, and then declares a winner.

Game graphics and sounds are adequate, although the display screen is a little choppy in displaying approaching vessels. Luckily, this doesn't This Is Your Amiga on HAM .

Tired of dealing with karma, knights, and a fickle population? Or Night Shift Prica: .95 Inquiry #212 Lucasfllm Games P.O. Box 10307 San Rafael, CA 94917 (800) 782-7927 Harpoon maybe you want to build your own world and enjoy the excitement of conquering it yourself? If you answered "yes" to any of these questions, then you owe it to yourself to check out Electronic Arts' PowerMonger! PowerMonger is a pseudo-sequel to the amazingly successful Populous. In PowerMonger, you essentially play a general who is attempting to conquer any and all lands that come into your view. Once you conquer one region, you can move on to conquer all 195 territories of this new world. At your disposal are one or more captains who are trained to faithfully execute your orders with the troops under their command. Of course, you start out with just one captain, but as you become more powerful, you have the opportunity to gain both leaders and troops. However, you can't live just by the sword. Your troops must also scout for food, spy on the enemy, and attempt to steal inventions created by your adversaries. These troops are also able to forge alliances with other cultures if you so desire, thus serving you as diplomats. As in real life, mother nature must also be taken into consideration. Nuisances such as rain, snow, and the change of seasons effect not only how quickly your troops are able to move, but also how much food they can find. PowerMonger incorporates excellent sound and graphics. As a matter of fact, the sound effects provide vital clues to the world around you that you can't otherwise see. The coming of winter is signified by the winds that at first only gradually begin to blow through the tops of trees. Sheep, an important source of food, can be heard as they graze on nearby lands. Enemy troops can be heard well before they are seen, as by the flutter of wings of birds quickly abandoning their peaceful perches in advance of the approaching army.

Product Information Wolf Pack Price: .95 Inquiry #213 Broderbund Software Inc. 17 Paul Drive San Rafael, CA 94903 (800) 527-6263 James Bond: The Stealth Affair Price: .95 Inquiry #214 Interplay Productions 3710 S. Susan, Suite 100 Santa Ana, CA 92704 (714) 549-9001 PowerMonger Prlce: .95 Inquiry #215 Electronic Arts 1820 Gateway Drive San Mateo, CA 94404 (800) 245-4525 Harpoon Price: .95 Inquiry #216 Three-Sixty, Inc. 2105 S. Bascom Ave., Suite 290 Campbell, CA 95008 (408) 879-9144 42 AMAZING COMPUTING There is a noticeable learning curve associated with PowerMongerit's not as easy to get into as Populous.

There is not much arcade action to be found here; the game focuses much more on the strategic aspect of world domination. If, however, you take the time to develop a good strategy and learn to play the game, you will be gratified as well as challenged. Harpoon by Rob Hays Do you think you have the strategic and tactical abilities to defeat the Soviet naval commander in the North Atlantic during a major EastWest conflict? Harpoon, from ThreeSixty, lets you try your hand at just that task. The action takes place around an area known as the GIUK (Greenland, Iceland, and United Kingdom) Gap, through which Soviet naval forces have to sail in order to reach the North Atlantic shipping lanes. Harpoon is a computer version of the famous board game designed by Larry Bond, a former naval officer and varfare analyst. As in most board games of this type, players track the movements of their assets with stacks of small cardboard pieces.

Attacks are resolved with dice and numerous tables listing the results of using weapon A against ship B with a dice roll of C. Add in complicating factors such as weather, ship heading, crew experience, etc., and a single scenario can take hours to complete. Transferring the game to a computer allows all of the number crunching to be handled automatically, freeing the player to concentrate squarely on the strategy and tactics of the game. Quite a few calculations are required during game play, and the program does take advantage of the faster 68020 and 68030 microprocessors 714-2830498 800-9429505 7142830499 8009429505 AAMIGA WAREHOUSE MASTER 3A-1 D 2-8 MB BOARD (A2000) 15448 FELDSPAR DR., CHINO ll!LLS, CJ\. 9170!/ * MASTER 3A-l Disk Drive .95 GOLDEN IMAGE WE WILL BEAT ANY ADVERTISED PRICE! AND JUST ABOUT ALL UNADVERTISED PRICES ALSO, MEMORY UPGRADES HAND SCANNER RC500 (A501 clone) OPTICAL MOUSE OPTO-MECHANICAL WE WILL llEAT ANY PRICE ON ANY OF TIIESE PRODUCrs. Why purchuee [rem o Iorgo company where YOU arn just a number? Uuy your AMIGA hardware frnm guy's that own AMIUA'and know how to use them, DRAMS A3000 STATIC ZIPS 64x4. 1201100/80/70 1x4-60/70 .95 256x1 . 120/100180170 4.8o 95 256x4 -100/80/70 255x . INTERNATIONAL ORDERS 265x4 - 100180 Page Zip SAME DAY SlllPPJNG 1 M x 1 100/80170 'FOR SOFTWARE GO TO UPS. RD. BLUE, GROUND_ s IMM s THE REST C.0.0. ACCEl'TED ALONG wm1 1x8-12110/80/70 FOR HARDWARE CALL lffilac 4x8 - B0/70 THE BEST/!!" Mast.Csrd VISA GVP SIMMS TOO! -9505 1-800-942 Circle 109 on Reader Service card. that are standard in Amiga 2500s and 3000s. The game includes an astonishing amount of information on the ships, planes, subs, and weapons available to both the NATO and Soviet navies.

Tom Clancy used the original board game in writing parts of Tlie Hunt for Red October, and in the foreword to the Harpoon manual he says the technical information supplied with the game was equivalent to that found in 00 worth of reference books. The main display has two windows, one of which concentrates on individual Units within a Group, while the other shows a larger area and allows control of entire Groups. The coastlines shown in the Group window have been taken from actual Defense Mapping Agency Global Navigation Charts, and are accurate within the limits of the game. Unlike most warrare simulations, which place you in command of a single ship or aircraft, Harpoon casts you in the role of either the NA TO or Soviet Area Commander. You are mainly concerned with the big picture, not so much the operation of individual weapons. You issue orders to a Group, which usually consists of many separate Units, each Unit being an individual ship, sub, or aircraft. For instance, you set the course and speed for the Group to follow. Then, using the formation editor, you assign specific ships or planes to specific sectors within the formation. Once you assign a helicopter to antisubmarine patrol duties, you never have to return it for refueling. You don't have to make sure it listens for enemy submarines with its sonar. The defense of your Group is also auto- MARCH 1991 43 . We take a out of the pr1ce! 'O OttE BYTE P.O. Box 455 Quaker Hill. CT 06375 (203) 443-4623 : YOUR OrtESTOP STOltE : Authorized dealer for Commodorcr-f'mig J Computers, Greqt Vall Products (GYP).

Authorized Commodormig I Servicv and Repair. Authorizvd Amiga Graphics Dczahzr. A.\llG,\ JS A REGtsn:RED TRADF./llARK or COMMODOllF.A.,llGA, INC, Circle 121 on Reader Service card. ma tic, depending on the threat and a given Unit's ability to counter that threat. All of these details are taken care of by the Unit Commander, which is played by the computer. If you wish to attack an enemy formation, your ever-present staff assistant advises you if the target is out of range, or if there is any other reason the Group cannot carry out your intentions. If your attacking Group is within range and has suitable weapons, you are presented with a screen allowing specific Units' weapons to be assigned to specific targets.

The 120-page bound manual includes detailed descriptions of all functions and commands, and 20 pages of background information on strategies and weapons systems. The manual appears to be left over from earlier IBM versions, with the first ten pages detailing different lBM installation options. 44 AMAZING COMPUTING The graphics are of the IBM level-not up to Amiga capabilities, but adequate. There are some short animations presented when ships are attacking or under attack. Sounds are limited to warning sirens, explosions, helicopters, etc. The only music (different for each side) is played during the sinking of a ship and at the conclusion of a scenario. In defense of what some may consider to be a shortfall in the sound department, let me say that this type of simulation does not need (nor would it be as enjoyable with, in my opinion) a music soundtrack playing all the time. One thing I feel is sorely needed is a keyboard overlay or a quick reference card for all of the available commands. A page in the manual is devoted to this information, but during the heat of battle, I'd rather not have to dig out the information I need. All commands are available with the mouse and menus, but when playing the game on a standard Amiga 500, waiting for the program to display the menus can be agonizing. Due to the computational overhead inherent in this game, such anxious moments can approach several seconds, depending on the complexity of the scenario being played.

Take Harpoon onto an Amiga 3000 with Workbench 1.3 and a difference is immediately evident. The menus pop up with no delay, the maps scroll much more smoothly and the program responds at once to key presses. The game action itself is not affected by the higher clock rate of the 68030 processor, which means the game has been programmed correctly for processor compatibility. Harpoon is designed to be an open-ended gaming system, with the first new BattleSet, North Atlantic Convoy, available now. A BattleSet Editor, which allows you to customize different scenarios, should also be out by the time you read this. The GIUK BattleSet included with the basic Harpoon program includes thirteen different scenarios, ranging from very small engagements to conflicts involving giant modern naval armadas. Many small touches have been added to make this an enjoyable game to play. The game saves the options you've chosen, so each session can be played under the same handicaps (or advantages). You can also pause or save a game at any point. Hard drive installation couldn't be simpler-just drag the drawer into the partition or directory where you want it. Harpoon is supplied on two disks and uses no copy protection of any type. The game behaves very well in a multitasking environment, and requires one megabyte of memory. If you have had your fill of standard "blast-anything-that-moves" arcade war games and want to test your strategic thought processes, pick up Harpoon. You won't be sorry. Enhance the speed of your hard disks and floppies Quarterback Tools by John Steiner ' Tolume Work has a read/write error . These words can strike terror into anyone V who owns an Amiga. If you have had your machine for any length of time, you've probably run into this message. If you haven't, consider yourself lucky. The problem can be especially disconcerting if it occurs on a hard disk. Quarterback Tools from Central Coast Software was designed to solve a myriad of disk problems such as this.

The program also has the ability to fix disk-related problems caused by lockups and system crashes, an unexpected power outage, accidental file deletions or formatting, and even physical disk damage. Other major features of Quarterback Tools include the ability to restructure the layout of your data files in order to optimize organization on the disk. You can even retrieve a file or files that have accidentally been deleted. The program can also scan a disk to look for defective areas (referred to as bad blocks), which can then be marked and taken out of service. The QT manual divides program operation into four major areas. First there is "Volume Information", which provides statistics (see Figure One). In this section, vi r tua II y every important s ta tis tic regarding a disk volume is covered. Second, there is "Problem Correction", which enables the user to repair corrupted disks, find and mark bad blocks, and retrieve accidentally deleted files. "Performance 2.0, and uses both the old and new AmigaDOS filing systems. You can put Quarterback Tools on your hard disk or a floppy disk by simply copying the program into an appropriate drawer. The program disk even includes two sets of program icons, one that looks good when using Workbench 1.2 or 1.3, and one that looks good under Workbench 2.0. Once you have started QT a screen will appear displaying available volumes from which you may select. Once a volume is chosen, the Main Menu screen appears, providing a concise listing of the program's main features. QT's major designer, George Chamberlain, has thought out many details very thoroughly. You can even choose to disable AmigaDOS while using QT so you can troubleshoot floppy diskettes that are so badly corrupted that Amiga DOS crashes when you insert them in a floppy drive. QT can defragment files, a feature that has long been sought from an Amiga diskette utility. File fragmentation is a major reason that disk drive performance appears to deteriorate over time.

The reason for file fragmentation is that disk operating systems are designed to use every bit of disk space available. Newly formatted diskettes exhibit little, if any, fragmen- MARCH 1991 45 tation. When you add files, delete files, and otherwise change diskette structure, you create small areas in the disk structure where files may be placed. To use space efficiently, the DOS uses these small spaces, sometimes breaking newly saved files into several different sections that fit into several available areas, However, files that are split in this fashion take extra time to load. QT will display disk and file fragmentation in a screen labeled "Space Usage Map" (see Figure Two). The black areas of the map are areas currently being used, the lighter areas in the image display available space. The fragmentation check also produces a report that identifies the number of fragmented files and number of free space segments. The QT manual and the program both provide stern warnings regarding the need to make a current backup before beginning the defragmentation process. If the computer should crash, or you should experience an unexpected power failure during this process, your hard disk volume will be hopelessly disorganized. The only solution for a catastrophe of this magnitude is to reformat the drive and restore from your backup set. Needless to say, if you don't have a current backup set available, you could be in serious trouble. Drawing from personal experience, I would not recommend multitasking while performing this function. 1 was executing a reorganization of one of my data partitions and, anxious to finish another project, I started another application. It crashed shortly after I started the program, before QT had a chance to finish its defragmentation. When I rebooted the drive, it was seriously disorganized and many files were incomplete or out of place. I ended up reformatting the drive, and had to restore the drive from my backup set.

Whether 1 just had a visit from our friend Murphy, or if QT was somehow responsible for confusing the application I was running, I'll never know. There are ti mes when it is not a good idea to multi task on the Amiga, and I have come to realize 46 AMAZING COMPUTING that one of those times is when you are defragmenting a disk. The third menu item, "Restore", allows for the restoration of deleted/lost files and drawers. When you select this item, you are asked the name of the file you wish to restore. You can either type in the name of the file, or press ENTER if you don't remember its name. If you press ENTER, a screen displaying a list of all files on the disk will appear. Files that have been deleted but which are still restorable are highlighted. You may deselect any files you wish to remain deleted, and select the volume upon which you diately prior to the reformat. If you later discover that you accidentally reformatted the wrong disk, you can simply use QT's Unformat capability to restore the disk to its former self. The Format utility also scans the disk for bad blocks and marks them in use, thus allowing you to use a diskette the AmigaDOS FORMAT command has found to be defective. Unformat can only work completely on freshly reformatted diskettes. According to a warning in the manual, if anything has been written on a diskette since the time it was reformatted and you then wish to unforma tit, you may have lost one The manual provides several helpful tutorials and is clearly written and equipped with a fairly complete index. wish to restore the file. I experimented with this section of the program several times, and found it to work properly in every attempt made. The "Volume Repair Menu", the fourth menu choice, can locate and mark unreadable blocks on a disk so that Amiga DOS won't use them. It also allows you to scan the disk for defective files or drawers, even repairing them in many cases. As the program locates each bad file, it presents a requester that notifies you of this fact. Minor problems are fixed with no loss of data, while major problems can be fixed but likely with a data loss. Some major problems are irreparable, however, and a warning is provided of QT' s inability to recover a file or drawer if it indeed finds such an error. "Format Volume" and "Unformat Volume" are the final two major program functions. The safe format option in QT actuall yonly rewrites the directory blocks on the disk to make AmigaDOS "think" the disk is empty. At the same time, it creates a file that contains the directory structure as it existed on that disk imrne- or more of the old files, and you will lose all of the new files stored on the disk. QT includes a manual that contains valuable information on file storage under AmigaDOS. The manual provides several helpful tutorials on such topics as "Why does my disk drive seem so slow?", "Disk errors", "Disk formatting", "How can a deleted file berestored?",and "How are files stored on a disk?"

The manual is clearly written and is equipped with a fairly complete index. Another program provided on the QT diskette is "QBSNAP", which runs only from the CU, but can be placed in yourstartup-sequenceorsomeotherscript to take au tom a tic "snaps ho ts" of each disk drive on your system. You can also schedule it using a timer program to provide snapshots of your drives at particular times of the day.

QT can also be run from its ARexx port. The disk contains other very useful public domain disk-oriented utilities as well as several extra programs. A trouble report form is also included should you be required to call CCS technical support. You can either mail or FAX the form, or transmit it to their BBS. I recommend that you print out this form and keep it handy before your system crashes so that you have it on hand should disaster strike. Original releases of Quarterback Tools contain some major problems. Make sure the version you use is at least version 1.3c. Earlier versions have various bugs that could cause major problems. Central Coast Software has been very good about keeping users up to date=even allowing them to download the la test versions from the CCS BBS system. At the same time, 1 can't help but feel that they rushed this program out before it was thoroughly tested. The version I am currently using appears to function properly on my A3000 and on my A2000 with 2090A controller card. An ear lier version didn't work properl y with my A2000 with 2090A hard disk controller, for exam pie. The 2090A is commonly found inA2000computers,and the program should have been tested more thoroughly on systems with this configuration. I cannot make recommendations one way or another about the use of Quarterback Tools on any but the two machines I own, as it is possible that there could be problems when using the software with some third-party hard drives and controllers.

Given the critical nature of this software, I cannot recommend strongly enough that you make sure you have completely backed up your hard disk, no matter what configuration you are using. I would also strongly recommend testing the program thoroughly on your system if your hard disk controller is not mentioned specifically in their documentation as having been tested. [Central Coast Software iiastated that Quarterback Tools version 1.3d works wit/1 all Amiga ha rd disk controllers and hard diskconfigurationsEd.] On the positive side, the program has rescued me from disaster on two occasions. The first time 1 used it, an application I was running crashed while writing to my hard disk. When I rebooted, I had a "Key Already Set" error on my hard disk. QT's "Repair Bad Volume" went through the disk quickly, repairing all problems that had occurred. On another occasion, I used QT to restore a file that was accidentally destroyed using the AmigaOOS wild cards (DELETE DFO:#?). I had meant to delete the files on df2:, and instead destroyed files on the wrong floppy. This one particularly important file restored was well worth the purchase price of the program. Central Coast Software has a reputation for developing high-quality disk utilities, and their programmers are wellversed in the Amiga DOS file systems. They have built their reputation with products such as the hard disk backup utility Quarterback, and file transfer utilities 005-2- 00S and Mac-2-005. Quarterback Tools is a powerful addition to their product line that might just save your data from accidental destruction.

ACQuarterback Tools Price: .95 + .00 s/h Central Coast Software 424 Vista Ave. Golden, CO 80401 (303) 526-1030 Inquiry #209 MARCH 1991 47 . l 48 AMAZING COMPUTING NewTek's Video Toaster A NEW ERA IN AMIGA VIDEO by Frank McMahon A NEW ERA IN AMIGA VIDEO? Kind of a bold title-but then NewTek's Video Toaster is kind of a bold product. A do-all piece of video hard ware that dazzles the senses. But does it deliver all it promises? Over the span of a month I used the Video Toaster at home and in a cable television studio. With it I've been both dazzled and puzzled. I've witnessed some of the most incredible accomplishments ever to come out of an Amiga. I've also learned firsthand of some of the Video Toaster's drawbacks.

The Toaster was announced years ago by NewTek and quickly became tl1e premiere piece of Amiga Vaporware when it didn't ship.just what were they working on in their top-secret labs? Well, the Toaster is now out, available, and in use. Sit back, relax, and keep all personal belongings inside the tram, because the grand tour of the Video Toaster is about to begin. INSTALLATION The first thing to do is to install the board inside your Amiga 2000/2500,since the current version of the Toaster only works inside those machines. An Amiga 3000 version is promised and, as far as using it on the 500, it's not possible now. Installation is pretty straightforward. The Toaster comes on one multilevel board and fits neatly into the video slot inside the 2000 {that's the slot on the far right next to the internal disk drive). The only problem is you need to unscrew your power supply chassis and lift it slightly to slide in the Video Toaster board. Not a big deal; I had the board installed in just under 10 minutes. I tried it under3 different configurations: at home with a stock Amiga 2000 with 4 megabytes of 16-bit RAM, at home hooked up to a 1 I 2-inch Super VHS editing system (2 Panasonic AG- 1960sand an AG-A95 Edit Controller) with an Amiga 2000, 68030 processor, 8 megabytes of RAM (4 meg 32-bit/ 4rneg16-bit), and at the cable TV studio with an Amiga 2500, 68030 processor, and 5 megabytes, running into an A/Broll edit system with Sony 3/4- inch SP 9800/9850decks, and a Panasonic Edit Controller. As for video inputs at home, I plugged in a Panasonic AG-1960 5-VHS deck, Pioneer CLD 2070 Laserdisc Player, and a Sony CDD-F35 8mrn Camcorder. At work I used our Sony 9800's and Panasonic earner as for source ma teria I. Although at home I didn't have any problem booting up after the Toaster was installed, at the studio it was a different matter. When I powered up after installing the Toaster it just hung up. Puzzled, I took out the Toaster and it booted fine. I reinstalled the Toaster but this time I disconnected my SuperGen genlock. It booted right up.

A call to NewTek'ssupportlineconfirmed my dark fear: Genlocks won't work with the Toaster. Since the Toaster is in itself a genlock, having two connected causes timing problems during power up. To me this is a very serious drawback. Although we use the Video Toaster in the studio to key graphics generated by the Toaster software, we still need a way to fade up previously produced graphics animations designed MARCH 1991 49 other programs such as DeluxePaint III and AN!Magic. The thought of taking the Toaster out every time we need to do that is pretty scary. Now the Toaster itself provides a genlock that is automatically enabled when you exit the Toaster software. However, there is no fade control and no way to turn it on or off. For now there is no way to correctly control the Toaster genlock. Remember, this is the genlock option outside the Toaster software; the actual Toaster program can do amazing effects from within. Installation of the software is easy. Just double click on the "Installation" icon on the first Toaster disk (there are 8 disks total) and everything is moved to your hard drive. A hard drive is required and you'll need about 7 megabytes of free space as well as quite a few megs more to store frames to disk (each still frame is about 700K). Installation can either configure the software to be accessed from the Workbench or to autoboot the Video Righi: The Video Toaster's Main Control Screen. Below: The rock group "Graphic Moves" literally earned their name In this Video Toaster rock video. is the next shot to appear. You set up your effect, graphic, or image on your Preview screen and, when ready, "take" it and send it to your Program output. Program is what is being recorded on tape.

The Toaster uses the RGB Amiga screen as well for those who prefer to work in RGB mode (especially helpful in Toaster command screen. I was also able to run the software from the CLI when I aborted the startup-sequence when the machine first booted up. After the program is installed on your hard drive you can then decide what you want to input into yourToaster. There are 6 BNC connectors on the back of the Toaster board. The first 4 are video inputs (synchronous TBC inputs are suggested), and the last two are "Program" and "Preview". Preview, in video production tenns, 50 AMAZING COMPUTING detail work such as painting). However, the RGB Amiga output is limited to only 4096 colors, so the preview screen will actually allow more colors in sections such as that of ChromaFX (discussed later). So you can use a 3-monitor system (RGBPreview-Program) or a 2-monitor system where the command screens a re "ghosted" over the Preview output. With the latter you are not limited by the Amiga's display and are able to see your preview shots. The Toaster will take a number of TBC preferred video sources from VCR.s, laserd isc players, and cameras. TBC (short for Time-Base Corrector) is a unit that typically strips away the sync signal of a video unit and replaces it with a clean, consistent, error-free video signal. [Editor's Note: Alt/1011gl1 low-cost TBCs are predicted, current pricing is at $_1,000.00 to ,00D.DO for a TBC.J Most TBCs require another piece of equipment to work proper[ y: a black burst generator. This provides a constant video signal which the TBC syncs with the incoming source. It then outputs a solid video signal that is error-free. Think of when you get your car's tires aligned. If all tires are not perfectly computer-aligned and in sync, your car will pull to one side or one tire will wear more quickly than the others. VCRs are the first to run off the road. Because the head drum is constantly moving across the videotape, and other variables such as slight speed changes exist, the VCR must run throughaTBCbeforeitcanrun though the Toaster.

I gave it the old college try with my Panasonic AG-1960 and it didn't work. However, laserdisc players and cameras are more encouraging. They both "drive" a consistent, straight line (you can plug them directly in with little difficulty) although they are moving at "different speeds". So if you plan on driving . er . plugging in two cameras or laserdisc players (or two VCRs), they must run though a TBC so that both are in sync and traveling down the video high way side by side to deliver a consistently good picture. You're not limited to two of any of the above, of course. You may have up to 4 video TBC-synchronous inputs at any time running into the Toaster. In fact, you don't have to have any video running into the Toaster if all you want to do is NTSC painting and 3-D modeling. MEMORY REQUIREMENTS Since the release of the Toaster I've heard of different memory requirements from a host of different sources. Initially it was stated that 3 meg would be required.

Then it was officially 5 meg. Now it seems 7 meg is the "ideal" configuration. Well the more memory the better. I've tried it at 8 meg with a 68030 and it purrs like a kitten. I've also tried it with 4 meg and, to my surprise, most of the program worked with no problem. In fact, the only drawback was that I could not enter ToasterPaint. I then tried itatSmeg, which is the required amount. This time 1 had access to the paint program; however, l C-D) which hold 32 effects each for a total of 128 transitions. Right below tha t are 5 icons for Toaster Preferences, ChromaFX, ToasterPaint, Toaster Character Generator, and LightWave 3D (and Modeler). Clicking on these either loads that part of the program into memory (so a second click Jets you immediately enter) or lets you go directly into it. On the lower left portion of the screen are the Overlay, Program, and Preview video source selectors. Each row contains 7 icons: the first 4 let you select any of the four video inputs, the second two correspond to the two framebuffers, and the final one is a background. Program and Preview are used for setting up shots and sending them to your record deck. The Overlay is for luminance keying. Luminance keying places an image The good news is that the luminance keying on the Toaster is excellent. It's easily adjustable with the mouse (via a numerical slider), and you have the option of keying over the darker or the lighter parts of the picture. didn't have access to the swap screen and couldn't pick up very large brushes. Personally, I find it pretty tough to paint without a swap screen especially since ToasterPaint has no background fix (to allow one to work "over" the picture). Seven meg will allow larger brushes as well as a swap screen. You will even be able to pick up an entire screen as a brush. Also, more memory will let you have more parts of the other Toaster components in memory at one time.

You can swap between painting, 3-D modeling, and the character generator without loading the section each time. For those with limited memory there is a "Get Small" option which dumps everything from memory except the essentials. For example, it flushes out all the digital effects (except fade) to provide more room for whatever section you choose to enter. As for ideal memory, I would have to say 7 meg. It's enough, plus there's some breathing room. TIME TO TOAST! The main Video Toaster screen has4 rows of effects in the top ha! f of the screen. There are 32 effects on screen at once in selectable icons. There are 4 banks (A-B- (for example, a still frame) over the dark or light parts of the picture. This is similar to "chroma keying". Luminance keying was used in the earlier days of television to superimpose, say, the weatherperson over the weather map. The man or woman would stand in front of a completely white screen, and the map would be "keyed in". Some of drawbacks of this method were when the person turned, light often bounced off his forehead or, when the lighting was too bright, some of the map might be visible "through" the person. Also, due to the lighting (especially back lighting), the person's outline could appear fuzzy. Chroma keying was eventually developed and solved problems associated with luminance keying by using a certain color (usually green or blue) for the background, using the chroma level in a color for the key source. This is not to say luminance keying is old-fashioned. It just takes more trial and error than chroma keying. The good news is that the luminance keying on the Toaster is excellent. It's easily adjustable with the mouse (via a numerical slider), and you have the option of keying over the darker or the lighter parts of the picture. To the right of the video source selectors is a T-bar slider that is controlled with the mouse. This is a slider (like any switcher) that lets you control the transitions manually or to produce split-screen effects. To the right of that are option icons to load frames, character generator screens or effects. Below are icons to "freeze" a frame of video, as well as those for Take (a straight cut from one video source to another), Auto (allows automatic control of the transitions), and a speed (slow, medium, fast) panel that controls how fast the transitions take place. DAZZLING TRANSITIONS How do they look? Well, good news and bad news. The good news is that they lookstunning. They areincrediblysmoothmoving and switching from one video source to another is as easy as hitting an icon or sliding the T-bar with the mouse. Years ago, NewTek demonstrated effects such as wrapping an image around a sphere in real time. However, the current effects are all two-dimensional. The types of effects are numerous.

"Push/ Pull" is similar to wipe, except the image pushes the current image off rather than overlaying on top of it. In "Squeeze/ Zoom" the image pushes back into infinity-sometimes with duplicate images surrounding it-or zooms right toward the viewer, reversing when the entire screen is a blow up of a single pixel. "Split" splits the program signal along an axis and reveals the preview signal beneath, sometimes with the two sources traveling in opposite directions. In the effect "Tumble", the signal flips around on a horizontal or vertical axis following a predetermined path and sometimes includes trails. With "Trajectory", an image flies around via a path with compression (aspect ratio in tact) to simulate depth. "Swap" is similar to a split, but the two halves of video cross over each other. "Blinds" have added features, such as every other blind heading in the opposite direction. "Mosaic" causes the pixels to increase in size and, unlike zoom, makes each expanding tile the average color of all colors in the original image as the effect progresses over a specified time (sure you can read it again .l'll wait). "Tiles" changes the program image into smaller tiles of the same image. "Compression" differs from zoom, the aspect ratio is not retained as the effect MARCH J99J 5J progresses (usually compressing toward a fixed axis). In "Fades", images fade in as the effect takes place. "Trails" is a dazzling effect that causes a trail of images (fading over time) as the image moves. "Fade In/Out", which provides a smooth 3-s peed fade from one image to the next, is the most oft-used production transition (after take). The bad news is that there is pixelization when an effect goes "away" (sh rinks or is com pressed) from the viewer. The reason this happens is the effects are processed through the framebuffers. Since these are hi-res boards with limited resolution, shrinking a full-screen image makes it impossible to maintain the same resolution (similar to any Amiga paint program). There are several ways to avoid this.

First, not all of the effects use Compression. Second, the ones that do can be set to fast or medium speed and you should not notice the pixelizatlon. On! yon slow speed will it become apparent. Another drawback is the inability to create your own transitions. It sure would be nice to cornbine or edit the existing group. THE SWITCHER TEST The true test came last week at our cable studio. I decided to bypassour house switcher and direct the show completely with the Video Toaster. I had my fingers crossed since the program was "live-ontape", with little room for error. The first thing I noticed was that we usually fade up from the commercials slower than the Toaster does. Even its slowest speed was a little too fast. Since I it loaded in on the upper left-hand comer of the screen. Since the 2500 in our studio has only 5 meg, it was impossible to pick the logo up as a brush to center it. Realizing I would have to add our logos later, we began the show. First up was a rock band. As you might expect, a tlurryof special effects transpired. I quickly used one right after another. Once in a while I would click a complex transition and there would be a 12 second delay which the program used to set the effect up in the framebuffer. I saw this on the preview screen as we II (the screen usually blanks and flickers every time something is loaded into one of the buffers). This happened probably 3 times during the Of course, with any video production effect generator, moderation is the key. Overindulgence in the Toaster's many effects con cause eyestrain. had to unhook my SuperGen genlock in order to get the Toaster to work, there was no way to load in and insert (fadeup/ down) the 20-page Deluxe Paint III animation that held all our logos. 1 had made an attempt to load some of our "station break" logos into ToasterPaint. That way I could create a frame and key it over. Well, ToasterPaint only supports overscan/hi-res, so when I loaded in my 640 x 400 logo for "Cafe West" (see tutorial of this logo in the December 1990

I'm not sure if it was the speed, the fact that it just needed the extra time for that particular effect, or that it was running on the minimum memory configurelion. Whatever the reason, it in no way affected the program output. I also noticed some horizontal shifting and slight pausing with a few of the effects. The manual indicates there is a 400ns delay from video in to program out. Putting the Toaster into an existing studio with an existing switcher caused a problem. The manual suggested feeding the Toaster with advanced sync in order to time it back into everything else in the studio that is running on house sync. The manual points out the first input on the Toaster should be used as a reference signal, with every other input synced to the first source. The drawback being there really isn't a true sync signal input that's separate from the video inputs. {Editor's Note: In this configuration, your possible video inputs wiII be reduced from 4 to 3 unless the reference signal is ntso n video source] Now I realize I'm losing more than a few readers, but if you want to use the Toaster to its fullest potential in a "Presumer" atmosphere, it can get pretty expensive. Also, I have not even touched on calibration equipment to adjust the signals(such as waveform/vectorscopes). The basic fact is if you have a complete studio/cable station already, the Toaster is a dream come true. If you are using camcorders and home decks, you'll need more equipment.

Of course, with any video production effect generator, moderation is the key. Overindulgence in the Toaster's many effects can cause eyestrain. The rest of "Cafe West" consisted mainly of cu ts and dissolves, during which the Toaster performed flawlessly. Even though the take (cut) button is on the main screen, the dissolve button should be right next to it (instead of in the effects bank above). With most video productions those two will get the most use. Getting smooth results when fading or dissolving with the mouse (T-bar) takes some practice. For this reason, I have generally steered clear of the T-bar in favor of the auto speed selector. All in all, the Toaster performed remarkably as a dedicated switcher for the show. There is something comforting about controlling an entire studio production with your Amiga mouse. Of course, it could also be the sheer power.

DIGITIZING FRAMES I've mentioned frames throughout this article, but what exactly is a frame? A frame resides in the framebuffer, of which the Toaster has two. It can immediately be called up, cut to, faded to, special "effected", and even keyed in. Basically, everything you can do with video sources you can do with frames. You capture a frame by hitting the freeze button. You can capture a frame from a camera, laserdisc, VCR, or wha lever source you have hooked in. It's standard digitizing but there is no "processing" like capturing a red, green, and blue file or converting it to lo-res HAM mode. What you capture is what you get: a full, broadcast quality, picture. Because a frame is made up of 2 fields (every other scan line), and there is usually motion in it, the Toaster has a "Motion Removal" option that quickly gets out the "jitter" with no sacrifice of quality. The Toaster actually grabs four fields so it can get the full amount of resolution and color fidelity. There is also a way to grab eight fields in a single image to produce a short 4-frame looping moving image. It's pretty neat, although I'm not too sure if it's useful. A frame can be loaded in ToasterPaintand manipulated. The power to grab a full hi-res, overscanned freeze frame off video and load it into the paint program with 24-bit color is an amazing advance I'm still trying to get over. Sadly, the more I work in this mode, the more the standard 32-color, lo-res Amiga screen looks like a Cornmodore-64. Frames can also be loaded into LightWave 3D and mapped on objects. Now we're talking power. Your3-Dtabletop won't just look like marble, you'll swear it is marble! The resulting rendered 3-D pie tu re can be saved as a frame so you can bring it right into the switcher. Images can be created in Toaster Paint, Light Wave 3D, or the character generator, and can be The Memory Location Amiga specialists! Full service Commodore dealer. Commodore authorized Educational dealer. Pulsar Power PC 4mb 2630 Card (25mhz 68030) 2232 Multi-Serial port card 1950 Multisync Monitor AE High density 3.5" drive Mi Graph Hand Scanner Sharp JX-300 Color Scanner Sharp JX-100 Color Scanner Xapshot still video camera Canon RP-420 Video printer Gold Disk Office Disney Animation Studio Bible Reader Amax 11 Home Front Wings Shadow of the Beast ll Black Gold Heart of tbe Dragon Pool of Radiance Check Mate 396 Washington Street Over Run Wellesley, MA 0218 l Second Front (617) 237 6846 Store hours: Mon.-Thur. 10-6.Fri. 10-8,Sat. 9-5 Commodore authorized repair on-premise. Low fla1 labor rate. plus parts !'Pf Cl1cle 107 on Reader SeNlce card.

saved as frames and manipulated with the switcher's digital effects. Speaking of ToasterPaint, you can load just about any standard Amiga graphic into the program-from lo-res to HAM to overscan to RGB 24-bit files. Once loaded, they can be saved as frames to bring into the switcher. Toaster press releases claimed "1000 frames" frame storage. Well yeah, but that's 750 megabytes of storage, quite a big hard drive. Since each frame is large (710K or 7 /lOths ofa megabyte), set aside plenty of hard disk space if you want to save a lot of frames. A good thing about the size is that a single frame will fit on a floppy disk for permanent storage or backup. color. These colors will appear when you execute certain effects through the switcher. The colors are predetermined. One "color" is "video noise", sometimes known as "snow". Buttons are also included to terminate any input (1-4). There is also a GPI trigger adjustment, used when you are timing the Toaster to an external device. This provides frame accuracy with such components as editors and frame controllers. The Project Window lets you load and save projects. Some Toaster users will skip over this feature but it's very important. You can save your entire setup-for example pages from the CG, certain effects, input-output devices for framestore-in a file. You can later boot up with just what you need. You can even create your own tailor-made default setting. Earlier I mentioned a "Cet Small" project that is included. This is a good example of memory saving by boo tin)?"? the Toaster with only the fade con rand TOASTER PREFERENCES From the main command screen you can enter the Toaster Preferences section. This allows you to have control over various settings. The top of the screen contains rows of color boxes: the top row lets you select your background color and the bottom row lets you choose your border MARCH 1991 53 rather than all 128effects. An option is included that lets you load in a "CGbook" forimmediateuse(we'll go over those later). Device button icons are for changing where the default save/load paths should be on the project/ framestore. Motion removal and the ability to choose 2 or 3 monitors are also included. With 2 monitors, the Toaster ghosts the command screen over the Preview monitor.

Finally, there is an "Exit" button to shut down and exit the Toaster software. The overlay genlock is activated upon exiting, putting your Amiga screen (minus color 0 or background) over whatever video input you had selected on the Program bus previous to exiting. THE MANUAL Before we dive into the individual "slices" which make up the Video Toaster, let's take a look at the manual. Actually it's pretty hard to miss it. It's several inches thick, comes in a hard-cover, three ring binder, and with more than 650 pages. The manual is very easily digested and is broken up into separate tutorial and reference sections for each program. You're really getting 6 programs in one, so the page count is about on par. The manual includes a section on expanding the Toaster system with tips on picking out expansion RAM, accelerator cards, and hard drives. A full array of keyboard commands (seems like justabouteverykeyisusedatsome point in the programs) is listed. NewTek also lists some compatible VCRs and camcorders (Hitachi VL-SlOO, Sony CCD-VSOOO, Sony EV0-9700) which have built in TBCs. Brief sections on single-frame controllers, suggested reference material, phasing and troubleshooting, error messages, and a 9- page video glossary are included. Programmers will be happy to know that the Toaster is ARexxcompa tible; however, the port on! y allows you to control or send commands that the Toaster can do itself, and not alter or edit different commands, effects, or features. On the 54 AMAZING COMPUTING whole, the manual is very well laid out and very easy to read considering the huge amount of i nforma ti on contained. TOASTERPAINT DAZZLE l was probably most interested in the paint section of the progr11m. For those familiar with Digi-Paint3, you'Ilberightat home. Aside from a few changes, this IS Digi-Paint3(NewTek'sHAMpaint program) converted to work with their24-bit cards. All painting takes place on the Amiga screen in typical HAM mode. At any time during the session you can hit the "Render To Program" icon which sends the 24-bit information (calculated internally) to the Program frame buffer. When you first hit this icon the entire screen is sent. After that, only the changes are sent, which means that if you draw a box and hit the render icon, only the box is sent to the framebuffer.

This is an excellent timesaver. There is even a "Continuous Render" command to constantly send out changes. Since there is on! y one resolution mode (hi-res overseen 736 x 480), you cannot see the entire pietureatonce on your Amiga monitor (you can see the final result on your Program monitor at all times). You actually see about 1/4 of the "big picture". To paint, the canvas "autoscrolls" when you move your mouse, like a super bitmap image. Coordinates tell you where you are as you move and the autoscrolling can be paused or disabled for manual scrolling. You can switch to 111 x" mode, which shows the whole picture on your Amiga screen at one time by skipping every other pixel. However, this incurs severe limitations, and most of the essential toolssuch as Scissors, Texture Map, Text Rendering, Brush menu, Effect menu, and Swap Screen-are disabled. The limits exist because if you, for example, stamped down a brush it would only stamp down the image on every other pixel. When you switched back to normal autoscrolling "2X" mode, a checkered mess would result. VIDEO TOASTER UPDATE! If you already own o Video Toaster, no doubt you have the version with a white covered manual. the manual that locks pictures. Well. NewTekisnowshipping V 1 .Oofthemanuol/ software and it's a modest update, but none the less worth noting. First, the black binder edition contains pictures not ir. the earlier release. Confusion caused by a lock of plcrures in some areas (especially Chrom-::iFX) is now nonexistent. The new version contains o warr:mty cord and stickers to label the 3 monitors as well as to label the BNC connectors on bock. A new program. Autorlue", hos been added.

It syncs up the color lnforrnotion of the T ooster effects with the incoming video so there is no phase shifting. There ore only a few additions to the software side ofihe programs. Frame loading/saving con now be done by mouse control (a big plus). The Toaster Preferences now shows numerically how many frames you con save on your storage device (e.g., a hard drive). The toke (stroightcut) effect on the main switcher screen hos also been added to the effects bank. The other alterations I found were mainly in UghtWove 30. lnthe Layout you con now select "All Itemswhen creating key frames-on Incredible timesover, but 1 've yetto discover if this fixes the bug that causes the camera/objects/ lights to default to the center upon reentering the Layout. Since there is no documentation saying it was repaired in this update, I can't soy tor sure. (Editor's Note: A New Tek Spokesperson reported the error was fixed in V 1.0) Other improvements to LightWove 30 Include a new "Letterboxrendering mode which cuts rendering time by 30%. Unlike Sculpt 4D's version of bars on the top and bottom. this is much more severe (about two-thirds of the screen is black) but can look quite impressive given the right project.

I found a new undocumented Shadow option for objects, selectable by "selt-shcdow". "cost shcdow". and "receive shcdow". Finally, more of the numerical inputs ore now accompanied by numerical sliders. Let's hope all numerical options ore "sliderequipped" in the next update. It's important to note that this Is not o drastic upgrade. lt's more a light dusting of helpful features. Hopefully, Newlek will try in the future to list all additions to the software in the manual addendum. Most I just stumbled across. and all were so good they deserve better recognition! Contact NewTek directly for information on upgrading to Version l .O. -F.M. Most of the traditional Digi-Paint 3 features are here. Color selection is done from an on-screen palette of 4096. There is a 16-color color strip which can be altered and changed to form your "base" colors. Ranges can be created to perform gradient spreads according to the balance and distribution of the transparency controls. Transparency lets you adjust the level of transparency on the edges of a drawn object, or of a user-controllable "hotspot". Horizontal and vertical hotspots can create patterns such as skies. Tools include: Freehand, Freehand Continuous, Polygon/Straight Line, Rectangle, Circle, Ellipse, Fill, Flood Fill, Brush Size Selector (with 7 different size brushes), Undo, Redo, Scissors, Magnify, and Grid. Redo in itself is very powerful in that you can draw an object in one color and, if you change your mind, choose another color then Redo. Redo has limitless possibilities with other parts of the program. On the unfavorable side, the text rendering control is just as bad as it is in DigiPaint 3.

Any Amiga font can be selected, but not previewed; styles such as bold, italic and underline are featured. There is a smoothing option to help get rid of the jaggies. There is no editing; to create text you must type the words into the "text entry window", hit return and the text then becomes a brush which you must manually position. Smoothing is also available when stamping down brushes (via the texture map) using 16x oversampling. Tile and wrapping controls let you wrap brushes around objects (such as spheres) or create a tile of pictures. As stated earlier, nearly any Amiga graphic in any resolution or mode can be loaded in including freeze frames grabbed from the main Toaster screen. If you want to use your HAM interlace pie with the Toaster digital effects, you'll first have to load it into ToasterPaint and then save it as a "frame". Printing is done via 12-bit print. Each of the8-bit red, green, and blue (24 bits total) values are dithered to4 bits each (12 bits total) before printing. Standard brush tools include Load, Save, Flip Horizontal, Flip Vertical, Rotate 90 degrees, No Background, Swap, Exchange Brush, Restore Brush, and Copy Brush. Via the Mode menu, you can adjust shape tools, brushes, and text. Effects include Color Range, Lighten, Darken, Colorize, Rubthru (to swap screen), Blur, And, Or, and Xor.

Simulated perspective can be achieved through the horizontal wrapping controls. There is no true perspective command, and using this method is fine but usually provides mixed results. ToasterPaint is also ARexx-compatible. The manual contains many tutorials including-yes, you guessed it-how to take a picture of a beautiful young woman and put an eye on her forehead! I'm glad the people at NewTek decided to get into Amiga programming rather than genetic engineering. There is one big problem with ToasterPaint: the autoscrolling. It's like painting on a billboard while wearing roller skates. It's difficult lo get used to and I can only hope that further programming will get the whole picture on-screen with all tools intact. Also, since most video output requires extensive use of titles, the Right: A scene created with Allen Hastlng's UghtWave3D text-rendering section of the program really needs an overhaul. As for good news, the output is gorgeous. Smooth color ranges, clouds, mist, colorizing, special effects, smoothing, all in overscan hi-res look nothing short of outstanding. Forget the TBCs and cameras. Buy a Toaster just to paint with! Check into IBM and Macs. It costs a lot more than $_1595 to digitize, paint, and encode to video in 16 million colors. CHROMAFX The ChromaFX program can be best understood by photographers. It is basically 32 pre-made effects plus an editor to modify these effects or create your own. These effects are the video equivalent of "filters". Placed over the video these realtime effects can colorize, posterize, color cycle, tint, produce negative video, rainbow strips, and much more. While most effects in the Video Toaster enhance the program output, ChromaFX effects are "over-the-top" color splashes. Used sparingly they are quite effective but overused they can become too much. All the effects apply new colors to the incoming video signal based on the luminance (brightness) level. The top of the screen contains an Effects Selection Box which allows you to scroll through all 32 pre-made effects.

The Palette Map is a large dark-to-light color spread which directly effects the video output. For example, suppose you wanted to tint a sky red for a sunset effect. You would create a black to red spread in the palette map. Red would be the brightest color, so all the bright colors in the video would be red. The darker colors would be darker shades of red up until black. Similar to a black to white (with shades of grey in-between) palette in a 16-color blackand-white digitized !FF pie. Several tools are available to let you alter and change the palette map, allowing creation of an unlimited number of effects. The Blurred MARCH 1991 55 Transition icon lets you blur the transition between one I umi na nee band and the next. Sharp Transition does the opposite making the bands very defined. On one side of the Palette Map is the Darkest Box, which lets you set which color will be added to the very darkest parts of the picture. The other side contains the Brightest Box which lets you set the color that will appear in the bright parts of the video. The Palette Marker indicates which color you are currently editing and is used for starting points in creating spreads. In addition to spreads, you can also create a Spectrum of colors (like rain bow), Random Color, or Snow which is alternating color bars of black and white that resemble a TV receiving no signal. Normal/ Negative Video can swap the light and dark boxes for instant negative video effects. You can Copy or Exchange certain colors and create your own with Red/ Green/ Blue or Hue/Saturation/Intensity sliders.

There are basically three types of effects ChromaFX provides: Transition, manual control of colorization over time; Filter, applies entire color palette over picture; and Cycle, cycles through the colors at slow, medium, or fast mode. Chroma Stripping takes out the colors from the incoming video before the effect takes place rather than mixing the video palette with the effect palette. AT-bar is provided so you can manually bring in the effects and the standard Toaster "Clapboard" icon sends the effect to the program output. The 32 built-in ChromaFX effects will probably keep users happy for quite a while, and it's pretty neat to create your own color effects and save them to disk for -.::i f Pae- 0 56 AMAZING COMPUTING The Scene layout Screen of LighfWave 30 later use. By making every other color in the palette vary wildly, it is possible to create a simulated grainy MTV-like look that's quite striking. There is a slight pause after selecting each color effect while it is set up, but only a second or two and only on the Preview screen. I have been using ChromaFX to create backgrounds. Without colorizing a video signal you can dump the processed color effects directly to the frame buffer for use "behind" your digital effects. Certainly a lot better looking than jet black and the screens come out smooth and very colorful.

The only problem with ChromaFX is it's too easy to go too far. As long as moderation is exercised this is a fast and easy way to create beautiful color effects. l)F 1t 8 A portion of NewTek's Video Toaster Character Generation LIGHTWAVE 30 News of Allen Hasting's new 3-D modeling rendering/animation system being bundled with the Toaster came as a nice bonus to the Toaster's many features. For those unfamiliar with 3-D programs, instead of painting on a 2-D screen you create objects in a 3-D universe. Objects and lights are positioned and then a camera is brought in to take a snapshot of the setup. The pictures have real depth complete with shadows, and the end result is usually startlingly realistic. In LightWave's main control screen, scenes which contain the positions of objects, lights, the camera, and any motion paths can be saved and loaded. Controls of the frame recording are also included. You can specify the first frame and last frame to be rendered as well as a frequency to render, every third frame for example. One drawback is that all animation (with the exception of wireframe preview) must be done via a single-frame controller hooked up to a frame-accurate deck (which records a frame at a time directly to tape).

This equipment is more industrial than "presumer" and, as expected, it is quite expensive (hope is on the horizon: new Super VHS decks with computer-controlled digital frame location/ editing are expected later this year). Another way to create animations is to dump all frames directly to videotape and then edit them automatically with an editor that features an edit decision list. ' to save your Data. Use QUARTERBACK TOOLS to save your Neck! Have you ever deleted the wrong file (or worse yet. ALL your files) with a slip of the finger? Have you seen this awful message: "Error validating OHO"? Then you need QUARTERBACK TOOLS, the fastest and easiest way to recover your lost files on any AmigaDOS volume. QUARTERBACK TOOLS also optimizes the speed and reliability of your Amiga hard disks and floppy disks by: Repositioning your files to optimum locations on the disk, eliminating file fragmentation, and consolidating disk free space. Searching the entire disk for errors and marking bad areas "out of service." Curing validation problems; finding and fixing corrupted directories. Don't stick your neck out . use QUARTERBACK TOOLS! QUARTERBACK TOOLS runs on any Amiga using either the new or the old filing systems, and runs with the new and old Workbench versions.

And to extend maximum protection to all of your files, use QUARTERBACK, the fastest and easiest hard disk backup program for the Amiga. Other useful products from Central Coast Software: Mac-2-Dos for transfering Macintosh files to and from the Amiga. Dos-2Dos for transfering MS-DOS/Atari files to and from the Amiga. Central Coast Software424 Vista Avenue, Golden, Colorado 80401 (303) 526-1030 Fax (303) 526-0520 .a Circle 102 on Reader Service Card O / f 1A1 / ea er nqumes vveicome NEW! SLll\ll DRIVE Introducing the incredible new Slim Drive from Roctec Electronics. It sports an ultrathin .9' tall case and includes an on/off switch for convenient disabling. Backed by a full one year warranty, this is without a doubt the highest quality drive we've seen for the Amiga. Order now and start enjoying the high-tech quality of Slim Drive today! -:,;.1-800-878-8933 ClrCI124 an Reader Service card. The Objects Control Panel allows you to save and load 3-D objects. Over 80 (!) objects are included to get you started and LightWave 3D can load in Videoscape 30 and Sculpt 30/40 objects with no problem. Parents are easily created also. This hierarchical structure of objects lets the user decide which objects will be attached to each other.

This allows complex creation of objects such as human bodies with separately movable arms and legs. Position, direction, and the scale of an object can all be set via typed in coordinates. Although most commands allow numeric input, they also allow manual adjustment via the mouse in the "Layout" screen (which we'll get to in a moment). The use of mouse control over so many elements of LightWave 3D is what sets it apart from most other 3-0 programs. "Metarnorph" allows automatic transforming of one object into another during animation. "Dissolve"issimilarto the transporter effect on Star Trek: your objects can "beam out" during animation. The Surface Control Panel is the most powerful and least user friendly part of the program with surface colors, texture type, checkerboard, grid, wood, marble, fractal noise, luminous, diffuse, specular reflection, color highlights, gloss, simulated reflection, transparency, edge opacity, smoothing, and more. The combinations and possibilities are endless. However most are controlled via numerical input which is a hit or miss system with 2.- 10 variables for each feature. With some experimenting, the results are impressive. 58 AMAZING COMPUTING The main problem is most of the textures are too symmetrical. Real patterns (such as marble) are very random. My favorite surface attribute is image mapping. You can load in any IFF pie (HAM, hi-res, etc.) or a Toaster 24-bit file and "wrap" it around an object. The texture possibilities are endless with this feature. You can also set the object next to it to "reflect" the image. It is important to note there is no true reflection, it is simply mapped on in reverse with a diffusion setting. The reason for this is LightWave 3D makes little use of ray-tracing.

Everything (except shadows) is accomplished with Phong shading. The trade-off is sacrificing some reflective features for fast rendering speed. Bump Mapping allows for a more textured feel to create realistic effects such as rippling water. Lighting is well done with the ability to adjust amount of lights, ambient light, lighting color, intensity, envelope (intensity animation- ex: sunrises), light motion, shadow rendering, parents, target, direction, point light, spot light, cone/edge angle and fall-off parameter. Full camera control allows motion, target, zoom, color saturation, motion blur simulation, blur length, and linear control. Linear moves the camera (and other moving objects such as lights) in a straight line as opposed to the default setting which moves objects in an arc or curved path. There are different rendering modes including Wireframe for quick previews, Quick Render which does not include true shading, shadows, or textures, Normal FOR THE NEW AMIGA USER Learn me Alphabet and Have Fun Animation, Pictures, Letters, and Song .00 Check or COD - Maryland Residents Add 5% Dealer Inquiries Welcome PARTH GALEN 628 l Trotter Road, Clarksville, Maryland 21029 (3011 531. 35'.!7 Cttcte 115 on Reader service card. Q Memory Management, Inc. Amiga Service Specialists Over four years experience! Commodore authorized full service center. Low flat rate plus parts. Complete in-shop inventory. Memory Management, Inc. 396 Washington Street Wellesley, MA 02181 ( 617) 237 6846. Clrcle 186 on Reader Service card. and Antialias. Only lo-res and hi-res are available with or without overscan, The glaring omission here is a tiny /medium normal preview such as Sculpt 40 or a selectable "window" preview such as Turbo Silver. If your ground is rendered incorrectly you won't know it until you've rendered almost the entire picture, and, with antialias and hi-res overscan on, this cou Id be quite a while. Lo-res non-overscan is quick but a smaller version of the screen to perform test runs is much preferred. I tested rendering times in all configurations mentioned at the beginning of the article. On a stock 2000 (4 meg) most simple scenes could be rendered in 5-25 minutes. Adding hi-res, overscan, antialias, and several objects with shadows took 12- 15 hours. On a 2.500 it was a whole new ball game.

Blazing was an adjective that came to mind; most complex scenes could be rendered in 10-55 minutes, with simple scenes coming in at 60 seconds or less! The Backdrop Control Panel lets you load in an IFF or frame to be displayed in the background or foreground. Foreground dissolve is unique in that it lets you set the transparency of the loaded graphic. Sky, zenith, and ground color are allowed along with Nadir color, which is the color directly beneath the camera. Background fog can be added along with parameters for density and color. The Layout screen is where you'll spend most of your creative time. It is LightWave 3D's strongest feature and a work of art as far as interfaces go. It is basically a wireframe preview of your scene complete with camera and lights and a floor grid so you can keep your bearings. You can view your objects from the left, right, above, perspective (wide overview), or how the camera sees the scene. The big difference here is that all manipulation is performed in real time. No more switching constantly between 3 views. You have a window on a real 3-D world where if you need to move the camera or reposition an object, you just dick on it with your mouse and drag and rotate it in3dimensions.

You can also type in coordinates forthex, y.and z axes as well as bank, heading, and pitch and you change the view by zooming in, or rotating it. Positions are memorized by setting Key Frames. Once you decide where you want your light for example, click on Create Key. This is also used for animation, which is why this screen is also used for wireframe previews. You can play your previews at different speeds, forward, or reverse. Wireframe rendering is brisk and creating animated scenes is incredibly easy. Reset and Center gets your scenes back on track. The grid size (floor) is adjustable. Visibility allows you to turn off items such as the camera and lights for editing purposes if your scene becomes too complex. LightWave 3D has only a few problems. First of all every once in a while it forgets key frames. You'll set them, go to adjust surface attributes for example, then when you return to the Layout your camera, lights, and objects will all be reset to thecenterofthegrid. Very odd and it only happened to me twice in many many hours of using Light Wave 30, I also wasn't able to duplicate the occurrence./ Editor's Note: A NcwTck spokesperson stated that !Iris problem was corrected in the update, VI.O.J The only time I ever crashed any part of the Toaster package (this goes for the Toaster Paint, CG, everything) was in LightWave 30. I was typing in a numerical input for an attribute and accidentally hit the escape key instead of the number one (I really must stop typing with a rubber mallet). Upon hitting return fireworks started and a pulsating grey screen locked me out forcing a reboot. I realize this was my fault but I did lose my entire scene. (Other than that after weeks of usingand torturing-all parts of the Toaster package, I could in no possible way get it to crash.)

The main drawback of the Layout is there is no object editing (this is done separately in LightWave Modeler) and there is no way to delete an object once you've loaded it into your scene. Not a fault of LightWave 30 but I also can't load 24-bit files I have created into The Art Department without getting jumbled colors. NewTek support confirmed the problem and hopefully a module for The Art Department, specific for the Toaster, is forthcoming. While these complaints are minor, I have nothing but the highest praise for LightWave 3D. Allen Hastings has created a gem of a 3-D rendering program that is easy, logical, and a pleasure with excellent output, a wealth of features and fascinating texture control. LightWave3D is not like a high-end system, it is a highend system. LIGHTWAVE MODELER From LightWave 3D's main screen, you can enter the LightWave Modeler. It is here where you create all your 3-D objects. The traditional tri-view is the basis which allows viewing your object in 3 different windows, from the top, bottom, and side. A fourth window on the same screen shows your object in a static or "moving" wireframepreview. Every time you make a change to your object, you see it instantly in your rotating (about 45 degrees in ping-pong method) preview. A solid representation of your object is also available at the dick of a mouse. All four windows can easily be resized with the mouse. The menu bar on the top row of the interface holds a row of commands which, when selected, appear on the left side of your work screen. Objects are made up of points which form polygons.

Circle 13S on Reador Service card. MARCH 1991 59 jects (like 3-D text) depth. Lathe will take an outline of an object and spin it around a selectable axis to form objects such as vases. Mirror creates a duplicate around a chosen axis. Clone is used with the Paste command for creating several copies of your object. Polygons (the building blocks of all objects) can be created by clicking to create points and then "hooked" together by the Make button. Flip, Attach, and Detach are additional polygon tools. Surface will let you name individual surfaces. For example you would need to name the metal, wood, and eraser parts of a pencil object separately so you could assign separate object attributes when you enter LightWave 3D. Display control lets you move In, Out, Magnify, Pan, Fit (adjusts Grid size), and View, which changes the direction from which your windows are seeing your objects. When extruding or lathing, you can toggle between creating objects with triangles or rectangles. Edit Object functions including being able to cut, copy, and paste objects. A handy Undo button is also available. All objects can be edited in layers (up to8 at once) for added flexibility and a wealth of keyboard shortcuts are included. There's not too much to say about LightWave Modeler. It's pretty similar to most 3-D modelers and doesn't break any new ground. One drawback is object creation. First you must click to create points, then you must select which points you want, then you have to hit Make to connect them.

This three-step process should only be one, even Sculpt 4D lets you "draw" objects in real time. There is no direct text support with alignment via the keyboard; however, a 3-D font is included as objects. IFF tracing would have been a welcome addition. On the plus side the program is fast and accurate. The wireframe moving preview is fascinating to watch and is incredibly valuable. After you load a primitive, you are allowed to adjust (with the mouse) the size before you add it to your view. That's a nice touch, however, LightWave Modeler is just a very good no-nonsense program. Work needs to be done to make it easier and more userfriendly. For 3-D pros it's excellent, but IFF /brush tracing, real-time drawing, more primitives, and text entry are needed to turn it on to the masses. TOASTER CHARACTER GENERATOR The last leg on our Video Toaster journey takes us to the Toaster's built-in Character Genera tor (CG) for putting text, NTSC Versus 24-bit by Arthur King There has always been a great deal of confusion about the differences between NTSC composite video and RGB color. The Increasing number of programs outputting 24blt color flies has Increased almost daily. The number of devices that ore capable of displaying 24-blt files has Increased as well. The confusion occurs when we start dlscussin g the use of NTSC signals to display Images designed in 24bit color. line (in overseen) and 480 lines. meaning we have only 353.280 pixels on a monitor screen at a time. Please don't say. "16 millions colors on-screen at a time: because It's not posslble. The correct phrase lsevery pixel can be one of 16. 7 million colors as desired.NTSC Video Most 24-bit images don't stay on RGB systems though. Most get transferred to video. better known as NTSC. The NTSC system Is based on using three signals for the N Image-a red. a blue, and a green signal. To combine them Into only one signal rs not easy and several compromises are made In the process. The files ore not added together In equal parts but In varying percentages.

The outcome of this encoding process Is that although an RGB signal can have a bandwidth of 30 MHz. your typical NTSC signal w111 not exceed 8-1 O MHz (the FCC won't let you broadcast more than 4.2 MHz). Other encoding compromises force distinct hue changes to occur no more often as 80 times per horizontal line. To see this. fire up DeluxePalnt In hi-res and draw a vertlcal red line. Immediately next to it draw a blue llne. Your RGB monitor wlll have a hard time showing each llne distlnctly. but you'll probably make them out. Now look at the Amiga on an NTSC monitor or TV. The line will be one purple line with no hint of the two distinct colors there. SO we can see that our 24-blt Image. once encoded to NTSC. hos lost much oflts luster. A great deal of our detail on color Information Is gone. However. NTSC provides on excellent Image anyway. Broadcast television Is founded on the Idea of showing more than the eye can perceive. but not much more. That keeps the signal "small" In terms of bandwidth. making life easier for everyone Involved. The NTSC signal cannot be described in the same terms as computer image files. but NTSC Is considered (there are varying opinions on this) to have the capability to discriminate between 24-bit RGB Simply. 24-blt color is 3 separate Images-one Image for the RED. one image tor the GREEN. and one Image for the BLUE. Each of these Images is monochromatic and may have values ranging from black to white.

At this point they are no different from a standard AMIGA picture file. The difference Is that a hi-res Amiga file may only have 16 distinct levels of gray between black and white. whereas the 24-blt file has 256. The 24-blt file gets Its name from the fact that each color has 8 bits of information (2 to the eighth power= 256). hence 8 bits for the RED + 8 bits for the Green + 8 bits for the BLUE = 24 bits of Image Information. That calculates to o possible 16.777.216 colors available to the artist (2 to the 24th power). This a great deal of selection and overkill In the minds of many. Why have such a selection? It exceeds virtually any need you may hove whether for computer art. desktop publishing. film or TV. The human eye can't discriminate between many of those colors. 32bit color systems have only 24 bits of color data and 8 bits of extra information describing things other than the color. 32-blt systems hove an Identical number of colors ln their palette. Of course this is under ideal conditions. The file may have 24 bits of Information. but the display monitor may not be capable of clearly showing all the colors In the palette. And this Is an RGB monitor where the RGB signals from the display output device directly drive the three electron guns in the CRT. In other words. a best case scenario. Don'tforgetthat in Amiga hi-res there are 736 plxels per video 60 AMAZING Con PUT ING parent Cast. Text/Pages are easily Justified to the Center, Right, or Left. Kerning is done manually with the arrow keys. Automatic kerning is missing and really should be included. Text Borders can be Thin, Medium, and Thick. A Graphic Separator allows putting a line in between text. Jump to Page features numerical input to go to a certain page quickly. Fonts can be loaded and stored in RAM.

The amount easily accessible is dependent on your memory. Copy Page, Insert Line, Delete Line, Erase Page, and Erase Book make editing easy. The palette commands let you create smooth gradient backgrounds from a top and bottom color. Color control is done with RGB sliders via the keyboard arrows. It's kind of clumsy and takes a little getting used to. Most of your pages will be basic Key pages if they are not Blank. scrolls, and crawls over your video. You can also create frames for the Switcher or for use in ToasterPaint. The CG pages are stored in Books which contain exactly 100 pages and up to 20 different fonts at once. The mouse is completely bypassed and all commands are executed via the keyboard (mainly the function keys). The first option is to choose the page type: Blank Page, Key Page, Frame Store Page, Scroll Page, or Crawl Page. A large number of fonts are included in various sizes as well as several colored fonts called ChromaFonts. There is also an included utility to create ToasterFonts from almost any Amiga font. Converted fonts must be only one color since there is currently no support to incorporate ColorFonts. Text color and Shadow color are selectable. Shadow types include Shadow Distance, Drop, Cast, Transparent Drop, and Trans- Frame Store pages are created to be manipulated with the Switcher effects. Scroll pages are used for credits rolling up the screen and Crawl pages produce a crawling message (like a bulletin) horizontally at a specified point on the screen (usual! y the bottom). All text screens must be "rendered" to the framebuffer which takes a bout 10 seconds. Scrolls and Crawls appear instantly and require no rendering (but do not allow ChromaFonts). All types of text, scrolls, and crawls can be saved as a project and are instantly accessible from the main Switcher screen. The use of function keys for commands and color editing with the arrow keys takes a little getting used to. There also absolutely needs to bea way the user can incorporate his/her small logos and graphics for title bars (some are included such as flags and credit cards). approximately 4 million colors (on o good day with no wind). To talk of l 6 mlllion colors and NTSC signals In the some breath Is to discuss apples and oranges. Broadcasters indeed DO use devices that create 24-blt Imagery. but do so knowing and accepting what happens to that signal after encoding. Video encoders cost between $_100 and 00. the only dlfference being how well they preserve the origlnal signals. Now with that background. let me Introduce a new concept. handling a video signal.

Such dig Ital signals are used In TBCs. Framestores. DYE devices and. in more sophisticated manners. digital VCRs. Although this technology has been around for many years it hasn't trickled down to the consumer until very recentty. The more obvious case Is NewTek's Video Toaster. Checking the Toaster spec sheet Illuminates the fact that It Is sampling at 4 times suocorder frequency (4fsc) and the samples are 8-blt. same as normal 1V practice. Its resolution Is 70 nanoseconds. 736 pixels (samples) per llne-some as the Amiga In hi-res. Checking the Toaster's framegrab files show them to not be RGB flies. but digitized NTSC data. Its paint and character generation programs may indeed be creating 24-bit data. but those files seem to be translated to digitized NTSC for final output. The 35 nanosecond font resolution mentioned In the Toaster brochure Is actually on APPARENT resolution. the result of using anttallased 70 ns fonts. exactly the same as Broadcast Titler or Pro Video Gold. The 16 million colors mentioned in the brochure are "requested" colors, but not necessarily the final output. Digital video Is used the world around by broadcasters with great satisfaction. Nothing at all to be embarrassed about. For this technology to be made accessable to the consumer ls wonderful. In fact. the new DCTV unit from Dlgltal Creations Is also based on dlglttzed NTSC video in a similar manner and will output full spectrum NTSC color. So 'When you readabout24-bltcolor,a!kyourself,'Vv'hotdotlieyreallymean?'. ACDigital Video Many video devices now work with dlgltal NTSC composite video. What Is rn is It anything like computer Image files? No. nothing like them. In fact they are closer In concept to digitized computer sound files than anything else. The NTSC composite video signal Is very sfmllar to an audio sign al. It Is an electrical signal that varies In amplitude and frequency over time. The video signal Is much higher In frequency. Just as we con sample an audio signal and digitize It. we con sample o video signal and digitize It.

The result Is a file that represents a series of samples of each horizontal line, enough to finally describe an entire video frame of 525 llnes. To make sure we are sampling often enough to be able to accurately define the signal. we sample at 4 times the rate of the subcarrier frequency or 14. 14 MHz {some video equipment may sample at even a higher rote for better accuracy). The samples themselves ore 8 bits wide. making for 256 discrete levels of Information. These rotes and sizes were chosen because they produce an Image that is lndlstlngulshable from the original. At this point we have a digitized video Image and could even put fills Information on a computer disk. but we need to keep in mind that It Is NOT an RGB flle. There Is NO discrete information about the separate RGB Images that went into the Initial creation of that NTSC signal. The number of bits In the file have nothing to do with the number of colors available in the Image. What we DO have is a handy way of digitally DCTV Price: 5.00 Digital Creattons 2865 Sunrise Boulevard Suite 103 Rancho Cordova, CA 95742 (916) 344-4825 Inquiry #230 The Video Toaster Pl/ce: $_1595.00 NewTek 215 E. 8th St. Topeka, KS 66603 (913) 354-1146 Inquiry #231 MARCH 1991 6J 8 fields (expandable) NEWTEK'S VIDEO TOASTER SPECIFICATIONS Video Standard: NTSC Inputs: 4 composite synchronous Input BNC connectors. 1 Volt p-p coherent chroma. Software controllable 75 ohm termination or high Impedance for loop-through on each input. Keyed clamping DC restore. Preview Output: Program Video Output: 1 Volt p-p composite Into 75 ohm 1 Volt p-p composite Into 75 ohm Reference Video: Composite color or blackburst on video input # l. Sequence Trigger: Insertion Delay: GPI trigger with optional cable. 400ns Video In to Program Out. Sync Generator: Sync. burst. and blanking internally regenerated. Meets all FCC and RS- l 70a specifications. Signal to Noise: > 55 dB. Sampling Rate: 14.31818 MHz. Quantizing: 8 bits. Differential Phase: 3 degrees. Luminance Bandwidth: +0/-3 dB to 5 MHz. Luminance Resolution: > 400 lines The ChromaFonts are beautiful and even beat out the Rolls Royce of Amiga fonts, Kara Fonts, in the looks department (to be fair - Kara Fonts are only created in 8 colors butwhat if there were Kara Fonts for the Toaster oooh now that's scaryl), Scrolls and Crawls allow different speeds with stop commands and the result is pure heaven. They simply glide by at an incredibly smooth 60 frames per second. The Toaster Character Generator puts my cable studio CGs to shame.

REFLECTIONS As stated in this review there are several areas where the Toaster software needs to be reworked. New Tek has worked hard on improving their other products through updates and I am certain the Video Toaster will be no exception. But on the 62 AMAZING COMPUTING Memory: Frame Store: Capacity: Load Time: Dual outputs Independently routed to switcher. Stores 1.2.4 or 8 fields. Up to 1000 frames (per frame store device, depending on available storage). From RAM: l /5 second From Hard Disk: 3 seconds. Switcher: 7 inputs: External Video 1-4. Digital Channel l. Digital Channel 2. Matte Generator. Independent software control of input channel at every pixel (70 ns). Independently selectable Preview output. Linear Keyer: 16 steps at 70 ns resolution. 256 steps at 280 ns resolution. Luminance Key: Dual keyer for dual threshold keying or two Independent keys. Dual clip level control with 256 steps. Key Input switchable to any inputer digital still store. Digital Effects: Arbitrary geometric remapping at 60 fps. Host Computer: Amiga 2CXXJ/2500 with 5 megabytes of RAM (l megabyte chip RAM) and hard disk. Power Requirements: All power supplied by the host computer. whole the included programs and Toaster Hardware perform very well.

The only drawback that might turn some users off is the professional nature of a typical Toaster setup. It's an incredible asset to any production house but home users will need addition hardware to make the most of the video effects. Even if you own no video hardware the Toaster is worth it as a dedicated Paint/3-D Modeling system. It's that good. Also the Toaster needs to be less close-ended. Options for genlock compatibility is a must. What made the Amiga the machine it is today was its interchangeability of files, features, and hard ware between various programs. The coming year will see if the Toaster will adapt. It will either blossom . or ferment. Perhaps the most perfect feature is the output. and in the end that's where it counts. The crisp fonts, the dazzling paint effects, the incredible 3-D images, and those nifty digital effects. Looking at our waveform/ vectorscopes at the studio shows a bright, clean video signal of professional standards. Although the Video Toaster has had a lot of problems with long delays, the end result is without question worth the years of wait. A round of applause to NewTek, they have created a new Amiga era. The Video Toaster has arrived and Amiga video will never be the same. ACThe Video Toaster Price: $_1595.00 NewTek 215 E. Blh St. Topekc, KS 66603 (913) 354-1146 Inquiry #229 by Phil Saunders 0 ne of the best ways to get started in MIDI sequencing is by modifying sequences recorded by others. It is easy and instructive to change the key, tempo, and instrumentation of a song to find out how its arrangement "works". Modifying prerecorded sequences can also teach you a great deal about how your sequencer works. Since most Amiga sequencers read and write standard MIDI files, you have access to a whole library of prerecorded sequences.

This month's column will discuss standard MIDI files, how to load them into your sequencer, and how to modify them to suit your needs and equipment. Mlcroilluslons' Music-X uses a stand-alone program to convert standard MIDI files. A standard MIDI file is a MIDI sequence which can be loaded into any sequencer that reads the standard MIDI file format. The format was defined by the MIDI Manufacturer's Association in 1988 to allow sequences to be transferred from one sequencer to another. Before the advent of the standard, the only way to move files between sequencers was to connect the sequencers via MIDI and have one sequencer record the output of the other. In addition to causing timing delays, this method was inconvenient because it required both sequencers to be physically located in the same place. Standard MIDI files, on the other hand, can be downloaded via modem or saved to disk and then moved to another computer.

While there are actually three different formats for MIDI files, most standard MIDI files are in Format 1, which uses a separate track for each instrument. Format 0 MIDI files pack all the instruments into a single track, while Format 2 files incorporate advanced features and are rarely implemented by sequencers. MARCii 1991 63 Many computer bulletin boards have a MIDI section with a library of standard MIDI files available for downloading. Commercial information services like CompuServe, PAN, and GEnie each have MIDI forums with a large selection of files. In addition, a number of companies sell MIDI arrangements of popular songs and classical pieces in standard MIDI file format. These are often more detailed than public domain versions, including complete drum parts and full orchestrations. Check the classified ads in Keyboard and Electronic M11sici1111 magazines for more information on vendors of standard MIDI file sequencers. Not all of these companies offer their sequences on Amiga disks, but it is easy to use, for instance, Consultron's CrossDOS to read IBM and Atari ST disks on the Amiga. Standard MIDI files must usually be converted to the sequencer's native format before they can be used. Some sequencers (like KCS from Dr. T's Music Software) perform this conversion automatically upon loading the file, while others (like Microillusions' Music-X) use a stand-alone conversion program. The conversion process may require some user intervention. Sequencers vary in their timing resolution, which is measured in steps per beat. If the sequence being imported uses a different resolution than the sequencer, it may be necessary to adjust the resolution of either the sequencer or the imported sequence.

I generally adjust the sequence to KCS's standard 240-steps-per-beat because I find it easier to always work with even numbers when editing sequences. This adjustment can introduce some minor timing problems so, if timing is critical, you may prefer to adjust the sequencer's default resolution to match the imported sequence. Standard MIDI files imported into KCS are always converted into tracks. In KCS's Track Mode, the length of Track 1 determines the overall length of the song. With some standard MIDI files, Track 1 isn't set to any particular length, so the file initially produces no sound. This problem can be remedied by finding the length of the song and then entering rests ("deleted events" in KCS lingo) in Track 1 until its length matches the length of the song. The sequence should then loop properly. Once you have a standard MIDI file loaded into your sequencer, you can begin the process of modifying it to suit your equipment. This generally involves assigning patches on your synthesizers to match each track of the file. The title of each track usually specifies the type of instrument which should play the part (such as bass or keyboard). Note which MIDI channel the track plays on and assign an appropriate instrument to that channel. You should try to get close to the sound used on the original recording initially, but feel free to experiment with other 66 AMAZING COMPUTING sounds. It may be necessary to transpose particular tracks up or down an octave so that they will play in the correct range with a particular synthesizer patch.

You can also assign the Amiga's sound samples to play a particular part. This is a good way to expand your sonic pallet, even if the resulting sound quality is limited. (Of course, if you don't have a synthesizer, you will have to rely on the Amiga's four voices to play all the parts.) Drum tracks usually cause the most problems. The layout of the MIDI drum sounds is not standard, so a C2 may play a bass drum on one drum machine and a crash cymbal on another. Drum parts may either have separate tracks for each drum sound, or combine all the drum parts into one track. In either case, each note is assigned to a specific drum sound. Dr. T's KCS: The saxophone tracks are muted and the ride cymbal is delayed. KCS Level ll's Pitchmap screen can remap drums. The trick is to determine how the drum sounds, in the standard MIDI file, match the drum sounds on your drum machine or synthesizer. Once you know that a C2 on the MIDI file should be a 02 in order to play a snare drum sound on your synthesizer, you can begin to edit the drum tracks. If each drum is on a separate sequencer track, you can simply transpose each track until the drum plays the proper sound on your equipment. If the drums are all on one track, you may need to split the drum track into separate tracks for each drum and then transpose the individual tracks.

KCS Level II has a pitch map feature ideal for transposing from one set of drum note assignments to another. Remember, if you have set a drum channel KCS will not transpose notes assigned to that MIDI channel! You will have to go to the "Environments" screen to turn off the drum channel before you can transpose the drum tracks. Once you have all the parts playing the correct sounds, begin to experiment with the playback of your song. Alter the tempo to see how the feel of the music changes. Try muting some tracks so you can isolate the contribution each instrument makes to the arrangement. If your sequencer can display notes as it plays them, look at the graphic representation of the song. Notice how the melody "looks" as it is played. If your sequencer can "time adjust" tracks, try pushing the drums forward so that they anticipate the beat slightly. Then try delaying them so they lag behind the beat. Experiment with assigning different sounds to each of the tracks. Changing the instrument that plays a particular part can make a drastic difference in the feel of a song. Be creative! You should also try recording your own parts to augment or replace ones in the sequence. If your keyboard skills aren't great, slow the tempo when you record Products Mentioned Muslc-X: 9.95 Mlcrolllusions P.O. Box 3475 Grenada Hills, CA 91394 (818) 785-7345 Inquiry #205 KCS: 9.00 KCS Level II: 9.00 Dr. T's Music Software, Inc. 220 Boylslon St. #306 Boston, MA02l67 (617) 244-6954 Inquiry #206 KIT INCLUDES CIRCUIT BOARD ALL PARTS MINUS CASE SOITW ARE ON 3.5" DISK RE-PRINT OF ORIGINAL ARTICLE Please Send Check or Money Order for .95 TO: GT Dcrices P.0 BOX 2098 FREE Pasco, Wa. 99301 SHIPPING and then increase it for the playback.

Keep trying until you get a good take. One of the benefits of MIDI is that experiments which don't work can easily be fixed. If the song still has a "computer feel" it may have been overquantitized or converted from music entered by hand, not played via MIDI. One symptom of a score entered by hand is that all the note velocities are assigned the same value. As a result the volume of a part remains constant throughout the song. This Jack of dynamic variation is distinctly unnatural and is a leading cause of a "computer feel." We will cover ways to "rehumanize" sequenced music in a future column. ACGTDcv1Ccs PRESENTS Vidce!J VIDEO DIGITIZER KIT 256 GRAY SCALE FEATURES: INTIJTilONJCONTROL PANEL INTERFACE SOURCE CODE (ASSEMBLY) SCHEMATIC!TIIEORY OF OPERATION 640 X 400 RESOLUTION ACCEPTS STANDARD VIDEO SIGNAL Circle 104 on Reader Service card. MARCH 1991 67 Insight into the World of Public Domain Software for the Amiga 68 AMAZING Coit1PUTTNG Alert V3.6 Customize your alert boxes (or Gurus) with Alert. This program allows you to create messages up to seven lines in length, and then save the text-along with an executable file-to construct a Guru message box. Once your text is chosen, select the Test gadget to see your text set inside a Guru box. Use the Save gadget to save your Guru text, and the Load gadget to retrieve. The Special menu contains several options including the Reset option, which resets the Amiga with a hard reset, and New Alert, which will delete the active Guru text. The ability to save the alert file to the bootblock of a disk is a planned feature for a future version of the program. Alert V3.6 can be fo1111d 011 Fred Fislr disk #417. It can be executed from the CLI or Workbencl1. This program is slrareware. Author: Peter Hii11dle BootX V3.40 BootX is a virus killer that checks memory and bootblacks for any known viruses, as well as disks for link viruses.

BootX has the ability to load "brain files", allowing you to add any bootblocks not yet recognized by BootX. Once loaded, BootX presents you with the Main screen. Here you have gadgets which allow you to perform different tasks with bootblocks. BootX retains a buffer that contains the last read bootblock. You can write this bootblock to a specific drive, or display it in a semi-ASCII form (only readable characters are displayed). You can also save the bootblock to any valid device. Besides the many bootblock-related options, BootX also features a Goto Sleep option, which allows you to close BootX's Main screen, free up memory and still keep BootX readily available. When BootX is put to sleep, its Main screen closes and a small window is created on the Workbench. In this state, BootX will not perform any virus checking; rather, you must activate it again. by Aimee B. Abren Other options include Kill Link Virus and Load Brain File. The former will check a selected device for link viruses. The entire disk is checked. Future versions will allow for specific directory and file checking. The Load Brain File option allows you to load an alternative brain file in memory besides the default, BootX.Brain.

There is also a Learn option that lets BootX "learn" the bootblack currently in the buffer. BootX will then add this to the current brain file if it is not already there. The documentation included with BootX is small, but each option is described clearly. BootX V3.40 rnn be found on Fred Fish disk #420. Thiprogram can be started from the CL! or Workbe11cl1. Author: Peter Stuer IFF2SOURCE Vl .0 IFF2Source will convert !FF lLBM or ANIM files to C or assembly code. This code can then be used in your own programs. When loaded, IFF2Source displays a window with numerous gadgets. Select the picture files you want converted (you can select more than one) and they will appear in a list onscreen. Once a conversion is complete, the file will disappear from the list. If there is a file or files in the list that you want to exclude from the conversion process, double click on the file name. This will place an asterisk ("*") in front of the name, flagging IFF2Source to not convert the file to code. The asterisk is a toggle switch; simply double click again to remove it. Select files for your list with the Add gadget. Wild cards are supported for a faster selection. You can use #?to select all files in a directory; however, .info will not be added. Once the files are selected, set your destination directory to the directory to which you want the code saved. The default is the current directory. Now you are ready to hit the Start button. Other options include Abort, which stops the current action, and Unrnark, which "unmarks" all files highlighted with an asterisk so they may be included in the selected list.

There is also an Info option that will allow you to see a small version of the IFF file. You can only see two bitplanes, but you can choose which two. Press "Stop" to exist the Info option, or "Okay" to see the next file. The Info option is for included files only (files without an asterisk). IFF2Source V1 .0 can lie fo1111d 011 Fred Fisll disk #420. It can be nm from tire Workbeuclr or CU. Amiga DOS 2.0 is reouired to 1w1 tire program. Author: Jorrit Tybergliein MenuWriter V3. 1 Menu Writer is a program that allows you to write a menu to the bootblack of a disk. Once created, you can execute commands or batch files and run programs by selecting the appropriate menu selection. You can have up to 30 menu items (40 if you are a PAL user) on your menu. Run Menu Writer to display the screen for creating menus. You will see two columns of 30 boxes each (40 is you are a PAL user). On the left side, you enter your menu selection exactly as you want it to appear on your menu. The right side is where you enter the name of the command, batch file or program you want executed when the corresponding menu selection (on the left) is selected. Above the two columns of boxes are two more boxes for the title and subtitle of your menu. Also included with Menu Writer are two menus, Project and Edit.

The Project menu contains the self-explanatory options About, New, Load, Save and Quit. You cannot, however, load a file that has not previously been created with Menu Writer. In the Edit menu you will find "Write menu to dfx" 1 which creates a file and writes the file to a newly formatted disk's bootblack (use of a newly formatted disk is stressed in the documentation). The Preview option, also found in this menu, shows how the menu will look. Future enhancements being considered include a custom password and the ability to choose menu colors. An extra feature already included is a virus detector that checks key vectors known to be affected by viruses. MARCH 1991 69 Menu Writer V3.1 can be found on Fred Fish disk #420. It cn11 be nm from the Workbmch or CU, and requires the Arp library. Author: Peter Stuer from the Workbench menu. For a complete list of valid Tool Type options, refer to the included documentation. Lila V9004b, mi update to V8912.a 011 Fred Fisu disk #368, can be fou11d 011 Fred Fish #414. 171e Courier font and Kickstart 1.2 are needed.

The Arp library is suggested, but not required. r111s program is shareware. Author: Bertrand Gros amount of information (Short, Medium or Full) displayed for a device or directory. If you choose to run Whatls from the Workbench, you will need to go to Tool Types to change any default settings. Because you will probably want to change settings often, the author, in the documentation, suggests an alternative approach when running the program from the Workbench. For a complete list of all recognized files, as well as all supported Tool Types, check the included documentation. At the end of the file you will find examples of how Whatls can be used. Whntls V2.0, an update to V1.2a on Fred Fisl: disk #334, can be fo1111d 011 Fred Fislt disk #417. This program is shareware and requires Amiga DOS 2.0. Author: lorrit Tybergliein ACLila V9004b Lila is a utility that makes it possible to print text files on PostScript printers. Some features include the ability to choose between Portrait and Lanscape, and whether you want normal or condensed text. At the program's onset, three gadgets appear requesting the Input file, Title, and Output file. Here you select the file to be printed. The Title gadget lets you pick the title you want to appear at the bottom of the page. The default is the name of the document selected to be printed. Number of columns and number of characters per line are two other included options. You can change any defaults by selecting Tool Types under the Info Whatls V2.0 Whatls is a utility that recognizes many different types of files including executables, IFFs, objects, archived files (like ZOO, ARC, and Arcfiles), and .info files. When the file is recognized, Whatls will display file information such as file type, size, date of last change and more. This update includes a new PAGE option, as well as the ability to start the program from the Workbench. Whatis will display info for a file, device or directory.

the article "Stepper Motors" in AC VS.12, December 1990. Our ultimate goal in this series is to building a functioning Amiga sonar system. This time, we tackle the task of assembling an ultrasonic ranging system. The circuit herein uses inaudible ultrasonic pulses to detect objects and measure distances. The velocity of sound, through the air, is about 1100 feet per second. The exact speed of sound actually varies slightly with the tempera lure of the air. As a rule of thumb, velocity changes by 1 foot per second per degree Fahrenheit. Th us, at 32F (0C) sound travels at a velocity of approximately 1100 feet per second. At 70F, the speed of sound is closer to 1140 feet per second.

The frequency of a sound has no effect on its velocity. So, two sounds with different frequencies will travel at the same speed through the same media. Media, the material through which a sound travels, does effect the speed. For instance, sound travels at 4000 feet per second through water. Original Design When I first designed this circuit, I used two piezo-electric transducers. One transducer was connected toa pulse generator, to transmit an ultrasonic pulse. The sound traveled from this transducer to a solid object and then reflected back. The other transducer was con- PLEASE NOTE: This project may void your Amiga wananty and is offered strictly fort he enjoyment of the technically indined. P.i.M. Publications. Inc. and Mr. lovi'oo cannol be held responsible tor any damages inwrred by anyone allempling to complete this hardware project. nected to a receiver circuit to detect the reflected echo. The elapsed time between the transmitted pulse and receiving the reflected echo is a function of the distance. Both receiver and transmitter circuits were connected to an oscilloscope.

The stand-alone circuit worked quite well; I was able to accurately measure distance. One thing I had overlooked on the oscilloscope trace was "ringing" caused by the transmitted pulse in the receiver transducer. Although I was able to overlook this noise in the circuit and visually observe the return echo and make accurate distance measurements, the circuit was Jess than effective when interfaced to the computer. EJ I "'" I Figure One: Component LayoutPolaroid Sonar Ranging Module MARCH 1991 7J Formerly AmiEXPO VIDEO -- AmigaWorld Expo brings you the Amiga, the world's first !!":: .- '4,. t. computer! At AmigaWorld Expo you'll find: * State of the Art Graphics, Animation, 3D and Business Software * Hardware to Expand your Amiga to its Limits * Magazines, Value-Added Resellers, and Tutorial Videos to Assist You Bargains on the Hottest Amiga Software and Hardware * Amiga Classes, Seminars and Keynote Speakers Giving You Access To the Most Complete Amiga Information Available EXHIBIT HOURS Friday, March 15 l :00 PM to 6:00 PM Saturday, March 16 10:00 AM to 6:00 PM

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Driving Software The elapsed time between the transmitted pulse and receiving pulse can vary between 3 to 64 milliseconds. Obviously, BASIC is not fast enough to measure these short time intervals. It became necessary to write a ML subroutine that gets called from BASIC to drive the sonar ranging module (see listing at left). The ML subroutine measures time between pulses in .1 millisecond intervals. To insure accurate timing, a timer on the 8520 is used as a clock. In addition, interrupts are disabled when the ML routine is called and enabled before returning to BASIC. The BASIC program reads the elapsed time and performs the necessary calculations for distance, which is then displayed on the monitor. BASIC also pokes a zero in the software's time-elapse register to dear it for the next measurement. I didn't take much time to write the BASIC portion of the program. Pressing any key when the program is running will stop the program, reallocate the memory, and close the open library. The distance measures are continually taken and printed onto the screen. Obviously, there is a lot of room for improvement if you want to add some BASIC graphics. Next Time In the final installment of this series, we'll use this project in conjunction with the Stepper Motor project that appeared in Decemberl 990 to build asimpleAmigabased sonar system. MARCH 1991 77 Writing Faster Assembly Language by Martin F. Combs E mphasis in my two previous articles (AC VS.10, October 1990 and AC VS.2, February 1990) has been on speeding up programs written in BASIC or Modula-2, by integrating machine language into them. I closed last time by noting that getting the iterative part of a program successfully translated into assembly language is not necessarily the last step in speeding up that program. If this translation is successful, the program will certainly run faster than before. Its speed may yet be substantially increased furtherperhaps even doubled-through the crafting of an optimum set of assembly language instructions to do just that. What you need is a prograrn that tirnes individual instructions and does so with the expenditure of only a couple qf rniriutes of your tirne. 78 AMAZING COMPUTING Any but the most trivial of assembly language programs can be written in many different ways.

Every programmer evolves his own style, accumulating a bag of tricks which are comfortable to him, though they may not represent the fastest or most memoryefficient way to get a specific job done. One of the most challenging truths about assembly language is that no matter how good a program is, it can almost surely be improved. A frequently quoted rule states that if a program can be rewritten with fewer steps, requiring less memory, then it should also be a faster program than before. This rule turns out to be true more often than not, but it is far from true enough to depend on. There are many exceptions, several of which will be discussed later on in this article. Assuming you have a program that runs properly, the next step is to think of other ways to write it to make it run faster. When you think of a possible improvement, try it out and time it. To do this you have to edit, reassemble and link the whole program, and if it is to be integrated into a higher-level language you have to take all the necessary steps to do that also. But wait-there has to be an easier way! What you need is a program that times individual instructions, or perhaps small groups of instructions, and does so with the expenditure of only a couple of minutes of your time. The idea here is to put the instruction into a loop, run it through a few million iterations, and time it. Since each new instruction to be timed requires reassembly and relinking of the program, the extra effort of incorporating it into a higher-level language each time is not practical. The total ti me involved in editing by replacing one line, assembling, linking and running the program provided here is about 90 seconds. For the benefit of newcomers to the field of assembly language programming, I'll discuss the program at some length, since the handling of libraries and various routines from those libraries is typical of most stand-alone assembly language programs. Line numbers have been added for easy reference; they should be removed before assembly.

This is the base address of the exec library, which holds the OpenLibrary and CloseLibrary routines, and many others. The OpenLibrary function requires a pointer to the name of the library to be in al and the version number to be in dO. That version (or any later one) will be accepted; putting a 0 in dO means that any version is fine. If all goes well, the OpenLibrary function returns in dO a pointer to the base of the requested library; if not, it returns 0 in dO. A 0 in dO indicates an attempt to open the intuition library has been unsuccessful, and line 12 causes a branch to the end of the program, where the registers are restored and control is returned to DOS. Lines 13-17 do the same thing for the DOS library, but if the attempt to open the DOS library is not successful, the previously opened intuition library must be closed before exiting the program. Pointers to libraries must be in a6, and the intuition function CurrentTime gets used next; hence, line 18. The CurrentTime function requires a pointer to a storage location for seconds in aO and a similar pointer for microseconds in al. After line 21 we have the starting time stored properly. The dbra dn, label instruction, where dn is a loop counter, causes the loop starting at label to be executed one more time than the starting value in dn, so the outer loop gets executed 42 times and the inner loop, 65,536 times. Think of the -1 in d5 as a cardinal number rather than a signed number, i.e.,-1 is really 65,535.

The instruction to be timed is a move of a long integer from some memory location (startsecs happens to be a convenient location for purposes of illustration) to the register d I. Although you are repeating this instruction 2,752,512 times, it only takes a few seconds. To actually use this program, replace line 24 with any single instruction, or set of instructions, you wish to time. Some take a little ingenuity; in fact, some are likely to summon a Guru if you attempt to repeat them a few million times. For instance, it is a bit difficult to time a bsr instruction by itself, but easy to time a combination of bsr and rts. MARCH 1991 79 Lines 27-29 save the ending time. Lines 30-36 subtract the starting time from the ending time and put the seconds in d6 and the microseconds in d7. Note that the subtraction process includes a possible borrow of one second, i.e., 1 million microseconds, from d6. At first glance, the description of the CurrentTime function sounds great; it can be used to time an event in seconds and microseconds. However, a closer look at the documentation reveals the following quote: "This time value is not extremely accurate, nor is it of a very fine resolution. This time will be updated no more than sixty times a second, and will typically be updated far fewer times a second." Fortunately, the statement appears to be a bit pessimistic. Although the function can be used at best to time cydes60 per second in the case of the United States and 50 per second in certain other countries-it does seem to be fairly reliable in co1111ti11g cycles as well. At least, the results of this program are reasonably repeatable, rarely varying more than a couple of percent. This is more than accurate enough to decide which of two instructions to use in your program.

The numbers of repetitions of the loops have been chosen so that the result of timing the fastest instructions is about 100. This is done so that the differences in time of the various instructions can be readily compared; for instance, a reading of350means that the timed instruction takes about three-and-a-half times longer to execute than does the quickest instruction. For the specified number of repetitions the loop overhead is 277; that is, if no instruction was in the inner loop, it would still take 277 cycles for the program to execute. You should verify this for your machine by deleting line 24 and labeling line 25 innerloop. Lines 37-38 divide the microseconds by 21114, and since 1,000,000 microseconds divided by 2"14 is 61.035, this is close enough to the actual 60 cycles per second. After multiplying the seconds by 60 and adding the cycles contributed by the microsecond counter, the overhead is subtracted off.

The elapsed time in cycles in d7 is still in binary, so it must be converted into decimal and then into the ASCII equivalent of the decimal digits. Lines 51-58 get the job done. The Output function is part of the DOS library so a pointer to that library must be provided in a6. The Output function provides a file pointer in dl to be used by the Write function, which is also in the DOS library. Write also needs a pointer in d2 to the text to be printed and in d3, the number of bytes to be printed. If that text does not contain a carriage return, 10, then the next CL! prompt will write over the output and it will be gone before you can read it. I know because I wasted a couple of hours trying to find out why I appeared to be getting no results. Finally, the libraries are closed out in the inverse order that they were opened, and the program returns to the CLI. Providing a capability for the program to function from the Workbench would only complicate the program further. I suspect that few assembly language programmers use the Workbench anyway. There is an alternative to the CurrentTime function for determining the starting and ending times. It results in a shorter program because the intuition library doesn't have to be opened and it seems to provide a bit more rep eatable accuracy. It has been 80 A.HAZING COMPUTING Of Advert List rsers Please use a Reader Service cord to contact those advertisers who hove sparked your Interest. Advertisers want to hear from you. This Is the best way they have of determining the Amiga community's interests and needs.

Take a moment now to contact those companies featuring products you wont to learn more about. And. if you decide to contact on advertiser directly. please tell them you sow their advertisement In Amazing Computing For The Commodore Amiga / Reader Service Advertiser Page Number AAmiga Warehouse 43 109 Amiga Video Magazine 2 118 AmigaWorld Expo 72- 73 165 Block Belt Systems 25 101 Central Coast Software 57 102 Delphi Noetlc 87 110 Digital Creations CIV 163 dissidents 76 117 Grapevine Group, The 29 147 Great Valley Products 9 123 GT Devices 67 104 Hunter Group, The 81 ll l Interactive Video Systems 7 140 Interactive Video Systems 15 114 Lake Forest Logic 41 105 LazerTechlnk 37 106 Memory Location. The 53 107 Memory Management, Inc. 58 186 Michaelangelo Productions 70 127 Micro Computer Supply Co. 58 124 MJ Systems 83 149 Natural Graphics 19 108 One Byte 44 121 Porth Galen 58 115 Puzzle Factory, The ll 129 Romeo Computer Supplies 37 120 SAS Institute 18 126 Shereff Systems 28 134 Smoky Mountain Solutions 59 135 Software House 75 154 Taliesin. Inc. 5 112 Talon Technology. Inc.

IN NEW YORK CITY WORLD OF AMIGA Produced by The Hunter Group. For more information call (416) 595-5906 or fax (416) 595-5093. Clrc11 111 on Reader Servloe cud. checked out on the Amiga 500, A1000 and A2000, but is not guaranteed to work on all machines. Documentation for the Amiga seems to discourage the use of any absolute memory address except the address 4, but if it works, why not use it? moveq fl,d7 ; clear d7 move.b $bfea01, d7 ; get high byte of time, in cycles lsl. l 8,d7 move.b $bfe901, d7 ; get middle byte lsl.l t8,d7 move.b $bfe801, d7 ; get lower byte It might sound like a good idea to have a listing of the times of all possible instructions, but that turns out to be a bit impractical. There are over 100 different variations for the MOVE instruction alone. You will, however, want to build a table of the ones of most interest to you. A list of my timings is provided at the end of this article. Your results will vary somewhat from mine (particularly if your machine has additional memory), but the important thing is the relative difference in speed of various instructions, not the absolute speed. The latter is part of the nature of each machine. Of course, there is always a faster machine out there, but prepare to spend big bucks for it. When timing instructions, it is a good idea to limit the amount of concurrent multitasking. Clearly, the results might not be accurate if you time one instruction on an otherwise unoccupied machine, and the next in a multitasking mode with 8 other programs running at the same time! Subroutines are to be avoided/ Rernernber that the emphasis here is on speed, not on saving rnernory, Assembling and linking of this program can be hastened somewhat through the use of a shell.

The public domain assembler a68kand the public domain linker blink are both on Fred Fish Disk 110, as well as on various later releases. Assuming that your assembly language program is named tirner.asm, the appropriate assembler call is "a68k timer.asm", If you want a file showing how the assembler converts your program to machine language, you must add a "-1" to the above. The assembler will give you a file called timer.o, or a list of errors, if there are any. When you get a timer.o file, the linker call is "blink timer.o". lfall goes well, and it should, the linker will produce a file called timer. Then just enter "timer" to run it. Afterwards you should delete the timer.o file, since it serves no purpose. Using a shell makes the process simpler. To go through all the steps outlined above, just enter "asb timer". The assembling, linking and deletion of the timer.a file then happen automatically. I use Matt Dillon's shell, and my login file includes alias asb "%q a68k Sq.asm: blink $q.o; delete $q.o". Other shells, such as the one supplied by Commodore in the 1.3 release, or the public domain ARP 1.3 shell, require somewhat different aliases or executable script files to get the same job done.

The wealth of addressing modes for the 68000 chip make writing assembly language a pleasure, but it's still a good idea to establish a few rules of thumb. 82 A.HAZING COMPC!Tli\'G Subroutines are to be avoided! Remember that the emphasis here is on speed, not on saving memory. If saving memory was being emphasized, anything worth doing at least twice would probably be in a subroutine, but in striving for maximum speed, subroutines are expensive. The combined time score for a bsr and rts is about 865; that is, 8 moves between registers take place in less time than one use of a subroutine. If a subroutine is only a few lines long, just duplicate its code wherever you need it in the program. Short branches should be set up (if possible) in such a way that the branch is not taken most of the time, since it takes a good bit longer to take the branch than not to take it. Specify short branches in your assembly language listing unless you are sure that the branch will be long. If the branch can't be short, the assembler will tell you about it. A good assembler such as a68k will change bee to bcc.s for you when appropriate if the branch is backward, but it won't for forward branches since it doesn't know how far the branch will be. Strangely enough, both bcc.s and bee. w take the same amount of time when the branch is taken, but when the branch is not taken, the bcc.w takes longer and the bcc.s takes quite a bit less time. Operations done with registers take much less time than operations done in the immediate mode or operations done on data in memory. In highly iterative programs, most of the time is spent in a loop. Let's call it the inner loop since there may be nested loops. Do everything possible to maximize the use of registers in the inner loop, even if this meanshavinga bit less than optimum code outside of the loop. If you need to use a compare instruction, use the cmp.l dn,dm form or something similar. Do the loading of the quantity to be compared into one of the registers before entering the inner loop.

You could use cmpi.l # nnn.dn, but this takes more than twice as long. The same a pp lies to the and instruction-used for masking-and to many others. Pushing registers onto the stack and later recovering their contents is frequently necessary. When several registers need to be pushed, the movem instruction is more efficient than pushing them one at a time, provided that more than two registers are being pushed. For just two, it is faster to push them individually than to use the movem instruction. Setting a data register to zero can be done in at least four ways. Moveq #0,dn orclr.I dn oreor.l dn,dn orsub.l dn,dn all get the job done, but moveq #0,dO is fastest. There is no equivalent to moveq for the address registers; suba.l aO,aO is the best you can do to zero an address register. Of course, if both data and address registers must be set to zero then moveq #0,dn followed by movea.l dn.an works fine. The Motorola 68000 chip has built-in multiply and divide instructions, a great blessing to those of us who started out on the ZSO chip orsomethingsimilar. These instructions are fast, but that doesn't mean that they should be used automatically. For multiplying or dividing by powers of two, the rotate instructions, the logical shift instructions and the arithmetic shift instructions all provide options for both left and right shifts. Some combination of these and the swap instruction may well prove faster than the multiply and divide instructions. Further, simple multip Ii cations may be done in other ways.

For instance, move.I dO,dl followed by lsl.l #3,dO followed by subq.I d1,d0 multiplies the contents of d0by7 and leaves theanswerindO. You could write it more simply as mulu #7,dO, but that would take about twice as long to run. One of the most rewarding techniques for speeding up an assembly language program involving great masses of arithmetic is to convert it to integer, assuming of course that it is originally a program involving floating-point calculations. That way, you don't have to call all the floating-point routines, which are inherently slower than integer routines (as an example, see the article by Hugo M.H. Lyppens in AC V4.11, November 1989 on generating Mandelbrot fractals at lightning speed). Mandelbrot Sets, and their dose relatives the Julia sets, have been a hot topic among recreational mathematics enthusiasts for the last five years or so, although the knowledge of the existence of these sets goes back much further. The Mandelbrot set-generation process involves floating-point calculations of numbers with absolute values that should never exceed four, which means that it is safe to scale the program up by a factor of 2A28 and do all the arithmetic in longinteger mode without running the risk of exceeding the capacity of 32-bit registers. Four times 2"28 is 2"30, which leaves a little space for overflow. I tried graphing the Mandelbrot Set with a scale factor of 2"29 and got all sorts of interesting looking lines which unfortunately didn't belong there, but were just a result of overflow. In 1987 I wrote a similar program scaling up the Mandelbrot Set calculations by a factorof2"60, the equivalent of doing the job with double-precision floating point. Once the technique is understood, the actual programming just takes a little care. Scaling up seems a simple process. For instance, if you have a program involving money you might avoid floating point by scaling up by 100, in effect calculating in cents rather than dollars. A little formatting takes care of the decimal point in the output. As an example, suppose we want to scale everything up by a factor of ten. Then, to add 2 and 3 we actually add 20 and 30, get 50, and divide by 10 to get the answer-5. Similarly, if we want to multiply 2 by 3 we multiply 20 by 30 to get 600, divide by 10 and get our answer-60. Oops! Our answer should, of course, be 6. The bottom line is that when working in scaled-up arithmetic follow up all multiplications with division by the scale factor. Conversely, all divisions must be followed up with multiplication by the scale factor. Multiplication or division by ten is easy in the decimal system: just move the decimal point. Similarly, the most appropriate number to scale by in a binary system is a power of two, since 2 is the base of the binary number system. Multiplying and dividing by powers of 2 is easy in assembly language. There are numerous instructions which can be used to shift the binary point, the base 2 equivalent of the decimal point. Let's talk a bit about multiplying two 32-bit numbers.

Since the 68000 multiply instructions operate on 16-bit words to get a 32-bit longword result, we can't just do a single multiplication. Assume a longint ab, where a is the upper word and bis the lower. Numerically ab is really at2"16+b, just as ab is really a*lO+b in decimal notation. Similarly another longint ed would really be C*2"16+d. When they are multiplied together using the old binomial method of high school algebra, the result is ac2/ + ad2"16 + b+c.2A16+bd. Let's further assume that both ab and ed are being used in a scaled-up progrnm, and both have already been scaled up by 2"28. Since multiplication must be followed by dividing by the scale factor, we must divide our result by 2"28. The final result is ac2"4 + (ad+bcl2"(-12) + bd2"(-28). The first term is easy. Assume that the ac multiplication result is in dO. Lsl.I #4,dO works OK, and is just about as fast as Isl.I d1,d0 where dl holds a 4. The middle term is more complicated. BRIDGEBOARD USERS! Don't waste money, slots, or desk space buying extra IBM-compatible or Amiga floppy drives! The Bridge Drive Commander+ gives you direct access to all your internal and external Amiga drives from the Bridgeboard, and direct access to IBM type 360K and 720K drives from AmigaDOS.

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This is the equivalent of Isr.1 dO,dl, where dO holds 16. You still need to shift another 12 to the right. All this is messier, but still faster than a shift of 28. Another way is to use therotateinstruction. What you really want when you divide by 2A28 is to put the top four bits of the register in the bottom four positions and discard the rest. You could rotate 28 right, but the same result is obtained much faster by rotating left four, i.e., rol.l #4,dO. Now you need to get rid of the upper 28 bits, which is done by masking with the andi.1 #15,dO instruction. Of course, if you have a data register available with a 15 in it, and.l dn,dO is faster; in fact, even if you have to move a 15 into the register each time, it is still faster. Now that you have seen examples of use of the swap and rotate instructions to divide by 21128, you will want to go back and see if these can be used to speed up the right shift twelve of the sum of ad and be. MARCH 1991 83 The discussion of multiplying two32-bit numbers above has been done in piecemeal fashion, using dO and d1 to illustrate. In actual practice, all the data registers, some address registers, and possibly some memory locations might be needed to hold intermediate results. It has been assumed that the multiplication would not result in a number too big to handle in one data register. Although the muls instruction exists, it is easier to treat both numbers as unsigned and use a flag to keep track of the sign of the result. The following multiplication routine uses somebut not all-of the techniques discussed above.

It can be improved. It assumes that the32-bit numbers to be multiplied are in d4 and d5 and puts the result in d4. The numbers in registers d4 and dS are assumed to have been scaled up by 2A28, so it will be necessary to divide the result by 2"28, which the routine does. All data registers are available, which will not always be the case, and all are used. r.ioveq H2,d6 rnov-eq 0,d7 move.l d4,d0 bpl. s Plusl r.:'IOVeq fl,d7 neg.l dO P::usl mcve.l d5,dl bpl.s Plu'52 addq , l u, ln neg. l dl P:us2 rncve.w d0,d4 mulu dl,d4 moveq so, ct3 swap d4 move.w d4, d3 move.l d3,d4 move.l d0,d2 swap d2 mulu dl, d2 move.l dl,d3 s1,a,ap d3 mulu d0,d3 adct.l d3,d2 add.l d2,d lsr.l d6,d4 swap dO swap dl :nulu dl,dO lsl. l i4, so add. l d0,d4 crnpi .b il,d7 bne.s PlusJ neg.l d4 Plus3 for dividing by 212 initiali7e flag found one negative number found another negative number nultiply low words of dO and dl same as dividing d4 by 2"16 nultiply hi9h word of dO and low of dl nultiply high word of dl and low of c combine two h:gh-lcw products add in low-low, already shifted 16 9hift all three right 12 multiply high wordo of both multiply by 2"4 holds absolute value of product if exactly one negative number then answer is negative continue prcg:am Clearly, how dose this particular routine is to being optimum depends upon the remainder of the program. It can always be used "as is" by pushing needed registers on the stack before using it and popping them afterwards, but this is also a timeconsuming process and must be balanced against alternative ways. Although the 68000 chip is relatively generous in the number of registers it provides, a few more would always be welcome, and any spare address registers should not be ignored. Sewing data temporarily in address registers is faster than putting it in memory. For many purposes, address and data registers are interchangeable. One difference which can be overlooked with painful consequences is that if an address register is the destination of a move, condition code flags are not affected. Address registers make excellent counters, an exception being with the dbra instruction. If you have a couple of masks that you need to use with an and instruction, you might keep one of them in an 84 AMAZING CoMPVTtNG address register and the other in a data register and use the exchange instruction as needed.

But in most cases these functions all assume that the "string of numbers" represents decimal digits and does not support hexadecimal values. Now, I knew I could write the function with little effort, but why? If the "printf" family of functions can output hexadecimal values in a string, wouldn't there logically be a function to go the other way? So I pulled out the book and looked up the functions for converting formatted input-the scanf() family. I knew that scanf() supported very similar format options to those supported by printf(), so it wasn't by complete chance that I began here. Basically, the two functions are direct opposites. However, I never quite realized just how much they have in common until I studied the two functions at the same time. Listing One features a simple program that produces a hexadecimal dump of a file. You may find the output somewhat similar to that used by many debuggers to display data.

MARCH 1991 85 SUBSCRIPTION PROBLEMS? Please don't forget to let us know. If you are having a problem with your subscription or if you are planning to move. please write to: Amazing Computing Subscription Questions PiM Publications, Inc. P.O. Box 869 Fall River, MA 02722 Please remember. we cannot mail your magazine to you if we do not know where you are. Please allow four to six weeks for processing. Of course, not all byte values will produce a displayable character. Therefore, this program contains code to substitute periods in the text area for many characters. Only the values from 2DH (the space) to 7EH (the tilde) are usually considered displayable in most environments, which is one of the reasons I selected to support this range. One additional reason for this decision is that many printers do not automatically support the same extended character set used by the Amiga's console. This program contains many of the same "features" that are usually included in my sample programs. It should compile (unchanged) with either the Lattice or Manx compilers. (Note: I have yet to upgrade to the latest version of the Lattice compiler-now developed and marketed under SAS Institute-and still use Lattice 5.04.) Also, the program will support any number of command line parameters and filename parameters may contain wildcards. Lattice filename wildcards are the same as those supported by AmigaDOS; Manx supports the asterisk and question mark, common to the PC-DOS environment. As an option, each file's name can be preceded by an offset from which to begin reading. It is necessary to use "-S=" to indicate the option. Of course, you could shorten the indicator, but this method helps to ensure that there is no conflict with the name of a file that may be on your disk. After 86 AMAZING Co111PUTING the equal sign, the offset value should appear. Offsets can be decimal or hexadecimal. Hex values should be preceded by "Ox", like ''-S=Ox345A". DUMP uses sscanf to convert any hex string values.

Three parameters are required for our use of this function. First comes the input buffer which is taken from the command line argument list. Notice that a pointer is used to indicate where the hexadecimal string value actually begins. The second parameter is the formatting option string. Since we are only interested in converting a single hex value, we have to use the "x" indicator. The"!" (long) indicator precedes the variable type to support larger offsets. Finally, the function must be passed the address of a variable for each type that appears in the formatting argument. Since our formatting string contains only one type, there is only one address passed. It is the address of a long integer since we want to support larger values as indicated by the format option "%Ix". There is one discrepancy to report between Manx and Lattice. I am accustomed to \hex values with upper-case letters. Normally, this can be accomplished with Lattice by using a capital letter "X" in the format string. However, Manx apparently does not support this feature. I hope the remainder of the program is self-explanatory. The input files are read, 16 bytes at a time, and the output formatted like that shown earlier. In order to keep the code simple, each byte's hex value is printed and a check is then made to determine whether the period character should be substituted for non-displayable characters. This program is similar to one I have used for some time now to examine the structure of data files. If hex outputs are not something you are likely to need, then I hope the program has offered a few other ideas you might use. Having worked a number of years in the computer industry, I have learned to take advantage of the resources available to me. Next time you're about to jump in and write a function to perform some little task and you find yourself thinking, "I shouldn't have to do this", you might want to pull out that manual for a little closer scrutiny. If it's going to take you a couple of hours to write the function anyway, what's an extra 20 minutes? LISTING ONE Hf 0 Program: (DUMP (DUMP.Cl Usage: DUMP [-Soffsetl filename Hex dumps a file to STDOUT with the printable ASCII on the right, -SGoffset can be u9ed to specify a optional starting position within the specified file.

offsets are assumed decimal \r\nw \ hex values should be preceded by ox\ i.e. Ox5AC6\r\n"I; exit IOI: MARCH 1991 87 Programming Amiga BASIC: Conditionals by Mike Morrison Recursion, Iteration and Frenchmen I must start this month's article by making an apology and a correction. In my last article (January '91, page 62) I made a joke about Frenchmen. I would like to apologize as this was an unfair and unprofessional comment, and has no place in an outstanding magazine like this (or any place else for that matter). The other item that needs to be addressed in regards to that same article is my continuous use of the word "recursion" when what I in fact meant was iteration. (I received several letters regarding this oversight and must comment that I was quite impressed with the knowledge of our readers, and I think such proficiency bodes well for the future of the Amiga). Recursion is when a program or routine repeatedly calls itself. For an excellent explanation of recursive programming see Mark Pardue's article on page 16 of the Premier issue of ACs TECH For The Commodore Amiga. Is it any wonder that at times I don't think I should be around sharp objects? In any event, I apologize if I offended or confused anyone. And to all of you who are saying that 1 should have known better on both counts, I say you are right and I promise to start sleeping at night. On with conditionals In the last two articles we ta Ikeda bout v aria bl es and it era ti on. In this article we will discuss conditionals. Conditionals allow our programs to make choices and decisions.

We make decisions every day by evaluating a situation and then acting accordingly. If I am hungry, then I will eat breakfast. If I am not hungry, then I will go for a jog instead. The IF/THEN statement Amiga BASIC (AB) allows our programs to make decisions with the IF /THEN statement. With every IF /TH EN statement 88 AMAZING COMPUTING 1n there is an expression. If the expression is TRUE, the THEN portion of the statement is executed. For example: IF 5 > 3 THEN PRINT "TrueN If you were to type this line in the output window of AB you would see the word "True" displayed once you pressed the return key. This is an example of using AB in immediate mode. That the results are executed immediately by AB is one oft he nice things about writing programs with an interpreter type language. The reason the word "True" is displayed is because the expression 5 > 3 is, in fact, true. Therefore, the THEN part of the IF /THEN statement is executed. If, on the other hand, you typed IF 5 3 THEN PRINT True" and pressed return you would see nothing (actually, you would see "OK" which is AB telling you that it understood what you typed and that it has executed it). The reason nothing is printed is because the expression 5 3 is false and the THEN is therefore not executed. Some examples Try typing in a few of these "one-liners" and see if you can guess the results before pressing return. IF 1 THEN PRINT "True" What did you guess and why? If you recall, at the close of my last article I presented an example that looked like this: 1>1lILE PRINT "Forever is a long time N WEND This WHILE/WEND will loop forever and the above IF /THEN will print "True" for the same reason: AB and most languages consider 1 to be true. IF 2-1 THEN PRINT "Tnie" This example may require a little explaining. Computers represent letters with numbers internally. That is, each letter has a numeric value assigned to it. The Amiga uses ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange). This is sort of a standard between personal computers (although there are other "standards" like EBCDIC which IBM mainframes use). An ASCII chart listing these values starts on page A-1 of the AmignBASIC manual. You will also note that the value of a lower-case "y" is 121, while an upper-case "Y" has a value of 90 (you may have a little difficulty following the chart; it appears a bit garbled).

This means thatyisgreater than Ybecause of its value.And a "Z" (122) is greater than an "A" (65). It seems backwards, but that's ASCII. ELSE An ELSE can also be added to an IF /THEN statement. The ELSE will be executed if the THEN isn't. In other words, the ELSE is executed if the expression is false. An example: IF 3 > 5 THEN PRINT "3 is > 5" ELSE PRINT "3 is not > 5" When you press return you will see: 3 is not > 5 "IF/THENs are the decision makers in your programs." Here is a short example you can type in the list window. When you are done, run it: INPUT "What month is it (l-121 :;month IF month l then the.month$ "January" IF month 2 then the.month$ "February" IF month = 3 then the.month$ " "March IF month = 4 then the.months = "April" Ir month = 5 then the.months a "May" IF month 6 then the.month$ " "June" IF month = 7 then the.month$ "July" IF month = 3 then the.month$ "August" IF month = 9 then the.months a "SeptellberN IF month 10 then the.onthS = "OctoberN IF month = 11 then the.month$ " "Nove:nber" IF month a 12 then the.month$ " "Dece:nber" PRINT "It is "the.month$ Block IF/lHENs There will be times when you will want to do more than one thing if an expression is true (or false). This is where block IF/ THENs come in. Here is an example that will help explain block IFs: INPUT "Enter your first name ";nam$ len.nam LEN(namSI IF len.nam > 15 THEt PRINT nam$" is a long name." PRINT "It has "len.nam" characters in it." PRINT "It must take you quite a while to sign your name."' ELSEIF len.nam = 10 THEN PRINT "Wow! "namS" has exactly 10 characters in it!" ELSEIF len.nam 10 THEN ?RI!IT nam$" is a short name." PRINT "It has "len.nam" characters in it." ELSE PRINT namS" must have between 11 and 15 characters in it." PRINT "It has "len.nam$" in it." END If This program receives your name with the INPUT statement and then receives the length with the LEN function. I wanted to use NAME$ for the variable that holds the name, but NAME is an AB reserved word (it's another command that renames a disk name), so we can't use it here. Once we have the length of your name in LEN.NAM we use a block IF to check different lengths. If your name is longer than 15 characters then you will see: "[ackerackersrnazoo is a long name. It has 17 characters in it.

It must take you quite a while to sign your name." If your name is comprised of exactly 10 characters, you will see: "Wow! Jimmydavid has exactly 10 characters in it!" If your name has less than 10 characters, you will see: "Jay is a short name. (continued on pnge 92) MARCH 1991 89 AC'S Baek Issue Index i' Vol. 1 No. 1 Premiere. 1986 Highlights include: "Super Spheres", An AB>ic Graphics Program, by Klly K.1uffman "DalVinu", by J. Fousl "EZT erm", An All.sic terminal program, by Kelly Kauffman "Miga Mania", Programming fixes & mouse care, by I'. Kivolowitz "lnsidt CLI". A guided insigh1 inlo Amiga Dos, by G. Musser l' Vol. 1 No. 2 1986 Highlights include: "lnsidCLI: Part Two", Investiga1ing CU & ED. by G fllser "Online and lhCTS Fabil242 ADH Modem", by 1- l'oust "Suprrterm V 1.0". A terminal pmgram in Amiga Basic, by K. K.-iulfmn A Worbench "More" Program", by Rick Wirch i Vol. l No. 3 1986 Highlighlincludr: "Forth!", A tutorial "Deluxe Dnw!!",-An AmigaBASIC arl program. by R. Wirch "AmigaBASIC", A beginner'> tulmial "Inside CLI: Parl 3", by George Musser 9 Vol. 1 No. 4 1986 Highlights include: "Build Your Own 511" Drive Connector", by E. Viveiros AmigBASIC Tip", by Rich Wirch "Scrim per: Pnl One", A program lo print Amiga screen, by P. Kivolowitz e Vol. 1 No. 5 1986 Highlights include: "The HSI to RGB Conversion Tool", Color manipulation in BASIC, by 5. Pietrowicz "Scrimpen Part T" o" by Perry Kivolowitz "Building Tools", by Daniel Kary i' v,11. I No. 6 1986 Highlights include: "Mailing Lisi", A bask m.1il list proi;rom, by Kelly Kaullman rainier lmagEditor", by Stephen Pietrowicz scrlmper: Part Three", by l'erry Kivolowitz "Optimize Your AmigaB.sic Programs For Speed", by Steve Pietrowicz i' Vol. I No. 7 1966 Highlights include: "Try 3-D", An introduction lo lD Rraphics, by lim Meadows "Window Requesters in Amiga Buie", by Steve Michel "IC Whal I Think", A few C graphic progs, by R. Peterson "Your Menu Sir!", Programming AmigaBASlC menus, by B. Cat fey "linking C Programs with Assembler Routines", by G. Hull i Vol. I No. 8 1986 Highllghls Include: "U ing Fontfrom Amiga BASIC', by Tim Jones *Scrun SaVtr", Monitor protection program In C, by I'. Kivolowuz A Tale of Three EMACS", by Steve l'oling ".bmap Fil Reader in AmigaBASIC", by T. Jones i' Vol. I o. 9 1986 Highlights include: "The loan Information Program". A BASIC program for your lnoncil options, by Brian Cati '\' "Starting Your Own AmigRebltd Business. by IV.Simpson "Keep Tr.ck al Your Busintu UYgfor T es", by J. Kumr "Using Fan ts from AmigaBASIC: Part Two", by Tim l"n"' "68000 t.bcros On The Amiga". by G. Hull 90 A.HAZING Co111PUTING t' Vol. 2 :-.lo. I, Ianuary 1987 Highlights Include: AmigaBASIC Titles", by Drpn Calley A Public Domain Modula-2 Syslm", by Warren Block "One Drlvt Complle", by Douglas Lovell A MgbytWithout Mtgburl s",

An internal megabytupgrade, by Chris Irving i' Vol. 2 No. 2, February 1987 Highlights include: "The Madm", Efforts of a BBS sysop, by Joseph L Rothman "The ACO Pro]cl Graphic Teleconferencing on the Amiga", by S. R. Pietro.,.,icz "A Disk Librarian In Amlg.1BASIC", by [ohn Kennan "Creating And Using Amiga Workbench Jeans", bvC. Hansel "Build Your Own MIDI Interface", by Richard Rae "AmigaDOS Opnling System Calls and Disk File Management", by D. Haynie Vol. 2 No. 3. March 1987 Highlights lncludt: "Subscriptand Superscripts in AmlsaBASIC", by I. Smith Amiga Trix", Amiga shortcuts, by W. Block "Intuition Gadgtls", by Harriet Maybcck Tolly "Forth!", l'ul sound in your Forth programs, by jon Bryan Assembly Language on the Amiga", by Chris Martin 'i' Vol. 2 No. 4. April 1987 Highlight include: "Jim Sachl nterview", by S. Hull "The Mouse That Got Restored", bv jerry I-lull and Bob Rhod"Household Inventory Syslem In AmlgaBASIC", by B. Catley "Secrets of Screen Dumps", by Natkun Okun "Amig.>lrh II", More Amiga shortcuts, by Warren Block i' Vol. 2 No. 5, May 1987 Highlightinclude: "WritingSoundScape Modui ", Programming"ith MIDI, Amiga and SoundScape in C, by T. Fy "Programming in 68000 AsS ?mbly Language", by C. Martin "Using FulurrSound with AmigaBASIC", Programming utility with real digitized STEREO, by J. Meadows wav.tann Workshop In Amiga BASIC', by 1- Shields "Intuition Gadgets: rart II", by H. MaybeckTolly i' Vol. 2 No. 6. June 1987 Highlights Include- "Modu1 a- 2 Amiga DOS Utilities", by S Fi\'iszewslci Amiga Expansion Peripherals", by IFoust "Whal YO\l Should Know Before Choolng an Amlg1000 Epnlon Device", by S. Gum "68000 Assembly Language Pragumming", by Chris Martin i Vol. 2 No. 7, Julv 1'187 Highlightincludr; "Video and Your Amiga", by Oran S:>nds "Qulily Video from a Quality Computer", by 0. Sands All About Printer Drivers", by RidurJ lllelak "68000 As C!mbly Language", by Oris M.u1in 'i Vol. 2 No. 8, August 1987 Highlight Include. "Madula-2 Programming" "Assembly Lrnguge" "Disk+Dlsk". bv MJllhew Leeds "Skinny C rrogrims", by Robert Ricmmma, [r. 'i Vol. 2 No. 9, September 1987 Highlights include: "Modula-2 l'mgnmming". Raw console dev, events, by S Faiwiszewski AmlgaBASIC Pattems", by llrian Calley "Pmgramming with Snundscape", by T Fay "Bill Volk,

Vlce-rrcsldent Aegis Development", interview by Steve Hull "Jim Goodnow, Devrlopcrof Manx'C", mterviewby Hamet MTolly 'i Vol. 2 No. 10, October 1987 Highlights include: "Max Headroom and !ht Amigo", by john Fou51 "Taking the Perfect Screen Shot", by Kei1h Conforti Amiga Ariisl: Brian Williams", by John Fout "All About On-line Ccnferenclng", by Richard Rile Amiga BASlC Structures", by Sieve Michel "Quick and Dirty Bobs", by Michael Swinger "l'sl File 110 with Modula-2", by Steve Fiwi.uwski "Window 1/0", by Read Predmore 'i Vol. 2 No. l r, November 1987 Highlightinclude: "Modula-2 Progummlng", Devices, 1/0, & erial pert, by 5 Faiwlszewski "68000 Assmbly Language", by Chris Martin "The AMJCUS Nclwork". by john Fousl "C Animation: Part II", by tikl'Swinger "SoundScap Part Ill", VU Meier and more, by Todor Fay "File Brow C!r", by Bryan Catly 'i Vol. 2 No. 12, December 1987 Highlights include: "The Sony Connrctlon", by Stewart Cobb "CLJ Arguments in C", by Paul Castonguay "MIDI lntnfa r Adaptor", by Barry Missoni "Modula-2", Command lino calculator, by S. FaiwiS2ewskl "Animation for C Rookies: Part Ill", by M. Swinger "The Big Picture", AsS "mbly languge programming. by Warren Ring "lnoldor/Kwlkslut Review", RAM & ROM expansion: Comments &. installation tips, by Ernest P. Vlvclrcs, Sr. "Forth!", DumpRl'ort utility for your Multif-orth loolbox, by Ion Bryan 'i' Vol. 3 No. I, January 1988 Highllgh!s include: c Animalion: Por! IV", by Michael Swinger "Forth", Sorling out Amiga CHIP and FAST memory, by john Brvan "The Big Picture", CU system calls and manipulating disk files, by Wanen Ring "r.8000 Assembly Langwge Programming", Create a multiculor screen without using Intuition routines, by Chris Martin "Modula-2 Programming", by S. Fai\i5wski "FonnatMasler: Proft55lonal Disk Fonnattlng Engine", by C.ann "BSpread", Full featured AmlgaBASlC spreadsheet, by Bryan Calley 'i' Vol. 3 No. 2, February 1988 Highlights include. Laser Light Show wilh the Ami. by Patrick Murphy "Photo Quality Repmdudion with thAmiga and DigiView", by Stephen Lcbans "Solutions To Linear Algebra Through Matrix Computations", by Rnber1 Ellis "Modulal Prognmmlng", Catching up with Cale, by Ste\'e Faiwiszewski "68000 Assembler Language P1ogramming", by Chris Marlin "AIRT", Iron-based progrom langwge, by S. Faiwiszewski i Vol. 3 No. 3, Much 1988 Highlights include: "The Hidden Power of Cl! Balch File Processing", by I. Rothman "Perry Kivolowitz lntervlewed", by Ed Bercovitz "Jun "Moebius" Giraud Interviewed", by Ed Fadigan "PAL Help", A 1000expansion reliability, by Perry Kivolowilz *Boolean Function Mlnimi:r:ation", by Steven M. Hart "AmigaSerial l'orl and MIDI Compatibility for Your A 1000", by L Ritter and G. Rentz "Electric Network Solutions the Matrix Way, by Rober! Ellis "Modula-2 Programming", The gameport device and simple spri res in action, by StCTe Faiwiszewski "The Big Picture", Unified Field Theory by Wmen Ring i Vol. 3 No. 4. April 1988 Highlights include: "Writing A Sound Scape Parch Librarlan", by T. Fay "Upgrade Your AIOOO to AS00/2000 Audio rower", by H. Hassen "Gels in MulliForth", by John Bushakra "Macrablics",

Easing the trauma of Assembly language programming. by Patrick f. Horgan "ThBig Picture, Part ti: Unified Field Theory", by \V_ Ring 'i' Vol. 3 No. 5, May 1988 Highlights Include' "Interactive Startup Sequence", by Udo Pemisz Amiga Trix lll", by Warren Block "Prolrtari.ot Programming", Public domain cornpllers, by l' Quaid "The Companion", Amii;a's event-handling capability, by P.Gosselin "The Big Picture, Unified Field Theory: Part Ill", by W. Rlng "Modula-2". Terrnin.tion modules for Benchmark and WI compilers. by Steve Faiwiszuwski "681100 Assembly Lnguage", Peeling away the complication of display routines, by Chris Marlin 'i Vol. 3 No. 6, June 1988 H ighllghls include: "Reassigning Workbench Disks", by John Kennan "An IFF Reader in Multi-Forth", by Warren Block "Basic Diredory Service Program, Programming alternative lo the GimmeeZeroZero, by Bryan Calley 'i' Vol. 3 No. 7, July 1988 Highlights include: "Roll Those Presses!", The dandy. demanding world of desktop publishing. by Barney SchwarlZ "Linked Lists In C", by W. E. Gammill "CNotes from theCGroup", The unknown "C" of basic object and data types, by Stephen Kemp if Vol. 3 No. 8, August 1988 Highlights include: "The Developing Amiga", A gaggle of great programming roots, by Stephen R Pitrowicz "Moduia-2 Programming", Libraries and the FfP and IEE math routines, by Steve Faiwis:zewski "C Notes from lhe C Croup: Anays and pointers unmasked", by Stephen Kemp "TrockMouse". Converting a standard Atari trackball into a peppy Amigo TrackMousc, by Darryl Joyce "Amiga Interface for Blind Users", by Carl W. Mann "Tumblin' Tots", Assembly language program, by D. Ashley 'if Vol. 3 No. 9, September 1988 Highlights include: "S1'4'tding Up Your System", Floppy disk caching, by Tony Preston "Compuler-Aided Instruction", Authoring system in AmigaBASIC, by Paul Castonguay "G.!s in Multi-Forth, Pan II: Screenplay", b)' john Bushakra "AmlgNolrs: How IFF sound samples are stored". by Richard Rae c Notes from the C Group", Operators, expressions, and statements in C uncovered, by Stephen Kemp ii Vol. 3 No. 10, October 1988 Highlights include: "The Command Linr.NEWCLI: A painless way lo create a new ccnscle window", by Rich Falconburg "On The Crafting of Programs", Optlmlzaticn klcks off our series on proi;ramming savvy, by David j. Hankins "Bob and Ray Mrel Frnkrnslein", Create, animate, and metamorphose graphics objects in Amiga BASIC, by R. D' Asta "Digiril Signal Precessing in AmigaBASIC", Perform )'Our own digital experiments with Fast Fourier Transforms, by Robert Ellis "HAM&. Amiga BASIC", Pack your AmigaBASICprogs with many of the Amiga's 4096 shades, by Bryan Calley "CAl-Compul.r Aided Instruction: Part II", by Paul Castonguay 1l Vol. 3 No. 11, November 1988 Highlights include: "Structures in C", by Paul Castonguay "On The Crafling of Programs",

Speed up your progs, by D. Hankins "More Linked Lists In C: Techniques and Applicatiuns", Procedures for managing lists, storing diverse data l)'f"'S in the same list, and putting lists to work in your programs, by Fores! W. Arnold "BASIC Linker", Combine individual routines from your program library lo create an executable program, by 8. Zupke 'i' Vol. 3 No. 12, December 1988 Highlights include: "Converting Patch Librarian Files", bv Phil Saunders '1br c,.alion of Don Bluth'Dragon's I.alt", by R. Linden "Eay Mnus In )Forth", by Phil Burk "blending AmigaBsic", The use of library calls from within AmigaBASlC, by John Kennan "Gelling Started In Aembly", by Jdf Glatt c Noles From The C Croup: Program or functlnn control coding", by Stephen Kemp "AmigaDOS, Assembly Languge, And FileNoles", Weapons in lhe war againSl file overload: accurate, descriptive lile naming. by Dan Huth 'i Vol. 4 No. 1, January 1989 Highlights Include: "Desktop Video", by Richard Stan "Industrial Slrenglh Menus", by Rober IO' Asto "SCTolling Through SuperBilMp Windows", by Read Predmore "Sync Tips; Doi crawl, the Amiga and composite video devices", bv Oran]. Sands "Slop-Motion Animalion On The Amiga", by Brian Zuplcc "The Command l.lne: Nw and Improved Assembly LangU.1ge Commands", by Rich Fakonburg "Pninters, Function Pointers, and Pointer Declaraliens in C", by Forest W. Arnold "Drath of a Process", Developing an error-handling module in Modula2, by Mark Cashman 'i' Vol. 4 No. 2, February 1989 Highlights Include: "A Common User lnlerhce for the Amiga", by Jim Bayless "SPY:Programming Intrigue In Modula -2", by Steve Faiwiszewski "Sync Tips: Gelling inside the genlock",by Oran Sands "On the Crafting of Programs: A common standard for C programming?", by DJ. Hankins "The Command Line: 'i'aur Workbench Screen Edilor", by Rich J::alccnburEi "An Introduction to ARcxx programming", by Steve Faiwizewski 'i' Vol. 4 No. 3, March 1989 Highlights include: "fractal Fundamentals", by Paul Castonguay "Image Processing Wilh Photosynthesls", by Gerald Hull "Benchmark 1: Fully Utilizing ThMC68881", Part I: Turbocharging the savage benchmark, by Read Predmore "Breking the Bmap Barrier", Streamline AmigallASlC library access "ith Quick-Lib, by Robert O' Asto "Double Play", AmigaBASIC program yields double vision, by Robert O' Asia 'i' Vol. 4 No. 4. April 1989 Highlights include: "Adding the NolSo-Hrd Disk", by j P. Twardy "The Max Hard Drive Kil", A hard drive installation profccl. using Palomax's Ma> kit, by Donald W. Morgan sync Tips: A druer picture of video and computer resolutions", by Oran J. Sands "Passing Argumenl", Step-by-step on how to pass data from the CU to AmigaBASIC, by Brian Zupke "Creating a Shared Library", by John Baez 'i' Vol. 4 No. 5, May 1989

Highlights include: "Building Your Own stereo Digitizer", by Andre Theberge "MIIJI Out Interlace", by Br. Seraphim Winslow "Digitized Sounds in Modula-z", by Len A. While "S)Tlt Tips: The secrets hidden beneath the flicker mode", by Or an J. Sands 'i' Vol. 4 No. 6, June 1989 Highlights include: "At Your Request: Design your own requesters In Ami11;aBAS!C", bv john F. Weiderhim "Exploring Amigll Disk Structures", by David Marlin "Diskless Com pi Ir In C-, by Chuck Raudonis "Programming lhe '881 Part II", How rocalculate Mandelbrot & juliJ sets, by Read Predmore ii Vol. 4 No. 7, July 1989 Highlights include: Adapting Anlog ]o)"licks to the Amiga", by David Kinzer "Using Coordinate Systems: Part II ol the Fractals series addresses the basis of computer graphics", by P.Caslonguay 'i Vol. 4 No. 8, Augusl 1989 Highlights include: "Celling Slartd in Vidro", by Richard Starr "faeculing Balch Flits in Amig1BASIC". byMark Aydellotte "Building a Beller Siring Gadget", by John Bushakra "On Your Alen: Using System Alerts from BASIC", by John F. Wiederhim ii Vol. 4 No. 9, September 1989 Highlights include: "Digitizing Color Slides And Negatives on lhe Amiga", by Ron Gull "Improving Your Graphics Programming", by R Marlin "Cell Animation In Modula-2", by Nicholas Cirasella "More Requesters In Amiga BASIC", by John R, Wiederhirn "DeluxePaint III - The Inside Slory", EA's Dan Silva tells how De!u>ePaint HI evolved, by Ben & Jean Means Amiga Jn Desktop Presentation", Presentation techniques lo enhance your meetings and seminars, by John Steiner "Multitasking In For Iran", bv Jim locker "Gris In Multi-Forth: Part Iii", by John Bushakra 'if Vol. 4 No. 10, October 1989 Highlights include: "BelterTrackMouse", A true one-handed trackball mouse, by Robert Katz APL & The Amiga", by Henry Lippert "Saving 1Holor pictures In hlgh-resclullon", Part Three oJ the Fractals Series, by l'aul Caslonguay "Mo,. requesters in AmigBASIC", by John Wiederhim "Gian's Gadgets", Adding gadgets in Assembly, by Jeff Glall "Function Evaluator in C", by Randy Finch "Typing Tutor", by Mike"Chip" Morrison 'i' Vol. 4 No. 11. November 1989 Highlights Includes "The Amiga Hardware Interface", by John lovine APL &.: The Amiga, Parl II", by Henry Lipper! "F tPiO", A faster pixeldrawing routine for the Aztec C compiler, by Scott Steinman rt Colors In Am igaBASl C", by Bryan Calley "Fasl Fractals ", Generate Madelbrot Fractals a! lightning speed, by Hugo M.H. Lyppens "Mullilasking in Fortran", by Jim locker 'i' Vol. 4 No. 12. December l9s J Highlights Include: "The MIDI Must Go Thru", by Hr. S.rapltim Winslo1>' "View From lhe Inside: Bars&:Pipes", A lour of Blue Ribbon Bakery's music program, by Melissa Jordan Grey "ARexx Part Il", by Steve Gillmor "A CLI Beginner's Questions Answered", by Mike Morrison Tre 3nd RnJnian ", by S:ona.1 \V. Arnold "Amiga Circuits", The techniques required to input information via the parallel port, by John lovine 'i' Vol. 5 No. i, January 1990 Highlights include: "The Making Of The 1989 BADCE I iller Demo Contest Winner, The Sentinel", by Bradley W. Schenck "Animation? BAS!Cally!",

Using Cell animation in AmigaBASlC, by Mike Morrison "Menu Builder". Building menus with Intuition, byT. Preston "Facing the CLI", Disk structures and startup-sequences, by Mike Morrison "Dual Demo", Programming an arcade game, by Thomas Eshelman "Scanning The Screen", Part Four in the Fractals Series, by Paul Castonguay "ll's Colder Than You Think", Calculating the wind chill temperature, by Rober! Klimaszewski 'i' Vol. 5 No. 2, February 1990 Highlights incl udr: "A Beginner's Guide lo Desktop rublishingOn The Amiga, by John Steiner "Resizing lhe shell/CU Window, by William A Jones "Call Assembly Language from BASIC", by Martin F. Combs "You Too Can Have A Dynamic Memory", Flexible string gadget requester using dynamic memory allocation, by R.:>ndy Finch "An Amiga Conundrum", An AmigaBASIC program for a puzzle-like game, by David Senger "Vi W From The Inside: Scanlab", ASDG's President shares the development ol ScanLab, by Perry Kivolowitz 'i Vol. 5 No. 3, March 1990 Highllghls include: screen Aid", A quick remedy 10 prolong the life of your monitor, by Bryan Ctley "The Other Cuys' Synlhla Prefesslonal", review by David Du berm.an "P.ssport's Master Tracks Pro vs. Blue Ribbon Bakery's Bars&Plpes", by Ben Means "Microillusions' Music-X", review by Rob Bryanton "MU icTiUer", Generating a filler display lo accompany the audio on a VCR recording. by Brian Zupke 'i' Vol. 5 No. 4, April 1990 Highlights include: "Handling MS-DOS Files", Adapting your Amiga lo MSDOS using a 5.25" disk drive, by Jim Locker "Bridging the J.S" Chasm", Making Amiga 3.5" drives compatible with IBM 3.sdrives, by Karl D. Belsom "Bridgeboard Q &: A", by Marion Deland "Handling Gadget & Mouse JnluiEvenls", More gadgets in Assembly, by Jeff Glau "Ham Bones", Programming in HAM mode in Amiga BASIC, by Rober! D' Aslo "Gambling with your vldeo, Amiga-.tyle", Problemwith trading genlocks with your friends, by Oran Sands e Vol. 5 No. 5 May 1990 Highlights include: "Commodore's Amiga 300011, preview "Newlek's Video Teaster", preview "Do II By Remote", lluilding an Amiga-operated remote controller for your home, by Andre Theberge "Turn Your Amiga 1000 Into A ROM-based Machine", by George Gibeau Jr. & D"1ght Blubaugh "Super Bitmaps In BASIC', Holdinggraphics display l trger than the monitor screen, by Jason Cahill "Rounding Off Your Numbers", by Sedgewiclc Simons Jr. "fastrr BASIC Mouse Input", by Michael S. Fahrion "Prinl Utility", by Brian Zupke 'i Vol. 5 No. 6, June 1990 Highlighls include: "Convergence", Part 5 of lhc Fractal series, by P. Castonguay "CH: An introducllon lo cblect-orfented Amiga programming", by Scot! ll. Steinman MARCH 1991 91 "APL and The Amiga: Primitive Functions and Their Execution". by Henry T. Lippert "

Amiga Turtle Graphics", by Dylan Mc'\iamee "Building A Rapid Fire Joystick", by John lovine "The AM 512", Upgrade your ASOO lo a 1 megabyte machine, by [ames Bentley 'ii Vol. 5 No. 7, [ulv 1990 Highlighls indudc; .Comma dare Announces CDTV" "Apples, Oranges, and MIPS: 68030-based Accelerators For The Amiga 2000", by Ernest P. Viveiros, Jr. .uEJCteplion.:111 Conducl , Quick response to user requests, through elfidenl pmgram logic, by Mark Cashman "Poor Man's Spreadsheet", A simple spreadsheet program that demonstrates manipulating arrays, by Gerry L Penrose "Tree Traversal and Tree Seareh", Two methods for traversing trees, by Forest W. Arnold "Crunchy Frog II", by Jim Fiore "Gelling In the Point: Custom Intuition Pointers In AmigaBASIC", by Rober! D' Asia "Synchronicily: Righi & Left Brain Lateralization", by John Iovine "Snap, Crackle, & POP!", Fixing a monitor bug on Commodore monitors, by Richard Landry 'i Vol. 5 No. 8, August 1990 Highlights include: "Mimetics' FrameBuffer", review by Lonnie Watson "The VidTrch Scanlock", review by Oran Sands Ami gas in Television", The Amiga in a cable tele\'ision opera lion, by Frank McMahon "Dsktop Video in a University Selling", The Amiga at work at North Dakota Stale University, by John Steiner "Credi! Text Scroll er", review bv Frank McMohon "Graphic Suggestions". Other \.ays lo use your Amiga in 'idea production. by Bill Burkett "Tille Screens That Shine: Adding light sources with Deluxe Paint 111", bv Frank McMahon "The Amiga goes to the Andys", by Curt Kass "Breaking the RAM Barrier", longer, faster, smoother animations with only one mcg ol RAM, by Frank McMahon "Fully Utlllzing lhe 68881 Math Coprocessor: Timings and Turbo Pixel fundions", bv Read Predmore "APL ;nd !he Ami: Part.IV'', by Henry T. Lippert "Sound Quest's MidiQuest", review by Hal Belden 'i Vol. 5 No. 9, September 1990 Highlights include: "Dr. T's Keyboord Controlled Sequencer 3.0", re\iew Phil Saunders "Aeling On Impulse", A visit lo Impulse, by John Steiner "3-D Professional", review by David Duberman "Programming In Con a Floppy System", Yes even a stock ASOO with a 5121 RAM expander, by Paul Miller "Time Out", Accessing the Amiga's system timer device via Modula-2, bv Mark Cashman "Slack Partial io", An original program lo organize your investments, music library, m;ii!ing lists, eic., by G.L Penrose "Vuice-Contrulled Joystick", by John Iovine "frameGrabbcr", review by Lonnie Watson "Gradient Color Dithering on the Amiga Made Easy", by Francis Gardino "Sculpt Script", by Christian Auber! ''The AI Department", review by R Shamms Mortier "Breaking the Color Limil with PageRenderJD",re1iewbyR. Shamms Mortier w Vol. 5 No. IO, October 1990 Hlghlighls Include: "Notes on PostScripl Printing with Dr. T's Copyist", by Hal Belden "BioMetal", Make the Amiga flex its firs! electric muscle, by John lovine Allanta 19%", Will Atlanta host the 1996 Summer Olympics?

Their best salesperson is an Amiga 2500. "CAD Overview: XCAD Designer, X-CAD Professlonal. lntroCAD Plus, Aegis Draw 2000, Ultra Design", by Douglas Bullard "Saxon Publishor",reviewby David Duberman "AuloPrompt", review by Frank McMahon "Sound Tools for the Amiga", Sunrize Industries' Perfecl Sound and Mich Tran's Master Sound, reviews by M. Kevelson "Sllipping Layers Off Workbench", Remove unneeded files on your Workbench lo make mom for other programs, by Keith Cameron "Audio Illusion", Produce fascinaling auditory illusions on your Amiga, by Craig Zupke "Call Assembly language From /\lodula-2", lntegraUng small, fast machine language programs into BASIC, by Marlin Combs "Koch Flakes", Using the preprocessor to perform selective compilation, by Paul Castonguay c Noles from the C Group", l'I program that examines an archive file and removes any files Iha! have been extracted, by Stephen Kemp 92 AMAZING COMPUTING 1" Vol. 5 No. 11, November 1990 Highlights include: "Gelling A Loi For A Little", A comparison of ihe available Amiga archi\e programs, by Greg Epley "Amiga Vision", review by John Steiner "High Density Media Comes to the Amiga", Applied f:nginecring's AEHD drive, review by John Steiner "Fixing The Flicker", MicroWay'sAdvanced Graphics Adaptor 2000, by John Steiner "The k'CS Power PC Beard", Ji you have an Amiga 500, and need IDl l'C/XT software compatibility, the KCS Power PC Board can help, by Ernest P. Viveiros, Jr .

"Build An Amiga 2000 Keyboard For The Amiga 1000", Get a better-feeling keyboard for under S7.ao, by Phillip R. Combs "Looking Beyond the Baud Rate", The Baud Bondi! 2400 & Baud Bandil M:-IP/ level 5 Plus modems. by E. P. Viveiros, Jr. "C Notes From The C Group", Programming with definitions known a; "enum er ated" data types. by Stephen Kemp "SAS/C Compiler", review by Bruce !. Drake "Mind ware's 3D Text Animator", review by Frank McMahon "A Lillie Closer lo Excellence", Mim.>-Systems Software's exCl'llence!2.0, review by Kim Schaffer ii Vol. 5 No. 12, December 1990 Highlighls include: "Twin Peaks Amiga Show Report", AC traveled to AmlEXPO in Anaheim, CA and World of Amiga in Chicago, IL lo report on the newest and brightest Amigo products. "lnlonnation X-Change", Kping up to dale on the la lest news via hardware, software, and cable TV, by Rick Broida "Stepper Mo lo rs", Par! One of throe par! series on building a simple stepper motor. by John Lavine c Notes From The C Group", A discussion on cryptography, by Stephen Kemp "Pro Video Post". review by Frank McMahon "Feeding The Memory Monster", the ICD AdR/\M 5-lO and AdRAM 5600, review bv Emesl P. Viveiros, Jr. "McGee & McGee Visil Ktie's Farm", review by Jeff Jame; "Wings", review by Rick Broida "MalhVision 2.0", review by R. Shamms Motil er "Making A Name For Yourself", Crea1lng logos on the Amiga, bv Frank McMahon "Hard Disk Primer For Floppy Users", Taking lhe sting out of the lramilion from floppies lo hard drive, bv Rob Hays "Sholgun Approach To Programming Wlh AmigaBASiC, Bringing the fundamentals of Amiga BASIC programming into perspective, br Mike Morrison ti Vol. 6 No. I, [anuarv 1991 Highlights include: , On The Raad", CO\'erag of Germany's Amiga '90, ComEX in Nevada, and Tho World of Commodore Amiga in Toronto, Canada "Electronic Color Splitter", an inexpensive way lo grab images off video sources, by Greg Epley "Sketch Master", review bv Ernest P. Viveiros, Jr. "Professional Draw 2.0", review by R. Shamrns Mortier "Spell-A-Fari". review by Jeff James

"Programming in AmlgaBASIC", by Mik Morrison "Zoom Bo", by John Leonard "Medley", AC's music column discusses MIDI, by Phil Saunders "Bug Byles", a few problems with PageStream 2.0 and Quarterback Tools is now shipping, by John Steiner "The Animal ion Studio , Disney's classic approach in a character animation program, by Frank Mclahon "Forensic Animation", the Amiga helps out in the courtroom, bv Andrew Lichtman "Cartoon Animation", back lo the basics, by 0. L Richardson Animation Chart", twenty-two animation package; and lea lures Memory&: Animation", even 51:2K users can animate}, by Chris Boyce P.Vol. 6 No. 2, February 1991 Highlights include: "Xeloc's COx-650", CD-ROM 1echnology rm the Amiga, by Lonnie \Va Ison "Dlstant Suns Libraries". Distant Suns expansion disks, by Jdf James "AN!Magic", A graphics tool lo spice up your presentations, by Rajesh Goel "Sharing \'ow Amiga Hard Drive With The Bridgeboard", Par ti lion )'OUr hard drive to run both Amiga DOS and MS. DOS systems. by Gene Rawls "More Paris For Your Amiga", Building an I /0 Expansion Board, by Jeff Lavin "Medley", A look at diflerenl types of music software available, by l'hil Saunders c Notes From The C Group", Creating a reminder program, by Stephen Kemp "Bug Byles, New upgrades are in the works for PageStreom and Professional Page, by John Steiner "The 9-to-5 Amiga", by Daryell Sipper "Gnl d Disk Office", by Chuck Raudonis "daloTAX", by Darvell Sipper "Gold Disk's Desktop Budgt", by Chuck Raudonls "BGraphks", by Chuck Raudonis ("Conditionals", continued from page 89) It has 3 characters in it." And if your name has between 11 and 15 characters in it, you will see: "Barbaralynn must have between 11 and 15 characters in it. It has 11 in it."

The final ELSE will be executed only if all the other IFs are not. It is a catch-all. Once an expression triggers one of the IFs then the block of code associated with that IF is executed and the program then skips to the next statement after the END IF. This is why only one IF block will be executed. If none of the IFs are met, then the ELSE gets its chance. Be careful when using block IFs (short for block IF /THENs). AB is mighty particular about structure. I indent each block within an IF because it shows you at a glance how the block !Fis broken down (my preference). If you edit a block IF be sure there are no spaces after the THENs_ Move the cursor there and be sure that it's up against the Nin the THEN. If there are any spaces you will get a syntax error. This problem took me quite a while to figure out. IF/GOTO There is also an IF /GOTO in AB. You should try to avoid GOTOs if you want nice structured code. But here is an example if you want to see how it works: start: INPUT "Do you want to quit ";answers IF answer$ > 'y' THEN GOTO start PRINT "Done." And THEN there was the END IF /THENs are the decision makers in your programs. As soon as you become acquainted with them, you can write any program you wish. Block IFs can be tricky at first but, used in a structured manner, they can make your programs easier to write, read, and modify, The Fred Fish Collection Due to the increasing size of the Fred Fish Collection, only the larest disks are represented here. For a ccmplete list of all AC, MAICUS, and Fred Fish Disks, cataloged and cross-referenced tor your convenience, please consult the current AC:S Guide To The Commodore Amiga available at your local Amazing Dealer.

Please allow 4 to 6 weeks for delivery or subscriptions in US. no 1ur1nermore VIDEO ISLAND Have you ever wanted to explore the under sea world of exotic marine Ii fc, or hike through rain forests, or visit a volcano? Well, now vou can-that is, if you a re between the ages of 15 and 18. ISLAND, a summer video workshop, promises to take you ts far as you can imagine. That's the key to this program-imagination. Based on the island of St. Kitts, ISLAND is a six-week, co-ed summer program that concentrates on teaching the basics of video production. Participants will take part in a PAD! SCUBA program, where they can earn certificates from beginners to advanced levels. They will go on hikes that emphasize environmental awareness, and visit historical places such as Brimstone Hill and Romney Manor. There are other recreational activities as well to keep participants busy, from swimming to horseback riding to deep sea fishing. Now for the imagination part: Participants will work with professional video equipment to produce documentaries, music videos, and sitcoms. Together with their crew, they will write, produce, direct, shoot, and edit a production-from start to finish. Footage can be taken from the island's beaches or scenic hilltops, or videotaped underwater. A professional studio equipped with an Amiga 2500 is set up on the island. Students will have access to special effects and computer animation, and will be able to do their own video and music dubbing.

ISLAND was founded by Ira Miller, John S. Pade, and Rebecca L. Nelson. Their wide range of skills and experiences makes ISLAND a real tool for those interested in video production. ISLAND Ira Miller 86 Ayers Ct. #3A Teaneck.NJ 07666 {201) 837-4611 PRESENTATIONS SCALA, Digital Vision, Ltd.'s presentation program, is making its debut here in the United States. Released in Europe only recently, SCALA is now available in an NTSC version, and will be distributed by Great Valley Products. The venture marks GVP's first support of a software package. Text placed over the included "Fabric" background Image. The SCALA package comes equipped with features that allow users to produce eye-catching presentations. The easy-to-use interface, along with just three main menus, makes learning SCALA a snap. Choose from the many backdrop images and textures, such as "Stone", "Marble" and "Fabric", to liven up your 96

presentations. Special transitional effects allow you to perform fades, wipes, blinds, etc. with images. SCALA will let you import images from your Iavori te animation programs and add them to your display. And let's not forget about text. SCALA supports both serif and sans-serif fonts, along with different weights and sizes. Apply any of the supplied text styles (Bold, Drop Shadow, 3-D effects, etc.), You can also import text from other word processors. Included with SCALA is Scalal'rint, a program that allows users to make hard copies of a presentation. Many color and black & white printers are supported, as well as PostScript. To run SCALA, Kickstart 1.2 or higher and at least I MB of memory are required. SCALA Price 5.00 distributed by Great Volley Products 600 Clark Avenue King of Prussia. PA 19406 Inquiry 232 COMMODORE Business Machines will activate a program for customers who purchase an Amiga 2000, 2000HD, 2500, or 3000-series system. CBM will provide free, on-site "Gold Service" for one year to customers who purchase one of these professional systems and send their activation cards and proof of purchase to Commodore Business Machines. The program, available in all 50 states, will begin with purchases made on or after February 1, 1991. Amiga 500 owners have enjoyed for some time a special CommodoreExpress service. Under the CommodoreExpress plan, Amiga 500 owners have been able to phone for assistance and technical help, as well as receive express service on repairs, through an 800 number. Now one call to CBM's Technical Support 800 number will provide complete service and support to both professional and consumer users. The program is designed to be completely transparent to the Amiga user.

All Amiga owners will contact one 800 number for support. CBM will either solve the problem over the phone, or begin either on-site service or the CommodoreExpress service depending on which plan is required. With this plan, CBM has become the largest consumer and professional computer company to offer on-site or direct service free to customers. While similar plans exist in some part through IBM-clone manufacturers, neither Apple Computer nor IBM have offered their customers this level of support. Commodore Business Machines 1200 Wilson Drive West Chester. PA 19380 (215) 431-9100 Inquiry #233 Finally a fantastic mouse for only .95. The Beetle Mouse has a resolution of 320dpi and is ergonomically designed to fit your hand. New light weight components make the Beetle Mouse ultra-light and fast with high quality switches that will last. Winner of the TIDEX 90' Award for innovative product design. Available for the Amiga and Atari computers. Includes MOUSE PADI TALON TECHNOLOGY INC. 243 N. HW>' 101 Ste. #11. Solana Beach. Ca. 92075 TEL: (619) 792-6511 FAX: (619) 792-9023 Prices subject to change without notice. Shipping and handling are extra. ***Dealer Inquiries Welcome* Circle 113 on Reader servtce card.

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