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the Amiga in which I have either been a participant or an observer lately, I am beginning to feel a great deal like Mr. Baggins. Last month, we brought you our coverage of the World Of Commodore and AmiEXPO ("Twin Pecks", December 1990) that were held simultaneously from October 5 to 7 in Chicago and Anaheim respectively. Home from these shows, we completed both the December issue of Amazing Computing and the largest periodical ever for the Amiga, our Fall/Winter edition of AC'.s Guide To "/be Commodore Amiga. With the Guideand A Csafcly at press, it was time to grab a plane, but this would be a much different journey. My travels started with a long overnight night to Koln, Germany for Amiga '90. In just a few short days, I was introduced to the mania that the Amiga has spawned in Europe. Distributors told me that theAmiga 500 was sold out in some areas through Christmas. I watched while over 60,000 attendees descended on the two large halls of Amiga '90 over its four-day run. My limited German was just enough to keep me out of trouble so most of my conversations with the German people were through their knowledge of English. I was amazed with the way they loved the Amiga. It was as if we had taken the enthusiasm of an American Amiga user group and applied it to an entire continent. The second thing that struck me about Amiga '90 was the large num- ber of North American Amiga developers that attended. Either working in their own booths or with their distributors, developers demonstrated their products and listened to the concerns and needs of their European customers. 6 AMAZING COMPUTING From this enormous demonstration of Amiga enthusiasm, I dropped directly into the area where IBM is king and Apple is considered a pretender to the thrown, Comdex. Comdex Fall '90 was held in I.as Vegas and attracted over 126,000 attendees during its five-day run. Commodore placed their booth in the newly completed Sands Exhibition Center. But, even with a half-million square feet of exhibition space, the Sands was away from the main segment of Comdex and, apparently, so was the Amiga. Although Commodore demonstrated the Amiga from its newest Unix release to the magic of Digital Creations' DCIV, and NewFck, with their booth at the Sands, wowed growing crowds with the wizardry of the Video Toaster, the main contingent of Comdex could not or would not listen.

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Document sans nom Exclusive Show Coverage: Amiga 90, COMDEX, & WOCA AMIGA ANIMATION EASIER THAN EVER!
? Disney's Animation Studio ? Cartoon Animation: A 3-part Course ? The Amiga In Court ? Plus- 22 AMIGA Animation PackaaeS Showcased!
0 TENTS CON SketchMaster ..... 8 by Ernest P. Viveiros. Jr.
A sleek, high-performance graphics tablet.
Professional Draw 2.0 .10 Ft. Shamms Mortier "There's nothing like it on the market at the moment.” Reviews Spe!l-A-Fari .... by Jeff James Three jungle animals can help your youngster learn to spell.
Programming In This Issue On The Road 22 Amiga '90 COMDEX The World of Commodore Amiga AC has traveled the globe in search of new Amiga products. From the newest in presentation and 3-D products to the first public showing of CDTV, AC was there. Read the exclusive coverage of Cologne.
Germany's Amiga '90, COMDEX in Las Vegas.
Nevada and The World Of Commodore Amiga in Toronto. Ontario. Canada.
Programming in AmigaBASIC .62 by Mike Morrison This month. Mike takes a look at recursion.
ZoomBox .....75 by John Leonard Add a zoom box to an Intuition window.
Electronic Color Splitter .26 by Greg Epiey An inexpensive way to grab quality images off video sources.
Departments Feedback .. 4 Editorial Content 6 List of Advertisers ...80 Public Domain Software .93 |Cover by Ernest P. Viveiros, Sr.
And Furthermore .....96 Volume 6 Number 1 January 1991 Animation Columns New Products And Other Neat Stuff.
By John Rezendes Some new products this month include Quick Write by New Horizons, PowerMonger by Electronic Arts, and Vistapro by Virtual Reality Laboratories. The Art De0°rtment Professional (Medley 20 by Phil Saunders AC’s new music column begins by discussing MIDI.
Bug Bytes ..37 by John Steiner A few problems with PageStream 2.0. Plus, Quarterback Tools is now shipping.
PD Serendipity .86 by Aimee B. Abren Now you can change from PAL to NTSC easily wih NTSC-PAL. Plus, updates from Fred Fish disks 381-390.
The Animation Studio ......39 by Frank McMahon Disney's classic approach in a character animation program.
.42 Forensic Animation by Andrew Lichtman_ The Amiga hefps out in the courtroom.
Cartoon Animation ....48 by D. L Richardson Back to the basics in animation.
Animation Chart .55 Twenty-two animation packages and features.
Memory & Animation 60 by Chris Boyce Even 512K users can animate!
C Notes From The C Group .67 by Stephen Kemp This month, a pop quiz to test your C programming knowledge.
Roomers ....69 by The Bandito It’s time again for The Bandito's fearless predictions for the New Year.
Snapshot ...71 by R. Bradley Andrews It’s up to you to save the wizard in Electronic Arts' The Immortal.
Animation Extras by David Duberman Animation with 3-D Professional 51 Progressive Peripherals & Software Animation Station .....52 Progressive Peripherals & Software Elan Performer & Animation ......53 Elan Design Animation with the Sculpt Family ...54 Byte by Byte Turbo Silver Animation ...59 Impulse, Inc. Amazing Computing For The Commodore AMIGA™ ADMINISTRATION Joyce Hicks Publisher: Assistant Publisher: Admin. Assistant: Circulation Manager: Asst. Circulation: Corporate Trainer: Traffic Manager: Robert J. Hicks Alisa Hammond Doris Gamble Traci
Desmarais Virginia Terry Hicks Robert Gamble International Coordinator: Donna Viveiros Marketing Manager: Ernest P. Viveiros 3r.
Marketing Associate: Greg Young Programming Artist: E. Pair!
EDITORIAL Managing Editor: Associate Editor: Hardware Editor: Technical Editor: Technical Associate: Copy Editor: Don Hicks Elizabeth Fedorzyn Ernest P. Viveiros Sr.
J. Michael Morrison Aimee B. Abren John Rezendes Frank McMahon
William Fries Paul Michaei Brian Fox Kim Kerrigan Aiisa
Hammond Melissa-Mae Lavoie Video Consultant: Art Director:
Photographer: Illustrator: Graphic Designer: Research &
Editorial Support: Production Assistant: ADVERTISING SALES
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AMIGA1" is a registered trademark o' Commodora-Amiga, inc. Circle 113 on Reader Service card.
2 A.UAxtxc; Covi't t .ycv THE ADVANTAGE I would Like to know if Amazing has done a review of the spreadsheet called 'The Advantage' by Gold Disk? If a review has been done then please tell me the volume and issue number, if not, would you consider doing one? A comparative review of spreadsheets including The Advantage would be most helpful.
Sincerely, Bob Lockie Burlington, Ontario Gold Disk released The Advantage 1.1 in September and zoc hope to do a reviezv of the package in the near future. Ed. FURTHER FLICKER FACTS 1-3 1 It appears from Mr. Masters' letter in the October, 1990 issue, that there is still quite a bit of confusion regarding interlace and "flicker" as seen on standard television and our Amigas.
Mr. Masters asserts that some colors flicker faster than others, that 1 30-sec- ond is faster than human perception of flicker, and that flicker is not inherent in the NTSC standard. These statements are incorrect. He also states that "someone with access to the proper test equipment should investigate the problem." There's nothing to investigate because there is no problem.
Interlace is simply an electronic method to paint a CRT image. "Flicker" is human perception of this method, and it varies with a staggering number of variables. The most critical one is time. Anything slower than 60 times per second will be perceived by most of us as flicker under some conditions. The most common occurrence is when an image consists of horizontal sections only one scan-line high.
In Amiga interlace modes (and in standard U.S. TV), these sections will occur only 30 times a second, well into the threshold of human perception of flicker.
They don't occur fast enough to fool the brain into thinking that they are continuous, because standard phosphors are not sufficient to keep the pixel illuminated until the next pass of the beam. We usually don't see TV flicker because most images are large blobs of color, such that all elements cover many scan-lines, not just one. Check out the weatherman's symbols, though: you'U see interlace flicker, just like on your Amiga.
But let's say you have created one- pixel-high graphicson your Amiga screen.
Thev are probably flickering, but there are many variables as to how BADLY. Flicker gets worse the brighter the image is, the higher the contrast ratio between your high light and background colors, the more peripheral vision vou use in looking at the tube, the more green you have in the image, and also varies between individuals.
Flicker WILL OCCUR in interlace modes. But in your own work, you have control over the severity. Lower the contrast of the image by raising the background color from black, and lower the intensity of your highlight color. Yes the image tends to "wash out" compared to vivid, colorful graphics you may be used to. Bu t notice how much easier i t is to look at the image for a long period of time, Avoid brig1 green lines: the eye is most sensitive to this color, and can be overwhelmed by high levels of it, causing you to sense flicker sooner. You can often choose to double up on pixels; if
you've made a one-pixel-thick horizontal line, put another one right above or below it. If your contrast is low between these lines and the color above and below it, flicker will nearly disappear.
The Amiga was designed with interlace modes to remain compatible with NTSC devices, such as VCR's and TV's. I, for one, am glad to have this compatibility, and am willing to work around flicker when it occurs. While there will always be fools who will design programs with hires interlace screens with thin, bright green lines on black backgrounds, more and more smart authors are choosine wisely- Kudos go to Elan's Performer and Impulse's Imagine for their intelligent choice of screen colors.
Interlace is an important part of our machine, but flicker can be fought.
Karl Sparklin Dayton, OH 2 Comments on Jerry Masters' comments in the October 1990 issue, regarding interlace flicker: I have done some investigation as to its cause, and have come to the conclusion that it is nowhere near the standard NTSC interlace screen.
I put the interlace screen on, tvped a lot of sevens on the screen, and looked at it through the blades of a 8'' fan on which I had installed a speed control. When the correct speed was found, the alternate fields could be observed, and the result was that the one field lost the horizontal top of the sevens, and likewise shortened the other letters or numbers on that field.
That, and the fact that the aspect ratio of the screen is changed, makes me wonder what Commodore had in mind in building in such a nonstandard screen in an otherwise excellent computer.
That it should be possible to change the screen is evidenced by the use of a terminal program which was included with the purchase of the Aprotek 2400 baud modem; this was called "Handshake", developed by Eric Haberfellner, who lives in Canada. One of the menu selections is Interface, with either half screen or full screen interlace selection.
Full screen selection gives what appears to be very close to NTSC interlace, and remains after exiting the program. Giving this screen the fan test above showed the alternate fields had the same size letters and numbers, but they were being moved vertically the distance of one interlace, still not NTSC standard, but much closer, and with reduced flicker. Several programs were tried using this screen such as IFF pictures, CanDo, and others, and the screen stayed in this interlace mode until rebooting. If a picture was done in interlace mode, that's the way it appeared; going on to another
picture that was not nterlaced, came back to the "Handshake" interlace.
Regarding Jerry Master's conclusion on the sync sou rce in the Amiga, he is right about the sync coming from Agnus, but there is also a Csync line (Composite sync) coming out of Agnus which feeds Denise; O O ’ so apparently Agnus is the culprit, developing these off standard sync signals.
There are Ics on the market which develop NTSC standard sync signals, such as RCA's 22402; something like this should have been built in to provide the compatible screen required.
There must be a way of programming the computer to produce better interlace- I hope someone with a lot more savvy than I will come up with it!
Very truly yours, John A. Wheaton Syosset, NY 3 I have a few comments to make in regards to Mr. Masters' letter (Re: Interlace Flicker, in the October 1990 issue.
First, with regards to the apparent difference between the primary colors. I can think of two possible reasons for a noticeable difference in perceptible flicker between the three primaries.
The first of these involves the actual phosphors used in the monitor. Should the green phosphor have a shorter persistance than those of red and blue, the green would appear to flicker more intensely than red or blue.
The other possible explanation involves a property of the eye itself. The eye is most sensitive to light in the yellow- green portion of the spectrum. It seems reasonable to assume, therefore, that a small change of intensity in the green would be seen more easily than the same intensity change in the other two primaries. I remember reports from the late 70's (when calculators used LED and plasma displays) that blue had been determined to be the most difficult display to read, while green was the easiest- red was the most common due to its low cost.
Concerning whether NTSC broadcasts are subject to flicker, I have yet to see anything transmitted which had a horizontal pattern matched to the scan lines of a TV. Most images I have examined (even text patterns) tend to "fuzz" over the scanline boundary, and are thereby displayed in each "half frame".
The following BASIC program can be used to demonstrate the major difference between the interlace and non-interlace modes. On an interlaced screen, the program opens a window into which it writes a series of horizontal lines. The left side consists of alternating single-pixel lines.
The right side has alternating double-pixel lines. Lastly, the program opens a noninterlaced screen window and writes alternating single-pixel lines. If this screen is dragged down to reveal the interlaced OO screen, it can be seen that the non-interlaced single-pixel lilies look the same as the interlaced double-pixel lines. A fairly good example that the moitor is always in interlace mode a non-interlace image is produced by having the hardware repeat the same image on both "half frames."
1 Interlace Flicker Demonstration 1 Der.nis Lee Bieber Sept. 30, 1990 1 This program opens a hi-res.'interlace;: 1 screen with two windows. The iirst window ' contains alternating lines, the second 1 has dccbled alternating lines (each 1 doodled line being equivalent tc a single ' lir.e in a non-interlaced screer.i .
Scree:: 640, 400, 2, 4 WINDOW 2, "Alternating Doubled", (2,10) - (630,385),15, 1 color :,i CliS L2 = WINDOW(2) Li = 12 2 FOR i - 1 TO WINDOW(3) STEP 2 LINE II,i! - (11,i) next ¦- FOR i = 1 TO WIKDCW(i) 312? 4 LINE (LI, i) - (12, i) (LI, 1+1) - iL2,i-i NEXT i ' Tor ccT.pariscr, purposes, open a ncn- 1 interlaced screen, _r,u put up alternating ’ lir.es SCREEN 2, 640, 200, 2, 2 WIDOW i, "Noninterlaced, Alternating (drag screen downl", (2,10) - (620, 185), 0, 2 COLOR -,L CLS FOR i = 1 TO WINDOW(3) STEP 2 LINE (1,1) - (WINDOW (2) ,i) NEXT i Sincerely, Dennis Lee Bieber Sunnyvale, CA PC-SAS FOR
THE AMIGA My wife works in the medical field using an IBM PS 2 (gasp!) To run a statistical package called 'PC-SAS', put out by the SAS Institute in Cary, NC. These are the same people who recently took over the C Compiler from Lattice and are publishing the 'SAS C Compiler for AmigaDos', version 5.1, as of this writing.
For those who are not familiar with this package, its statistical capabilities are phenominal. Itis widely used in the medical field and for government applications.
It is also available to run on mainframes, minicomputers, and workstations. Advertisements in "PC Week" provide a full description of its capabilities.
I called them to see if they were going to port 'PC-SAS' to the Amiga and was told that they currently had no plans to do so. However, they said that the best way to get those plans changed was for many (read as 'hundreds and thousands of') Amiga enthusiasts to write to them emploring them to put out an Amiga version.
I personally feel that the SAS Institute is missing the boat by not porting this package to the Amiga. Their knowledge of the Amiga operating system which allows them to support the SAS C Compiler should make the porting a feasible task for them to accomplish. This would go a long way toward closing the gap between applications that run on the IBM PC and the Amiga.
I encourage ail of your readers to write to their marketing department and request that they port 'PC-SAS' to the Amiga. Their address is: SAS Institute, Inc. SAS Campus Drive Cary, NC 27513-2414 Attn: Marketing Department Sincerely, Gerald Haworth Millersville, Md.
All letters are subject to editing, Questions or comments should be sent to: Amazing Computing
P. O. Box S69 Fall River, MA 02722-0S69 Attn.: Feedback Readers
whose letters are published will receive five public domain
disks free of charge.
ONE OF MY FAVORITE books has always been Tolkien’s The Hobbit. Tolkien captured the essence of travel. Through the escapades and escapes of Mr. Baggins, we are treated to the broadening oF his wisdom. We begin to see how each adventure strengthens his character and hardens his resolve. With each new person he meets, Mr. Baggins becomes more understanding of his world. After the number of trade shows involving the Amiga in which i have either been a participant or an observer lately, I am beginning to feel a great deal tike Mr. Baggins.
EDITORIAL ComT Traveling Editor: A story of there and back again Last month, we brought you our coverage of the World Of Commodore and AmiEXPO ("Twin Pecks”, December 1990) that were held simultaneously from October 5 to 7 in Chicago and Anaheim respectively. Home from these shows, we completed both the December issue of A mazing Computing and the largest periodical ever for the Amiga, our Fall Winter edition of AC's Guide To The Commodore Amiga. With the Guideznd A Csafely at press, it was time to grab a plane, but this would be a much different journey.
My travels started with a long overnight fl ighl to Koln, Germany for Amiga '90.
In just a few short days, I was introduced to the mania that the Amiga has spawned in Europe. Distributors told me that the Amiga 500 was sold out in some areas through Christmas. I watched while over 60,000 attendees descended on the two large halls of Amiga ’90 over its four-day run.
My limited German was just enough to keep me out of trouble so most of my conversations with the German people were through their knowledge of English.
1 was amazed with the way they loved the Amiga. It was as if we had taken the enthusiasm of an American Amiga user group and applied it to an entire continent.
The second thing that struck me about Amiga ’90 was the large number of North American Amiga developers that attended. Either working in their own booths or with their distributors, developers demonstrated their products and listened to the concerns and needs of their European customers.
From this enormous demonstration of Amiga enthusiasm, I dropped directly into the area where IBM is king and Apple is considered a pretender to the thrown, Comdex, Comdex Fall '90 was held in Las Vegas and attracted over 126,000 attendees during its five-day run.
Commodore placed their booth in the newly completed Sands Exhibition Center. But, even with a half-million square feet of exhibition space, the Sands was away from the main segment of Comdex and, apparently, so was the Amiga. Although Commodore demonstrated the Amiga from its newest Unix release to the magic of [Digital Creations’ DCTV, and NewTek, with their booth at the Sands, wowed growing crowds with the wizardry of the Video Toaster, the main contingent of Comdex could not or would not listen.
“Windows’’ was shouted and “multi- media” was whispered throughout the event, but few of the thousands of attendees understood that the Amiga was there first and still remains in the forefront. From the euphoric European exhibition, I fell to the world of Window's and more Windows. I ¦wondered, amidst all the talk of windows, whether any of them could see.
From Comdex, it was only one short holiday and another short wreek to The World Of Commodore Amiga in Toronto, Canada. The Hunter Group had promised a large and exciting show. They delivered.
With the first public showing of CDTV and the work of exhibitors such as Walt Disney Computer Software, WOCA not only attracted the largest number of attendees at Amiga event in North America this year (over 32,000), but sold more Amiga computers at any one time thanl have ever seen before. One dealer had sold seventy-two machines by the second day of the event.
However, this is not about how many units were sold. The people who came to The World Of Commodore Amiga believed in the Amiga. Maybe, since there is only one show in Lhe area each year, WOCA gets people excited about what the Amiga can do for them. Whatever the reason, they believe the Amiga is the best computer for their needs.
Whether I was talking to a young German at Amiga ’90, viewing a demonstration by an Amiga developer at Comdex, or witnessing a family carrying their first Amiga home from The World Of Commodore Amiga, the same truth came through.
These people believe that the Amiga is the best. They prove it by their actions, their dedication, and their purchases. They support the Amiga because it is superior for their needs.
Mr. Baggins found that his world was much larger and a great deal more complex than he ever believed it could be. He responded by retiring from traveling, staying at home, and discussing his adventures.
I have found the world to be a bit smaller. Atbough there are differences in the way we use the Amiga and differences in what we expect to do with an Amiga, the Amiga is a common thread that unites people of dilTcrem languages, cultures, and altitudes. The Amiga, more than any other computer platform currently available, excites people into being creative.
Fortunately for my home life, there is not another show for at least a month (CES), but I am very grateful for the chances I have at viewingour world.
Like Mr. Baggins, I have learned that there is always more to learn, but there are always good people to teach me.
GVP storage solutions keep up with you ;; Your Amiga * is doing more today than anyone would have p 5 guessed a few short years ago. Color graphics. Scanned images. Multi-media. Video Imaging. You need storage ’ solutions that can keep up with these data-hungry p?
Revolutions in computing. Without a revolutionary hassle.
No matter what your mass storage needs, GVP has it! Complete plug-and- play storage solutions for your Amiga, from 50MB to 600MB. From Hard- Disk-Cards to Removable-Cartridge iga Hard Disk to Rewritable Optical to Streaming Tape.
If you use your Amiga fur Graphics, DTP, Image Filing, Database Manage- ment, Video Imaging, Multi-Media, CAD CAM, System-Wide Backup, then you need our removable-meaia storage solutions... SH-R5500-Ricoh 50MB Removable Hard ( Disk Drive: Features you cannot ignore.
• Increased storage capacity: 48MB formatted under Amiga DOS
per cartridge.
• Sealed cartridge air filtration system w 0 ensures data
integrity and keeps media free from damaging dust particles for
fail-safe reliability, unlike the competition. , , , ,, „ jjj,
• Made by Ricoh of Japan, a quality, well- Sflindie MDA known
manufacturer of precision,
I. - 1 ¦ Jti . High-technology products.
v SD-M09200E 600 Ricoh 600MB MagnEto-
- a 1 1 I |! Optical Drive: Backed by Ricoh’s expertise Hut
Seil I - in optical disk technology.
600MB formatted capacity per cartridge [300MB per side).
• Impressive 25ms average access time,
• Mounts internal in Amiga 2f)00 *' 5.25" drive bay or external
with GVP's IMPACT XC [see photo below).
IMPACT XC ?
State-of-the-art Rewritable Magneto-Optical drive using high-tech laser technology, and ISO format compatible.
Latest Magneto-Optical technology enables cartridges to be over-written many times, offering unlimited storage capacity.
66. 7ms average access time.
IMPACT WT-150 WangTek 15BMB Stream- ing Tape Backup System: Together with j GVP'sTAPESTORE" software, makes backups ' simple and last.
• High performance with backup speeds of over 6MB per minute when
using GVP TAPESTORE software.
• Uses industry standard DC6150 cartridges with 150MB formatted
capacity.
• Mounts internal in Amiga 2000 5.25" drive bay or external using
GVP's IMPACT XC [see photo, left].
S1I-M09200E 600 shown here in vertical position.
• Cumes standard with GVP's comprehensive TAPESTORE backup and
restore software package.
• TAPESTORE also sold separately.
GVP’s New FmaSTROM” SCSI driver ’ and installation software comes standard with the Series H'"SCSI Controllers' giving ultimate removable media drive support.
When purchasing GVP mass storage removable devices, be sure to ask for a GVP Series II SCSI Controller! Ask for the complete kit.
Educational pricing program now available.
TAPESTORE. FMESTROU. Sene H, and (Ware ttattnBrts of Great Wky Proton tot Amga and krqi 2000 are regsmtd lademirts of Comrexktt-Anuga. Me Available on GSA schedule through GREAT VALLEY PRODUCTS INC. rsiS rl(mSAESff5242nC‘ 600 Clark Avenue, King of Prussia, PA 19406 . A -v pflr morg jnforn(iation, or tor nearest dealer, call today. Dealer inquiries welcome.
Tel. (215) 337-8770 • FAX (215) 337-9922 Circle 123 on Reader Service card.
Back thru the drawing board.
The SketchMaster Graphics Tablet by Ernest P. Viveiros, jr.
WHAT COMES TO MIND when you think "graphics tablet" for the Amiga? Ibs likely you think high prices, software incompatibilities, big clunky set-ups, overly complicated installation, expensive accessories...but great performance! In the past, the drawbacks have far outweighed the benefits of a graphics tablet.
Enter the new generation of graphics tablets the SketchMaster series graphics tablet from Dakota Corporation.
The SketchMaster is a sleek, high-performance graphics tablet which runs on almost any A500, A2000, A2500, or A3000. (The SketchMaster will also run on the A1000, however it requires a special adapter available from Dakota.) The SketchMaster supports both a stylus and a cursor (both are included) and includes all the necessary cables and software.
Additionally, the SketchMaster is the onlv Amiga graphics tablet that does not require a power supply. It's powered directly through the RS232C serial port, which helps to eliminate the clutter of big, clunky power supplies and their cables.
The SketchMaster is the only Amiga graphics tablet that does not require a power supply. It’s powered directly through the RS232C serial port.
Once you have properly set up and connected the SketchMaster hard ware to the Amiga (A 1-minute operation), it's time to install the software. Software installation is easy! Just pop in the installation disk and click the install icon.
Two files a control panel and a driver will be copied to your SYS: Preferences and Utilities drawers respectively. To use the tablet, just open the Preferences drawer and run the SMControl application. From here you can turn the tablet on or off, change the size of the working area, and even select which transducer (stylus or cursor) to use.
Software compatibility is excellent. The SketchMaster should work with any mouse- driven application (the driver generates simulated mouse events to the operating system).
The tablet responds smoothly and accurately, even when tracing though material 1 2-inch thick.
So what do you really get for your money?
The SketchMaster system includes the tablet, pen-styius, 4-button cursor, interface cable, 9 to 25-pin adapter, software, and manual. The tablet is available in two sizes: 11.7" x
11. 7", and 12" x 18". The SketchMaster is also covered by a
5-year limited warranty. Not to mention the great perfor
mance you'll get! Now think "SketchMaster graphics tablet".
What comes to mi nd ? Reasonable prices, grea t so ftware
cornpa tibili ty, sleek organized set-ups, easy installation,
and no accessories to buy...it's all In the box.
¦AO SketchMaster Graphics Tablet
11. 7” x 11.7": $ 449.00 12” x 18”: $ 699.00 Dakota Corporation 55
Heritage Avenue Portsmouth, NH 03801
(603) 427-0100 inquiry 231 UUIMHuiil
INTRODUCING THE EXCITING NEW Micro-Power Drives No fans or
external power required, extra rugged Autobooting SCSI
Interface A2000 performance with no DMA problems Optional
Dedicated External Power Fast, Micro-Power Drive Mechanisms
1 2 - 8MB FAST Expansion RAM SCSE Port & Game Switch Amiga
Bus Pass-Through External SCSI port allows up to 7 SCSI
devices Game Switch lets you turn drive off and leave RAM
enabled Autoboot ON-OFF Switch SCSI ID Selector RAM Test
Mode With a SupraDrive 500XP™, your computing life will
change forever.
You’ll be able to use software that your computer simply couldn’t run before, including paint, digitizing, and animation programs that need more RAM. You’ll spend more time using your computer and less time waiting for it to transfer files and load programs, because the SupraDrive 500XP transfers data up to 40 times faster than floppy disk drives.
You can easily add up to 8MB RAM, additional Amiga bus peripherals (like digitizers), or SCSI peripherals (like removable media, tape backups, or addon hard drives). And if you need help, you can count on Supra’s knowledgeable, friendly technical support staff and one year warranty.
SupraDrive 500XP is a trademark of Supra Corporation.
Amiga is a registered trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc. Available at your local dealer, or call: K] Supra corporation Circle 119 on Reader Service card.
1-800-727-8772 503-967-9075, 1133 Commercia Way, Albany, OR 97321. USA Professional Draw 2.0 A, lthough other vector drawing programs are promised to Amiga desktop publishing enthusiasts. Professional Drarv, at the moment, is the only vector drawing software available for the Amiga. A vector drawing program has several advantages for users involved in desktop publishing. It is not "bitmap-based", but "remembers" the quality of lines and their "direction" (or vectors), not the position of each pixel on the screen (as does a bitmapped program like Electronic Art's DpaintHI). One asset of
a vector over a bitmapped method is that storage space is minimized, as it takes far less room to by R. Shamms Mortier store vectored data than bitmapped information. In the desktop publishing world, where the printers to which you address your data reformat the output in ways that screen graphics are hard-pressed to match, vector drawings can print without the ever-present "jaggies". No matter how much the drawing is enlarged or reduced, a vector graphic maintains its quality of line. Printers, especially PostScript printers, are capable of much finer resolutions than are the finest
resolution computer screens.
ProfessionalDraw 2.0 addresses dotmatrix, HP-Laser, and PostScript printers, Pro Draw 2.0 gives you the opportunity to blend colors.
Although only the latter will give you the results promised. Unlike its main Amiga competition, Soft Logik's Pagestream, Pro Draw's output is disappointing when directed to anything but a PostScript-quaL i ty printer. It was designed to be the dra w- ing partner to Cold Disk's Professional Page, and saves files in formats that are easily imported into Pro Page and the other desktop publishing wares that Gold Disk produces.
With Pro Draw, you can set up the page sizes either by choosing from a menu of the recognized traditional output sizes (from a standard 81 2" x 11" page to the A3 to B5 options that are familiar to users of plotters), or you may input your own custom dimensions. There is also a separate menu that details Pro Draw’s preferred PostScript output specs, including full color separation,crop marks, and color "bleeds". All of these attributes are what one would expect from a professional desktop publishing package, and this is accomplished within the page format requester. All of your Pro Draw
efforts can be saved to disk and loaded in a siain with a standard Amiga load save requester, leaving your work open for future edit- Tools Of The Trade Bezier Curves are Pro Draw's main mode of operation. Straight Sines are just versions of a Bezier Curve, as are other lines. As an artist, I must admit that Bezier Curves are not my favorite way to draw. I can work with them much better now than I could when Pro Draw first introduced the concept, but that's after quite a bit of practice. I would enjoy Pro Draw more if the Bezier Curve attribute were hidden in a more traditional drawing tool
or a series of tools. Adjusting the curves and their placement gets in the way of the creative process as far as 1 am concerned, although I'm sure they make more sense to an engineering designer. The same tutorial that taught Bezier Curves to Amiga users in Pro Draw 1.0 is still used as the major tutorial in this upgraded version, and I still find it rather cumbersome. Since the Bezier Curves have survived the 2.0 upgrade unchanged, and offer no promise of being revised or seriously altered in the upgrades to come, I'll have to resign myself to their use for the present. They do offer two
advantages over other methods of drawing curves: they are usually drawn as smoother curves between two points, and they leave fewer initial data points on the screen.
ZJ Once curves of any kind are drawn, Pro Draw lets you reshape them to vour heart's desire by allowing you to assign O e?
More data pointsatany place on the curve, and then move either the whole cu rve or a selected part to a new position. Very fine detail can be added by zooming in on the picture until only one element of i t fills the entire screen. Once drawn, any element may be moved about the page with ease, and closed areas may be filled with color or a variety of gray-scaled lints, New “Blend” Option Some of the finer attributes you may be working with in Pro Draw will not be visible on the Amiga's screen itself due to the limitations of the Amiga screen as The grid lines can be set to any increment
horizontally or vertically.
Compared with the finer resolution of a printing device. Pro Draw 2.0 gives you the opportunity to blend colors behind an area of text, although the full import of this operation can only be appreciated in the final printout.
The method for obtaining these blended areas is quite simple once you get the hang of it. First, two cloned areas (boxes) are filled with separate colors (magenta and blue, for example). Then both areas are "selected''. While selected, "blend" is chosen from the "special" menu, in which there are four "Blend" options: Linear, Inverse, Sinusoidal, and Cubic.
"Linear" blending transforms an object evenly, like a evenly gradiated screen tint.
You can input the exact number of steps in which this is to occur. "Inverse" blends are transitions that take place in an increasingly wider number of steps. "Sinusoidal" blends the colors in a sine-curve relationship, while "Cubic" places a darker toned section in the middle of two lighter ones. Since the output can address a top- of-the-line color printer as well as a black MediaPhile® Video Editing System KedijEditor 2.1! (edit list) - Ho Stops Active, Put reck In Play-rause TITLE__ffl__OUT flUoni steals how on a wiId pitch' II 88IH!28!ifi~|| 88:14131:17 8:1 I Bad Ouvs score tw run,
tripple if 88:4111)1188 II 88:41:43:1 O Huih ties (Li score in the eiAth ll 81:92:45:13 |i 81:84171?
PRich uins the saw in the ninth Hi 91:81:16:23 |i 81:13:88:85] (7 Score 2-j t 88:4S:35ir 88:46:31:21 r Score 1-1~ f" Scare 1-8 1| 18:46:42:28 Pscore 1-f '81:16:58:84 rEcore 3-r CL The MediaPhile System gives you the power to perform automatic edits from players to a recorder, and to record computer animations and lilies from within popular Commodore-Amiga programs automatically. All under computer control.
Mouse and keyboard control makes editing easy. Select any deck function including freeze-frame, single frame step, and digital effects from the screen control pad or keyboard. Video editing features include adjustable pre-roll for smooth, professional looking insert and assembly edits, a preview mode with a five-second freeze-frame at IN and OUT points, A B-roll and accurate tape positioning.
Edit with any infrared controlled VHS, SVHS, 8mm, Hi-8mm or Beta video deck or camcorder. Tape counter information is brought into the Amiga from Sony "remote" jacks, or from MediaPhile edit control kits that arc easy to install in just about any video deck. Please specify your deck manufacturer and model number.
MEDIAPHILE IDS D» mmw 88:46:48:88 ccr I 1 88:11:81:881~ 88:14:84:23 from $ 320 Complete
o Infrared Control ° Remote pause and S Control
o Two Video Deck Counter Inputs ° Edit Decision List Software 0
Animation and Title Recording From Within Your Software
Interactive MicroSystems, Inc. 9 Red Roof Lane, Salem N.H.
03079 Telephone: (603) 898-3545 and white PostScript device, it
presents an infinite number of design possibilities.
"Blends" are a new addition to the program, yet are not listed in the index for reference. The Blending tutorial says "see the chapter on Blends", but there is no chapter named "Blends". Perhaps this was an oversight that will require a more thorough tutorial in the future.
The "Fill" option can be a bit confusing at first. I had to turn "fill" off for the previous object before getting it to react a design feature that needs more tweaking. Make sure "fill" is not on when you initially design an object, and then you can choose a fill color and turn it on afterwards. Filling with the black and white option gives the best-iooking screen, though users with color printers will want some color preview. The object has to be boxed in by using the marquee tool to be selected, and then fills can be applied Circle 109 on Reader Service card.
More readily. You have to toggle "wire frame" off before firescreen actually allows you to see any examples of fill patterns.
Objects can be turned, rotated, moved, warped, and blended. All of tire parameters that I experimented with performed flawlessly, though some took a bit of experimentation. There are various menus associated with each of the major alteration tools. The "Distortion Tool" in particular is worth spending tinre with, since it allows shearing on either the X or Y axis. You can execute Perspective on either the X or Y axis, and a choice of three symmetries is offered. The symmetrical tools work very well and can influence you to rethink your initial design.
When you've selected your text in a suitable font and size, it too can be open to all of the manipulations that any other object can reflect, as long as you first transform the text into an object. By choosing "text - graphic" from the Special Menu, the transformation is complete. For posters, the first letter of a headline can be completely redesigned, giving it special graphic Celtic illustrative characteristics.
If you "ungroup" the letter you desire to work on from its neighbors, it can be filled in with a separate color or gray-scale screen. Control points can be added to the lines that connect other points in the letter, so that stretching it in creative ways is encouraged. In addition to the gray-scale fills, I wish there were ways to include user-designed patterned tills. This program would be perfect for experimenting with the various art screens that many printing houses use: wood grains, concentric circles, splayed line patterns, and various other design patterns.
As in Pro Draw version 1.0,2.0 still gives you the capability to import bitmapped graphics, and then to use vec- tor tools to trace over them on the way to a final vector graphic. Then the bitmap is removed from the underlay for a totally vector rotoscoped image. It can a Iso be left in place, giving you a printout with the best of both worlds: the rich screen textures of bitmapsand thestraight no-jaggies linework of vector graphics. This is one of the most unique and useful attributes of Pro Draw.
The creme de la creme of Pro Draw 2.0's features list: the ability to fit text to any curve.
F-BASIC 3j0 Original Features: Version 2.0 Added: Version 3.0 Added: F-BASIC "With User's Manual & Sample Programs Disk Only $ 99.95 F-BASIC With Complete Source Level DeBugger
- Only $ 159.95
• Enhanced, compiled BA5IC
• Extensive control structures
• True Recursion & Subprograms
• FAST Real Computations
• Easy To Use For Beginners
• Con't Be Outgrown By Experts
• Animation & Icons
• IFF Picture Reader ¦ Random Access Files
• F-Basic Linker
• improved Graphics & Sound
• RECORD Structures Pointers Integrated Editor Environment
020 030 Support IFF Sound Player Built In Complex Matrices
Object Oriented Progroms Compatible with 500,1000, 2000,2500,
or 3000 Pro Draw 2.0 also has a utility that allows you to
translate an IFF picture into a vector trace automatically. You
would be wise to start with a two bitplane image (black and
white). Otherwise, after many minutes of precious time, the
program may flag an "out of memory" condition.
This option works great on B&W images, and is the perfect way to convert jaggy B&W clip art brushes without leaving the program.
F-BASIC Is Available Only From: DELPHI NOETIC SYSTEMS, INC. Post Office Box 7722 Rapid City. SD 57709-7722 Send Chech o» Money Order, or Write For info Credit Card or COD Call (605? 3-18-0791 Circle 110 on Reader Service card.
And now for the creme de la creme of the features list: the ability to fit text to any curve. This is something that has always created nightmarish situations in typographic design. Pro Draw 2.0 makes it so easy and intuitive that I would consider purchasing this program for this one function alone. After a curve is drawn (either Bezier or freehand) and the text is printed out on a line, the user simply selects both the text and the curve and chooses "Align Text With Curve” from the menu. You can have the text align left, right, or center, and it can also follow the inside of the curve.
This is an absolutely wonderful and mega-useful feature. It is something that all desktop publishing programs should emulate.
Version 2.0 works much faster than version 1.0, and there are no incessant crashes or "out of memory" flags in normal operation. I attempted to load Pro Draw's output into Soft Logik's Pagestream (version T.S). PageStream wouldn't open it, nor would it accept it as an imported vector graphic. Perhaps there's a wise hack out there who can write a a translator so that files can be exchanged between Pro Draw and PageStream, allowing the best of both of these Amiga competitors to share each other's best attributes. I would think that some standardization here would benefit all concerned. Of
course, the translation software from Syndesis would allow you to change the Pro Draw files into suitable CAD output that PageStream could read.
In conclusion, I must admit that I envy PostScript printer owners, because my attempted dot-matrix and H P-Laserjet printouts do not look too good. I wish that Gold Disk and Soft Logik were pals, because 1 love the potential of this program as much as I am addicted to the non- PostScript printout quality that is an integral part of PageStream. If you have a PostScript printer, you should invest in Pro Draw 2.0. It has tremendous capabilities tha t, currently a t leas t, cannotbe found anywhere else on the market.
• AC* Professional Draw version 2.0 Price; $ 199.95 Gold Disk 5155
Spectrum Way, Unit 5 Mississauga, Ontario Canada L4W5A1
(800) GOLD-DSK Inquiry 221 Mightier Than The Pen New Horizons
Software has just released Quick Write, an entry-level
word processor that provides high performance and advanced
features on minimal Amiga systems. QuickWrite packs a lot
of power and ease of use. Features include a fast "WYSIWYG"
display, an advanced mail merge facility, spell checker
with a 50,000- word dictionary, macros, an Arexx port, and
automatically updated date and time markers.
By John Rezendes QuickWrite also controls printing options including support for paper sizes and the ability to print in Pica, Elite, or Condensed pitch. QuickWrite users will be able to export and import text files in the format recognized by Gold Disk's Professional Page. And, since QuickWrite is file-compatible with New Horizons' popular higher-end word processor, ProWrite, documents are transferable from Quick W ri te to ProWritewithou t a ny loss of content or formatting. Any program that can import ProWrite files will handle QuickWrite files as well.
QuickWrite requires a minimum 512K memory and Kickstart 1.2 or later.
QuickWrite, price: $ 75.00, New Horizons Software, P.O. Box 43167, Austin, TX 75745, (512) 326-6650. Inquiry "256 Power Struggle Electronic Arts has just released a new adventure strategv game entitled PowerMonger. This is the latest program from Bullfrog, the same UK artist group that created Populous.
In PowerMonger, strategy is based on every individual's occupation, home, and level of intelligence. This adventure begins with you as a deposed king in charge of a tribe in an uncharted territory.
You must conquer all 200 territories (each begins with a different layout design) before the world is under your rule, and you must do this by taking over merchant and fishing communities, villages, and large j towns. Resort to the usual pleasurable means of achieving your ends: brute force, cunning negotiation, or outlandish brib- erv. You must then demand that your people create new technologies, such as weapons, to use in invading other villages. The captains you enlist in your tribe all have different personalities; this fact comes into play when giving orders.
3-D vector graphics create a land with hills, plains, roads, buildings, trees, lakes, boats, and even animated waterfalls and streams. The amazing graphics also depict living beings such as fishermen, farmers, ranchers, cattle, sheep, and carrier pigeons for delivering orders.
Changes in seasons lead the farmers to harvest their crops, the ranchers to bring in their herds, and the birds to migrate. A generous selection of angles and magnifi-
o o o cations allow vou to view the land from many different
perspectives.
In game play you will go against three other computer-controlled PowerMongers. One of these may be substituted with another person using two computers linked via modem. A data disk and due book will be coming soon.
PowerMonger, price: $ 49.95, Electronic Arts, 1S20 Gateway Drive, San Mateo, CA 94404, (415) 571-7171. Inquiry 235 Gone Pro ASDG Incorporated has released Art Department Professional. It becomes the latest member of the ASDG Art Department Series 8- and 24-bit color image processing and manipulation software.
Art Department Professional is based on a system of loader saver modules which make it possible to save images in addition to importing them, and provides the ability to render up to 256 colors, enabling transformation of images to other platforms. Among the external hardware devices that can be controlled through this program are Polaroid's Cl-3000 & Cl- 5000 film recorders, Black Belt Systems' HAM-E image display enhancer, and Sharp's JX-450 & JX-300 24-bit color scanners.
Image produced using ASDG’s new Art Department Professional Loader and saver modules for DigiView 21-bit, Sculpt, Silver, GIF, PCX, DeluxePaint II Enhanced, and MacPaint formats are included in the Art Department Professional package. File formats supported by the Super-IFF loader include EHB, HAM, AHAM, SHAM, Dynamic HAM, ARES, and Dynamic HIRES.
Art Department Professional features a wide range of special effects and computer image-manipulation tools, including the ability to perform color-to-gray scale conversions and magazine-quality color separations from any image data source with up to 24 bitplanes. Other features include208 Amiga rendering video modes, six methods of dithering, automated image "touch-up" mode, and an edge-detection technology that allows users to create line art from any image.
Powerful palette control is also at your command with various features such as editing, lock in, and the ability to load and save combinations. Color map controls, brightness, contrast, and Gamma correction are also included. Art Department Professional is also Arexx-support- ive.
Additional loader and saver modules forTarga, TIFF, Pict2, and Rendition formats are contained in the Art Department Professional Conversion Pack. A companion module to Art Department Professional, Art Department Presentation Graphics Pack, is designed to combine business graphics and multiple im- Art Department Professional, price: $ 199.95, Inquiry 232. Art Department Professional Conversion Pack, price: $ 89.95, Inquiry 233. Art Department Presentation Graphics Pack, price: $ 129.95, Inquiry 234.
ASDG Incorporated, 925 Stewart Street, Madison, WI53713, (608) 273-6585.
The Name Game Blue Ribbon Bakery, Inc., makers of Bars&Pipes, have changed their company name to The Blue Ribbon SoundWorks, Ltd, The company is located at a new address as well: 1293 Briardale NE, Atlanta, GA 30306, (404) 377-1514.
All-terrain Vehicle Virtual Reality Laboratories, Inc. has announced theshipmentof Vistapro. This application creates painting-like views and animations of real locations with power and ease. Vistapro, which requires 3 megs, incorporates many features not found in the original Vista. (The original program, which requires 1 meg, will still be available.) Some of those features include displays in24 bit (framebuffer), hi-res, interlace or HAM; script support for four animation modes including IFF, IFF 24, RGB and the Vistapro proprietary VANIM mode; an included animation player for VANIM
files from hard disk; variable focal length "camera" lens; an unlimited number of lighting positions, dithering, roughness, and blend controls; Gourand shading combined with hi-res interlace; the ability to load and save colormaps; and the ability to save images as IFF, Turbo Silver objects and in 24-bit RGB for frame buffer output.
Various landscapes of places such as Mt. St. Helens (before and after the explosion), Half Dome, and El Captain in Yosemite are included, as well as over four billion fractal landscapes, original Mandelbrot and Julia set landscapes, Mt. Adams, Mt. San Gorgonio, Mt. Baldy, San Luis Obispo, and the Carmel-Big Sur area.
Animators, graphic artists, game designers, geology teachers, students, and those involved with the environment may all benefit from Vistapro. Additional sets providing more landscapes are available for $ 80.00. Vzsfapro, price: $ 149.95, Virtual Reality Laboratories, 2341 Gtmcidor Court, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401, (805) 545-8515. Inquiry 240 Aegis Oxxi Two-fer VideoTitler, by Aegis, is a powerful 3-D font and image manipulation system which will work with your Amiga monitor, video recording system, or color Jasuap.y 1991 15 The Complete Amazing Computing library which now includes
Volume 5 is available at incredible savings of 50% off!
? Volume 1 is now available for just $ 19.95*! ?
(A $ 45.00 cover price value, the first year of AC includes 9 info-packed issues.)
? Volumes 2, 3, 4, & 5 are now priced at just $ 29.95* each! ?
Subscribers can purchase freely redistributable disks** at bulk rate discount prices!
This unbeatable offer includes ail Fred Fish, AMICUS, and AC disks (see the back of this issue for recent Fred Fish additions, and the Fall Winter’90 AC’s Guide for a complete index of all current freely redistributable disks).
Pricing for subscribers is as follows: ? 1 to 9 disks: $ 6.00 each ? 10 to 49 disks: $ 5.00 each ? 50 to 99 disks: $ 4.00 each ? 100 disks or more: $ 3.00 each (Disks are priced at $ 7.00 each and are not discounted for non-subscribers) To get FAST SERVICE on volume set orders, freely redistributable disks, or single back issues, use your Visa or MasterCard call 1 -800-345-3360 Or, just fill out the order form insert in the issue.
' Postage & handling for each volume is $ 4.00 in the U.S.. 57.50 for surface in Canada and Mexico, and $ 10.00 tor all other foreign surface.
“ AC warranties all disks for 90 days. Wo additional charge for postage and handling on disk orders. AC issues Mr. Fred Fish a royalty on all disk sales to encourage the leading Amiga program anthologist to continue his outstanding work.
Printer. The package includes many exciting functions and allows you to give so- O O phisticated computer DVEstvlepresenta- tions. The fonts you have at your disposal include all the Amiga fonts, Zuma fonts, and anything made with Calligrapher.
There is also a series of powerful fonts called Poly Fonts, and they allow you to stretch, mirror, and distort at the click ofa mouse. Special effects such as 3D Block, Thin Edge, Emboss, Balloon, Outline, Neon, Star, and Cross are also available.
They may be displayed with bold, italic, outlined, color gradation, or drop shadow in eight directions. An Expert Mode is available which gives vou the tools to build your own special effects, and Multiple Resolutions allows you to work in every Amiga resolution including Halfbrite mode, overscan, and severe overscan.
VideoTitler is also a powerful support system for IFF paint programs. With it you can import IFF windows, brushes, and pictures and then clip, paste, and distort the images. They may be inverted, mirrored, or used for titling. The screen may also be quartered or compressed and then the Extra Halfbrite chip(where available) can be used to your advantage.
There is also a powerful slide show program called VSEG that can create desktop videos and presentations. By using a series of digital transitions such as checker, random, diamond, title scroll, fade, burst, dissolve, and zigzag you will be able to combine images together. Playbacks can be controlled in either manual, automatic, or single frame advance.
VideoTitler works with color printers, camcorders, VCR's, genlock devices, and film recorders.
Also new from Aegis is AudioMaster III, a powerful digital sampling system that allows for the recording and storage of real-life sounds on your Amiga. Many features come with the AudioMaster III including Interactive Visual Waveform Editing, a process that lets you load sound files or digital samples and then visually display them on the screen; a Zoom Mode, which lets you select a segment of the samples sound and zoom in to view or edit details; Multi-Loop Sequencing, which a Hows you to easily create up to 999 sound loops within a single waveform and then play them in a defined sequence;
and a Waveform Tuner, which changes the pitch and octave of any sound and then fine tunes it.
Along with those features there is also MerglFF for merging sounds.
Multi Maker which creates instruments for Deluxe Music and Sonix, and the Oscilloscope program and an Aegis CD player which control playing of up to 20 stored sound files.
VideoTitler,price:$ 159.95,Inquiry 241.
AudioMaster III, price: $ 99.95, Inquiry 242.
Oxxi Aegis Development, 1339 E. 2Stli Street, Long Bench, CA 90S06, (213) 427-1227.
New From Psygnosis... Nitro and Awesome are two new releases from Psygnosis. In Nitro your driving skills are tested on different terrain wasteland, desert, city, and forest), in more than 30 wild races. You must select the proper vehicle (buggv, racer, or sports car) for the best results and, as you compete, enhancements such as a more powerful engine, turbo chargers, high grip tires, nitro-boosters, and extra gas are available. Viewed from above, Nitro is a multi-directionalscrollingracegame with realistic animation and detailed roadside graphics.
Awesome is a space adventure that places you in the role as a ship's captain attempting to escape the Octarian system before it is blown away. All information is to be kept secret as you try to acquire fuel, which is the hot commodity, in these days of gargantuan space monsters and vicious aliens. Hyperspace travel from planet to planet involves using a Plan-View, Time- Scan map of the Octarian system, so you must take into consideration hotel bills and fuel consumption in all decisions.
Nitro,price: $ 44.99.Inquiry 238. Awesome, price: $ 59.95, Inquiry 239. Psygnosis Limited, 29 Snint Mary's Court, Brookline, MA 02146, (617) 731-3553.
Gold Disk Giveaway Gold Disk has announced a contest designed to promote their new product.. HyperBook. Gold Disk used HvperBook to create a graphic presentation showcasing the Gold Diskproductline.Notonlyis this point-and-dick presentation free to the consumer, but it contains the chance for prizes such as Sony Discmans, posters, and tee-shirts, to be won!
The contest begins this month.
HyperBook presentation disks will be available inside Gold Disk product boxes, from dealers, and through mail order houses. Instant winner disks are redeemable by sending the disk, along with name, address, and phone number to Gold Disk (employees of Gold Disk, Commodore, and Amiga dealers are not eligible).
Gold Disk Inc., 5155 Spectrum Way, Unit 5, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, L4W 5A1, (416) 602-4000. Inquiry 237 ¦AC* Taming the wild, misspelling beast in us all... Spell-A-Fari by Jeff James L pell-A-Fari is a new educational program trom Designing Minds Software which attempts to teach and reinforce proper spelling skills in school age (grades K-9) children.
What 1 noticed first about Spell-A-Fari was the fact that it is devoid of any sort of copy protection whatsoever.
Games and educational programs for children are almost always subjected to greater than normal wear and tear, and I must applaud Designing Minds on their decision to allow legitimate owners to easily back up their software investment. Spell-A-Fari is also hard drive installable, including a CLI-driven script to do the installing for you.
Unfortunately, the program cannot be loaded from the Workbench unless you install it on your hard drive or boot it from dfO: in place of your Workbench disk.
After the program has loaded, you're presented with the game selection screen. This screen portrays a jungle scene complete with three jungle animals surrounded by foliage, along with a wooden sign displaying the words "List" and "Bye!". Pointing and clicking on each of these Patty the Parrot The Print As option from the Word List three critters will load a different spelling game, "Bye!"
Will exit the program, and the "List" option will take you to the heart of Spell-A-Fari, the word list screen. A. needed feature on the game selection screen is a verification option on the "Bye!" Hot spot; a slip of the mouse while trying to select the "list" option on the sign unceremoniously dumped me from the program without an opportunity to cancel my selection.
Once vou arrive at the word list screen, the pulldown "Project" menu gives you the ability to Open, Create, Delete, Save, Print and Sort your own spelling lists, as well as the option to print color award certificates for players with superlative spelling. The word listscreen is also where you can enter your own words and fine- tune how the Amiga pronounces them by using the provided Preview option. The Help menu offers a quick list of helpful consonants and phonemes to aid vou in making your word sound just right. Several spelling lists are included with the program when purchased, or you
can create your own lists with up to 54 words not exceeding 12 characters in length.
Aside from being able to create your own spelling lists, the most powerful option in the word list screen is found in the pull-down Project menu; the Print option. Selecting the Print option presents you with the Print list menu, which gives you a great deal of control over the printed output of your spelling lists. Of special interest to educators is Spell-A-Fari's ability to create actual worksheets of spelling words for their students.
Besides printing a list of words, an educator can use the Print list menu to print scrambled word lists, matching word lists and a word list puzzle which mixes up all the words of a selected list in the form of a "word hunt" puzzle. When printed, each of these worksheets is accompanied by a single master list which contains the solutions to the other printed lists. Kudos to Designing Minds for adding these extra features which make Spell-A-Fari a much more useful teaching tool to educators than a simple "Drill and Practice" spelling game.
After selecting your list, you return to the game selection screen. Starting the game is child's play: simpl v point and click the mouse on anv one of the three animals displayed. After an animal is selected, the game play requestor appears. This requestor allows a wide variety of game parameters to be customized, including the desired number of human and computer players (up to two), the computer's skill level (if a computer player is selected), the players' names, and a range of other game options including time limits, number of attempts allowed to get each word correct, and a choice of
"Easy" or "Hard" difficulty levels.
Once you have your options set, you're off into the jungle.
The game with "Elly the Elephant" asks the user to correctly spell the words that the Amiga vocalizes; the game with "Mike the Monkey" challenges the player to select the single correctly spelled word out of a short list of incorrectly spelled words; and the "Patty the Parrot" game offers users a chance to match scrambled words with their unscrambled, correctlv spelled counterparts. Correct spelling is rewarded by a praising digitized voice, and if the round is successfully completed, the animal whose game you've selected hops, flaps, or wiggles onscreen while making its own respective
digitized animal noise.
While Spell-A-Fari is well-equipped with playing options and advanced features for educators, its major stumbling block rests in the treatment of graphics and animation. The artwork is rather plain and rudimentary, with all three of Spell-A-Fari's resident animal inhabitants appearing flat and two-dimensional. The animations, that greet a player after a round of spelling problems have been accomplished, are limited. Patty the Parrot only flaps her wings and squawks, Elly the Elephant wiggles her trunk while trumpeting loudly, and Mike the Monkey seems to do only a few deep knee bends while
waving a banana and shrieking. Even if you have successfully played a few dozen rounds of the game, the animation you get to see after each successfully completed round never changes. I was hoping for a nicely done animation of a yodeling, vine-swinging Tarzan to swoop onto the screen every now and then to tell me what a great speller I was, but I guess he was on vacation.
Crisper, brighter graphics coupled with a wider variety of longer-duration animations would undoubtedly increase the interest and attention span of any child (or adult, for that matter) using this program.
Concerning Spell-A-Fari's use of digitized sound, there only seems to be one problem: not enough variety. After the correct answer has been selected in a round, an enthusiastic, digitized male voice congratulates the player by saying, "That is correct." If you incorrectly spell or mismatch the word, the same voice returns and says, "That is not correct." If you fail a few times, the Amiga voice will speak and urge you to "keep trying." The decision to use superior digitized speech to accompany the synthesized Amiga voice is laudable, yet hearing "That is correct" a few dozen times in a row
during a long spelling exercise set my teeth to grinding; when telling you of your correct selection, there are no other digitized sounds or voices thrown in to add some variety and unpredictability into the game. If you want to silence this merry digitized commentator of your spelling attempts, you have to turn down the volume on your monitor or stereo, as Spell-A-Fari won't let you turn him off.
I would liked to have seen a few other features implemented into Spell-A-Fari, such as the inclusion of an option to save your spelling lists in true ASCII text format to allow you to run them through your favorite spell-checker or thesaurus, and the ability to enter words longer than 12 characters in length.
Although Spell-A-Fari does have some problems, the sum of its individual parts combine to make it a good value, It's relatively inexpensive, and the ability to printa variety of color certificates, along with the wide range of printing options and utilities make Spell-A-Fari a good choice for an Amiga-using educator looking for a teaching aid for spelling. The ability to enter your own words and fine tune them (using the provided help screens for phonemes and consonants) makes Spell-A- Fari a fun and educational game for older children and adults as well. If vou can overlook the limitations
listed above, Spell- A- Fari can be a valuable learning aid not only for children, but for anyone interested in sharpening their spelling skills.
• AC* Requirements: Min. 512K Of RAM Workbench 1.2 or higher
Spell-A-Fari Designing Minds 3006 North Main Street Logan, Utah
84321 (80D-752-2501 Price: $ 39.00 Inquiry 220 by Phil Saunders
lcome to Medley, a new column about music, the Amiga, and
MIDI. My objective to survey all the ways you can make music
with your Amiga. I'll give hints for making your software work
better and show you some of the ways MIDI can work for you. The
Amiga can make even a mediocre musician sound great if he or
she knows how to use it. Medley will help you bridge the gap
between software manuals and the reality of making music.
The Amiga has better sound generating capabilities than almost any other home computer. But sometimes its built-in sounds either aren't good enough, or the music you are making requires more than four notes at a time.
In this case, you need to learn about MI Dl.
MIDI stands for Musical Instrument Digital Interface. MIDI was originally developed as a way to play more than one synthesizer from a single keyboard, but it has been extended to allow a whole host of synthesizers, effects devices, and computers to communicate with one another. MIDI is basically a language that allows your Amiga to control a whole rack of sound equipment.
MIDI consists of commands which tell a synthesizer to do specific tasks. A typical command might consist of three bytes of information which tell any synthesizer listening on channel eight to play a C3 noteat a velocity of 96. While the MIDI command is specific about what it wants done, it has no wav of knowing how the synthesizer will carry out the command. For instance, the synthesizer might be set up to play an organ voice or a flute voice on channel eight; MIDI has no way of knowing. MIDI has only one purpose: to carry musical information to and from synthesizers and computers. How those
synthesizers respond depends on how they are designed and set up. The actual sound comes from the synthesizer's audio output, not its MIDI OUT.
MIDI commands pass note information, but only a synthesizer's audio output produces sound. MIDI is actually a standardized control system.
To use MIDI with your Amiga, you need three things: software that generates and or receives MIDI, a synthesizer that generates and or responds to MIDI, and a MIDI interface to let the computer and the synthesizer communicate. The MIDI interface can range from a simple one IN, one OUT model to a more complex two IN, six OUT model. The number of I Ms and OUTs refers to the number ofdevices that can be directly connected to the interface. An IN receives information from a MIDI device, an OUT sends information to another MIDI device, and a THRU passes information from the IN to another device.
Your needs will vary depending on how many MIDI devices you want to hook up to your Amiga, Remember that if a device has a THRU you can use that to "daisy chain" to another synthesizer, eliminating the need for an extra OUT on the Amiga's MIDI interface. Be sure to purchase a model appropriate for your computer (Amiga 1000 designs differ from Amiga 500 2000 interfaces). You will probably find a design that includes a serial port pass through to be most convenient.
The next pertinent question is what kind of synthesizer you need. This is a personal question. The a nswer depends on what kind of music you want to make, how you want to make it, and how much you can afford to spend. Persona! Taste has a lot to do with choosinga synthesizer. Still, there are a number of factors that are particularly important in choosing a synthesizer to work with a computer.
The first thing to consider is whether you need a keyboard. Wait! I thought all synthesizers had keyboards! Since the advent of MIDI, a number of manufacturers have begun making synthesizerswithoutkevboards.
These sound modules respond to MIDI data generated by either a computer or a keyboard.
The advantage is that you don't have to pay for a keyboard if you don't need one. Many professionals use one master keyboard, often referred to as a controller, to drive a whole bank of MIDI sound modules. It might be useful to think of a keyboard as a device that generates MIDI data and a sound module as a device that responds to MIDI data. A typical synthesizer includes both a keyboard and a sound module, and is thus capable of sending and receiving MIDI. If the extent of your music making is going to be typing scores into Deluxe Music Construction Set, you may find that a keyboard is
unnecessary. Examples of MIDI sound modules without keyboards are the Roland MT-32 and the EMU Proteus.
If you do need a keyboard, you should consider whether you need the full 88 keys.
Many synthesizers have only 61 keys to reduce costs. The keyboard should definitely be velocity-sensitive that is, the volume of the notes should change depending on how hard you strike the keys. Aftertouch is another useful feature. It measures how hard you press on the keys after they have been played. Aftertouch is typically used to apply effects to synthesizer notes. If you are an accomplished pianist, you may want to consider getting a good MIDI controller a keyboard which feels much like a real piano but which generates only MIDI data, not actual sounds, The next consideration is how
many voices the synthesizer can plav at once. There are two aspects to this. The first considers how many individual notes a synthesizer can make atone time. Many of today's synthesizers have 32 individual sound generators. While this seems like a lot, sometimes the best sounds on the synthesizer require as many as four sound generators. This reduces the number of availablenotestoeightatatime.Ifasynthesizer is multitimbral, it can plav more than one sound at a time. You can have one part of the synthesizer playing a bass sound, one part playing drums, and a third part playing a piano sound.
This is an extremely valuable feature for working with a computer. Most newer synthesizers are multitimbral,butsome older ones (like the Yamaha DX-7} are not.
Additional considerations include what kind of MIDI implementation the synthesizer has. Does it respond to the full spectrum of MIDI commands, on all channels? Will the keyboard only output on one channel? Most modern synthesizers will have a full MIDI implementation, but older models might not.
It is possible to get a synthesizer which has a velocity-sensitive keyboard, a full MIDI implementation, and multitimbral sound generators for under a thousand dollars. One thing you probably don't need is a sequencer that is built into the synthesizer. Sequencers that run on the Amiga are generally more powerful and easier to use than those built into synthesizers. Why pay forsomethingyou don't need?
All of these points are important, but the most crucial factor is how the synthesizer sounds. It doesn't matter how many voices a synth has ifyou don't like the sound. Use your own ears, and listen to as many different models as you can. Think about how you vvi 11 use it. Do you want to compose symphony scores? Then you will need a synth with realistic orchestral sounds. If you want to make top forty pop music, then you need a synth that can create those kind of sounds. Multitimbrality and MIDI implementation are important, but making interesting sounds is why synthesizers were invented. Next
time we'll look at the types of MIDI software available for the Amiga.
• AC* On The Road: Amiga '90, COMDEX, and The World of Commodore
Amiga THIS MONTH AC TRAVELED the globe in search of new' Amiga
products. From the latest in presentation and 3-D software to
the first public showing of CDTV, AC was there. Here is the
latest from Koln (Cologne), Germany's Amiga '90, to COMDEX in
Las Vegas, to the biggest Amiga event in North America, The
World Of Commodore Amiga in Toronto, Canada.
Koln, Germany Amiga '90 in Koln, Germany maintained its predominance as the world's largest show for the Commodore Amiga.
With over 150 exhibitors in two large exhibition halls presenting new and exciting products to the European Amiga market, Amiga '90 attracted over 60,000 attendees in four days, from November 8 to November 11.
Last year the show drew 38,000 people and was held in a 5,000-square-meter exhibition area. This year, AMI Shows was prepared for the enormous response. With an expected attendance of 50,000 to 60,000 people, AMI Shows placed the exhibition in two halis with a total of over 25,000 square meters. The larger halls also attracted more exhibitors. With one hall created predominately for the entertainment user and the larger hall set aside for the business and professional user, attendees were able to locate the companies and products they were most interested in.
Although Amiga '90 is predominately a German showcase of Amiga products, the number of North American companies who attended the Amiga '90 was amazing. Companies such as Gold Disk and Pulsar are now broadening their consumer base with offices in Europe and were well-represented. It was encouraging to see other companies either exhibiting on their own or with their German distributors. Great Valley Products, NewTek, Interactive Video Systems, Digital Creations, Blue Ribbon SoundWorks, ICD, Supra Corporation, OXXI Aegis, Applied Engineering, VidTech International, Memory World,
M. A.S.T. and Dr. T's Music Software were just a few of the
companies represented.
Eric Moody of Interactive Video Systems and John Botteri of Digital Creations teamed together to provide working demonstrations of Digital Creations' DCTV working in conjunction with the Trumpcard Professional from IVS. Although DCTV was not ready to ship (see the section below on DCTV at COMDEX), Trumpcard Professionals sold out during the four-day exposition.
Sharing space was a basic program during the event. Jeff Costello from Applied Engineering worked within Applied's distributor's booth offering product support to anyone who spoke English. Melissa Jordan Grey worked in one of her distributor's areas to demonstrate the tools and techniques created for music and multimedia presentations by The Blue Ribbon SoundWorks, Ltd.
Supra Corporation exhibited in a very large booth, demonstrating their product line at one end of the booth and selling products at the other end in conjunction with one of their German distributors.
New Supra products displayed included the SupraRAM 500 RX, an external memory board for the 500 expandable to SMB of RAM. Also new from Supra were several modems: the Supra Modem 2400 Plus, the SupraModem 2400 MNP, and the SupraModem 9600 Plus, a V .32 9600 bps modem with V .42bis which can run up to 19,200 bps. Supra also showed a pro to type of their Su praTurbo 040, a 68040 accelerator for the 3000. There was also talk of a new 24-bit color frame grabber from Supra. The product is rumored to digitize a full color video frame in 1 30 of a second and also digitize stereo audio.
Perhaps the best represented of the American hardware manufacturers was Great Valley Products. GVP not only had their top executives working with DTM, their distributor, in the second largest booth at the show (Commodore occupied the largest booth area), but they drew hundreds of attendees each day fora daily drawing of GVP hardware and accessories.
If there had been awards given for dedication and devotion to a company and product, one would surely have been presented to Kristine "Kiki" Stockhammer from NewTek. Ms. Stockhammer demonstrated NewTek's Video Toaster for three days to a growing number of attendees while addressing them in German. She then took a plane early Sunday morning and flew from Germany to Las Vegas.
From Monday to Friday she continued to give the same presentation to crowds of COMDEX attendees in English.
Aside from North American companies, there were several new introductions from European developers.
Real 3D is the newest release from Activa International B.V. The NTSC version will be available the first quarter of this year. Real 3D promises superfast 3-D ray tracing, solid modeling, texture mapping, and animation. The package comes in three versions. Real 3D Beginner is recommended for users with 1 meg of RAM or more who do not need the macro features found in the more expensive versions. Real 3D Professional was created for more intensive graphic sessions and requires a minimum of 3 meg of RAM and includes all macro segments. Real 3D Turbo is a professional package specifi
cally designed to assist professional users and take advantage of the higher speed capabilities of accelerator cards.
Activa promises that Real 3D is the fastest tool of its kind on the market. The demonstration given in Koln was impressive indeed. Wireframe drawings were created and manipulated in real time, while rendering 3-D images in a variety of resolutions was as easy as selecting options from a menu. Real 3D also contains software con trol and options to move you r created images (or the view point) along paths and automatically generate a series of frames for animations.
Scala by The Digital Vision Software Design Group is a fully interactive presentation program just made available to the European market. Scala offers the user a selection of backgrounds and special effects to create slide presentations to be performed on the Amiga. Special text tools allows the user to manipulate text and fonts in an almost endless variety. Scala will also import animations created on third-party animation programs. The entire end result is then presented by a script that the user has constructed through Scala's scripting language. Scala also comes with Scala Print which
creates a variety of different hard-copy formats on black & white, color, or even PostScript™ printers. Scala will not be available in an NTSC version until sometime during the first quarter of this year.
Martin Lowe of Amiga Centre Scotland made two very important announcements at Amiga '90. First, the ACS Harlequin 32-bit framebuffer will be available in the US sometime during the first quarter of this year. With 16,777, 216 colors, broadcast-quality output, full overscan, programming i n terf ace, a nd PA L or NTSC compatibility, the Harlequin can be used in interlace and non-interlace modes. ACS promises the Harlequin will be a "professional product for the professional user."
To promote this fact, the company has planned a series of upgrades including a video framegrabber, a CCIR 656 interface for 601 digital video, an Alpha channel addition, and a double buffering addition. To further the professional use of their product, ACS has made the Harlequin compatible with single film controllers, film recorders, the Harlequin genlock, PAL encoders, video printers,andassorted graphic input devices. The Harlequin has a suggested retail price in the US of $ 1395.00 with 1,5MB (it is expandable to 4 MB).
Second, Mr. Lowe announced the formation of GRAFEXA, GRAphics Extensions for the Amiga. This group of independent hardware and software developers met to establish standards for the Amiga to deal with more colors or higher resolutions than doesthestandard model.
According to their press release, "GRAFEXA will act as a forum for discussion of the requirements of the new standards and will circulate a newsletter which will include proposed ideas and comments." The organization wilt meet again during the European Developers Conference in Milano in February, 1991.
The large German hardware manufacturers, Rossmoller and Kupke, who have been exhibiting at American shows had enormous booths with plenty of traffic. Although there seemed to be no major announcements from these two competitors, activity at their booths was high.
Commodore held a magnificent presence at Amiga '90. Their large booth was populated by companies from Europe and North America. The area was constantly busy with people watching the large number of demonstrations.
Crowds gathered around Commodore's booth area to watch the large video wail overhead. CBM used the device to present animations and other Amiga-generated art. Although this was inspiring, the most fascinating thing was the large wall CBM had constructed around one segment of their booth.
Withina few hours of the first day for genera] admission, the Commodore-constructed wall was covered with graffiti.
Spray cans, magic markers, and just plain old pens were used to send messages from individuals or groups to the Amiga community. While some people used it for more profane correspondence, the wall represented the excitement and intensity of this market. The fascinating thing is not that people wrote on the wall, but that Commodore Business Machines of Germany had provided the space.
While some manufacturers used full- sized cars as input devices, others used simple mechanical arms to attract attention. Large video walls were used in several areas of the show, while other companies displayed their latest products in simple glass cases. The key impression from Koln was not its size in terms of vendors, nor its ability to attract the thousands of attendees, but the excitement that was generated as the attendees awed over the possibilities of their favorite computer.
Amiga art is expression from grafiti to saleable art to art and presentation packages, the Amiga inspires and enables them all.
Las Vegas, Nevada The Fall '90 COMDEX in Las Vegas was the largest exhibition of any type ever held in North America. Over 126,000 attendees came to see 1850+ exhibitors; even the number of press people hit an all time record of 1800! The Sands Exhibition Center was completed one week prior to the opening of COMDEX to bring the total exhibition area used by the show to 2,100,000 square feet. Although Commodore Business Machines and Amiga third- party developers did an excellent job of presenting and selling Amiga technology, make no mistake that COMDEX is mainly an event for IBM, PC
clones, and third- party supporters of PC-related products.
Even Apple Computer, which occupied a large booth area with a video wall and lecture center for COMDEX, only maintains a presence at COMDEX, reserving MacWorld as the primary theater for its largest marketing efforts.
Bill Gates, Chairman and founder of Microsoft Corporation, set the direction and focus of this year's COMDEX by showing tools and integrated packages for the future. According to Mr. Gates, computers need to makeapplications fully interactive and effortless for the user. Most of the advancements Mr. Gates demonstrated through a humorous look at a fictitious town were based on future Win- dows-style applications. Except for the touch-screen technology and the hardware that would allow users to actually sign and write information by hand, the basic attention was given to making ap
plications work efficiently together. Since this requires a simplified visual style interface, it is important to note that Mr. Gates's Microsoft Corporation has created one Windows for the PC.
Even theorganizers of COMDEX,The Interface Group, were searching for more ways to support and promote the Windows technology. They announced a concurrent show to be presented at the Spring COMDEX in Atlanta called Windows World '91. Windows World is a central area to gather independent companies who are creating products for the Windows enviornment.
David Archambault, Director of Business Markets for Commodore Business Machines, hosted the only Amiga - oriented panel on multimedia of the five multimedia conferences conducted during COMDEX. His guests included Alain Rossmann, Vice President of Marketing, Sales, and Operations at C-Cube Microsystems; Art Kaiman, Engineering Director of the Princeton Division of Intel Corporation; Kalish Ambwani, President of Gold Disk Inc.; and Tim Jenison, President of NewTek, Inc. In a forty-five minute presentation, each panel member demonstrated the progress their companies had achieved in
making multimedia more affordable and more possible than ever.
Tim Jenison presented NewTek's Video Toaster to create special effects in on-line video. Kalish Ambwani presented ShowMaker and its long list of features that allow the Amiga user to manipulate an entire presentation from several different sources and create a tape at a video facility in one take. Both Mr. Rossmanand Mr. Kaiman demonstrated the special properties of compressed video that they have been able to attain with their companies' hardware.
Commodore's flagship booth was host to several Amiga developers as they demonstrated the versatility of the Amiga.
Gold Disk maintained an area that specialized in music and presentation software. By using their Show Maker and Blue Ribbon SoundWorks' Tools, they were able to demonstrate the ease with which individuals can create presentations and full videos.
Digital Creations, placed strategically next to Gold Disk, performed special feats of magic with the tools and versatility of their new DCTV (Digital Composite Video), expected this month. DCTV displays full-color composite video and uses a proprietary compressed video system to generate stunning color, broadcast-qual- ity effects.
While DCTV is a great output device, it is also a slow scan video digitizer. With a color video camera, DCTV captures a full-color composite frame in 10 seconds which then can be manipulated or converted to IFF format. With the included DCTV paint, DCTV users have a truecolor video paint system. Special features have been added to the traditional paint system such as tint, shade, watercotor, blend, smooth, air brush, and a host of drawing features. With a suggested retailof$ 495.00, DCTV is an impressive addition to an Amiga artist's arsenal.
DynaCAD is the newest Amiga CAD package. It was demonstrated both at COMDEX and at WOCA by Ditek International. With a wide assortment of rich tools available, Ditek officials claim that DynaCAD is a truly professional CAD package. DynaCAD includes dimensioning, 3-D Hew capabilities, line weights and styles selection, text tools, on-line documentation, command history, and flexibility through its large number of user- specific menus. People gathered to watch as complex drawings were rotated in three dimensions. (Or were they waiting for copies of renderings of the Starship Enterprise
that was being printed on the plotter?)
Commodore displayed a new point- of-sale unit that was created for dealers with a laserdisk, and software to allow purchasers to use an Amiga to answer (contmtied on page 31) Sapphire 68020 68881 Unbeatable Retail price of $ 399.00!
Fits in the Amiga 1000, Amiga 5(*0 and Amiga 2000 computer systems.
Fits snugly in 6S000 processor socket!
Easy installation - Included i.s a disk with pictures, a text tile reader, and benchmark software to help with installation!
Factory installed 12 Mllz 32-bit 68020 and factory installed 12 Mhz 32-bit ( 8881 processors!
Speed increases of up to 2.•) tinters the .speed of a normal Amiga in integer, 3.2 limes the speed in floating point!
Small, compact size makes i! The smallest accelerator yet ¦ Only 3 I 8" ( 1 i" x 1 2" total size!
Not a psuedo accelerator, bin a true 32 bit accelerator card using 32 bit processors!
A full, one year warranty!
Workbench Management System Only $ 44.95 The Workbench Management System (WMS) is a revolutionary idea in software for the Amiga! WMS is based on a button concept where a simple click of a button launches your applications!
"U .1 3 is one of the most simple ami elegant systems for using the Amiga that ire bare seen '' - Amazing Computing - August 1990 Fight pre-programmed buttons including a text editor, calendar w reminder, phone book with dial, and more!
UNLIMITED programmable buttons!
Buttons can be assigned to any application on a floppy, hard drive, or network!
Launches multiple programs as last as you can click - no longer do you have to wail for application to load!
Free updates to all registered users - First major upgrade is also free!
MrBackup Professional Outstanding value at $ 54.95 MrBackup is the first full featured backup system for the Amiga utilizing the full potential of the Amiga! With over 60 Arexx™ commands, MrBackup gives the user the power to reacli beyond standard backup capabilities! The first full featured hard drive back up system with built in tape drive capabilities.
Will back up to floppy or SCSI streaming tape - tested with Commodore's A2091.
Full Arexx™ integration - Over 60 usable commands!
Utilizes the option to use standard AmigaDOS formats or our own FaslDOS format!
Has full built in file compression to save disk space - t J.ser selectable!
Uses AmigaDos intuition for full compatihiltiy and ease of use!
User can back up their system to four floppy drives!
System is compatible with versions 1.3 and 2.0 Amiga operating systems!
Memory Challenge Series 1 Now only $ 39.95 Memory Challenge is a new educational system for children ages 3 and tip which helps teach memory retention and memory recognition! Allows for the use of our supplementary data disks. It also allows parents to configure and enhance the program for their child's specific needs!
Easy to use point and click system - even the hard drive install is built in!
Has many different possible combinations tor playability!
The first part of the system has children match the blocks by sight, sound and shape.
The second part of the system lets the children put together the pieces of a picture just like a puzzle!
I las a built in help system in case the child gets stuck putting pieces together!
Allows parents to add their own special winning messages and standard IFF pictures!
Great price of $ 44.95 Brigade!
A new revolution in gaming software for the Amiga! Most war games work on a turn hv turn basis. Brigade brings you another step forward in quality by implementing real time action! Brigade offers excitement not found in other war game simulators. If you do not pay attention, you may lose the battle. You may take a break, but the computer does not. As you issue orders to units, the enemy may be bombarding!
Real-time game play The action never slops!
Built in scenario campaign editor create your own vehicles, weapons, platforms, aircraft, maps, and more!
Oversize map system allows battlefield to be as large as possible!
Full digitized sound and animated weapons firing!
Full control over units, their orders, and missions!
Editor creates maps, unit .spec sheets or full scenarios that can be traded with friends.
For more information on these and other exciting products, contact your local dealer or call: TTR Development, Inc. 1120 Gammon Lane, Madison, Wl 53719 608-277-8071 FAX 608-277-8073 Circle 164 on Reader Service Card Electronic Color Splitter An inexpensive way to grab quality images off video sources MicroSearch, Inc. has added a new product to their video line. Actually the product isn't entirely new, but is a reengineered version of a former SunRize Industries product. MicroSearch has taken the product and made it better (and raised the price a bit). If you have Digi-View or any similar
video digitizer, and are looking for an inexpensive way to grab quality images off video sources such as VCRs or laserdisc players, the Electronic Color Splitter may be just what you're looking for.
This is not strictly a review of the Splitter product. In this article I also include some simple hookup instructions for the Splitter and tips on using the Splitter to achieve the best results with the Digi-View digitizer.
The Splitter is not a video digitizer and it is not a framegrabber. You must own or purchase a video digitizer, and the image you are going to digitize from your video source must not move. For videotape sources, you need a very stable "freeze by Greg Epley frame" which requires a 3- or 4-head VCR.
I recommend a 4-head but you might be able to get by with 3; just make sure it has a verv stable freeze frame. As far as the digitizer, I use and highly recommend NewTek's Digi-View digitizer.
WHAT YOU GET The Electronic Color Splitter is enclosed in a small metal box (4.5" W x 1.5"H x 4.5"D). It takes the place of the color wheel normally used with a video digitizer and camera. You mustsupplva video signal from a VCR or some other stable video source in place of the camera. You also need a video digitizer such as Digi- View. The front of the unit has a single toggle switch for selecting the red, green, or blue portion of the video signal, and two knobs which control hue (color adjustment) and saturation (relativeamount of color to brightness). On the back are RCA video inputs
for chroma (color) and luma (brightness), an RCA video output which goes to your digitizer, a 9-pin auto connector whose use we'll cover later, and a power connector.
The Splitter draws its power from an included 15V DC power supply. The only problem I have with this is it's one of those AC-DC wall-tvpe transformers. If you use power strips to handle your equipment like I do, you'll soon find that vou can't plug two of those wall-transformers in beside one another, and further, one often blocks a usable outlet. Manufacturers should either do away with them and use a hard- wired plug with the transformer in the equipment or make power strips with more space between the outlets. Mv unit also included a small "dummy" RCAcon- nector plug which we'll discuss
later. The only instructions i could find was a sheet wrapped around the box, and it tells vou very little. So my first experience with the Splitter involved a lot of trial and error.
Still, this alone isn't reason enough to avoid the product, as you're about to see.
VIDEO STANDARDS, TERMINOLOGY, AND RESULTS Before we look further at the Splitter we need to discuss video standards, cover a little terminology, and explain why you get the results you do when digitizing from video sources (even with the most expensive equipment).
First, to simplify things. I'm only going to talk about video standards common in the United States. After all, this is an article about the Splitter, not about every video standard in use throughout the world.
There are currently two common videostandards in use in the United States; NTSC or "composite" video and S-Video.
Both carry the same information in different ways, and it's these differences that make one better than the other. Both carrv chroma (color) and luma (brightness) information (or signals). NTSC video combines thecolorand brightnesssignals,and ®®@ © ® (1 j Guom* IN -»«article fortue of “dummy"plug
(2) Lum» IN - from Video OUTon Video Soiree
(3) ISVDCIN ELECTRONIC ©AUTO IN - from Amiga Joyrtkk or 2nd M u*e
Part COLOR © Video OUT - to Video Djfjtarr IN SPLITTER ©
Video IN - from Spliuer Video OUT
(j) Video OUT - to Luai IN on Sputter S-Video
(T) Qtfwni IN - from Quoait OUT at Video Source mLumnIN - from
Lmai OUT on Video Source
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- from Amiga Jcyrtickor 2nd Mauc Pori
- U Video Digitizer IN
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sometimes one signal tends to "bleed" into the other. This
signal cross-interference is OK for viewing images but is
less desirable for other uses. S-Video, on the other hand,
keeps the color and brightness signals separated, and
provides a perfect video signal suitable forother uses.
You may see the color and brightness signals referred to as "Y C" signals; "Y" represents a combination of the luminance and sync (luma or brightness, and synchronization) signals and "C" represents the chroma (color) signal. VHS VCR's use NTSC video; S-VHS VCR's use 5-Video.
There are other video or tape formats that use S-Video, or a variation of it, but 1 prefer to focus on the more common consumer formats.
Now let's talk about video resolution. Resolution is simply the amount of video information whichcanbe displayed at one time. Resolution is usually specified by the number of lines which can be displayed, or by the number of "pixels" per inch (or square inch). Pixels are "picture elements" or the little dots that make up a video display; a "pixel" is a single dot. If you have been using an Amiga for some time you are probably familiar with another means of specifying resolution; the number of horizontal pixels by the number of vertical pixels, as in 640 x 400 or 352 x 480. There are
about 70 pixels per inch displayed in the Amiga's hi-res 640 x 400 mode. A standard color television set can display about 40 pixels per inch. Mv4- head VHS VCR can display about 35 pixels per inch. S-VHS VCR's offer somewhere near 50 pixels per inch or better.
The black-and-white Panasonic camera recommended for use with Digi-View offers about 600 lines of resolution. The theoretical maximum on the Amiga is about 540. A standard NTSC video source offers 525 lines but the resolution isn't really that good from the standpoint of a video digitizer. A single NTSC video frame (or display) is made up of 525 lines every 1 60th of a second. During the first 1 30th of that 1 60th, the first field of 262.5 lines is displayed with gaps every other line; during the second 1 30th of that 1 60th, the second field of 262.5 lines is "interlaced" or used
to fill in the gaps left by the first field. Those 262.5 lines are what your video digitizer sees. The only way around that is a more expensive product which that cause differences in final image quality, but those are beyond the scope of this article.
Now let's try to figure out what all those numbers reallv mean. Well, obviously the higher the resolution the better your image quality will be. So it's important to get the best resolution you can. The number of colors used in the image is also important. NTSC looks as good as it does because it uses millions of colors and you usually view images from NTSC video sources at some distance. Your eyes blend those millions of colors into "apparently" detailed images. S-Video also uses millions of colors but it also offers higher resolution. NTSC images have "apparent" detail or sharpness;
S-Video images have "truer" detail or sharpness. The image your digitizer gets when you grab an image off any video source is dependent on tire resolution offered by that source and the number of colors used in rendering the final image. If you digitize an image off a VHS VCR (about 35 pixels per inch), the image you end up with will look ca n capture both fields and combine them into one picture with 525 lines. So for purposes of digitizing off VCR's and laserdisc players that offer NTSC video, the resolution is about 262 lines. Now you can begin to see why images captured with the
Panasonic camera (600 lines) look so much better than images captured off a VCR (262 lines). Yes, there are other things NTSC Composite images on a standard Amiga, with an inexpensive digitizer (4,096 colors maximum displayed), to look as good as those on an Amiga with a 24-bit framegrabber or display board (16 million colors displayed).
HOOKING IT UP Figure One illustrates NTSC Composite and S-Video hookups for the Splitter. The Splitter has both chroma (color) and luma (brightness) inputs for handling the increasingly popular S-Video standard.
I'm sure you'll get some great images with it since S-VHS offers a better resolution over VHS.
For NTSC, you should only use cables specifically labelled "75 ohm" to connect your video source to the Splitter and the Splitter to your digitizer. For S-Video, you don't have to use 75-ohm cables since the signals are fed separately, although I would recommend using the best cables you can find. Audio video cable is not always true 75-ohm cable. Look for the cable rating on the packaging; if vou can't about as good whether you use a 320 pixel Amiga mode or a 640 pixel Amiga mode.
You still only see about 35 pixels per inch in either mode; they will be smaller in 320 mode and a bit fatter in 640 mode. Tire Amiga mode you choose to use depends on the resolution of your video sourceand on what you are going to do with the final digitized image. Likewise, don't expect ELECTRONIC COLOR SPUTTER ©@® ® © Jaxvakv 1991 27 find if, and don't feel absolutely certain that it is true 75-ohm cable, then please don't buy it! Keep your cable runs as short as possible; 3 feet is preferable; any more and you are risking signal loss or interference with anything less than S-Video. 1
strongly suggest vou avoid F-RCA adapters for standard 75-ohm cables. That's a messy connection and might introduce some interference. If you want to make your own cables, go ahead, but I think it's cheaper to buy them already made. Try to find cables in a discount department or wholesale store rather than a retail store.
You'll save yourself some money and the cables are generally just as good (sometimes better). If you happen to run into a streak of bad luck like I did, where everybody seems to be out of just what you need, you may have no choice but a retail store such as Radio Shack. In that case 1 recommend Radio Shack's 15-1518. This is a 3-foot, 75-olrm coaxial audio video cable with gold-plated RCA connectors on each end. You will need at least two for NTSC hookup and possibly more for S- Video. Most S-Video equipment either has a special S-VHSconnectoror chroma luma outputs. The special S-VHS
connector is impossible to find so you'll probably have to order a cable from the manufacturer of your equipment; just make sure it terminates in separate chroma and luma plugs on one end (for the Splitter). From what I've read, more manufacturers are using RCA or BNCchroma luma outputs on their equipment instead of the special S-VHS connec tor. If you 'rebuying S-Video COLOR RIBBONS & PAPER Colors: Black, Red, Blue, Green, Brown. Purple. Yellow Ribbons: T-Shirt price each Black Color Ribbons Brother 1109 34,95 S5.95 S 7.00 Citizen 200 GSX 140
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Equipment look for RCA connectors; they're much easier to buy for. You might also try the S-View cable from Software Sensations; this is an 8-foot S-Video cable which can be used with many Amiga S- Video compatible products. Ihaven'tseen an S-View cable so I don't know whatkind of connectors it has.
Make sure you have your video source on and have power applied to the Splitter before starling up your digitizing software. Otherwiseyou may experience some video synchronization problems. The Splitter doesn't have an on off switch so you'll have to unplug the wall transformer to turn it off. You don't need to leave the Splitter turned on to use your Amiga, or to use your digitizer if you disconnect it from the Splitter.
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For NTSC (or composite) video sources just connect the single 75-ohm RCA cable from your video source to the luma input on the Splitter. Here's where that "dummy" plug I mentioned earlier comes into play. Keep in mind this only applies to NTSC video sources. I have found, through much experimentation, that images generally come out clearer, sharper, and comparable in color and brightness to the original, if you put the "dummy" plug in the chroma input on the Splitter. Remember, the plug is only necessary if you are digitizing off NTSC video sources; S-Video sources should provide both chroma
and luma outputs and you should use both with the Splitter. Why do you need the plug with NTSC video? All I know is that when I digitize images from Recipe-Fax 2.0 With Complete Recipe Editing Environment, Serving Adjustments, Shopping list, Unit US Mctric Conversion, Printing ... $ 44.95 Also available Nutri-Fax, Variety & Dessert Recipe Disk Cookbooks.
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An NTSC source they look "washed out” without the plug. The hue and saturation controls on the Splitter let vou eliminate some of this "washed out" look; however, I prefer to leave these controls in their centra] positions. I've also found that I can't simply substitute another "dummy" plug of my own. All 1 do know is that it works and I get good images consistently.
GREAT OUTPUT You may find, as I did, that images J ' O digitized in any of the Amiga's overscan modes exhibit a horizontal band of interference about 12-15 pixels high across the very top of your picture. Since this band doesn't show up when displaying these images with software that properly handles overscan, it's not a serious problem. I bypassed the Splitter and found no change. I didn't have another stable video source to try with the Splitter, so the band may have something to do with the vertical adjustment in the video source, SOME HINTS FOR DIGI- VIEW OWNERS Your digitizer's
software controls may vary, but I can offer some tips for Digi-View owners. The "camera" requester has selections you will probably find yourself using quite often. The "position" slider can be used to make slight adjustments so that the picture you pick up looks approximately the same as the one from your video source. I monitor my VCR's output on a television set and use some objects near the edges of the picture FOR NEW u AMIGA gp9 USERS Ages 4 to 7 Learn the Alphabet and Have Fun Animation, Pictures, Letters, and Song $ 30,00 Check or COD - Maryland Residents Add 5% Dealer Inquiries
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As guides for the image on my monitor from the digitizer; just keep making red passes until you get it right. Incidentally, this brings up a point about using vour VCR as a video source. Most VCR's will only stay in pause (freeze frame) for 5 minutes to prevent damage to the tape or the VCR heads. That means you must work quickly. Even working as rapidlv as possible, I find it impossible to grab a Dynamic hi-res 704 x480 color image from my VCR due to the 5 minute time limit.
Vertical "position" adjustments have very little effect; horizontal adjustments are clearly evident. If you notice a fuzzy vertical area in your image when making your red pass, you can use the "tracking" slider to get rid of it; experience seems to be the best way to deal with it. Make sure that you have any tracking controls on your video source properly adjusted first.
You will want to use the "Slow Color Camera" capture mode for your final images although, just as with the Panasonic camera, you may find that "normal scan" works fine sometimes, and some digitizing modes won't let you use the slow scan.
1 currently digitize exclusively off tape from a 4-head VCR video source. The tips below are for VCR's but some apply to camcorders as well. Anything I can get on tape can be digitized with good results provided a few precautions are taken:
(1) Make sure the video heads of your machine are clean. Scotch,
for one, markets an inexpensive cleaning tape that lasts for
20 years of normal cleaning.
(2} Pre-recorded movies or other store-bought videos are mass duplicated and may contain some anti-copving scheme. Not the best choice for material if you can record the part vou need off a cable movie channel or use a laserdisc of the pre-recorded material.
(3) Stick with one brand of tape. I use the inexpensive Scotch EG
brand. You do not need those so-called "premium" or "top
grade" tapes, and in buying them, you are only wasting vour
money (see the report on "Video Tapes" in the September 1990
issue of Consumer Reports). The main thing is to stick to one
brand of tape.
(4) Record material in the two-hour SP mode, preferably on a new
tape or one that hasn't been used repeatedly.
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(5) Trackingadjustmentiscriticalto good VCR digitizing. The
following tracking adjustment works on 4-head VCRs that have
a double-speed plav and separate tracking controls for both
the VCRand slow-motion. Most 4-head VCRs have these controls
but mav refer to them differently. In double-speed (sometimes
called x2) play mode, adjust the VCR tracking so there is
very little or no distortion in the picture. Now go to
slow-motion piav and adjust the slow-motion tracking
control till you just begin to see distortion at the top of
the picture, then adjust it in steps till you just begin to
see distortion at the bottom of the picture, keeping count of
the number of steps.
Divide that number in half and adjust the slow-motion tracking up in that number of steps. Make sure you keep count of the number of adjustment steps required between distortion at the top of the picture and distortionat the bottomof the picture.
Halving this and adjusting back towards the middle gets as close as possible to the same tracking set when the tape was originally recorded.
6. Keep tapes wound to the end, and rewind them to the beginning
before using. This resets the tape tension and prevents
tape breakage. Periodically you should rewind and forward vour
tapes to eliminate the possible matting of the cassette.
Store tapes upright, never on their side, and always in a
case. These suggestions should keep your material in good
condition for several years should you want to use it again
later. Sometimes you'll follow every one of the above steps
and still end up with poor images. This can be due to any
number of factors: possibly a bad tape, possibly the weather
conditions (humidity, temperature, etc.), possibly a damaged
part or cable, or possibly some interference introduced when
you recorded the material on tape. Also you must remember
that images with fine detail, which look great moving on
your television screen, may not look as good standingstill on
your Amiga's monitor. In most circumstances you are seeing the
lower resolution of your video source close-up with fewer
colors than normal.
You may be wondering what that 9- pin connector on the back of the Splitter is for. MicroSearch sells a separate product called the Digitize Auto Cable which con- Ham It Up! (v. 1.02) Asixleen 256-color charts Displays and prints aN 4096 Amiga colors!
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Nects between your joystick (or second) mouse port and the auto connector on the Splitter. With this hookup vou can select the "Auto" digitize option from Digi-View for painless automatic digitizing. This would also cut down on the wear and tear on the toggle switch on the front of the Splitter. The literature I received on the cable makes the claim that the cable will "cut your color digitizing time in half".
The literature also says that the cable is "an electronic assembly" which hints that you can't simply make one with your own 9-pin cables (although for S49.95 I'm inclined to try). I've seen some amazing progress with Amiga products but, unless Micro Search has found some way to physically speed up your digitizers' scan speed, I'm skeptical of this claim. Your digitizing speed is ultimately tied to the digitizers' scan speed and not to this cable or the Splitter. To be fair to MicroSearch, this is my personal opinion, and is in no way intended to discourage anyone else from buying the cabie.
Frankly I'd rather spend the S49.95 for a good game or something else and replace the RGB switch on the Splitter when it wears out.
CONCLUSIONS using it is a nuisance, as is the wall-type power supply. Otherwise, the unit appears well-shielded, and delivers what MicroSearch promises. If you already own a video digitizer, or if you're just looking for something to get the job done on a tight budget, you can't beat the price and performance of the Electronic Color Splitter.
‘ -AC* The Electronic Color Splitter is an economical way to add the capability to digitize from a stable video source with the inexpensive digitizers in wide use. As long as true 75-ohm video cables are kept short for all connections the best possible results can be achieved. The lack of any instructions for hooking the unit up or PRODUCTS MENTIONED: Digitize Auto Cable Digi-View Price: $ 49.95 Price: $ 199.95 MicroSearch, Inc. NewTek, Inc. 9896 Southwest Freeway 215 SE Eighth Street Houston, TX 77074 Topeka, KS 66603 (713} 988-2819
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(213) 277-8272 Inquiry 217 Inquiry 219 (Show Reports, continued
from page 24) questions on what the Amiga can do. The
answers are pieces prepared by CBM ex- ecutives and
third-party officials specializing in different areas of
the Amiga.
VidTech representatives flew from Koln,Germany to Las Vegas forCOMDEX.
They occupied one area in Commodore's booth to demonstrate the graphics capabilities of their new VideoMaster.
VideoMaster is a video control box with genlock and RGB color splitting included.
VideoMaster includes a special effects generator with vertical interval switching, dissolves, and wipes. Priced at $ 1295, VidTech believes, "VideoMaster integrates in a single system all the functions necessary to transform the Amiga computer into a fully featured multimedia workstation without the use of the video slot."
The Col well General Inc. paint system kiosk was on display, showing how easily the color scheme for the home of your dreams could be generated in any paint store.
NewTek, Supra Corporation, Precision Inc., XYXtSCorp, and Konyo International (Golden Image) all had there own company booths in other parts of the exhibition.
Also, at the Riviera, was Scan Trac, a new device for making handscanners easier to use. Scan Trac, by Technology Enhancement Group, is aclear plastic track and holder for almost any standard hand scanner that will allow the user smooth and complete control over the scanning of any flat surfaced document. Priced at $ 39.95, Scan Trac is a relatively inexpensive addition to anyone's Amiga graphics tool list.
Toronto, Canada Once again, The World Of Commodore Amiga in Toronto (November 30 to December 2) was the biggest North American event of the year. With a full curriculum of seminars and self-help clinics, as well as a schedule of special product demonstrations held throughoutthe three- day event, WOCA provided the 32,000 attendees with a powerful exhibition.
Dealer sales were extraordinary, with many items having sold outby the middle of the second day of the show. Commodore Business Machines established an on-site warehouse to keep dealers stocked with Amigas. It worked. One dealer sold 72 Amigas in just the first two days.
WOCA began with a press breakfast on the first day of the event. After a few short remarks by Commodore Canada's departing President, James Dionne and an introduction of the new President, James McWhinnie, the meeting was moved to Commodore's large exhibition area on the show floor. Nolan Bushnell, General Manager of the Consumer Products Division atCBMdemonstratedCDTV for the first time to a large audience. Commodore Canada used WOCA to publicly announce and demonstrate the capabilities of CDTV. Over the next three days, Commodore personnel demonstrated CDTV and answered questions from
interested attendees.
CDTV (Commodore Dynamic Total Vision) is an interactive multimedia player that combines compact disc technology with an Amiga in a black audio video component-style box [please see related article in the July, 1990 issue of Amazing Computing]. All input can be handled directly right: Lake Forest Logic’s Macro Paint takes Amiga art to new heights, below: Intensity reflects in the faces of those gathered to see Disney’s Animation Studio in action.
Through a specially designed remote control. The player connects directly to a television set. Tom Shepherd, director of marketing at CBM Canada said, "CDTV is the next logical step in the evolution of consumer electronics. It provides capabilities far beyond any currently available entertainment or computer system, yet is remarkably simple to use. If you know how to change TV channels with a remote control, you can take full advantageof CDTV."
Mr. Shepherd, as well as a great many other CBM executives, spent a good deal of time at WOCA demonstrating CDTV and answering consumers' questions.
With 35 titles promised for the product launch early this year [see AC's interview with Nolan Bushnell on page96], CDTV will be a viable entertainment and educational system for the coming year.
Gold Disk demonstrated ShowMaker and the rest of their full line of Amiga products, while quietly showing a new software product, HyperBook, clearly aimed at the hypermedia and cardstack market for the Amiga. I-IyperBook is a hypertext product with extensive Arexx Only the “Amazing” AC family of Amiga publications gives you 3 great reasons to subscribe!
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Controls. HyperBook's full text formatting controls include left, right, center, justified, spacing, and leading and can be used on a single letter in a paragraph.
Extensive drawing tools have also been created to make designing your cards very easy. IFF pictures can be imported and manipulated for various uses including buttons. HyperBook promises tobea very nice program for the burgeoning hyperactive authoring market, and is due from Gold Disk in the first quarter of this year.
Lake Forest Logic's new MacroPaint was available for the first time at WOCA.
This new high-resolution paint system is a real eye-catcher. At £139.95, MacroPaint's 4096-color displays drew more than a few people to their booth.
Soft-Logic announced PageStream V2.1. V2.0 users will automatically be upgraded to V2.1; however, registered usersof PageStream versions prior to V2.0 will be charged $ 75 to upgrade.
Spirit Technology announced BYTE 'N' BACK as the "world's fastest hard drive backup utility." BYTE 'N' BACK is available directly from Spirit Technology for £69.00. TTR Development began shipping what promises to be a long list of new and diverse software. Workbench Management System V2.Q, the newest update to their popular WMS, contains eight built- in applications, an unlimited amount of programmable bu t tons, quick access t i me, and full Workbench 2.0 compatibility for $ 49.95. A young Amiga user tests her ability at TTR's Memory Challenge.
For children, TTR created the educational game Memory Challenge which requires memory skills in matching squares to uncover a puzzle beneath.
Memory Challenge utilizes the Amiga's speech capabilities to help children learn.
Parents are encouraged to help their children learn by editing the reward files and creating their own speech statements (S39.95). TTR continued with the announcement of the Teacher's Toolkit, available for $ 49.95. Teacher's Toolkit is a system for educators to manage time and students. This grade book system allows a teacher to make changes, keep notes, manipulate data, create graphs and more, while also providing the teacher with a built-in lesson planner.
In the game departmen t, TTR released Brigade, a real-time war simulation that does not wait for you to make your move.
All action is taking place simultaneously on the board. With a built-in editor and other features, Brigade ($ 44.95) is not for the slow and steady strategist. TTR also announced a series of new BattleTech Battleware modules. This series of modules allows users to create an entire universe of new BattleTech warriors.
TTR's most important advancement for Amiga users with disk drives was MRBackup Professional. Backups are permitted to floppy, hard drive, SCSI streaming tape, virtual file, etc. Priced at $ 54.95, MRBackup will work with your existing SCSI controller and most SCSI streaming tape drives.
Atonce is a new PC AT emulator fromTalon Technology, Inc. that fits in the memory expansion slot of the Amiga 500.
Due out this month, the Atonce board allows A500 users to partition hard drives for IBM PC use. Installation requires no soldering. Atonce can also be used by Amiga 2000 owners with the addition of a special adapter. At $ 299, Atonce may be the best answer some users can find for IBM-PC emulation.
In the graphics area, Walt Disney Computer Software demonstrated animation techniques with their new Animation Studio. Mew Horizons continued to demonstrate the features and answer questions regarding their new structured drawing program, Graphic Designer.
On the first night of the exposition, Commodore presented a special developers conference to keep developers current on the software tools now available through CATS. Jeff Scherb and Gail Wellington were present to introduce the assembled developers to the new products CBM is making available. Carolyn Scheppner was superb as she deftly went through the large amount of development tools she has been able to collect and distribute through the CATS program.
Wayne Beyea did not attend this year's developersmeetingashewas too busy running around the exhibition hall assisting everyone.
However, Wayne insisted that we place his name somewhere in this report. It is only fitting: he and everyone else involved with this show did a superb job. Ed, Companies Mentioned & The World Of Commodore Amiga Exhibitors Abacus Grand Rapids, Mi 49512 616-698-0350 inquiry *259 Accounl-Abiiriy
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Agincourt, Ont. MIW3G3 416-499-4292 Inquiry 265 Commodore Business Machines, Inc 1200 Wilson Drive West Chester. PA 19380 416-499-4292 Inquiry 265 Computer You 5230 Dundcs St. W Toronto, Ont, M98 1A8 416-231-0205 Inquiry 267 Computer Express 7050A Btamaleo Rd., Unit*13 Mississauga, Ont. L5S 111 416-672-5595 Inquiry 268 Computer Odyssey, Inc 1186 Slone Church Rd. E Hamillon, Ont. L8W 2C7 416-574-140!
Inquiry 269 Computer Variables 1535 Bayview Ave.
Toronto. Ont. M4G 3B5 416-481-6807 Inquiry 270 Comspec Systems 74 Wingoid Ave, Toronto, Ont. M6B IPS 416-785-3553 Inquiry 271 Creative Micro Designs 50 Industrial Dr. East Long Meadow. MA 01020 413-52543023 Inquiry 272 Datamax Research Corp. 809-77 finch Ave. E Toronto. Ont, M2N 4HB 416-250-7424 Inquiry 273 Digital Creations 28*5Sunrise Boulevard.Suite 103 Rancho Cordova, CA 95742 916-344-4825 Inquiry *309 Digital Vision Software Design Group M Hus N-23SO Brumunddol, Geimany 00 47 65 4 30 19 Inquiry 253 Disks & LobeJs To Go Rte. 206, East Hompton Business Perk Mt, Holly. NJC8G60
609-265-1500 Inquiry 274 Ditek International 2651 John St. Markham, Ont., Canada L3R 2W5 416-479-1993 Inquiry *310 Dr. T's Music Software, Inc. 220 Boylslon SI. 306 Boston MA. 02167 617-244-6954 Inquiry 311 Electronics 1001 Ltd.
4744 Yonge St. Willowdole, Ont. M2N 5M6 416-229-2700 Inquiry 275 Electronic Zoo 3431-A Benson Ave.
Baltimore, MD 21227 301-646-5031 Inquiry 276 Erm Inc. 37 Washington St. Metrose.MA 02176 617-6*2-93*3 Inquiry 277 First Call Computer Accessories 410 Adelaide St. W Ste, 305 Toronto. Ont, M5V 1S8 416-360-7628 Inquiry 278 Free Spirit Software
P. O. Box 128.58 Noble SI, Kutitown, PA 19530 215-683-5609
Inquiry 279 Gold Disk, inc. 5155 Spectrum Way. Unit 5
Mississauga. Ont. L4W 5A1 416-6O2-40CO inquiry 280 Great
Volley Products 600 Clark Ave, King cf Prussia, PA 19406
215-337-8770 Inquiry 281
ICD. Inc. 1220 Rock Street Rockford, IE 61101 815-968-2228
Inquiry 312 Interactive Video Systems 7245 Garden Grove
Blvd., Ste. E Garden Grove. C A 92641 714-890-7040 Inquiry
313 Kowal Canada Music 6400 Shawson Dr. Mississauga, Ont.
L5T 118 416-670-2345 Inquiry 282 Konyo International, Inc.
1073 North Batavia Street, Suite B Orange. CA 92667
800-356-5178 Inquiry 314 Lake Forest Logic, inc. 28101
Ballard Rd.. Unit 3 Lake Forest. IL 60045 708-816-6666
inquiry *283
M. A.S.T. Memory and Storage Tecnnology. Inc. 1395 Greg Street
Sparks. NV 89431 702-359-0444 Inquiry 315 Memory World 2476
Croyden Ct. Bensalem. PA 19020 215-741-6225 Inquiry 285 Merit
Software 13635 Gamma Rd. Delias. TX 75244 214-385-2353 Inquiry
286 Mlgraph. Inc. 200 S, 333rd St. Ste. 220 Federal Way, WA
98G03 206-828-4677 Inquiry *287 Mindwcre Internationa!
110 Dunlop St. W. Box 22158 Same, Ont. L4M 5R3 705-737-5998 Inquiry 280 New Horizons 206 Wild Basin Rd. Auslin.TX 78746 512-328-6650 Inquiry *289 Newtek 215 E. sm St. Topeka, KS 66603 913-354-1146 Inquiry 336 North American Software Distributors 33 Alliance Blvd., Unit 1 Bertie. Ont. 14M 5K2 705-737-5279 Inquiry *290 NTC Software 19 Passmore Ave. 8 Scarborough, Ont. M1V 2R6 416-292-9000 Inquiry *291 OXXI Aegis Development 1339 E. 28th Street Long Beach. CA 90806 213-427-1227 Inquiry 317 Parsec, inc.
P. O. Box 111 Salem, MA 01970 617-592-1733 Inquiry *292 Precision
Software, Inc. 8404 Sterling St. Suite A Irving. TX 75063
214-929-4888 Inquiry 318 Pre’spect Technics. Inc. 1085 St.
Alexandre, Sid. 500 Montreal. PQ H2Z 1P4 514-954-1483 Inquiry
293 Pulsar international 414 Maple Ave.
Was!bury, NY 11590 516-997-6707 Inquiry 294 Seven Seas software. Inc.
P. O. Box 1451 Port Townsend. WA 93368 206-385-1956 Inquiry 295
Sierra On-Line
P. O. Box 485 Coorsegold, CA 93644 209-683-3472 Inquiry *296
Soft-Logik Publishing Canada Box 20* Whitby, Ont. LIM 5S1
416-6*8-1468 Inquiry 297 Softscape 3044 BloorSt.W Etobicoke.
Ont. MSX 1C2 416-233-3524 Inquiry 296 Spirit Technology 8345
E. Fifth PI.
Tulsa. OK 74112 918-834-2509 Inquiry 299 Supra Corporation 1133 Commercial Way Albany, OR 97321 800-727-3772 Inquiry 319 TolonTechnology. Inc 243 N. Highway 101, Suite 11 Solona Beach, CA 92075
(619) 792-6511 Inquiry *322 Technology Enhancement Group 2710 N.
Berkley Orange, CA 92665 Inquiry 321 Thornhill Computers
7323 Yonge St. Thornhill, Ont. L3T 2B2 416-886-2494 Inquiry
*300
T. T.R. Development 1120 Gammon Ln. Mcdison. WI53719 608-277-8071
Inquiry 302 Utilities Unlimited 15 Kappele Circle Unil *7
Stratford. Ont. N5A5M1 519-271-6082 Inquiry 303 VidTech
International. Inc. 2822 NW 79th Avenue Miami, FL 33122
305-477-2228 Inquiry 320 Walt Disney Sollware 270 Rexdale
Blvd.
Etobicoke. Ont. M9W 1R2 416-743-5552 Inquiry 304 Xetec, Inc. 2804 Arnold Rd. Salina, KS 67401 913-8274)685 Inquiry 305 AC Disks Source code and executable programs included for all articles printed in Amazing Computing.
AC V3.8 and V3.9 Gels In MulliForth Paris I & II: Learn how ;o use Gels in MultiForth. Author: John Bushakra FFP & IEEE: An Examp’e of using FFP a IEEE rcath routines in Modula-2. Author: Steve Faiwiszewski CAI: A Computer Aided Instruction p'ogram with editor written in AmigaBASiC. Author: Paul Casionguay Tumblin' Tots: A complete game written in Assembly language. Save the falling babies in this game.
Author: David Ashley Vgad: A gadget editor that allows you to easily create gadgets. The program then generates C code mat you can use in your own programs. Author; Stephen Vermeulen MenuEd: A menu editor that allows you to easily create menus. The program then generates C code that you can use in your own programs. Author: David Pehrson Bspread: A poweriul spread sheet program written in AmigaBASiC. Author: Bryan CateJy AC V4.3 and V4.4 Fractals Part I: An introduction to the bases of fractals with examo'es in AmigaBASiC, True BASIC, and C. Author: Paul Castonguay Shared Libraries: C source
and executable code that show’s the use of shared libraries. Author: John Baez MultiSort; Sorting and intertask communication in Modula-2. Author: Steve Faiwiszewski Double Playfield: Shows how to use dual playfields in AmigaBASiC. Author: Robert D’Asto
• 681 Math Part I: Programming the 68831 math coprocessor chip n
C Author: Read Prednore Args: Passing arguments to an Amga3AS'C
program from the CLI. Author: Brian Zupke AC V4.5 and V4.6
Digitized Sound: Using the Audio.device to play digitized
sounds :n Modula-2. Author: Lett A. White '881 Math Part II:
Pad II of p'ccra™ ing the 68831 math ccprocessor chip using a
fractal sample.
Author: Read Predmore A! Your Request; Using the system-suppl ed requestors from AmigaBASiC, Author: John F, Weiderhirn Insta Sound: Tapping sound from AmigaBASiC using the Wave command. Author: Greg Stringfeilow M101 Out: A MIDI program that you can expand upon. Written in C. Author: Br. Seraphim Winslow Diskless Compiler: Selling up a compiier environment that doesn’t need floppies. Author: Chuck Random s AC V4.7 and V4.B Fractals Part II: Part II cm fractals and graphics on the Amiga in AmigaBASiC ardTrue BASIC.
Auto-; Paul Castonguay Analog Joysticks: The cede lor earn ana kj joystcks on the Amiga. Written in C. Author; Da d Kirzen C Notes: A small program to search a l ie for a specific- siring in C. Author: Stephen Kemp Better String Gadgets: How ;o "dp lee pone- of suing gadgets in C. Author: John 3us.iak.-a On Your Alert: Using me system's alerts i'om AmigaBASiC. Author; John F. Wecem rn Batch Files: Executing balci hies from AmigaBASiC. Author: Mark Aydelfatie C Notes :Tre tseg'nnirg c‘ a utility program in C. Author: Sleohen Kemp AC V4.9 Memory Squares: Tssi your memory with tbs AmigaBASiC
game. Author: Mike Morrison High Octane Colors: Use dithering in AmigaBASiC to get tne appearance of many more colors.
Author: Robert D'Asto Cell Animalion: Using cell animation in Modula-2. Author: Nicholas Ci'asei’a Improving Graphics: Improve tne way your program looks no matter what screen it opens on. In C. Author: Richard Martin Gels in Multi-Forth-Part 3: The third ard final par, on using Ge s in Forth, Author; John Bushakra C Notes V4.9: Look at a simple utility program in C. Author: Stephen Kemp 1 D_CelJs: A program that simulates a one-dimensional cellular automata. Author: Russell Wallace Colourscope: A shareware program that shows different graphic designs. Author: Russell Wallace ShowlLBM: A
program that displays lo-res. H -res. Interlace and HAM IFF pictures. Author: Russell Wallace LabyrinlhJI: Roll playing text adventure game. Author: Russell Wallace Mosl: Text file reader that wJ cisofay ore or more files. The program will automatically forma: the text for you.
Author: Russell Wallace Terminator: A virus p'otecticn program. Author; Russet Wallace AC V4.10and V4.11 Typing Tutor: A program written in AmigaBASiC that will help you improve your typing. Author: Mike Morrison Glatt’s Gadgets: Usirg gadgets in Assembly language. Author: Jeff Glatt Function Evaluator: A program that accepts mathematical functors and evaluates tnem. Written in C. Author: Randy Finch Fractals: Part III: AmigaBASiC code shows you how to save load pictures to disk. Author: Paul Castonguay More Requestors: Us ng system calls in AmigaBASiC to build requests. Author: John WiederNm
Mulll-Forlh: Implementing the ARP library from Forth. Author: Lonnie A. Watson Search Utility; A file search utility written in C. Author: Stephen Kemp Fast Pics: Re-writing the pixel drawing rou:ins in Assembly language for speed. Author; Scott Sfeinman 64 Colors: Using extra-half-brite mode in AmigaBASiC. Author: Bryan Catley Fast Fractals: A fast fractal p'ogram written in C with Assembly language subroutines.
Author: Hugo M. H. Lyppens Multitasking in Fortran: ah the hard work is done here so you can multitask in Fortran. Author: Jim Locker 7 AC V4.12 and V5.1 Arexx Part II: Information on how to set up your own Arexx programs with examples. Author: Steve Gi;mor Leggo My LOGO: A Logo program that generates a Christmas tree with decora* ons. Author: Mike Morrison Trees and Recursion: An introduction to binary trees ana how to use recursion. Written m C. Author: Fo'est Arnold C Notes: A look at two data compressing techniques in C. Author: Stephen Kemp Animation? BASICally: Using ceil animation with
AmigaBASiC. Author: Mike Morrison Menu Builder: A utility to help build menus in your own programs. Written in C. Author: Tony Preston.
Dual Demo; Hew to use dual playfields to make your own arcade games. Written In C. Author: Thomas Eshe'man.
Scanning the Screen: Pah four in the fractals series Tr's article covers d'awrg to re sc'esb h AmigaBASiC and T BASIC. Author: Paul Castonguay.
C Notes: Recursive functions in C. Author: Stephen Kemp.
8 AC V5.2 and V5.3 Dynamic Memory!: Flexible string gadget requester using dynamic memory allocation. Author: Randy Finch.
Call Assembly language from BASIC: Add speed to your programs with Assembly. Audio:: Martr F. Combs.
Conundrum: An AmigaBASiC program that is a puzzle-like game, similar to the game Simon. Author: Dave Serger.
Music Tiller: Generates a titter display to accompany the audio on a VCR recording. Author Brian Zupke C Holes From the C Group: Writing functions that accept a varable number of arguments. Author: Stephen Kemp Screen Saver: A quick remedy to prolong the life of your monitor. Author: Bryan Catley 9 AC V5.4 and V5.5 Bridging The 35" Chasm: Making Amiga 3.5" drives compatible with IBM 3.5" drives. Author: Karl D. Belsom.
Ham Bone: A neat program that illustrates programming in HAM mode. Author: Robert D'Asto.
Handling Gadget and Mouse InluiEvenls: More gadgets m Asser.b y language. Author: Jeff Glatt.
Super Bitmaps in BASIC: Holding a graphics display larger than the monitor screen. Author: Jason Car;1.'
Rounding Off Your Numbers: Programming routines to make rounding your numbers a little easier.
Author: Sedgwick Simons Mouse Gadgets: Faster BASIC mouse nput. Author: Michael Fahrion Print Utility: A homemace print utility, with some exha added ‘satires. Author: Brian Zuo-te Bio-feedback Lis detector Device: Su ’d your own lie detector device. AuthO' John lev re.
Do It By Remote: Build an Amiga-operated remote controller for your home. Author: Andre Thebergc- AC V5.6 and V5.7 Convergence: Part live o‘ the Fractal series. Author: Paul Castongjay Amiga Turtle Graphics: Ccmpu'.er graphics ana programing with a LOGO-like graphics system.
Author: Dylan MnNamee C Notes: Doing linked list an-d doubly linked lists in C. Author; Stephen Kemp Tree Traversal & Tree Search: Two common methods ‘or traversing trees. Author: Forest W. Arnold Exceptional Conduct: A quick response to use' requests, achieved through efficient program logo.
Author: Mark Cashman.
Getting to the Point: Custom Intuition pointers in AmigaBASiC. Author: Robert D’Asto Crunchy Frog II; Adding windows and other odes and ends. Author: Jim Rore Synchronicity: Right and left brain lateralization. Author: John lovine C Notes From the C Group: Doubly linked lists revisited. Author: Stephen Kemp Poor Man’s Spreadsheet: A simple spreadsheet p'ogram that demonstrates manipulating arrays.
Author: Gerry L. Penrose.
AC V5.8, V5.9 and AC V5.10 ; I Fully Utilizing the 68081 Hath Coprocessor Part III: Timings and Turbo_PI*el Function, Author: Read Predmore.
T I C Holes From the C Group 5.815.10: Funetoos supporting doubly Hrkes Fss. And a program that wil examine an
• archive file and remove any fjes ;nai nave been extrscteo.
Author: Stephen Kemp Time Outi: Accessing the Amiga's system
timer device via Mcdj!a-2. Author; Mark Cashrran
Stook-Portiotio: A program to organize aid track investments,
rttvsc libraries. Maii;ng lists. Etc. h AnicaEASiC Author: G.
L. Penrose.
CygCC:An Arexx programming tutorial. Author: Duncan Thomson, Programming In C on a Floppy System: Beer a develop crcgrams in C with is; one megabyte at RAM Author: Paul Miller. ' Koch Flakes: Using the preprocessor to organize your programming. Author: cau! Castonguay Audiollluslon: Experience an amazing audio illusion generated on the Amiga in Benchmark Modula-2.
Author Crag : „ Pictures: IFF pictures from past Amazing Computing Issues.
AC V5.11, VS.12 & V6.1 Keyboard Input In Assembly: Fourth in a series of Assembly 68000 programming tutoria's. Author: Jeff Giult A Shared library tor Matrix Manipulations Creadrg a shared Sraty can be easy. Author: Randy Finch, C Notes From The C Group: A discussion on cryptography. Autnar: Stephen Ke.-p ZoemBox: Attaches a zoom box to an Intuition window and atoms me use- to teggfe the window's size and its position. Au3".or: John Leecard For PDS orders, please use form on page 95. Visa and MasterCard available.
By John Si oilier CORRESPONDENCE FROM readers this month includes several Email letters.
George Kerber of Aurora, Colorado writes in regards to problems he has been having with Lake Forest Logic's Disk Mechanic.
Specifically, he is having problems with the TuneUp program, a disk defragmentation utility. He notes, "All it seems to do to my disks is to destroy the structure and cause me to reformat and reload." Mr Kerber adds that he wrote two letters which were never answered.
After calling numerous times, Lake Forest Logic sent him two upgrades, but the program still doesn't work properly. If you have Disk Mechanic and use the TuneUp program successfully, please let me know what you are doing to make it work for you. I'll pass the information along to Mr. Kerber.
BRAD SCHENCK, AN ARTIST of some renown who works extensively with Amiga graphics and animation, has requested that I mention the fourth annual Bit.Movie computer graphics festival and animation contest, to be held in Italy. The entry deadline is in March and the contest is open to all. Last year, Mr. Schenck believes he was the only American entrant and he writes that they would like to have more American artists participa te this year.
You may find out more about the contest by contacting Adriatic Coast Amiga Users' Chib, cjo Carlo Mainardi, via Bologna, n.13, 47036 Riccione, Italy, telefax (0541) 601962.
LELAND HOSFORD writes of some problems with PageStream 2.0. He can replicate one of the problems by following a specific sequence of operations as follows: open PageStream 2.0, select "new" from the "files" menu, create an 8-1 2" x 11" document, select "snap to grid” from the "layout" menu, select "show 200%'' from the "view" menu, select the "column" gadget and create a column 1 4" high x 2" wide, select the "text" gadget and enter "a string of text", use cright amiga -A to "select all", select "fonts points" from the "style" menu, and change the font to CS Triumvirate-Normal-18.
1 passed along the information to Soft Logik via one of their beta testers. If you can either help with this problem or if you cannot duplicate the problem with the above sequence, drop me a line, and I'll pass the information along.
TOM DAIGON WRITES via CompuServe Email abou t a problem he is having with MusicX version 1.1. According to Mr. Daigon, 'The problem is the new version's inability to transmit sysex info to my sound module. Music-X 1.0 has no problem doing this function." He adds, "Sysex is a way to store info that describes the instruments and their many settings within a track in the sequencer. When the MIDI composition is played back to the sound module, the sysex automatically reminds the synthesizer or sample player what instruments to use and how to configure them. I can boot up version 1.0 and it
works likea charm, but not 1.1He goes on to say that Microillusions is aware of the problem, and has sent him an interim upgrade. He comments however, that the bug still hasn't been fixed. If you have found any workarounds or have a solution to this problem, please let me know.
LAST MONTH I REPORTED on "problems" with Amiga Vision and overscanned screens under Workbench 2.0. As it turns out, there was no problem. I have several AmigaVision applications that use overscanned screens which run properly under Workbench 1.3, yet when run under Workbench 2.0, the display gets cut off. The problem in this case was simply my misunderstanding of how Workbench
2. 0 handles overscan. It turns out that you must set the maximum
overscan height and width from one of the Preferences gadgets
and, on the A3000 I have been using, it had never been set
large enough to display an entire overscanned screen.
Once I discovered and corrected this, AmigaVisiondisplayed fully overscanned screens.
While on the topic of Workbench 2.0, Amiga 3000 dealers have received an upgrade. The single-disk upgrade is Workbench version 2.02, and includes an install script that makes installation of the upgrade rather painless. The upgrade arrived with a letter authorizing dealers to provide a no-charge upgrade to A3000 j"VE STOCK CONNECTORS"1 Id-slbs 19-15-19-23-25-37 ; DIN'S 3-4-5-6-7-8-13-14 MINI DINS 3-4-5-6-7-8-9 I I Many other styles also in stock ¦' Ready made and Custom cables ] Switch boxes. Fans, Spray Chemicals j IC Sockets. Gender Changers, & more.. I CALL OR WRITE FOR FULL CATALOG
| BENETECH ELECTRONIC SUPPLY : 1655 "B" HICKORY DR. HOLTOM CUT, TX 76111 1-800-783-8703 Circle 106 on Reader Service card.
Owners who request it. Dealers are authorized to charge only a modest fee to cover the cost of any diskettes they provide.
Commodore Business Machines, 1200 Wilson Drive, West Chester, PA 193S0. (215) 451-
9100. Inquiry 200 A NOTICE LEFT ON People Link advises Power
Pinball users that there is an upgrade available to
registered owners. If you are having problems with bumpers
vanishing during editing or after creating events with new
lights, you should get the upgrade. There is no charge for
the upgrade if you send KarmaSoft the original Power
Pinball game disk along with a note containing your request
for the upgrade and your return address. Karma Soft,
P. O. Box 1034, Golden, CO S0402,(303) 277-
1241. Inquiry 201 MICROBOTICS HAS RELEASED version 1.9 of the
driver for its high-speed HardFra meSCSI interface. The new
driver provides improved reliability, greater compatibility
with a wider selection of SCSI hard drives, and Workbench
2.0 compatibility. Also included is improved support for
removable media such as the Syquest drives. Owners of
removable drives can run a new background utility called
DCHANGE and platter change activity will automatically be
sensed. The driver is shipped on an EPROM chip ready for
installation on the HardFrame circuit board. A new
graphical interface is found on the improved RDPrep
utility. Upgrades are available for $ 49.00 plus $ 2.00 ship
ping and handling $ 12.00 shipping outside North
America). Mark the outside of your envelope Attn: HardFrame
Driver
1. 9. MicroBotics, Inc., 1251 American Parkway, Richardson, TX
75081,(214) 437-5330.
Inquiry 202 QUARTERBACKTOOLS from Central Coast Software is now shipping. This program provides several disk optimizing and troubleshooting utilities. Owners of version 1.0 have been asked to contact Central Coast Software via a special bulletin board number so that they may download the latest version of the software, version 1.2A. You may use any modem speed up to 19.2 Kilobaud when connecting. When you connect, leave a message for the sysop requesting a tools conference. In vour message, be sure to mention your serial number. If the sysop is available, he will authorize the download
immediately;otherwise, he will authorize your download as soon as he becomes available. If you don't have a modem available, call Central Coast Software on their voice line, and they will provide details on how you can upgrade your version 1.0 Quarterback Tools.
According to Betty Chamberlain of Central Coast, version 1.2A is solid. The only known problem is that BlitzDisk,a utility available from another manufacturer, must be shut off for Quarterback Tools to operate properly. Central Const Software, 424 Vista Avenue, Golden, CO 80401, (303) 526-1030 (voice line), (316) 686-0870 (BBS number for upgrade). Inquiry 203 APPLIED ENGINEERING has announced an upgrade to the driver software for the AEHD (high density) Amiga drive. The upgrade addresses compatibility problems associated with CrossDOS version 4.0, and now allows Quarterback version 4.2
or later to automatically ejecta high density disk when it's filled to its
1. 52MB limit. There is also a program included on the upgrade
disk called EjectKey that provides the user with a hot key
sequence that allows disk ejection from the keyboard. The
driver is currently being shipped with all AEHD drives, and is
also Workbench 2.0-compatible. Applied Engineering's upgrade
policy on this utility is for you to contact the local dealer
where you purchased the drive. The upgrade is available at
no charge (except possibly for media, depending upon your
dealer.) If you wish, you may order the driver directly from
Applied Engineering; however, they have a standard 515.00
upgrade handling fee which must be included with your order.
Applied Engineering, Box 5100, Carrollton, TX 75011,
(214) 241-6060. Inquiry 204 TTR DEVELOPMENT has upgraded its
Workbench utility, the Workbench Management System
(formerly the Time Waste ManaeementSvstein), to version
2.0. WMS Q J is a utility that presents buttons on the
Workbench screen that perform several different functions.
Built-in functions include a memo pad, phone book and ap
pointment calendar, among many others.
The program can also show pictures, read text, and execute your most-often-used program files at the click of a mouse button. Version 2.0 has many enhanced features, and is now completely user- configurable. You can set up several panels that contain buttons to call up your favorite software. The program i; now also compatible with Workbench 2.0. The program upgrade is being shipped to registered users who request itforonly $ 10.00 (to cover the cost of the new manual and shipping). To obtain your upgrade, send to TTR Development your original disk and your registration card (if you
didn't already send it) with a return address and the $ 10.00 upgrade fee. TTR Development, 1120 Gammon LN,Madison, W153719, (60S) 277-8071. Inquiry 205 THE RIGHT ANSWERS GROUP has announced an improved version of The Director, its presentation development language [see Animation Chart, pp. 55-5S, for features listing]. According to a press release, the upgrade includes several new features and modules. The program now comes with a full-featured script editor, automatic buffer handling, and complete Workbench operation. There is a Iso a new sound module, and the SMUS, IFF, and FileReq
modules have been improved.
Users of The Director Version 1 can upgrade to the latest version for $ 60.00, plus $ 10.00 shipping and handling. The Right Answers Group, Box 3699, Torrance, CA 90510, (213) 325-1311. Inquiry 206
• AC* If you have any workarounds or bugs to report, or if you
know of any upgrades to commercial software, you may write to
John Steiner, cjo Amazing Computing, P.O. BoxS69, Fall River,
M l 027220-0?69 ...or leave Email to Publisher on People Link
or 73075,1735 on CompuServe.
44]y[ -1 - C ••• See how easy it is to create character animations!
Disuey* K Wliy? Because it’s “Onion skin” technology and THE TRADITION THAT IS DlSNEY MAKE The Animation Studio a classic CHARACTER ANIMATION PROGRAM.
Top: Tweedle-dee and Tweedle-dum “squash and stretch" in one of several included Disney animations, bottom: “Onion skin” feature displays up to four frames simultaneously for more fluid animations.
Disney and its new software division have certainly s made a splash in the Amiga community with The I Animation Studio, a package that takes a tradi- S tional approach to this fascinating art form. Tradi- f tional in the sense that unlike most Amiga animation programs filled with special effects this flexible program provides you with your own pendl pen & ink studio for creating cartoon animations. There are even options to add sound effects and music!
The package includes a separate "Getting Started" manual perfect for those who want to dive right in and get results fast. The "User's Guide" is much more detailed and even provides a short history of animation and the Disney approach to it. Presented are explanations about creating rough drafts of your characters and the need to constantly refine them; the manual stresses the importance of creating personality in characters through development of certain physical characteristics.
The storyboard is described as a road map that guides the animation artists from scene to scene. Background art layouts and the importance of character emotions and expressions are also touched upon. There is even a brief look at the role computers Jaxvaky 1991 39 have had in aiding Disney artists during the creation of some of their memorable feature films.
The two main parts of the program itself are Pencil Test and the Ink & Paint workshop. The two can run as one program, or can be run separately for 512K users.
Most projects begin on the Pencil Test screen. The DeluxePaint-style interface is easy to get around in, with lots of keyboard equivalent commands. Basic drawing commands such as freehand line, dotted line, line, curve, circle, ellipse, rectangle, text (with Amiga font support), pick-up brush, clear, undo, magnify, and zoom are all here. There are also gadgets that let you copy brushes to and from a buffer, delete and insert cels, move forward and backward through the cels, and play your animation.
The Disney tradition is perhaps most evident in The Animation Studio's "onion skin” technology.
HAM) with user-definable cel sizes, including standard and severe overscan.
Once you have created your black-and-white "pencil" animation, you move into a section of the program called the "Exposure Sheet". This is the "master mind" part of the program, where you enter commands to control the timing of theanimn tion and cel order, as well as the cueing of music and sound effects to come in at exact places.
Plenty of sound effects are included and there is also support for .INSTR sound files, as well as SMUS and SON1X song files. Speaking of support, the ANIM file format and IFF format are also fully compatible with The Animation Studio, permitting file interchange with dozens of Amiga programs.
The Exposure Sheet is the least glamorous part of the program, but also the most important. It is basically a text script template that triggers various events in your animation, like After you draw one frame and click ahead to draw the next, the onion skin effect lets you see the first frame "ghosted” in light grey. This allows perfect accuracy when drawing changes from frame to frame. You can see up to four frames at once,in fact, and can even adjust the colors and intensities of the ghosted frames.
This technology mirrors in the Amiga the method that Disney animators use when creating cartoons. T ranslucent pieces of paper are drawn on and flipped back and forth by the artist to make sure the movement is smooth and follows the intended direction from one frame to the next. The Disney animators draw the key frames and poses in the various scenes, and then pass them on to the "in-betweeners", who fill in all the action in between. The "onion-skin" technique is what sets this program apart from most other character animation programs. Being able to see one or more previous frames is
essential to creating smooth, fluid character movements and motions.
Fade-in commands allow you to adjust how transparent (or how dark) your ghosted cells are. Other commands include a clean-up feature to remove stray pixels (good for digitized pics), coordinates, copy paste, resize brush, rotate brash, halve brush, double brush, wider brush, taller brush, anv-size brash, and flip brush horizontal vertical. Frame rate control is excellent, allowing you to set any frame rate and enforce it so an animation will run at a uniform speed. All resolutions are available (except music and sound effects. You can time the events right down to a specific frame; in fact,
each line in the script represents a frame.
40 Amaxi. c Co.urinv.vry Suppose you want a song to start when a certain character makes his her appearance halfway through theanimation. Go to the line representing your chosen "start" frame say, frame number 100 and tvpe in a command such as: 1SCORE "score.smus" ["instrdir"] [FADE frames] [TEMPO speed].
The first command (SCORE!) Lets the program know it has to play a song starting at this frame. The score is loaded in beforehand so it can "hit" on the exact frame.
Next conies the actual filename of the song, with a .smus extension (.smus is a popular music format used in many music programs, most notably Sonix). Deluxe Music Construction Set also has an option on its menu to save a song (traditionally IFF format in that program) as a .smus-format song.
The program I use the most for music work is Bars&Pipes.
The Blue Ribbon SoundWorks recently released a "Multi-Media Kit" add-on disk for this program which includes an accessory call "SMoose". "SMoose" can convert Bars&Pipes-formator MIDI- format songs into .smus songs and save them to disk. This combination makes for an ideal method of creating new songs for your animations, or for converting existing songs to be used with The Animation Studio.
Next, the "instrdir" directs the program where to look for your instrument files. "Fade" lets you fade up your song from 0 (silence) to 255 (loudest). The frame amount follows "Fade" to determine the length of the fade.
"Tempo", as you might expect, controls the beats per minute, and is more important to a finished animation than you might expect. Many songs run too long to be included in an animation as is; but, by altering the tempo, you are able to match the length of the song to the length of the presentation.
There is a "IVolume" command which lets you control the volume of a score, sound effect, or instrument. Basic level instrument mixing is possible with this command: keep the trumpets out in front (loudest), with a back-beat, well... in the back!
The "fade" command comes into play here as well, since you can indicate the number of frames over which a volume increase or decrease will occur. You can also use the "channel" off. There is also a "Stop" command to stop a currentscore, sound effect or note.
There are numerous commands to edit your exposure sheet, such as copy, cut, paste, and search. "Sparse" is a command that can be added into your sheet to represent blank frames. This is included to facilitate the slowing down of parts of the animation. A "Print" option sends the current exposure sheet file to a printer.
One of the best features of the exposure sheet screen is the "Preview" menu. Here you can preview any score, instrument, or sound effect before including it in your presentation. Pitch and volume control is added for altering instruments and sound effects. After all your commands for frame order, music, and sound are typed in, the sheet is then saved to disk, Next, it's time to move into the Ink & Paint section of the program. Basically, this section is the same as Pencil Test, with command to output to the left speaker, the right speaker, or both.
"!SFX" stands for "sound effects", and this command may look something like this: !SFX ["sfx.instr"][SPEED rate] [LOOP times] [CHANNEL num STEREO ALL ], The first bracket holds the file name of the sound effect along with a path, if the sound effect is notin the current directory, or not in the directory that the animation loaded from.
The "Speed" rn te sets the Amiga cycle rate. A lower number gives a higher pitched sound effect and a higher replay rate.
"Loop" controls how many times the effect will repeat. The program comes with a wealth of "bangs" and "zooms", but by altering the pitch with various loop lengths, you can create some of your own "classics" on the fly. Once again, the "Channel" can be set to provide sound through certain speakers only, or in stereo.
One of the more interesting commands of the Exposure Sheet is the "Note" command: !NOTE ["note.instr"] [KEY value] [OCTAVE n] [CHANNEL num STEREO ALL [RELEASE].
This allows you to "play" a note of a certain instrument. The "Key" command sets the "value" of the note from C, Cn, Db, D, D", Eb, E, F, F , Gb, G, C , Ab, A, A*, Bb, B and the "Octave" command sets the octave of the selected instrument. If you don't want to play one note in stereo, there is an option to play two notes simultaneously. "Release" tells the program when to cut the note added features like color control. Dithering allows you to create different variations of the existing 32 colors to produce a more varied palette. Color backgrounds can be loaded in "underneath" your animation
through the Frisket requester. Complete color control includes all the standards such as copy, exchange, spread, range, cycle, cycle direction, remap, and RGB-HSV sliders. You can also select the amount of colors used 2, 4, 8,16, or 32.
Once your completed masterpiece is ready for an audience, you can put it on videotape using the "NTSC Filter" (genlock or encoder hardware required). This filter actually blocks out the illegal colors used by the Amiga (illegal colors are those outside the range of NTSC broadcast; they look excellent on an RGB monitor, but bleed and shift once transferred to composite video).
Turning the filter on is done from the "Preferences" menu.
Disney's Animation Studio has a lot of strong points and only a very few drawbacks.
It is designed as an animator's tool, and that's exactly what it is. It doesn't create character animations out of thin air that's up to the artist. If you are a cartoonist this program is perfect.
If you shy away from drawing on a computer screen, you can easily digitize your sketches with a digitizer and bring them into the program to color and control. Even if you don't have a talent for drawing cha racters, there's a lot of fun to be had with the (continued on page 45) Forensic Animation by Andrew Lichtman WITHOUT IMMEDIATE ACTION BY ONE OF THE DRIVERS, two cars approaching an intersection one white, one red will collide. The driver of the white car swerves quickly to the right while braking and, losing control of the car, runs off the road onto the sidewalk on the other side of the
street. By the time the white car has come to rest, the red car has already exited the intersection, with no apparent change in speed.
This is the all-too-familiar story of a traffic accident which could end up being litigated before a jury in one of our courts. In most such suits, jurv members are expected to use the evidence presented to reconstruct the accident in their imaginations, there (of course) being no film or videotape of the scene of the accident at the time it occurred.
But iia this particular case, the jury might be in for a treat. Using Amiga computers, an animator associated with the Martinez, California firm of Creative Concepts generated a reconstruction of the accident which the members of the jury could view almost as if they were bystanders at the intersection at the moment of the accident.
To the courts, however, the word "almost" may be the crux of whether the jury will be permitted to see the animation at all. You don't have to be a lawyer to know that there are rules of evidence; the litigants can't just show the jury whatever they want. Li other words, the value of forensic animations and the business of supplying them to lawyers will rise or fall according to what the courts decide about the admissibility of this new kind of "demonstrative evidence" in the years ahead.
As a California lawyer, 1 am qualified to give my opinion on the case law interpreting the rules of evidence in that state: there are no California appellate court decisions vet specifically deciding the admissibility of animations (decisions below the appellate level cannot be cited as California authority). Apparently, the situation has not progressed much further nationwide.
On the day I finalized this article for publication I accessed the Lexis database with my office Amiga to do a search for appellate opinions by any state or federal court since 1983 in which the words "evidence" and "animation" were within 25 words of each other (the first use of animations by lawyers is thought to have been no earlier than 1983).
DEMONSTRATIVE EVIDENCE IN CALIFORNIA My computer search found four such opinions, only one of which by a Louisiana Court of Appeal in 1990 was on the right subject; an animation had been put into evidence by a defendant in an automobile accident.
The opinion noted this with approval, but it did not really focus on any attendant evidentiary issues.
Based on my informal survey all the other news appearing so far in the legal and computer literature nationally is also favorable. Although the appellate cases don't reflect it yet, computer reconstructions are increasingly being used to try cases and obtain settlements.
This favorable report is not a product of enthusiasm for the Amiga.
That obviously was not the computer used in the pioneering animation of 1983, and as recently as February, 1990, the monthly publication of California's In the cbsence of any cases directly "on point', a lawyer trying to predict the courts' treatment of computer reconstructions would next turn to other legal precedents interpreting the rules of evidence; namely, cases discussing the admissibility of similar kinds of demonstrative evidence.
In California, for instance, there are numerous such cases involving the recording of a reenactment or reconstruction of a disputed event . The evidentiary issue is whether the recording should be viewed by the jury.
Examples from such case law are: a photograph designed to show lighting conditions at the scene of a crime; films of train crossings with either a different train approaching it than the one involved in the dispute, or with the same train but at a different time of day; and a film of an experiment in which lighted matches were thrown from a moving jeep to show that they remained lighted.
In such cases, a necessary (but not sufficient) condition for the admissibility of the photo, video, or film is a “foundational" showing that the portrayed facts and conditions accurately depict what actually ocurred. While the need for this requirement is understandable, it is not always easy to predict how the courts will interpret it.
All such recordings are by their nature only approximations of what they reconstruct. There is ciways a risk that, on the opposing party's objection, a court might find the approximation insufficient enough to bar admission of the recording into evidence. Even if the court hearing the trial admits such a recording, the losing party gets another shot at throwing the evidence out on appeal.
Among the cases described above, the appellate court disagreed with the trial court's admission of the evidence in the first case (the photos were taken many months later than the crime and were not taken at the same hour of the morning) and in one of the train cases (the train filmed was orange, while the actual train was black).
In the other train case and in fhejeep case, the trial court's admission of the evidence survived appeoi, even though the small courtroom distorted the sound of the train, the train accident occurred at night (while the film was shot during the day), and the wind and temperature conditions for the jeep experiment were not identical tothose at the time of the actual event.
As indicated previously, that a film, photo, or video passes the foundational test is not sufficient to assure its admissibility in California. The other test most commonly flunked by such exhibits is that they must not be unduly “prejudicial". This is taken to mean anything v hich might inflame the jury unnecessarily. So, a photograph showing the front view of a deceased was held to have been improperly admitted because its prejudicial effect outweighed its probative value. On the other hand, in another case gruesome color photos were allowed beccuse of their great evidentiary value.
It is the job of attorneys to find o way to reconcile the results of such cases, but to anybody efse with a passing exposure to the courts, the suspicion must be that all of the legal mumbo jumbo boils down to their inherent unpredictability.
I, too, consider our present legal system to be flawed, and my five years of experience with the Amiga computer have convinced me that one day we will find a way to replace the courts with something no less complex, perhaps, but more akin to what computerprogrammersface: the kind of complexity v hich nonetheless reliably delivers the intended results for the person committed enough to learn the system.
In the meantime, the legal profession clings to the fiction that court opinions (anecdotes. Really) can be studied to reveal the thread of a "rule". This creates the free- for-all where each counsel argues for the existence of the rule that favors his or her client.
You might consider that t am doing no differently when I propose that the objections to demonstrative evidence upheld by California courts do not appearf o threaten the admission of properly done animations.
- A.L. State Bar did not mention the Amiga anywhere in its
article called "Roger Rabbit Goes to Court".
It is testimony to the ground swell of interest in forensic animation thatso much has already been accomplished without the Amiga. Other brands of personal computers have traditionally been chosen by law firms, even for graphics applications.
No doubt due to the limitations of such computers, it seems to be the high-end equipment which has gotten ail the legal press regarding animations.
For instance, an article in the California Law Business section of the April 25, 1988, Los Angeles Daily journal, described three graphics arts firms doing forensic animation using proprietary software on systems such as a BOSCH FGS-4000 Computer Editing System or an Ethernet network of two UNIX-based minicomputers, a Silicon Graphics Series 3000, and a Sun 3 160.
The failure to employ Amigas may have been out of ignorance. To my knowledge, only within the past year has news of courtroom use of Amigas appeared in national publications, and that solely within the Amiga community.
So, with no definitive legal precedent on admissibility as evidence and with the Amiga practically a trade secret, what has fueled the forensic animation business?
Thereareat least four answers, all of which together indicate an imminent explosion of growth in this area of legal practice.
First, of course, are all the advantages computers offer over the alternative of labor-intensive and artistically specialized animation techniques. A main advantage is price. Attorneys could not consider using animation at Walt Disney's rates. Unlike some areas of the economy (including the legal profession itself), market forces are working, assuring that the less computer reconstructions cost, the more attorneys will recommend them to their clients.
The underlying reason for these economies represents another advantage: with 3- D animation, not only can the total project be done reasonably quickly by persons having relatively little artistic talent, but also the bulk of the human work is done only once at the start, to set up al!
The data files. After that part of the project, the generation of computer visuals from any perspective within that 3-D scene can be very fast, offering more choices, allowing more changes, and even that litigator's bane, facilitating the overnight revision.
Theindustrial-grade animations you see accompanying .this article enhances these advantages more than if the animator had created the more refined product of which the Amiga is capable. To the KIT INCLUDES CIRCUIT BOARD ALL PARTS MINUS CASE SOFTWARE ON 3.5" DISK RE-PRINT OF ORIGIN Al, ARTICLE .
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(Disney, continued front page 41) "onion skin" effect alone. It's amazing how easy it is to animate objects when you can "see" where they're heading.
Tools are available in gadget form via the keyboard and pull-down menus. This is the kind of "overkill" that's welcome in any Amiga product.
One drawback here is the lack of built-in brushes to select; however, you can pick up anything and draw with it. The paint dithering (used often in IBM paint programs to create artificial hues) is another welcome addition and expands the palette.
The Exposure Sheet presents a problem of the double- edged sword variety. While there is no doubt that it is powerful and flexible, the method of typing in commands on lines makes the CLI look like a piece of cake! It seems wildly out of place in a program that is so easy, automatic, and graceful in all other areas.
Of course, some users won't even use Exposure Sheet if all they want to do is create animations, but it is certainly tedious to work with if you have an involved project in mind. Hopefully, a future update will simplify and "mouse-ize" (pun intended) this part of the program, with perhaps an "AmigaVision"-style file command selection.
A Donald Duck demo and other included reference Disney animations hit their intended mark in providing inspiration, and look mighty impressive leaping around an Amiga screen.
The program is copy protected through the manual look-up word technique, and easily installs on a hard drive. Overall, this is a first-class program which gets the user up and running fast, creating animations with easy-to-use techniques.
Even with all these tools and extras, the most important feature of this program is not on the menu it's in the manual.
I've yet to see an animation program actually teach animation until now. Rough sketch, movement, extremes, silhouette, arcing, squash, stretch, path of action, flying, walk, run, anticipation it's about time someone sat Amiga users down and taught them the basics of classic animation.
We should have known it would be Disney.
The Animation Studio Price; $ 179.95 Walt Disney Computer Software, Inc. 500 S. Buena Vista Street Burbank, CA 91521
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• AC* extent the sophistication of an animation will impede the
ease of revision or even make it too expensive to undertake
animating in the first place, most lawsuits will not warrant
rav tracing, much less a Pixar machine.
The third reason for the invasion of tire courthouse by computer reconstructions is the jury's reception of them. It is notjust theutter despair of jurors trapped in court all day, bored by lawyers and by the snail's pace of the proceedings; the typical juror's cultural background has trained him or her to focus on and absorb whatever is displayed in video. From the literature and my own personal experience, I gather there is a significant increase in both the communication and the retention of information through the video medium. Judges themselves may not be immune to someof these
same considerations.
Fourth, computer reconstructions are becoming popular because auto accidents are hardly the limit of where they can help lawyers. Animations have been used in cases involving such diverse facts as an airplane crash, the massive hexane explosion disaster in Louisville, Kentucky, default on construction schedules for a building project, the method of operation of patented devices, the fire destroying nearly an entire downtown block of Minneapolis, and the biology of bodilv injuries or diseases.
Like its cousin, computer-generated graphics, animation could also aid in case preparation by improving a witness' communication about what happened, or giving investigators ideas about where to look for additional evidence.
As more lawyers learn about the availability of animation, they will come up with novel uses for it. After Westminster, California attorney John Cogorno viewed the Creative Concept animation, he considered usingan animation in a police-shooting case where many weapons were fired at his client from different locations in the space of only a few seconds. To make the computer reconstruction of the tragedy more intelligible, he would need to make it depart somewhat from exact realism, such as by using lines to show the paths of the bullets.
The animation in the Louisiana case mentioned earlier in this article also involved a departure from a strict reconstruction. A bridge entrance which actually had no guardrails was depicted with them to show "what might have happened" had they been in place.
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The examples discussed here do not begin to exhaust what is amenable to effective computer reconstruction.
1 further believe the lack of realism in animations paradoxically promotes their acceptance by the courts. While I cannot adequately defend my opinion without discussing legal matters beyond the scope of this magazine, the general point is that evidentiary problems often stem from the purported realism of "demonstrative evidence". When inaccurate, that (false) realism is not welcome in the courts, naturally. You maybe surprised to learn, however, that even true-to-life depictions can be deemed too vivid to be viewed by the jury.
In contrast, there seems to be less worry with animations because they purport to show so much less. Of course, there must be something of significance accurately portrayed by the animation for the court to permit the jury to view it. The beauty is how the animator might handle all of the other aspects of the scene. Since they are obviously characterizations, nobody is going to be misled or inflamed by the fact that the cars don't look real or the background has none of the detail of the actual accident site.
Photorealism, desirable as it may be for technical or artistic purposes, risks coming across in a trial as irrelevant or, worse, as sensationalism. As the successful forensic medical illustrator Greg Swayne has acknowledged, it is best to show the subject with a "clinical" style, and "If the drama comes through after that, fine."
Therefore, when the goal is to minimize the risk of rejection by the court, once again the industrial grade of animation is the way to go.
Given these reasons for this revolution in the way cases are being litigated, the potential role of the Amiga speaks for itself. 3-D animation technology on the Amiga is inexpensive and east' enough to use for computer reconstructions to be produced by law firms entirely in house.
It may not be long before the well- prepared attorney will not dare go tocourt without bringing the judge and jury their anticipated animation.
Above screen shots taken from animations produced by Creative Concepts, 2S Alan Way, Martinez, CA 94553, (475) 372-7278.
• AC- Ja nua ry 1991 47 Cartoon Animation by D. L. Richardson We
are in the midst of an animation revolution. Conventional
methods are giving way to those born of computers. The "cel",
standard of the industry for half a century, is now an
endangered species. This is a course in Amiga animation video,
it features professional techniques v hich can be used by
animators of all skill levels.
We can't overlook the fact that the fine art of cartoon animation readied a very high level of development before computers entered the picture. It would be a mistake for the new- generation animator to overlook the many lessons learned painstakingly through trial and error over the years.
One of the first American-made animated cartoons was produced in 1909 by Winsor McCay, a New York City newspaper cartoonist. It was about "Gertie", a dinosaur, and required 10,000 individual drawings. Gertie holds up surprisingly well today, after more than SO years, which attests to the remarkable achievement it really was.
Some of the techniques pioneered in that early project became standards in the industry.
Among them, the cycle, in which a series of frames is shown over and over to produce a repeated action.
PART I: FUNDAMENTALS OF MOTION But before we get too far into techniques, let's start with the very basics. The definition of "animated" is "full of movement; having the appearance of something alive." But in an animated film or video, nothing actually moves. The apparent motion is an illusion, created by a series of still, motionless pictures, each one slightly different from the previous one. It is onlv when the pictures are shown in rapid succession that we perceive the illusory motion.
An animation disc has sliding peg bars at both top and bottom and a light underneath to allow the animator to see through several layers of tracing paper.
The reason we do not see individual still frames blinking on and off is due to the phenomenon of "retention of vision". That is, the lens of the human eye focuses each image onto the retina, which retains an image for about 1 50 of a second after the light from that image is cut off. This brief interval is just long enough for the next image to appear. In this way, the human eye sees a series of images presented to it in rapid succession as one continuous picture.
The length of this retention of vision was the determining factor when movies settled on a rate of 24 frames per second (fps).
This is still the United States' standard; however, some parts of the world have altered the rate to 25 fps.
0 cAfit IzjL j t o J Video, on the other hand, standardized on 30 frames per second, but added an unusual twist. Television images actually blink on and off at the rate of 60 times per second, but it takes two blinks to show one full frame. First, the even-numbered scan lines blink on, then the odd-numbered scan lines of the same frame.
This results in what we affectionately refer to as the "interlaced” screen.
No doubt you are familiar with the flicker or vibration associated with interlaced images of a computer. All professional video and television picturesare interlaced, but live video pictures don't appear to flicker. Why?
Computer images appear to flicker because their lines have extremely sharp edges and often extremely high contrast between adjoining lines. So, the flicker is exaggerated. Live video scenes do not appear to flicker because their lines and edges are soft by comparison. No lens can resolve a line as sharply as a computer. Even when highly contrasting lines are side by side, the edges in an image produced by a video camera are softened slightly by "bleeding", or "diffused light". Not so with an image produced by a computer.
TYPES OF ANIMATION Before the computer revolution, the motion picture industry used two main types of animation: cel and tabletop.
Cel, with one "1", is not to be confused with a biological cell ora jail cell. A cel is a transparent sheet of plastic with registration holes punched along the top or bottom. Only the characters or objects that move are painted on cels. Everything that does not move is painted on the background, generally on art board, also with registration holes. This way, the background can be painted in great detail because it is only painted once, then used throughou t the scene. The cel or cels are laid over the background, and together they make up the total picture.
Once the technique of cel animation is understood, it's easy to do similar scenes on an Amiga using paint and pageflipping software.
Tabletop animation uses 3-dimensional solid objects, generally so small that an entire scene can be set on a table thus the name. The scene is photographed one frame at a time, and the objects that are put in motion are moved slightly between frames.
A person who understands tabletop animation can easily make the transition to 3-D solid modeling animation with an Amiga. However, this type of animation takes considerably more time and does not offer the same degree of control as cel type animation. Also, the equipment needed for 3-D animation is quite expensive. It is my experience that cel animation is much more practical in most types of professional video production.
UNDERSTANDING MOTION Before any type of animation can be done effectively, it is necessary to understand how things move. This can be achieved J O largely through close observation of the world about us. We can study balls bouncing, flags waving, and even children playing.
One thing we will notice is that when an object moves from point A to point B, it does not suddenly start at full speed and suddenly stop from full speed. If it did, then its movement could be broken down into frames as demonstrated in Illustration I. instead, things generally start slowly and build up to full speed.
Then they begin slowing down before reaching the end position.
In animation terms this is called "slow in" and "slow out", and this type of movement is charted in Illustration II.
In relating to this, think about what happens when a ball is tossed upward: it appears to pause briefly at the peak of its ascent.
Actually, it is losing momentum on the way up. And slowing to a stop. It then immediately begins accelerating downward. Gravity is very predictable.
By watching children, cats, or whatever jumping up and down, we can learn the principles of "squash and stretch". Just before jumping upward, a person squashes down somewhat to build up momentum- As he leaves the ground he is fully stretched out. In the air he can take any shape he wants, but just before landing he again stretches out to absorb the impact, then squashes on landing for the same reason. This is demonstrated in Illustration III.
You are very well wondering, "How can a ball an inanimate object stretch to anticipate impact?" In reality, of course, it can't. But we're not necessarily dealing with realitv, we're giving human characteristics to inanimate objects. That's what animation is all about.
In reality, a hammer strikes a nail on the head, driving it into the wood, in animation, a nail can see the hammer coming and run away and hide. And who could blame it?
Closely related are "wind up and follow through". Anyone who participates in sports understands what these are. The obvious example is the baseball pitcher who "winds up", throws the ball, and "follows through" after releasing the ball. This principal can be used with many cartoon actions to give them character. Before taking off running, a character might "wind up" by leaning in the opposite direction. When coming to a stop, parts of his body or clothes may overshoot, then return to the stopping position. In 'toon terms, this is a "follow through".
The next principle to discuss is "action and reaction". You probably learned in science that every action has a reaction. It's easy to just draw the action and overlook the reaction, but the latter adds considerably to the effectiveness of a scene. For example, as a very fat + 12 3 Illustrations I and IE 0 O o o o o Illustration I character wnIks along, his potbelly bounces up and down with each step.
This is a reaction to the action of walking.
If a character is hit in the stomach, chances are his hat will fly into the air. The hit is the action; the hat into the air isa reaction. When a cannon shoots, the action is the cannonball flying into the air; the reaction is the recoil of the barrel.
Zeke takes a walk. Moving background has been added.
Don't be afraid to greatly exaggerate all movements. To be able to do this isoneof the great benefits of animation, and it helps gives cartoons their unique appeal.
EXERCISES Here are several exercises that will aid your understanding of the principles we've been talking about. They do not require artistic skills.
Rather, they' use simple lines to challenge your understanding of motion.
They can be done using DeluxePaint III because that package combines both paint and pagefiipping features, If you don't have Dpaint lit, any paint program will do, but you will also need some type of animation program. PageFlipper Plus or Cel Animator will allow you to see the finished project in motion.
Your artwork can bo as simple or as complex as you choose to make it. I recommend starting with simple characters and objects so that grea ter results can be seen in a shorter time. And work in lo-res while practicing, for the same reason.
However, and this is a very important point, when doing professional work or when creating samples to show to professionals, do everything in high resolution. To the video professional, anything less than hi-res looks as though an amateur did the work. One possible exception: if more than 16 colors are essential, work in intermediate (interlaced) resolution and antialias all jagged lines that are noticeable.
EXERCISE 1-FLAG Draw a round dot connected to a line. Pretend that you are directly over a flag pole, looking downward. The dot represents the flagpole, and the line represents the top edge of a flag. Make a series of drawings to show the flag flapping in the wind. Make it into a cycle so that the action can run continuously. To do that, plan the,series so that the last frame leads into the first frame.
This exercise may sound too elementary for you, but it's trickier than it appears. I have seen hundreds of students attempt this and have noticed one thing consistently. The people who can make this look right the first time have a natural eye for animation. As for the others, they may have to go outside and study flags for a white. Then, try again.
EXERCISE 2 HAPPY FACE Draw a "happy face", a round circle with eyes and mouth, and make itbounce up and down like a ball. Draw one complete cvde and let it run continuously. Practice "stretch" and "squash" at the bottom, also "slow in" and "slowout" at the top. To make i l more interesting, give appropriate expressions to the face.
EXERCISE 3-CANNON Draw a cannon and have it shoot a cannonball. It doesn't have to look like a real cannon. Cartoon cannons are acceptable.
Hereyou have a choice. You can either practice "wind up" and "follow through" or "action" and "reaction". If you have tire time, do both versions and study the difference.
EXERCISE 4-JUMP Draw a stick figure of a person standing on a box. Have him jump off the box and onto the ground. This is not a cycle, so start with a "hold" on the first frame, and end with a "hold" on the last frame. This is easy to do with DeluxePaint III. Just show the first frame, then when you're ready, press key number 5 to go through the animation one time and stop on the last frame. Press the number 2 key to return to the first frame again.
If you have finished reading this lesson and have done all the exercises, then you have taken a major step toward improving your animation skills. To continue, make up some new exercises and take the time to practice. And remember to have fun with it, as you prepare for... PART II: THE WALK The first animated films were made by drawing every detail of each frame on paper. You can imagine the tremendous amount of time and patience this required, because most films are comprised of thousands of frames.
When the cel was developed, it proved to be a major timesaver. The background could be painted just once and used throughout an entire scene. Only the objects or characters that moved were painted on these cels, which were then overlaid onto the background.
It's probably easier to see how the cel process can be applied to the computer if we select a single scene from a script and follow it step-by- step to completion: Scene 35 Full frame Zeke cheerfully walks along a country path, left to right. 10 seconds.
That sounds simple enough. In this case, Zeke a slightly overgrown mouse created by Chester Taylor will remain in the middle of the screen, and the background will move.
An animator works on an animation disc which has sliding peg bars at both top and bottom. It also has a light undernea th to allow him to see through several layers of tracing paper.
Briefly, here are the steps followed by professionals doing cel animation on film:
(1) Draw the key positions of Zeke on punched tracing paper.
(2) Draw the in-betweens.
(3) Shoot a pencil test of the drawings to check motion.
(4) Paint one cel and shoot it with color film to check the
colors.
(5) Take all pencil drawings to "ink and paint", where black
lines are inked onto the front side of each cel and paint is
applied to the back side.
(6) Paint the background scene.
(7) Fill out an exposure sheet based on the results of the pencil
test and the soundtrack.
The idea! 3-D design software would give you the feeling that you're actually able to reach into the 3-D space and directly manipulate objects with your hands sort of virtual reality without gloves. 3-D Professional comes closer to that ideal than does most Amiga 3-D software today.
You're able to adjust camera position, angle, and zoom as well as object position, rotation, and size interactively with intuitive controls that are the next best thing lo being there. Included is an object editor with the usual lathe and extrude utilities plus loads of nifty surface options. The program s only major deficiency is the lack of point-by-point shaping control that professional digital sculptors require. Also, while the current version doesn't ray-trace, such a module is in the works and will be offered as a low-cost upgrade to registered 3-D Pro owners.
While offering bolh path and tweening animation capabilities, the former can be accomplished in the current version only via a script file. 3- D Professional includes a powerful script language with which you can supervise virtually every detail ol animation creation without having to be there during generation. You can specify camera movement on the X, Y, and Z axes in absolute or relative amounts, or you can move the camera forward or backward by a certain amount, or have it follow an object, Other camera related commands include zoom, aim in a certain direction or at a specified point, and
field of view. Script commands let you load, move, rotate, and shear objects, plus set lights' position, intensity, angle, and color. As with most programming languages, 3-D Pro’sscripts caninclude loop control, and you can “expose a frame'1 at any point during script execution, so this is really the only way to accomplish complex animation with 3-D Pro.
The easy way to do animation with 3-D Pro is with the key frame capability. You simply set up each successive key frame, then use the Add Frame command to add it to the key frame list. When you're ready to generate ihe animation, just tell 3-D Pro how many frames to make between each key frame plus a few other details, and let it go to work. As with all 3-D animation programs, first each frame is generated as a still, then the frames are compressed into a standard or sometimes custom) animation format, usually the AN1M format supported by AmigaVision, DeluxePaint ill. And many others. In many
cases this can be a time- consuming process, but almost always you can leave the computer unattended the whole time, and come back to a completed animation when it's done.
As with Sculpt, you can use tweening in 3-D Pro to simulate motion by simply repositioning objects in successive key frames, as well as causing shape changes. Unlike Sculpt’s tweening, you can't vary the number of frames between different pairs of key frames. One feature of 3- D Pro's which Sculpt doesn't have is the ability to smooth out motion, eliminating the zigzag effect. While you can edit key frames, you can't edit the basic animation setup or keyframe list, if you want to make major changes to an animation setup, you’re generally better off restarting from scratch. 3-D Pro also offers
real-time rotate and move-through animation features in the object editor that are useful (or previewing simpler scenes.
3-D Professional, price: $ 499.95. Progressive Peripherals & Software, 464 Kalamath St., Denver. CO80204, (303) 825-4144. Inquiry 222.
Animation Station from Progressive Peripherals and Software is the underdog of Amiga animation programs. It's been around a while and you don't hear much about it. But make no mistake it’s a powerhouse and doesn't deserve to be overlooked. It’s bundled with Progressive's 3D Professional (see sidebar) but is also available separately.
When the program starts you're presented with a blank storyboard screen consisting of a vertically scrolling array of rectangular cells, with 36 visible at a time, occupying the center of the screen and various tool icons arrayed along either side. There are no menus. You can load AniM-5 format animations in a variety of modes, including HAM and overscan.
When loading an animation you can opt to have the program create a storyboard, which places a miniature representation of each frame’s image in the corresponding storyboard cell. This clever approach makes it much easier to locate specific animation frames. You can see a cell's frame full-screen by double clicking on it.
Another of Animation Station's most useful features lets you automatically create an animation out of a series of consecutively numbered (in the file name) .IFF image files. Now all! Need is a DOS batch wildcard rename utility! And there are lots of other great features. You can pick up a brush from any frame or load it from a file and then animate it on top of the animation. Using the storyboard layout, you can easily cut, copy, and paste sequences of frames, as well as inserting blank Irames, You can adjust timing of the animation on a frame-by- frame basis. You can also adjust each
frame's color palette independently, moving from between frames from the palette requester. You can even create gradual color transitions across any number of frames!
Wait a second, there’s more. You can reduce an entire animation or any number of its frames to one-fourth or one-sixteenth the original size (retaining the original aspect ratio) and place the mini-ANIM anywhere on the screen. You can have the animation scroll into or out of the screen in any of the four cardinal directions over any number of frames. You can flip frames vertically or horizontally. Mosaic performs a gradual pixelization on an animation over a specified series of frames. The motion blur effect only works on HAM animations. While that's not all Animation Station does, it's all we
have room to tell you about. If you work with Amiga animations, you owe if to yourself to buy this immensely useful tool.
Animation Station, price; $ 99,95, Progressive Peripherals & Software, 464 KalamathSt., Denver, CO80204, (303) 825-4144. Inquiry 223.
(1) If you are using DeluxePaintIH,bring up the palette, select
color 2, select EX (exchange), then select color 1. Slow
color 1 should be white and color 42 should be black.
(2) Select black as the background color, and pick up the
character as a brush.
(3) Select white as the background color, and black as the fore
ground color. Press Shift, K to clear the screen. Press F2 to
change the color of the brush to black, the foreground color.
(4) Position the brush character wherever you want him on the
screen, then remove your hand from the mouse. Press the left
ALT and Commodore keys simultaneously to paint a copy of the
brush in that location.
At this point it's a good idea to clean up your lines (if they need it), so you should now change the format toS col ors and save it again 8 colors should be plenty, and by not choosing 16 we can save both chip memory and disk space.
This drawing should still be black lines on white background. I find that a soft green or blue background is easier on the eyes, so bring up the palette and make that change. No color will beadded to the character until all drawings are complete.
Let's stop here and analyze exactly what motions we'll be creating.
The obvious motion is that of the arms and legs. In the first half of the cycle, the left foot begins on the ground and steadily moves backward. At the same lime the right foot lifts off the ground and moves forward. The second half of the cycle is identical to the first, except that the right foot is on the ground and the left foot is moving forward. As the arms swing they go through a similar cycle, but opposite to that of the legs.
The second motion to consider is the body and head bouncing up and down, as Zeke walks.
Thirdly, the body bounce is likely to cause the tail to flap up and down.
It takes about 16 frames to do a smooth walk cycle, so go to the menu bar and select ANIM- -Frames- Set .Then change the count to I ft.
Load ZW into Frame 1 and also Frame T9.
Now we can let the Amiga do some of the work for us. We know that Frames 1 and 9 are identical except that the opposite foot and hand are in front. This change can be done by adding a few lines and erasing a few lines. The fingers on both hands may also need to be altered, but with these minor changes Frame 9 is complete.
Before drawing the in-betweens, we need a guide for the ground and foot positions. Make a straight, horizontal line at ground level on Frame 1 (we'll want to erase this guide later). Make a vertical mark on the ground directly under the center of the front foot, and another under the center of the back foot. Make a third mark hallway between the other two.
This is where his foot will be halfway through the stride. Keep subdividing the line until there are 9 marks. Note that 8 positions make up the full stride. When a foot reaches position 9 the last one to the left the other foot is starting over at position 1.
Now, pick up a copy of this "ground guide" as a brush, and position it directly over the original. Remove your hand from the mouse so it can't move. Hold down the Commodore key (which is the left Amiga key on some computers), and then hold down the left ALT key. The computer will flip through all frames, painting the ground guide on each one.
Next we'll place the head and body on Frames 2 through S. We know that Zeke's head and body change very little throughout the walk cycle, except that they move up and down. Frame 1 is the lowest position and Frame 5 is the highest, when one leg is straight down. Pick up a copy of Zeke's head and body from Frame 1. Do not include the legs or ground guide. Now place the brush directly over the original drawing.
Hold down the shift key and move the brush upward 3 or 4 pixels The shift kev assures that the brush does not move right or left. Press key 2 to go to Frame 2 and lay down a copy of Zeke. Advance to Frame 8 and lay clown another copy, in the same position.
Move Zeke upward again for Frames 7 and 3, again for 4 and 6, and again for 5. Anytime you want toseeyourworkin motion, press key 4. The space bar will stop the action.
Now go through Frames 2 through S, one at a time, redrawing the legs and arms in their proper positions, according to the ground guide.
Compare each new drawing with the previous frame to assure continuity.
Key 2 allows you to step forward through the frames one at a time, and key 1 takes you backward.
Elan Performer is an indispensable multipurpose graphics utility for anyone working with a variety of Amiga images and or animations. Currently in release 2.0, it was created by Eian Design, recently noteworthy for having designed the interface software for Newtek's Video Toaster. One of Performer 2.0's particularly nice new features lets you ioad 24-bit IFF and Impulse (Turbo Silver) RGBN and RGB8 images. They're displayed in HAM mode, and you can even save the converted HAM image if you like. Also new is extensive Arexx and MIDI support.
Ostensibly a keyboard-controlled slide show program, Performer really does much more. To gel an idea of what it does, think of your keyboard as a list, starting at the top left with the F1 key and continuing across and down, ending up at the slash key. Each key can have an image file or animation attached to it simply by pointing and clicking. Once loaded, all images remain in memory (assuming you have enough, otherwise they're reloaded from disk each time they're displayed). By further editing using the mouse only, you can set the time each image is displayed to the nearest 1 30th of a
second, and the speed at which each animation is displayed. Then by pressing the Escape key or double-clicking on any key on the onscreen keyboard, you can start the automatic presentation in the across down order. To enter manual mode, just press any key to which an image or animation is assigned, and the image or animation's last frame remains onscreen until you press another key or restart the automatic sequence. You can also take control of the sequence with the mouse or keyboard, even reversing it (including animations!) If you like.
Performer supports animation creation and editing in acouple of interesting ways. First and most simply, if your paint rendering digitizing software doesn't support animation generation. You can use it to create a sequence of image files, then in Performer assign each file in the sequence to a successive key and play the frames back quickly in automatic mode. Of course, it helps to have a lot of memory for this. The default setting for the time each frame is displayed is five seconds, which is too slow for animation, it would be a lot of work to edit each frame's timing automatically, but
fortunately Performer offers a quick way to set the timing interactively. Start the automatic display, then press each image’s key in turn, each time followed by 0 on the numeric keypad. This sets each frame's timing to 1 30th of a second for the fastest possible playback.
Once you've assigned the sequence, you can actually create an animation from the images. Performer’s most unique animation-related feature lets you append the currently displayed image, whether from a still or animation, to a new or existing animation with a keypress. There's a mistake in the manual instructions for doing this. Instead of pressing Amiga-A, then the key to which the frame is to be appended, you jusf press Amiga and the key to be assigned. So, for example, if you're playing back an animation at 10 frames per second and you press Amiga-J every second, you'll create an animation
attached to the J key consisting of every tenth frame of the original animation. This animation, or any other loaded animation, can be saved to diskin any of a variety of formats, including ANIM 3, ANIM 5, and RIF, an uncompressed animation format.
Elan Performer 2.0, price: $ 59.00. Elan Design. P.O. Box 31725, San Francisco, CA 94131 (415) 359- 7212. Inquiry 224.
CORRECTIONS It has been brought to our attention that the following errors appeared in the Fall Winter issue of AC’s GUIDE To The Commodore AMIGA: MegAChip 2000. The BattDisk, Insider II, and KwickStartwere listed underthecompany name Michigan Software: they ail should have been listed as being available from DKB Software.
Also not listed from DKB Software is the product MultiStart II: which allows A500 and A2000 owners to install Kickstart V1.3 and V2.0 ROMs, switch between them with a keyboard and upgrade to the latest operating system and still staycompatiblewithyourolder software. No externa! Wires or switches are required and is compatible with the MegAChip
2000. $ 99.95 w o ROMs DKB Software, 832 First St., Milford, Ml
48381 (313) 685- 2383 IliumiLink 1.0 from Geodesic
Publications was listed at $ 27.00 and should have been
priced at $ 100.00. We apologize for these errors, and hope
that no major inconveniences were caused.
We hope that these corrections are found to be helpful.
Go back to the palette for some fine tuning. Save again as an ANIM file, and also as an AnimBrush.
Press key 4 to see Zcko walk in all his color splendor.
Of course the animated character is only half of the scene. The other half is the background, which, in this case, must be moving to the left as Zeke walks to the right. The final part of this article will deal with the moving background.
Guide, carefully position it over the original, and remove your hand from the mouse.
Hold down the Commodore key, then the right ALT key to erase.
Save the series as an ANIM file.
ANIM files save and load much faster than individual frames. Check the action again.
If he moves too fast, change the Frame Rate in the menu bar and try again; 10 or 15 frames per second should be about right.
Now' it's time to add color. Bring up the palette and adjust colors 3 through S to fit the character and his clothes. In the case of Zeke, two shades of brown or tan will take care of his skin and fur. A soft white will be good for eyes and teeth; pants and eye pupils are blue, jacket is red, and his cap is blue with a yellow stripe.
Be careful not to oversaturate the colors; soft colors look more natural. The only way to get the colors exactly right for video is to look at a video monitor while adjusting colors.
Close the palette window and fill the color areas of all frames. Now that there is a full-color character to see, you may want PART III: THE MOVING BACKGROUND We just described how to make a cartoon character walk. Our script calls for the character, Zeke, to stav in the center of the screen while the background moves from right to left. In this discussion, we will d iscuss three ways to do a moving background ill a scene such as this. The options available to you arc as follows: Cl) Combine Zeke and the background into a single ANIM file;
(2) Create a separate ANIM file for the background and add Zeke
with a genlock; or
(3) Use a live or painted background, shoot it with a video
camera, and add Zeke with a genlock.
The method you choose will depend on your specific interests and facilities, The computer purist will probably choose the first method so he can play back the complete scene on a computer screen.
Those with a background in video and two VCRs will likely choose the second method, or the third method if equipped with a good video camera and tripod. The third method will also be the likely choice of experienced artists who enjoy working with real paint on art board.
MEMORY LIMITATIONS Most of the high-end computer animation systems used by professionals, like conventional cel animation, require single- frame recording. This method bypasses many of the limitations of real-time animation; however, it is very time consuming and requires very expensive video equipment. For the budget-conscious video producer, realtime animation is money in the bank. That's what we're dealing with in this lesson.
Because real-time animation is so memory intensive, it is important for you to understand certain factors and thereby minimize the complications.
Chip memory: Only "chip" memoir' can display an image on screen. The many frames of an animation are juggled back and forth between chip RAM and fast RAM, because they must be in chip RAM before they can be shown on the screen. The speed at which a computer can juggle them back and forth determines the maximum speed at which the animation can run. In order to play a scene at normal speed there should be enough chip RAM to hold at least three frames at a time, as required for double buffering.
(continued on page 59) ANIMATION CHART As part of AC's mosl comprehensive animation issue ever, our editors have compiled the following chart comparing many features of 22 of the top Amiga animation packages available today.
Sculpt-Animate 4D from Byte-by-Byte makes it relatively easy to create complex three- dimensional animations. Its little brother, Sculpt-Animate 4D Jr., also has powerful animation capabilities. Theform of animation they share is called tweening or morphing. Tweening animation is great fun to play with because it lets you magically change objects from one shape to another, with the computer doing all the hard in-between work. So, for example, you could change a bust of Lincoln to a sphere and then to an automobile.
Sculpt-Animate 4D is a full-blown ray tracing and animation software package. Ray tracing is the process by which super-realistic computer-rendered 3-D images are created, complete with accurate rendition of reflections, shadows, and even refraction in curved transparent objects, in addition to tweening animation it can perform path animation. A path in this context is a line connecting a sequence of vertices. During animation creation objects move from vertex to vertex in each successive frame. Thus, you must create as many vertices as you have frames in the animation. The advantage to this
method is that you can accurately depict acceleration and deceleration by careful placement of the vertices. In fact, since the object format is available, if you're of a technical bent, you can write software that creates accurate motion paths using physical principles. Unfortunately, the program doesn't let a path-bound object perform tweening, and vice- versa.
Sculpt-Animate 4D Jr. Is an introductory 3-D modeling and animation package that doesn't include many of the bells and whistles of its older sibling, including ray tracing or even object smoothing. But it does have its powerful ‘Tri-View’’ object editor and, as mentioned, tweening animation. In tweening. You create “key cells” that contain objects at the extreme points of their position and or shapes, then let the computer calculate in-between shapes and positions. Thus, you can use tweening to simulate any type of movement, rotation, and reshaping of objects.
Alas, the Scuipt family doesn't have the real magic (or at least the artificial intelligence) that would be required to convert any object into any other object. In other words, you can't take two independently created objects and expect one to turn into the other, at least not in most cases.
Generally, you must first create a single object to be tweened with ail the different ultimate shapes in mind. You save that, then reload it, and reshape it into the new shape, and save that. Load each shape info its respective key cell and let the computer create ail the interim shapes over however many cells you specify. The more cells you use, the longer and smoother the tween.
4D and Jr, also let you tween colors. So, for example, you can smoothly morph a purple pyramid into a red sphere and then a yellow cube. Sometimes you must experiment with a color transition, as intervening colors may not be what you might expect. As with shape tweening, the more control you take over key cell creation, the smoother your animations are likely to be.
Sculpt-Animate 4D, price: S499.95. Byte by Byte, Arboretum Plaza II9442. Capitol ol Texas Hwy. N.. Ste. 150. Austin, TX 78759. (512) 343-4357. Inquiry 225.
Sculpt-Animate 4D Jr.. price: $ 150.00. Byte by Byte, Arboretum Plaza II9442, Capitol of Texas Hwy. N., Ste. 150, Austin, TX 78759, (512) 343-4357. Inquiry 226.
Twelve Amiga product developers are represented in the chart; a number of other companies presently market a wide variety of Amiga animation programs and utilities. We regret that space limitations considered along with the highly specialized nature of some of these other animation products prevent us from including detailed descriptions and or comparisons of ail Amiga animation products and their features in this issue.
Nevertheless, we would iike to acknowledge several of those products here; The Talking Animator (JMH Software), the only talking Amiga animation package; Cell Pro (MegageM), the only cellular automata art animation system for the Amiga: and Photon Video Cel Animator (Microillusions), a module in the Photon Video collection that functions as a high-quality animation playback and sound synchronization tool.
Inaddition.severalothercompaniesfailed to get back to us in time to make the chart.
Among them was R & D L Productions, whose Lightbox The Drawing Tool for Animators implements traditional methods of animation with increased productivity: a built-in flip function sorts and displays the previous and following drawings in sequence for reference.
As to the chart, a bullet (*) indicates a product has that feature, or requires the type amount of memory indicated. Comments or footnotes in a box most often indicate a partial or related capability for the feature listed. Following are explanations for some of the fifty animation features listed: ANIM Standard, Byte Vertical Compression, RIF Standard, Uncompressed are all animation file ' standards'1. There being no set standard. ANIM is the most popular and widely used. Most play just the changes from frame to frame to save memory. Uncompressed sometimes uses more memory to actually
flip frames, but it produces a more uniform speed- Bluing onion skin refers to the traditional techniquethatdisplayspreviousframejs) during creation of the current frame.
Extra Halfbriie, IFF Support, HAM mode are display modes; HAM produces more colors, but requires much more memory.
Internal Genlock Support means there is genlock control from within the program.
Path Animation takes an object along a path created from specified start finish points.
Player indicates a separate animation player which saves memory is included.
Self-Running creates animations that can be run outside of the program, Severe Overscan User-adjustable overscan are best for broadcast TV use, Tweening causes an object to “transform'' to another automatically.
Velocity ease simulates movement delays, such as a ball slowing slightly near the peak of its ascent.
MANUFACTURER Progressive Peripherals & Software OXX I Aegis PRODUCT 3-D Professional Animation Station Aegis ANIMagic Aegis ProMotion Aegis Videoscape 3D with ProMotion Spectra Color 1 Meg Chip RAM • • 1 Meg+ • • 9 • 24-bit Color Output * N A N A 2-D Animation N A « « • • • 2-D Texture IFF Mapping N A N A a 3-D Fonts • N A as objects as objects 3-D Object Animation * N A * a 3-D Texture IFF Mapping • N A N A a 68020 30 Support • • * • a 8SVX IFF Sounds N A • N A N A ANIM Cut-and-Paste • • a ANIM Standard 9 9 * • * a ANIMbrushes a Antialiasing * N A N A N A Arexx Support Bitplane Conversion N A
• • N A • Bluing Onion Skin Byte Vertical Compression 9 9 Color Remap 9 * a Color Fonts • as objects as objects a Digital Video Effects • N A • a Extra Halfbrite • N A • Fades Wipes Dissolves 9 • a Frame Controller • 9 a HAM mode • • • • • a IFF Support • * 9 • • a Internal Genlock Support • • 9 N A • Light Sources • N A 9 • a Multiple Color Cycle N A • • Overscan • • • 9 ¦ • PAL Standard Support « • N A 9 Path Animation • N A • • • 9 Perspective • N A N A a 9 Phong Scaniine Shading • N A N A Player • 9 • N A 9 • Ray Trace Rendering • N A N A Resolution Conversion N A a • N A e • RIF Standard
* 9 Scrolling Background Option • N A a Self-Running Severe Overscan • a * • SMUS Songs • N A Standard Amiga Fonts * * as objects as objects 9 Stencil Mask Matte • Storyboards N A 9 Tweening • 9 • Uncompressed • « a • User-adjustable Overscan • • Velocity Ease Wireframe Preview • N A • a 9 MANUFACTURER Octree Software Electronic Arts Walt Disney Computer Software PRODUCT Caligari Broadcast Caligari Pro Animate DeluxePaint III DeluxeVideo III The Animation Studio 1 Meg Chip RAM • • 1 Meg+- 2MB 3MB • • 24-bit Color Output • 2-D Animation • • 2-D Texture IFF Mapping • • 3-D Fonts • * 3-D Object
Animation • • 3-D Texture iFF Mapping • 68020 30 Support • • • • 8SVX IFF Sounds • * ANIM Cut-and-Paste • ANIM Standard • • • ANIMbrushes • • • Antialiasing • • Arexx Support • Bitplane Conversion • Bluing Onion Skin • Byte Vertical Compression ANIM-5 supported ANIM-5 supported Color Remap • • Color Fonts • • • Diqital Video Effects • Extra Haltbrite • • • • Fades Wtpes Dissolves • Frame Controller * • • HAM mode * IFF Support • • • • • Internal Genlock Support • • Liqht Sources • • Multiple Color Cycle • • Overscan • • * • • PAL Standard Support • * • • 1 Path Animation • * • * Perspective •
• ?
Phonq Scanline Shading • Player • • • Ray Trace Renderinq Resolution Conversion • • • • RIF Standard Scrollinq Background Option • Sett-Running Severe Overscan * • • • SMUS Songs • • Standard Amiga Fonts • • • Stencil Mask Matte • * Storyboards t • Tweeninq Uncompressed • • • User-adjustable Overscan • • Velocity Ease • • • Wireframe Preview • • • = YES ') Two separate versions: one tor PAL and one for NTSC; 2) Does nol use ANIM formal, but provides for conversion MANUFACTURER Mindware International Impulse PRODUCT Digimate 3 Pageflipper Plus F X PageRender 3D Imagine Turbo Silver 1 Meg Chip
RAM 9 9 1 Meg+ 9 9 24-bit Color Output 9 9 2-D Animation • • 9 9 2-D Texture IFF Mapping 9 9 3-D Fonts 9 3-D Object Animation • • 9 3-D Texture IFF Mapping 9 • 68020 30 Support 9 9 9 8SVX IFF Sounds ANIM Cut-and-Pasle • ANIM Standard • 2 • 9 • ANIMbrushes Antialiasing 9 • Arexx Support • 9 Bitplane Conversion Bluing Onion Skin Byte Vertical Compression Color Remap 9 9 Color Fonts Digital Video Effects • 9 9 Extra Halfbrite • • 9 Fades Wipes Dissolves • 9 Frame Controller FIAM mode • 9 9 9 9 IFF Support • 9 9 * 9 Internal Genlock Support 9 9 Light Sources 2 • 9 Multiple Color Cycle 9 Overscan 9
• 9 • 9 PAL Standard Support 9 9 9 9 9 Path Animation * • 9 Perspective 9 9 Phong Scanline Shading 9 9 Player • 9 9 9 • Ray Trace Rendering 9 9 * Resolution Conversion RIF Standaro Scrolling Background Option 3 Selt-Running • • 9 Severe Overscan • 9 • • 9 SMUS Songs Standard Amiga Fonts Stencil Mask Matte 9 9 Storyboards Tweentng 9 9 Uncompressed 9 9 User-adjustable Overscan • 4 9 9 9 Velocity Ease 5 9 Wireframe Preview 9 9 9 3} Scrolling background nor automated: 4) Adjusts to !he images provided by the user; 5) Velocity easily created witti variables in scripts
- YES MANUFACTURER Gold Disk Byte by Byte The Right Answers Group
Centaur Antic Publishing PRODUCT Movie Setter Scupt-Animate
Sculpt-Animate 4D 4D Jr.
The Director Forms in Flight 2 Zoetrope 1 Meg Chip RAM 1 Meg+ 2 meg mtn sugg.
1 meg min sugg.
24-bit Color Output • 2-D Animation • BkGr FrGr • • 2-D Texture IFF Mapping 3-D Fonts 6 3-D Object Animation • * • 3-D Texture IFF Mapping • 68020 30 Support • • 8SVX SFF Sounds • • ¦ ANIM Cut-and-Paste • • ANIM Standard • ANIM-5, J-OP ANIM-5.J-OP • ANIMbrushes • • Antialiasing • 9 • Arexx Support • Bitplane Conversion Bluing Onion Skin 10 • Byte Vertical Compression • Color Remap 11 Color Fonts • * Digital Video Effects • • Extra Halfbrite • Fades Wipes Dissoives • • • Frame Controller • FIAM mode • • IFF Support • • • • • • Internal Genlock Support • Light Sources ambient & point ambient &
point Multipie Color Cycle • • • Overscan • « • • PAL Standard Support 7 7 • • • Path Animation • • • Perspective • • • • Phong Scanline Shading • * Player • • • • Ray Trace Rendering • • Resolution Conversion RIF Standard • Scrolling Background Option 10 Self-Running • • Severe Overscan • ¦ SMUS Songs • Standard Amiga Fonts • • Stencil Mask Matte • BkGr FrGr • • Storyboards • Tweening • • • • Uncompressed • • • User-adjustable Overscan 8 • Velocity Ease 10 Wireframe Preview * • • •
6) Foni object library support; 7 ) Automatic & manual
overrrides; 0) 24-bit mode only; 9) Program is written with
inherent capabilities:
10) Similar effect can be imolemented: 11) Not complete remap:
limited palette mapping
• = VES (Cartoon Animation, continued from page 54) Resolution:
Hi-res pictures require about four times the memory of lores,
because they have four times as many pixels to control. The HAM
mode is not recommended for animation because of the excessive
amount of memory required for every frame.
Bitplanes; Another major factor is number of colors in the palette, as determined by the number of bitplanes in use. Eight colors, representing 3 bitplanes, use considerably less memory than 16 colors, or4 bitplanes.
Complexity of scene: Finally, the complexity of a scene and the motion within determines how much memory is needed. In the ANIM format, the many frames of an animation are not held in memory ind ividually. Instead, the first frame goes to memory and thereafter, only the pixels which change from frame to frame are recorded. So if only a few pixels change, very little memory is used, and the scene canrun faster and longer.
This is also the way an ANIM file is saved to disk, so an anima tion scene that fills up one disk in the ANIM format probably needs two or three disks to hold all the frames when saved individually.
Now let's examine the three different methods of doing a moving background, noted above THE COMBINED SCENE This method can be performed on a 1-meg Amiga if it is done in lores with 8 or 16 colors. Although il can be done in hi-res on a 3-meg computer, instructions here will refer to lo-res onlv.
With its excellent animation features, DeluxePaint III is the only software needed. Since Dpaint III will not animate in overscan, this exercise is mostly for practice; the result will not meet broadcast standards.
Be sure that you have saved Zeke Walking as nil AnimBrush, in lores. Change format to lo-res, 16 colors, and frame size to 320x 200. Clear all frames, if they're not already clea r, and set number of frames to SO. The movement of the background is smoother if it moves the same number of pixels on every frame. And since there are 320 pixels, horizontally, it can move completely across the screen in SO frames, at 4 pixels per frame.
Zeke Walking uses only 8 colors, so when you load the Anim Brush, Zckc will use the first column of S colors. The S colors of the second column are available to change and use for the background without affecting Zeke.
Go to Frame 1 and paint the background scene. Plan the scene so that it can loop, continuously. That is, match the left edge of the picture to the right edge, perfectly. That is, the horizon, mountains, and other features should meet the left edge of the picture at exactly the same height as they do the right edge of the picture. Then, when two copies of the picture are placed end to end the landscape will appear to be continuous, with no abrupt changes.
It's easy tocheck this alignment by selecting the rectangle tool. This gives the brush a perfectly horizontal line across the screen. Of course, you will need to press F10 to hide the toolbox in order to see the right edge.
Keeping the memory problem in mind, it's a good idea to plan the background so there are large areas of solid colors and no large areas of textures. Keep vertical lines to a minimum.
When the background scene is complete, and while the toolbox is still hidden, press key "b" to activate the brush selector. Incidentally, the keyboard equivalents are the best timcsavers you have. I recommend that you make a conscious effort to use them regularly, Pick up the entire picture as a brush. Be sure to go all the way to the corners. Press ALT and "x" simultaneously to place the brush handle at the lower right corner, and again to place it at the lower left corner. Press upper case "K" to bring up the clear screen option, and select "All Frames".
Position the background scene back in its original position, filling the screen. To do this, place the cursor the brush handle as far as it will go into the lower left corner of the screen, and press the left mouse button.
Press the "u" key to undo, or remove the background. It may appear that we just cancelled out the previous step, but not so. The computer remembers where you painted the scene and will begin its motion from that location.
Press F10 to restore the menu bar and toolbox. In the menu bar select ANIM, move, to bring up the move requester. Everything in the move requester can remain in its default setting except that the X Distance should beset to-320. Also be sure that the count savs 80. Then select draw.
Turbo Silver Animation by David Duberman Turbo Silver is one of the best bargains in Amiga graphics software today. Ifs a high-caliber 3-D rendering, ray-tracing, and animation program with lots of advanced capabilities for under $ 100. It comes with a free floating-point version for those lucky enough to own accelerator cards, but it's very fast even without acceleration. One of Turbo Silver's main claims to fame is its ability to wrap IFF images around 3-D objects for special effects not available in other Amiga rendering programs.
If you buy Turbo Silver from a store, you get version 3,0. For $ 30 you can upgrade to 3.0SV from Impulse, Inc. and i strongly urge you to do so.
Improvements include a hi-res wireframe editor, improved modeling capabilities, and support for the IFF ANIM format as well as the stereo HaitexX-Spex. Incidentally, if you use3,0SV to generate an ANIM format animation, make sure you generate all the frames in a single session with Lock Palette on, or you'll have trouble playing back the animation with programsthatdon’t support ANIMs with multiple palettes, like DeluxeVideo
III. At this writing Impulse is on the verge of releasing
Imagine, which is a major revamping of Silver, but the
original Is stil! Very much worth having.
Silver uses a method of path animation that's markedly different from Sculpt-Animate 4D’s approach. A path's structure is the same in both programs a series of vertices connected by edges. Unlike Sculpt, however, you can't reverse a path's direction. Also, a path in Silver needn't contain the same number of vertices as the number of frames through which the object is to move. Silver uses interpolation to move the object through equal-length segments of the path before each frame. The drawback of this procedure is that it's more difficult to simulate acceleration and deceleration, Also, since
Silver moves the object before each frame, it's sometimes difficult to know exactly where the object will start in the first frame. You can get around this by generating the animation to all but the first frame, then copying the key frame (or the second frame) to the first frame and setting it up as desired.
Silver uses a requester called Story to assign an object to a path.
Story incorporates a number of unique features that can be a great deal of help in generating complex animations. First, an object can be scaled and or rotated on any combination of the three axes, using either the object's own axes or the constant world ones. The rotation scaling settings can be absolute, in which the specified total amount is spread out over the number of frames in the animation, or relative, in which the specified amount is applied on each successive frame. Next, the Story command's Y Align feature forces the object's Y axis to lie along the path's direction, constantly
rotating the object if necessary. This is handy for animating aircraft and other vehicles. Finally, the Follow Me feature lets you assign a group of objects which will follow each other along the path in the order you specify, which gives a train motion!
Turbo Silver3.0. price: $ 199.95. Impulse. Inc., 6870 Shingle Creek Parkway 112, Minneapolis, MN 55430, (612) 566-0221. Inquiry 227.
Now you will have to wait till the computer paints all SO frames, one at a time, while moving the picture to the left. By the time it reaches frame number 80 the picture has moved completely off the screen. So it's time to fill in the blank areas with another copy of the same background scene, which is still on the brush.
Go to Frame 1 and again press F10 to hide the Menu Bar and Toolbox. Position the brush as far as it will go into the lower right corner of the screen, and press the left mouse button. You will not be able to see any of the brush in this position, but remember, the computer knows where it is.
From the menu bar select ANIM, move again. Without changing anything in the move requester, select draw again, and watch as the computer paints the picture into the blank areas of all frames.
Now the moving background is complete and you can check it out with key 4. It should move smoothly and continuously, as though it is one endless scene. Save it to disk as an ANIM file, labeled ZW-BG.
With ZW-BG still on the screen, go to Frame 1 and load the lo-res AnimBrush of Zeke Walking, Position Zeke where you want him in the frame. Composition-wise, it's best to place him slightly off center, facing toward the center of the frame.
When Zeke is positioned, paint a copy of him thereand select undo.
Go to the move requester, set alt distances and angles to zero, set the number of frames to SO, a nd select preview. When you are confident that he is staying in the right position, press the space bar to stop the preview, then select paint. After Zeke is painted onto all frames, save the complete scene as an ANIM file using a fresh, formatted disk, because this one scene will use a large portion of the disk.
Press tlic4 kev to see the complete animation. If Zeke walks too last, reset the frame rate. If he walks too slow, then the speed is probably being limited by your computer configuration, and there's nothing you can do until your system's memory is expanded.
SEPARATE AN I MS This method requires a genlock, 2 VCRs, DeluxePaint III, and DeluxeVideoIII. We will record the moving background onto videotape, then play it back through the genlock, adding Zeke Walking from the computer. The combined animation can then be recorded on another VCR.
We will use the hi-res ANIM of Zeke Walking and combine it with an intermediate-res (interlace) background scene in overscan.
We're now getting into a picture quality that is acceptable for professional video applications, with the character in hi-res and the background in what appears to be hi-res. I say that because, in a landscape suchas this, most of the lines are horizontal or near-horizontal. And in nitres, near-horizontal lines have no more aliasing than hi-res, becauseof the shape of each pixel, And the 32 colors are enough to allow for extra shading and detail.
Set the format to interlace, overscan, in 32 colors. Change the page size to 704 x 4S0, which is exactly twice as wide as normal overscan. In animation terms this is 2 fields wide. Hold down the left cursor key to be sure you are seeing the left end of the page.
Paint the background scene on the spare page, which is stili 352 x 4S0 in size. The left edge should match the right edge, just like before. It is all right to include much more detail than we were able to use in the first method, because the computer will not be overworked by playing two ANTMs at the same time. When the background scene is complete, save it to disk as ZW-BG-0. After the "save" is finished, press upper case J to copy it to the other page. Then press small j to see the other page. This is the extra wide page which will become our final background.
Hold down the right cursor key until the scene stops moving. This should bring us to the right half of the page, which is blank. Press j to return to the spare page, then upper case j to copy the picture again.
Return to the oversize page and hold down the left cursor key. If the right and left edges were matched correctlv then vou will not be able lo see where the two pictures meet. They will appear to be one continuous picture. Save as ZW-BG-1. The background is now complete.
The next step is to record the moving background on videotape.
Warm boot the Amiga with the DeluxeVideo 111, Maker disk. Open the program. Double click on the view icon and select overscan. This establishes the a rea of the screen we will see in terms of lo-res, even though our picture will be in int-res. Lengthen the scene to 1 minute by dragging the right arrow. Double click on the scene icon.
Drag down a track icon, choose picture and load ZW-BG-1. Drag an effect icon down to the track and start it at .05 sec. Select show. Dras a second eltect icon to the track, select scroll and set the controls ioX=4, Y=0, T=2. This controls the speed of movement. You can set it faster by increasing theX value, or slower by decreasing the X value. Drag the start arrow of the scroll to .05 seconds, and the end scroll arrow to the end of the scene, which should be 1 minute.
In the menu bar select project, plav scene. The background should move smoothly for one minute. If everything looks all right, play the scene again while recording it on videotape. If you're using VHS, record at standard play (SP) speed for best picture quality.
The final step is to play back the tape, feeding it to the video-in jack on the geniock, and at the same time play the hi-res ANIM of Zeke walking, using DeluxePaint III. If vou have another VCR, connect it to the overlay or video-ou t jack of the genlock, and record the combined scene.
ANIM OVER LIVE BACKGROUND This method requires a genlock, a video camera and tripod, one or two VCRs, a TV, and DeluxePaint III. We will use the hi-res anim of Zeke Walking, and combine it with a painted background, or a live background. This method also gives broadcast quality to the scene. The Memory & Animation by Chris Boyce THE FIRSTRECOMMENDATION most experts make when giving advice on creating Amiga animation is that you have a lot of memory.
Unfortunately, many Amiga owners would like to experiment in the world of animation, but don ! Have megs and megs of memory to work with. So, they give up before even getting started. But this doesn't have to happen.
By following a few simple steps, you can iearn lo more effectively utilize your system's available memory. By choosing the right software and using it properly, even users with 512K can create animations of substance.
Those with one meg will learn hew to create longer, more complex animations.
Most Amiga users have a favorite resolution in which they prefer to work.
Some like high resolution because there are less “jaggies". Others prefer lower resolutions or HAM because they can use more colors on the screen at one time. If you intend to transfer your final product to videotape, remember to use interlace (i.e., 320 X 400, 640 X 400); it's necessary to maintain videotape stability. However, if your animation is only for playback on Ihe computer screen, consider using a noninterlaced display (i.e., 320 X 200, 640 X 200). You'll find that not using interface gives'you about Mice as many animation frames to work with. As for which resolution to
use, keep in mind that the higher the resolution, Ihe more memory required. A hi-res 640 X 400 screen uses about twice the memory of a 320 X 400 screen, and you only can have half the number of colors on the screen at once. Many people are attracted to the large number of colors available in HAM mode. But you really should avoid it.
Unless you actually need all the colors it provides, because it also uses much more memory. Try to get by using 32 colors. If you select your palette carefully, you’ll likely discover that 32 colors are plenty.
One final mode to keep in mind is overscan. Depending on the degree of the overscan, it can use in the range of 30% more memory. Use it only when absolutely necessary.
NUMBER OF COLORS The more colors in your palette, the more memory you're going to find being gobbled up. Get by with as few colors as possible, if you don't need those 32 colors, don't even select a 32 color palette. Bear in mind that fewer colors means a simpler, less distracting animation. Using a two- color palette instead of a 32-cotor palette gives you five times as many frames to work with. One technique works especially well for animated titles and credits. Have the text and other objects “fly in" using just a two- color palette (i.e., black text on a white background)."Then, once all
of the components are in place, take the final screen of the animation, save it separately, increase the number of colors in the palette, and colorize it. If you have a slideshow-type program such as UghtsiCameralActionl, you can have that program play the animation and do a transition, such as a fade or wipe to the colorized screen. In the end. It appears that the black- and-white creation has been touched by a maaic paintbrush and instantly colorizea.
PROGRAMMEMORY USAGE One frequently overlooked, yet obvious solution is to cut down on the amount of memory being used by the animation program itself, and any other programs that may be running at the same time. Don't multitask.
The more programs running (even very small ones), the less room you'll have for an animation. Close ail unnecessary windows, and if possible close Workbench, if you're using a program such as DeluxePaint III, it's possible to load only a portion ot the program into memory at one time. The problem with this method is that often as you select a new command, the computer will have to access the disk drive, thus causing a delay. But you will free up more memory to work with.
COMPRESS YOUR ANIMATION If you try to create an animation with fuil-sized IFF screens you're not going to be able to fit many screens into memory before you run cut of room. That's where file compression comes into play. The "ANIM" method of animation compression is currently the most popular compression format and is also the closest the Amiga comes to an animation compression standard. ANIM works by saving the first IFF screen of a file and then saving only the changes in frames thereafter. If your animation program is not compatible with the ANIM standard, but can generate IFF frames, you
can use the public domain program MakeAnim to compile the IFF frames into an ANIM file.
There is one inherent problem with using ANIM. The more changes between the frames ot your animation, the slower the playback program will cycle through the individual frames. In some cases, it can slow down to the point that you can easily notice a jump between frames. Be sure that the changes between frames are minimal, and olayback will almost always be acceptable.
Animated character is in hi-rcs, white the background takes advantage of the maximum resolution allowed by vour camera, and an infinite number of colors and shades.
The technique is so simple that instructions are not needed. However here are n few tips that might improve Ihe final results. Tire painted background should bent least 4 fields wide. For taping it should be placed on a wall and the center of the picture should be exactly the same height as the camera lens.
Use a solid tripod with a fluid head for best results. Back up the camera as far as is practical from the picture, and use the lens in a telephoto position. Both picture and tripod head should be perfectly level. Use plenty of light on the picture.
The video signal from the camera goes directly to the video-in jack on the genlock. The video-out from the genlock goes to the video-in of a VCR, and it should be hooked to a TV so you can see the combined scene.
Load the ANIM Zeke Walking and let it run continuously. Practice panning the camera several times before recording the scene on tape.
If you choose a live background, it should be recorded on tape while the camcorder is moving at a walking pace. The camera and tripod can be mounted on a car, a golf cart, an ATV, wagon, wheelchair, or anything else that can roll smoothly. And the camera should be looking 90 degrees to the left of the vehicle. As in the second method, the taped background is played back through the genlock, and Zeke is added from the computer.
This completes your short course in cartoon animation, Whichever method you choose, I hope it serves both as a learning experience and a source of inspiration, encouraging you to tackle more and varied projects.
Animation still holds a fascination unmatched by live drama, and ca rtoon characters never become obsolete because of dated fashions or fads.
• AC* Product Information DISPLAY RATE Animation works by
tricking our eyes into blending individual still frames that
are displayed in quick succession to create the illusion of
motion. Many animation programs allow you to choose the rate
(measured in frames per second) at which your animation is
displayed.
Tc get perfectly smooth animations, we might aim for a rate of around 30 frames a second, a rate that a lot of programs (especially ones using the ANIM tormat) can't achieve anyway. If perfectly smooth animation is not an absolute necessity, we can reduce Ihe number of frames displayed every second, and the fewer trames displayed, the less memory needed.
Ten frames a second is about the bare minimum you can go to before the illusion of motion begins to fail apart. By choosing 15 frames per second we are generating only half the number of frames required at a rate of 30 frames a second. The choice is up to you, and you’ll have to decide what sacrifices in playback smoothness you can make. A little bit of experimenting should help you see the differences.
PIECING IT TOGETHER If an animation's final destination is videotape, you may be able to break it into smaller sections, which can be edited together when you record it onto tape. How successful this method is largely depends on what type of video equipment you're using. If you're using professional equipment, it shouldn't oe a problem. Most professional systems are very close to frame accurate. If you're using consumer equipment and have an editing controller and flying erase heads, it shouldn’t be too difficult, either.
Just record the animation onto tape and edit it together at the proper points. The only trick is knowing where tc make the breaks when you're creating the animation so that there aren't any jumps when the entire piece comes together. If don’t have an editing controller.it might be worth renting time on one somewhere. Otherwise, you can record one piece, pause the VCR, unpause, record the next piece, pause, etc. How accurate this will be depends on the machine and your sense of timing. Chances are, it will be difficult to make smooth cuts using this method.
DeluxePai.-.t 111 Price: 3149.03 inquiry =223 DeluxeVdec n Price: S 149.95 inquiry =230 Electronic Arts 1820 Gateway Drive San Mateo, CA 94404
(800) 246-4525 3-0 Professional Price: 3499.95 Inquiry *222
Animation Station Price: 599 95 Inquiry -223 Progressive
Peripherals & Software 464 Kclarrcsth St. Denver. CO 80204
(303) 825-4 1 44 Aegis ANIMagic Price: 3139.95 Inquiry *243 Aegis
ProMotion Price: 399.95 inquiry =244 Aegis Videoscope 3D
with ProMotion Price: 5199.95 Inquiry *245 Spectra Color
Free: 599.95 Inquiry *246 OXXI Aegis Development 133= E,
28th St. Long Beach, CA 90806
(213) 427-1227 Caiigc- Broadcast Price: S3495.C0 inquiry =251
Caligari Pr; Animate Price: 51995.00 Inquiry =252 Octree
Software, inc. 311 West 43rd SI Suite 904 New York. NY
1C036
(212) 262-3116 SINGLE-FRAME RECORDING If you have a VCR capable
of recording a singie frame at a time and a controller for
it that's hooked up to either the parallel or serial ports,
this is a not-too-diificuit way to conserve memory.
Programs such as Photon Video Transport Controller and Videoscape 3D can drive these controllers to automatically record a frame as soon as the computer has generated it. If you don't have a controller hooked up to your Amiga, you can display the frames manually and have the VCR record them for a frame as you display them.
GENLOCKED BACKGROUND If you have a genlock, you can save valuable memory by creating your background separately from the foreground animation. This is easy if Ihe background is static. If it moves or changes in tandem with the foreground it’s just a little more difficult. When you're done with the animation, record the background onto videotape. Then, play back the tape with the background, genlocking (keying) the foreground animation over top of the prerecorded background. Just make sure that when creating the foreground animation you make the background color Color Zero so that you can use
it with the genlock.
SELECTING YOUR SOFTWARE Some software operates in a low-memory environment better than others, t wo programs you might want to check out are MovieSetter and Fantavision, MovieSetter is easy and fun to use. It creates cartoonish animations of considerable length even on 512K machines. Fantavision uses a tweening method of animation where you create the keyframes, to produce decent length animations with surprisingly little memory. When you're shopping for animation software, certainly checkout haw well the software performs in a low-memory environment. By using you' available resources
properly, and making a few sacrifices here and there, you can create Amiga animations without a load of expansion memory. You will not have the same ease and flexibility more memory would provide, but you won't have to spend any more money, either.
Scubt-Anrmate JQ Price: 5499.95 inquiry -=225 Sculpt-Animare 4D Jr.
Price: 3150 03 Inquiry =226 Byte Dy Byte Arboretum Plazo:: 9442 Ccprtol of TX Hwy. N. St, ISO Austin TX 78759
(512) 343-4357 Digimote 3 Price: 339.95 Inquiry =253 Pcgefiippe:
Plus F X Price: S299.C0 Inquiry 254 PcgeRender 3D Price:
S159.9S Inquiry =255 Mindwc-e International 110 Dunlop W.
Box 22158 Borrie. Ontario, Canada L4M 5R3
(705) 737-5993 Tne Director Price: SI29.95 Inquiry =243 Right
Answers Group
P. O. Box 3699 Torrence. CA 90510 213)325-i311 MovieSetter
Price: 399.95 inquiry =247 Gold Disk, Inc. 5155 Soectrum Way.
Unit 5 Mississcuga. Ontario Canada L4W 5A1 (4 i 6) 602-4000
The Animation Studio Price: SI7995 Inquiry =207 Walt Disney
Computer Software. Inc. 5005, Buena Vista St. Burbank, CA
91521
(618) 567-5360 Zoetrope Fries: Si39.95 Inquiry =250 Antic
Publishing 544 Second St. San Francisco, CA 94T07
(415) 967-0886 Digi-View 4.0 Price: S 199.95 NewTex 215 E. 8th
St, Topeka. KS 66603
(913) 354-1146 Inquiry =229 Forms in Flight 2 Puce: 3H9.00
Inquiry =249 Centaur Software inc.
P. O Box 4400 Redondo Beach. CA 90278
(213) 542-2226 Imagine Price 3350.00 Inquiry =256 Turbo Silver
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(612) 5660221 Programming in AmigaBASIC: the shotgun approach
revisited by Mike Morrison SO, YOU READ LAST MONTH'S
ARTICLE on implementing a shotgun approach to AmigaBASIC
(AB) (Amazing Computing, December 1990, pp. 44-45) and you
still want to learn how to program in the language. You
probably want to use it to solve some of life's most
complex problems like: When does then become now? How much
tea is in China? And how many Frenchmen does it take to
change a light bulb?
RECURSION In order to solve these problems and many more we will need to use recursion. You may be wondering what recursion is.
What recursion is. What recursion is. What recursion is, Recursion is when you do something repeatedly. Over and over. The same task again and again. An example of this would be your daily routine. Your alarm goes off, you get up, bathe, get dressed, grab a cup of coffee, take an aspirin for your headache, shut off your alarm (no wonder you had a headache), and drive to work.
All this to find out that it's Saturday. This is recursive because you do it everyday, over and over, till you die.
SKIN A CAT As in skinning a cat, there are many ways to program recursion. We'll take a look at the worst wav first and then a few alternatives: sentence IS “"Your alar- goes off. You geo up."
Sentence2$ ="You bacr.e, get dressed, ana have a cup of coffee."
Sentence35="Ycu drive to vccri," PRINT sentence!S PRINT ser.ter.oe25 PRINT sentenceuS PRINT sentenced GOTO here After vou type this in RUN’ it. Your life will pass in front of your eyes. This program will actually run forever unless we stop it. When you're done gazing at your life press the Ctrl key above the left shift key) and the letter C at the same time (or select Stop from the menu). This will halt our little program.
In the above example we used a label named HERE (you can use anv word or numbers for labels), and the AB command GOTO. The program starts at the beginning and assigns the text between the quotes to the string variables to the left. Then AB encounters the label HERE which it remembers and then goes to the four PRINT statements. The PRINTS display the contents of the variables which we assigned at the beginning. Then the GOTO statement is reached. Tills tells AB to go to the label named HERE. HERE is just above the PRINT statements. Then the PRINTs print, and the GOTO sends the program back to
the HERE label. This continues forever.
THE FOR AND NEXT COMMANDS Another approach to the previous example would be to use the FOR NEXT loop. The FOR command and the NEXT command work together to form a loop. Let's rewrite our example using a FOR NEXT loop: sente.'icelv“"Ycur alarra goes off. You get up."
Ser.ter.ce2S="Ycu bathe, get dressed, and have a cup of coffee."
Sentence3$ ="Ycu drive to work."
Sentence4S--Qve- and over t.!. you die," FOR x - I Tu 1G000C PRINT sentenceIS PRINT ser.cer.ce2 S PRINT sentence3S PRINT ser.ten.ce4S Using the FOR NEXT loop produces the same resultsas the GOTO and HERE label above. All except for one thing. The above FOR NEXT loop will continue until the variable X is greater than 100000. The FOR command starts the X variable out at 1. The PRINTs are executed and AB reaches the NEXT command. This tells AB to go back to the associated FOR command. First, AB checks to see if the variable X is greater than the second part of the FOR command, in this case
100000. If it is then AB would not go back to the FOR command but would continue to the next command after the NEXT command (in this case there is no command after the NEXT so the program would end).
In this next example (no pun intended) we will use a different variation of the FOR NEXT command.
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Contents January, 1991 Vol. 1 No. 1 ? Advanced Disassembling: Magic Macros with ReSource ? Building the VidCell: 256 Grey-Scale Digitizer ? An Introduction to Interprocess Communication with Arexx ? An Introduction to the ilbm.library ? The Use of Recursive Programming Techniques in Conjunction with DOS and EDIT for Hard Disk Backup ? The FastBoot Super Boot Block: Creating a Bootable, Recoverable RAM Disk ? AmigaDOS for Programmers ? Adapting Mattel's PowerGlove to the Amiga ? Using Proportional Gadgets from Absoft’s FORTRAN Be sure to get your copy today ... before they're ALL GONE!
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In this example you probably noticed two tilings different from the last example. One, we used a variable called .
SECON DS_LEFT instead of X. Second, we used the STEP part of , the FOR command. In this example the variable SECONDS_LEFr is started with a value of 10. The PRINT command displays the value of SECONDS_LEFT and AB reaches the NEXT command.
AB checks to see if SECONDS_LEFT is less than the second part of the FOR command, this time it is 1.10 isn't less than 1 so AB goes back to the FOR command. Now the variable SECONDS_LEFT is decremented by! Because of the STEP-1 part of the FOR command. This makes the value of SECO.ND5_.LEFT at 9. Eventually SECONDSJ.EFT will be less than 1 and the program won't go back to the FOR command but will continue to the next PRINT command, WHILE AND WEND COMMANDS This time we will rewrite the last example using the WHILE WEND commands. You will see that they are somewhat similar in function as the
FOR NEXT commands.
Secc r.ds_:efc = 10 PRINT '‘Prepare tc: the shuttles launch."
WHILE seccr.us_left j PRINT secor.ds_leic secor.ds_left = secor.as left - 1 WEND "aiast off!:: :m The first line sets the value of the variable SECONDS LEFT to 10. The WHILE and WEND loop will continue until the equation supplied with the WHILE command becomes false. In this case the loop continues until SECON DS_LE FT does not equal 0(the"o"signsmeannotequalto).AtthispointSECONDS LEFT is equal to 10, and 10 does not equal 0 so the loop continues.
When we used the FOR NEXT loop, the FOR command automatically incremented or decremented tire variable supplied. With the WHILE command we must do it ourselves. This is done with the SECONDSJLEFT = SECONDSJ_EFT-1. Before this statement SECONDS_LEFT equals 10. Then we subtract 1 from SECON DS_LEFT which is 9. Then we put thatvalue back in SECONDS_LEFT. Then AB encounters the WEND command and the program is sent back to the WHILE command. Once SECONDSJLEFT is decremented to 0 the loop will end.
There are many ways to program recursion, and many are much more complicated. Take a look at other programming articles that have highlighted recursion. What we covered this month should give you a good start on recursion and looping.
These ideas are used often in programming and you should take the time to understand them and experiment. Here is one more quick example using the WHILE WEND commands. Before you run it take a guess at what you think will happen. (Clue: the computer looks at any value other than 0 as being true.)
, WHILE 1 1 PRINT "Forever is a long ! MENS .AC. THIS COLUMN HAS BEEN' DEDICATED for some time now to teaching the C programming language. Now it is time for a test.
Most of the code examples and questions that follow will focus on areas that cause the greatest number of problems and or bugs. T o simplify the grading process, the answer to each test question will be supplied immediately following the question. But, don'tcheat) Think about your answer before reading mine.
Question: How do you declare a string variable in C?
Answer: Did you think about the answer before you started reading this? In any event, this first one was a trick question.
There is no "string" variable type in C. Technically, you must declare a character array and only logically treat it as a string (i.e., char var[30];). I suppose this question wasn't really fair if the C language is the only one considered. Some other languages, however, do offer "string" variable types that are distinguished from arrays of characters and this was the point that I wanted to make.
Question: Consider the following declaration: or.sr * var[=]; This declaration defines: A) a character array of Length 5; B) an array of 5 pointers where each points to a char; C) a pointer to an array of 5 characters.
Answer: The answer is B an array of character pointers. This is a common stumbling block for many novice C programmers, but even an expert can trip over it occasionally. Typically, this type definition is mistaken for a pointer to a character array especially when seen in a prototype without the array index (char * varfl). It is usually mistaken because we read left to right while variable definitions should be evaluated from right to left. Starting from the right, you first see the array brackets; the variable name can be skipped and that leads to the pointer indicator (*); finally, the
far left reveals the char data type. This means we havean array of 5 pointers each pointing to a char.
Question: What is wrong with the following code? There may be more thanone item amiss. Try not to concentrate on what the code is trying to accomplish and concentrate only on finding any syntax and or logic problems.
Se c_rr.es ( void ) char message[51; char *prr; int ndx; ctr = "Hello"; for ( nd : = 1; r.dx = 5; ndx+-) message [ndx] = ’rpur; } return(message); } Answer: There are five distinct problems in this function: 1) The assignment of the variable array, message, begins in the second element position. Remember: Array indexes begin with the zero element. Since message is a local variable, and not yet initialized, the zero element will contain an undetermined value. The "for" loop in this example should begin with: for( ntix = 0;
2) Trying to index into the array with an index of 5 (the last
execution of the loop) will exceed the defined array length.
Again, recall that array indexes start with the zero element,
This means that the "maximum" index is one less than the
constant used to declare the variable. The loop should be
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passed to the function.
Although there mav be several other more subtle concerns regarding this function, I believe these are the 5 primary flaws. Did you discover them all? If so, did you know how2 to correct the problems?
Question: Assume the variable is an integer. What value would be computed for x in the following equation?
X = 3 - 4 ¦ 5; Answer: 35. Remember the precedence of math operators. Multiplication is higher than addition, therefore 4 will first be multiplied with S. Then 3 will be added to the result.
Last Question: Can vou find any flaws in the following function?
I Answer: There is only one problem in this function. The parameter variable, iuim, is declared as a long type. When printing longs using the printf function, the format character(s) supplied in the format string must specify this fact. This is accomplished by placing the letter "1" (for long),between the format indicator %) and the data type indicator (d). The result should look like this: It is possible that this function only requires the short integer portion of the parameter. If this is the case, then the function should still be changed to look like this: printf ("The value is =
%d* r n", (short int.) R.urr.); If the casting operation is omitted (as it was in the test question) then an incorrect number of bytes will be pushed onto the stack. In this example, it may go undetected. If, however, you were attempting to print more than one variable within this particular function call, passing the incorrect number of bvtes would interfere with the subsequent printed values.
That concludes the test for this month. How7 did you do? Of course, these few questions could not come close to testing vour knowledge of theC language. Specifically, 1 tried to concentrate on the most frequently encountered problems. J f vou missed one or two, do fret too much. Mow you know what you need to work on. Don't wait to make a mistake in an important program: do a few experiments now7, to clear up any confusion.
• AO R O s [Thestatementsandprojectionspresented in "Roomers" are
rumors in the purest sense.
The bits of information are gathered by a third- party source from whispers inside the industry. At press time, they remain unconfirmed and are printed for entertainment value only.
Accordinhj, the staff and associates of Amazing Computing™ cannot be held responsible for the reports made in this column.] ONCE AGAIN, IT'S TIME for The Bandito's fearless predictions for the New Year. You may recall that last year The Bandito successfully predicted that Elvis would be found living with Jimmy Hoffa under an assumed name, that jack Tramiel would lose 50 lbs. On a diet he learned from space aliens, and that Commodore would decide not to buy Apple Computer.
An impressive track record, to be sure, but let's see if it can't be beaten this year.
And so, without further ado, here are The Bandito's "Fearless Predictions for 1991":
(1) Commodore's CDTV will beat CD- I to market, even though CD-I
has had several years' head start. By the end of the year,
over 100,000 CDTV units will be sold. More than 200
CDTV-format software titles will be available by the end of
the year.
(2) The price for an A500 and monitor will drop to below $ 500 by
the end of the year, causing sales to jump more than 50%. The
Amiga 500 will begin to find its true destiny as the rightful
heir to the C-64 as the home computer of the 1990s.
(3) Commodore willintroduceat least one 68040 machine and a full
24-bit graphics card. Prices will be lower than that for
similar machines from other manufacturers, but they will
not be cheap.
(4) Workbench 3 will be announced for shipment in 1992. Among the
new features will be support for 24-bit graph- by The Bandito
ics, outline fonts, multiple monitors, and virtual memory.
(5) The Amiga will become the machine of choice for video
professionals, primarily due to the success of the Video
Toaster.
Mark those predictions down on your calendar. And now, some current news from the wonderful world of Amiga.
YOU MAY REMEMBER The Bandito mentioning some troubles at Mediagenic.
Well, the company has finally taken some drastic steps to fix things. Mediagenic has undergone a major reorganization, start- ing by resetting their 1991 sales goals from $ 60 million to $ 30 million and getting rid of around 50 people. They've also sold some of their businesses to get some operating capital, and renegotiated some of their debt to give them some breathing room.
Will this massive belt-tightening work? Only time will tell, but Dr. Bandito says this patient is in bad shape. To the discerning eve, Mediagenic looks like Mindscape did before it was bought out by Software Toolworks: a poor selection of software titles, but with the rights to produce more Nintendo carts than it can make. In other words, a very attractive buyout target, although there are a huge pile of liabilities. Mediagenic may well be in such bad shape that it can only continue in business as is, since that's the only way its creditors can ever hope to see any of their money- SO WHAT'S
HAPPENING at the Big C itself these days? Well, Commodore formally announced its A2410 graphics card (that's the card developed at the University of Lowell) and Unix V Version 4 at a European trade show. Both were shown running on an A3000, doing some graphics demos with impressive speed, and attracting many admirers. The Bandito has discovered that AMIX (Amiga Unix) is being beta tested by several different universities. Expect to see it available by early 1991. Commodore has high hopes for the UNIX market, al though the Bandito ' O thinks that UNIX should be classified as a
curablemental condition and heavy UNIX users should be put through detox programs. Hey, it makes MS-DOS look elegant, OK? The definitive propeller-head operating system. Why anyone wants to mess up an Amiga by running UNIX on it is a mysterv. Maybe Dale Luck can provide an answer...are you out there, Dale?
Anyhow, the A2410 card uses the T1 34010 graphics chip to give you a maximum resolution of 1024 x 1024 pixels (with a hi-res monitor) and 256 colors from a palette of 16 million. With Commodore's new 1950 multiscan monitor you can get a resolution of 800 x 800 pixels. Not bad for a little old Amiga, and at a very reasonable price, too. At least, the Bandito hears that the price for the A2410 will be well under $ 1000; let's hope that prediction comes true.
Commodore has finally entered the portable computer business! No, not with a portable Amiga, but a portable PC built by Sanyo. Seems Commodore is still trying to keep that MS-DOS line of computers alive. What about a portable Amiga?
It's possible, but not likely any time soon, according to The Bandito's sources. Prototypes have been built, but the market still isn't there yet. We likely won't see one for a long time, unless it comes out from a third-party manufacturer.
The Bandito hears many strange things floating past on the endless datastream. One of the strangest concerns a possible deal between Commodore and Sun (those Unix workstation hotshots).
It's bizarre, but The Bandito will pass it along for your amusement. It seems that Commodore might take over Sun's Intel- and Motorola-ba sed r vorksta tion business, as a way to get into the Unix market if the A3000 doesn't set the Unix world on fire.
So, Sun would concentrate on its Sparcstations, while Commodore would inherit the machines that aren't selling all that well (the ones based on S03S6's and 6S030's).
HOW'S THE SOFTWARE business going lately? Clad you asked. The Software Publishers Association reports that DOS Windows, Macintosh, Apple II, Amiga, Unix, and OS 2 formats all posted sales gains, but Commodore 64 12S software sales plummeted bv32.7 percent. Forsome strange reason, Apple II software sales grew 10 percent for the first half of 1990 after dropping like a stone last vear; The Bandito believes it's due to the stubborn education market. Certainly there's not much developmental effort there. Have you looked at an Apple II magazine lately?
If vou can find one, you'll see that it's thinner than the average politician's integrity. Just not much to talk about or advertise in the Apple II business these days. Meanwhile, Amiga software sales shot up 34 percent, with word processing up SO percent. The Bandito hears that Pro Write has been doing very well lately.
THINGS ARE HEATING UP in the hardware market. Some new players have entered, and we can expect to see some battles for position. GVP is at the top of the heap right now, but Applied Engineering is coming in with their guns a-blazin'.
California Access, best known for their
3. 5" add-on drive, also has a slew of hardware products headed
for the marketplace. And that's just the big players in this
new market war. The Bandito expects some heavy advertising
salvos to be fired, and some innovative new hardware to be
developed. And don't be surprised if the competitive pressures
start forcing prices down. Gee, that wouldn't be too bad, now
would it?
Laser printer prices are already plummeting; you can find several models for under S1000 now, and prices are still heading downward. The Bandito thinks that Commodore should bring out that laser printer (the one they've been fooling j with in the labs) under their own label with a killer price tag. Of course, a color laser printer would be the perfect companion for the Amiga, don't you think? Or maybe just a good color inkjet for under a thousand dollars. Make that one where the ink cartridges don't cost an appreciable fraction of the national debt, will you? Thanks.
In other hard ware news, tapebackup systems (once found only on mainframes or MS-DOS computers) are making their way into the Amiga market. Several are in development; it's now going to be a lot easier to back up your hard drive. Prices shouldn't be too much higher than for MS-DOS tape backup; figure somewhere around S700.
THE NEW CHEAP MACINTOSH lineup has Commodore a bit worried. The Macintosh LC is a 68020-based machine that will sell for about 52,300 (street price) with a 40 MB hard drive and 2 meg of RAM. It does 256 colors out of 16 million at a resolution of 512 x 3S4; in fact, if you add some video RAM, it can do 32,000 colors at that resolution. This one's aimed squarely at the Amiga 2500, and Commodore won't take it lying down. The one drawback to the Mac LC is that it won't be out in big numbers till February or so, giving Commodore time to prepare its countermeasures. The Bandito expects large
price cuts on the A2000 line in response.
Of course, the Amiga isn't the only computer threatened by the new Macs.
The Apple He, lie and the IIGS are all on the chopping block when the Apple He emulator card for the Mac comes out in March. Apple officials are dropping ever more pointed hints about the coming demise of the Apple II, though they're trying to be cagy enough to get rid of all their inventory. Looks like we won't have the Apple II to kick around anymore after next year. So much for "Apple II Forever".
What can Commodore do to keep the A2000 competitive? Well, a redesign of the motherboard would substantially reduce costs by combining chips into VLSI chips, and using surface mount technology to reduce production costs. Designing a case that's easier to construct would also help reduce costs. Perhaps they could even develop a case that's easv to remove with a few snaps, rather than a bunch of screws. How low-tech! And a little design sense, like that shown with the A3000, would help immensely. Right now the A2000 looks like an industrial designer who specializes in tanks produced itin
his spare time.
And while you're at it, Commodore, you can go ahead and turn that stupid, monochrome video jack right back into a standard NTSC output. Sure, it wasn't the greatest signal in the world, but it made the computer ideal for video right out of the box. Now, you have to pay extra for that capability. Of course, that's really what you need to do for the A500, too.
While The Bandito is looking at the I A500, mavbe a motherboard redesign there would save some money, too. Look into getting a better power supply, too. It would be nice if you could make the unit lighter, and perhaps even design it: to accept a snap-on LCD screen to make it portable. Really, it could be made small enough to fit into a briefcase, and certainly light enough. Now there's the way to bring the world a portable computer! And if you could find a way to stuff in an internal Zorro slot and room for an optional battery pack, you'd really be cookin' with gas.
WHILE WE'RE ON THE TOPIC of hardware manufacturers, NeXT is probablv the only PC manufacturer who's sold fewer units than Commodore. Their new machines may do better, though. The price is lower and the performance is higher, and they finallv ad ded color. Still no games J «¦ O for them, though, and what's a computer without some games? The Bandito predicts that the NeXT machines will become the LavaLites of the 1990s: cute, expensive toys that get relegated to the attic.
The European market that has been so strong for many Amiga developers may experience a slump next year, according to some. Seems that sales of all kinds of computers are lower than the heady growth rates experienced in the last few years, and this naturally affects the sales of peripherals and software.
That's it for this month. I hope to have even more inside information next time, although breaking through security seems to be getting harder and harder...
• AC* SHADOW OF THE BEAST II & THE KILLING GAME SHOW by R.
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graphics and rather bizarre themes. Two of their recent
releases continue in this trend, and are sure to provide many
hours of challenge to Amiga players.
Shadow of the Beast 11 is a sequel to the original game. It seems that the evil lord is furious about your success over his minions in the first volume. The saga continues with his kidnapping of your little sister; now, you are her only hope.
As this game begins, you are positioned just outside the edge of the Dark Realm and vou must fight your way through waves of foes who attempt to kill anything that moves. Armed with just a simple mace at the start, other weapons become available for pick-up or pu rchase along the way.
The Killing Game Show, also from Psygnosis, casts the player as a contestant in a life-and-death struggle for survival. The player must find his way through level after level of hostile forces, quickly working his way to the exit at the top of the screen. The player's craft begins with a simple gun, but modules are scattered about each level and shooting them produces different weaponry.
Each level is also continually filling up with a liquid that is hostile to all forms Last month in "Snapshot", the photo used to illustrate the game Street Rod, In California Dreams, was ?iot that of the Amiga version, but rather the C-64. We apologize for this oversight of organic life, providing even more incentive to work quicklv through the current level.
Both of the Psygnosis games take a fairly long time to master. The graphics and scrolling of each game are smooth and fabulous, and the sound effects and music are integrated well into both.
WHERE IN TIME IS CARMEN SANDIEGO?
Broderbund Software's Where in Time is Carmen Sandiego? Is now out for the Amiga. It seems the same old gang of thieves that were pillaging Europe are now haunting the corridors of time.
You begin each case at the scene of a crime and, by matching clues provided by witnesses, you follow the thieves from city to city throughout history until you finally catch up with them. An included desk encyclopedia will be vital to your task of connecting the various clues to the proper location in time and space. The graphics are about equal to those in Where in Europe is Carmen Sandiego? sharp and easy to read. The textual descriptions of each site are interesting and may add to your present understanding of the various places that have played an important role in history. The mouse is
used for all game input.
While the the program has the makings of a game, its foundation is as a creative learning device. Anyone who manages to track down enough criminals to get promoted to the highest levels of the detective agency will also come to learn a good deal about world history.
JACK NICKLAUS’ UNLIMITED GOLF & COURSE DESIGN & JACK NICKLAUS PRESENTS THE MAJOR CHAMPIONSHIP COURSES OF 1990 Accolade has released their latest golf simulation for the Amiga, and an accessory disk for it. Jack Nicklaus' Unlimited Golf & Course Design is an extensive makeover of their earlier Jack Nicklaus' Greatest IS Holes Of Golf. The game has been greatly improved and expanded upon to include course-design capabilities. The graphics are nicer, and draw much more quickly.
It still can take a while to "paint" an entire screen, but at leas; the image is saved in an off-screen bitmap. This eliminates delavs when jumping to the overhead view and back. The interface is also a bit nicer and the product has a better overall feel to it.
Golf & Course Design features nearly all the elements common to a golf game: ihe power swing bar, a three-dimensional view from the golfer, a pre-tee-off overhead view of each hole, very good score keeping capabilities, and different levels of play.
One other advantage of Golf & Course Design is that it can use all the course disks from the original game. But once it uses a course disk, the original program can no longer read that disk, so be forewarned.
The included course designer is a nice added item. It is fairly easy to create interesting and challenging holes, and a built-in paint program lets you create beautiful backgrounds for the golfer's view of each hole.
Jack Nicklaus Presents the Major Championship Courses of 1990 is Accolade's new course disk, containing representations of the courses from Medinaly St. Andrews, and Shoal Creek. It is up to the standards of Accolade's other courses, and sound effects add to the enjoyment.
Golf & Course Design is a very solid golf game. The only unfortunate aspect is that the company does not, to my knowledge, have an upgrade path for purchasers of the previous version.
Ml TANK PLATOON Microprose's latest is based on a hypothetical U.S.-Soviet Union conflict in Europe. Ml Tank Platoon puts the player in charge of four premiere U.S. battle tanks and any supporting forces assigned to themfor each mission. As with many Microprose games, Ml Tank Platoon is built on a basic vehicle simulation engine. But the player can control the action at the strategic level; in fact, the whole game can be played without ever directly controlling a vehicle. The graphics are decent for a vehicle simulator. Two detail levels are available, allowing for a trade-off between detail
and game speed. The lowest detail level is still adequate for plav, and the game proceeds much quicker. The keyboard is used for most commands, augmented by both the mouse and a joystick, if desired. The keyboard overlay makes it fairly easy to learn the available functions while actually participating in the action. The manual is up to Microprose's usual high standards, aiding not onlv in mastery of the game, but also containing information about the equipment used in the battles, and effective tank tactics.
After each successful mission you are allowed to promote and decorate those crew members you wish to advance in tire ranks. While this may sound purely ceremonial, each promotion or award advances the skill level of your crew members, helping them to perform even better in later battles. And while I general!)' don't like copy protection, the way it is handled in this game actually helps one during gameplay. Prior to your first "real" mission, you are shown a line drawing of a combat vehicle and must select its name from a list at the bottom of the screen.
Gradual recognition of the silhouettes actually adds to the game experience, and frequent players will likely memorize all the silhouettes fairly quickly.
After dabbling a bit with the vehicle simulator portion, 1 did most of my playing on the strategic map, and focused on effectively maneuvering all units into place. The action often happens quickly but I can heartily recommend the Ml Tank Platoon just on the aspect of strategy. In fact, I would love to go back and use it as a format for learning even more about the weapons that could face each other on a battlefield.
DRAGONSTRIKE From one unlikely war we go to another. Strategic Simulations, Inc. has just released Dragonstrike, their dragon flight simulator, for the Amiga. In the game you pilot a powerful dragon as you carry out several missions for the forces of good as they attempt to fight back the evil that has spread over most of their land. You begin as a lowly bronze dragon and work your Product Information Shadow of the Beast II Jack Nicklaus Presents the Major Price: $ 59.99 Championship Courses of 1990 Psygnosis Limited Price: $ 19.95 29 St. Mary’s Court Accolade Brookline, MA 02146 550 S,
Winchester Blvd., Ste. 200
(617) 731-3553 San Jose, CA 95128 Inquiry 208
(408) 985-1700 Inquiry 215 The Killing Game Show Price: $ 44.99
Ml Tank Platoon Psygnosis Limited Price: $ 69.95 29 St.
Mary’s Court MicroProse Software, Inc. Brookline, MA 02146
160 Lakefront Drive
(617) 731-3553 Hunt Valley, MD Inquiry 209
(301) 771-1 151 Inquiry 210 Where In Time Is Carmen Sandiego?
Price: $ 49.95 Dragonstrike Broderbund Software Inc. Price: $ 49.95 i7 Paul Drive SSI dist. By Electronic Arts San Rafael, CA 94903 1820 Gateway Drive
(800) 527-6263 San Maieo, CA 94404 Inquiry 212
(800) 245-4525 Inquiry 211 Jack Nicklaus’ Unlimited Golf &
Course Design The Immortal Price: $ 59.95 Price: $ 49.95
Accolade Electronic Arts 550 S. Winchester Blvd.. Ste. 200
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(800) 245-4525 Inquiry 214 Inquiry 213 way up to a powerful
gold dragon. As a knight, each successful mission opens up
future possibilities and advancement within the three
different levels of knights.
Dragonstrike uses filled polygon graphics and provides enough detail to keep the game interesting. The missions are well integrated, and gradually build up the player's skills. The dragons do tend to respond too quickly to controls; it can be very hard to fly an even path, and it is extremely difficult to effectively maneuver a dragon in close combat. It is nice that the player is not deleted when he loses a mission. Instead, he can repeatedly attempt a mission until it is mastered.
While the game design is fairly good, Dragonstrike will probably appeal only to a limited range of people. But if vou have always wanted to fly a dragon, this is likely the closest you will come.
THE IMMORTAL The immortal is a new role-playing game from Electronic Arts. The plot is rather typical: a powerful good wizard has been trapped by the forces of evil, and it is up to you to work vour way down to the deepest part of a dungeon to free him. As with many of the recent role-playing releases, The Immortal uses an overhead three-dimensional perspective for movement. While this provides a good view of the area around your character, control of vour movement can be a bit confusing.
Once you get close enough to an opponent, you enter into close combat. This is carried out on the same screen but your only options are to strike with your sword, stand still, or dodge out of the way of vour opponent's attack. The battle continues until one of you is killed.
Various rooms populate thedungeon. Some are straightforward, such as hallways. Others are loaded with traps and require careful strategy to navigate. The manual, though not extensive, does include some special information about some of the rooms, and you will need this to make it through them without losing your life. The graphics are sharp and the sound adequate. Still, the controls are slightly difficult to handle. -AC* This edition of "Snapshot" marks the close of games coverage by R. Bradley Andrews ami the Snapshot column. Not to fear, though we'll return next month with complete
coverage of the latest in Amiga strategy, simulation, and adventure. Ed. PRESENTS
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Amiga Master Classes are designed to provide in-depth information on several professional topics of Amiga use. Each subject is offered in the morning in an introductory format and in the afternoon for more advanced users. We encourage you to attend both. Each 3 hour class costs $ 60.00 a person and is limited to 40 students, AMIGA CLASS INSTRUCTORS - YOUR KEY TO SUCCESS The quickest way to master your Amiga is to learn from a Master. Our instructors include Amiga luminaries such as: STEVE SEGAL, ORAN J. SANDS III. BRADLEY SCHENCK and GENE BRAWN.
REGISTER TODAY! CALL 800-32-AMIGA or 914-741-6500 NOVICE CLASSES Basic Amiga Concepts Understanding the CLI NOVICE I is an total introduction for the Amiga user, covering the Amiga NOVICE 11 gives the Command Line Interface (CLI) an in-depth look. Your software and hardware configurations. Expanding your Amiga with Amiga is at its most flexible when you understand use of the CLI. A special memory, hard drives, printers, modems and other peripherals is discussed. Look at the world of Amiga public domain software will also be included.
The Amiga Animation Station ANIMATION I will cover the basics of animation in general and Amiga animation specifically, Different animation options will be discussed with an emphasis on two dimensional animation.
ANIMATION II is a continuation of Animation I and delves more specifically into artist’s technique. Three dimensional animation is the primary topic for this course.
INSTRUCTOR:STE 'E SEGAL MASTER CLASSES Working with Amiga Graphics GRAPHICS I covers all aspects of the current state of the Amiga art of illustration. The advantages and disadvantages of different Amiga resolutions will also be covered.
GRAPHICS II will cover specific techniques on computer illustration. These topics include palettes, anti-aliasing, landscapes, and color- cycling.
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The Amiga as a Era Video Tool VIDEO 1 covets basic technical video concepts that concern Amiga users. Amiga graphic techniques for video and informal questions and answer sections form the basis for this class.
VIDEO II is a continuation of Video 1. This class will take an effect-oriented approach, demonstrating the usage and combination of various Amiga programs, INSTRUCTOR: ORANJ. SANDS III or GENE BRAWN the zoom box.
A ZOOM BOX IS A GADGET THAT sits in an Intuition window just above the window-sizing gadget in the lower right-hand corner. When the user selects the zoom box with the mouse, the window to which it is attached zooms out to its maximum size in the center of the screen. When the zoom box is deselected, the window zooms back to its previous size and position, which has been determined by the user. If the window is either resized or moved when it is zoomed out, the zoom box will be automatically deselected and its imagery redrawn.
The program included in this article attaches a zoom box to an Intuition window and allows the user to toggle the window's size and its position by clicking in WHO'S ZOOMING WHO?
Attaching a zoom box to an Intuition window by John Leonard In addition to demonstrating the zoom box, the program prints the text of a file specified on the command line in the zoom box window, with tabs replaced by spaces. Double clicking the left mouse button scrolls the text up one page, where a page is the number of lines that will currently fit in the window.
The program is invoked from the Cli with the command format: ZoomBox parhna.-re spaces where "pathname" is the name of an ASCII text file and "spaces" is the number of spaces that will be used to replace each tab of the textfile before it is printed.
The idea for the zoom box comes from tire Macintosh. In general, Macintosh windows have a zoom box in their upper right-hand corners. This is in contrast with Amiga windows which have wind ow-dep th gad gets in their upper right corners. Macintosh windows don't have windovv-depth gadgets. They are automatically moved to the front when selected.
Tire Zoom Box gadget for the Amiga was designed in a two-step process. First, the imagery of the gadget was created in DeluxePaint II. The imagery of the gadget consists of two aspects: the way the gadget will appear when the window is at its normal size, and, second, the way the gadget will appear when it is used to zoom the window out to its maximum size. Intuition calls the first, or normal imagery of the gadget its "render" image, meaning that that is how the image will be rendered. Intuition calls the second type of imagery the "select" image, meaning that that is how the gadget will
appear when it is selected, or chosen, by the user.
After both of these images have been created and stored as brushes in Dpaint, they are loaded into Power Windows 2.0 to create the rest of the data structures that are needed to finally implement the gadget in a program.
PROGRAMMING IN INTUITION It is a programmer's job to let Intuition know what kind of windows, menus, and gadgets they want to use in their interface. Everything necessary to completely describe these objects must bepro- ' vided to Intuition by the programmer.
! Each window must belong to a specific screen, and in a specific location. It must have a maximum and minimum size. It must have its pen colors chosen so that text and backgrounds may be rendered.
Gadgets will have imagery specified for them so that Intuition may draw them correctly. Menus and menu items must be dimensioned so that Intuition knows where on the screen to draw them and how much space to provide for them. The list of things that Intuition must know in order to put together even a simple display goes on and on.
What is the process by which Intuition learns about the desired qualities of the windows and other objects that the programmer wants to use in their program? Let's look at one case, that of a gadget. What does Intuition need to know in order to create and manipulate an application gadget? Well, it needs to know which window the gadget will appear in; how far from the left edge of the window the left edge of the gadget itself will begin; how far from the top edge of the window the top edge of the gadget will begin; how large the gadget is, horizontally and vertically; what type of
gadget this will be (Intuition currently provides three basic types of gadgets). Intuition also needs to know how to obtain the imagery for the gadget, and there are a whole host of specifications, called flags, indicating just exactly how the gadget is to behave when it is manipulated by the user. How is all of this information conveyed to Intuition in a form that is efficient and practical? By use of a structure.
STRUCTURES If you are already familiar with structures and pointers then skip this section. The term "structure" is vague and if you don't know what it means, you won't guess by looking at it. Let me explain its meaning ivith an analogy. Suppose you go for a job interview. You will be presented with a "Job Application Form".
This is a sheet of paper with spaces (fields) provided for you to enter information about yourself. There is a space for you to enter your name, another for your address, and so on. Everyone who applies for the job gets the same form. However the information thev provide depends on their own particulars. Now let's suppose ONE BYTE We take a *£*out of the price!
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That instead of applying for a job, you apply for auto insurance.
Again, you will be presented with a form to fill in with information about yourself. This time, however, the form will request different information. In both cases you are asked to complete a form, but the information required by the forms, and the ways in which it is arranged, are different. These examples, and the many others with which we are familiar, allow us to create the notion of a "form", which is a sheet of paper that has been divided into different blocks or areas, the contents of which are to be filled in, and later interpreted, in specific ways depending on the type of form in
question.
Now let's suppose that the peopleat the insurance company want to computerize their operation. First, applicants will provide information about themselves on the paper form, then the information will be entered to a computer by data entry personnel.
The way in which information about a specific applicant will be stored in the computer is analogous to the way in which it was stored on paper. A block of memory (the paper), of sufficient size, will be reserved to store the information about one person. Each piece of information (name, address, age, etc.) will be stored in a different place in that memory. Suppose we decide that it will take 100 bytes to store the information we need for each individual. We might break it down as follows: bytes 0 - 39 (the first thru fortieth memory locations) will be used to store the name, one character
at a time. Bytes 40 - 79 (the forty-first thru eightieth memory locations) will hold the person's profession, again one character per memory location. The remaining twenty bytes (SO
- 99) will be divided up in some way that we see fit so they may
store what remains of the information we want to record. Now,
all memory locations in the computer are numbered, from 0 to
whatever is the highest memory location, and if we are told
that the record (structure) of a given person is stored in the
computer at, say, location 1000, then we can find any piece of
information in that record simply by going to location 1000 and
counting up the required number of spaces until we reach the
correct location.
Each different pieceof information in a structure, (name, address, etc.) is called a "field".
Here is an example of how a Structure is defined in a C program: strict point I SHORT x, y; I * These three lines tell the compiler that we are going to define a new type of structure called "point". This structure is widely used in graphics systems. Both Intuition and Macintosh's QuickDraw define this object. This structure will have two fields: a field called "x", and a field called "y". Both of these fields will be of type SHORT. That is, they will both be 16 bit (two byte) signed integers. The entire structure will take up four bytes in memory. Field x will begin at the beginning of the
structure itself, and field y will begin two bytes later. All that we have done is define the data type "point". We haven't reserved memory for any point structures yet. Now let's do so: struct point aPoint, "aPointPointer; This line tells the compiler to set aside enough memory for the following data items: a structure of type point that will henceforth be referred to by the name "aPoint", and another variable that will go by the name of "aPointPointer" that will take as its value the machine addresses of point structures. A variable that takes as its value the address of other variables is
said to be a "pointer". The following code assigns the address of "aPoint" to the variable "aPointPointer": aPointPointer = SaPoint; * '&' is the address operator TI INTUITION STRUCTURES In essence, a program communicates with Intuition via structures. In order to open a window, a program must first pass a pointer to a NewWindow structure (a structure that contains the information about where the window is to be placed, how large it is, etc.). This structure is passed to Intuition by calling the Intuition function OpenWindowO as follows: struct Window "aWindowPointer; * X * struct NewWindow
aNewWindowStructure; * 2 * * The structure "aNewWindowStructure" * " will be initialized here. * aWindowPointer = OpenWindow(SaNewWindcwStructure); 3 * Line 1 is a declaration. It tells the compiler that we will be using a variable called "aWindowPointer" and that, starting from the asterisk and reading from left to right, this variable is a "pointer" (*) to a "structure" (struct) of type "Window". This variable will be used to hold on to the address of a Window Structure when we get it back from Intuition after the call to OpenWindowO.
Line 2 declares a structure of type NewWindow called, oddly enough, aNewWindowStructure. Line 3 is a function call.
It calls the Intuition function "OpenWindow", passes the address of the NewWindow structure and receives, in return, the address of a Window Structure which is assigned to the variable "aWindowPointer".
:V::: THE EVENT LOOP The Amiga (and Macintosh, and Sun, and...) type of programming is called "event-driven programming". The basic idea is: Get your program into memory, start running it, initialize everything that you need to initialize, draw all of the windows and what not that you need to draw, enter the Event Loop, and wait. Wait until the user does something. Like click the mouse, select a menu, insert a disk, what have you. When they do, the system (in this case, Intuition) will notify the application of what has happened. The application will receive the message, interpret it, and
take the appropriate course of action given the nature of the event. When the application is finished processing this event, it will return to the Event Loop and wait for the next event.
At the start of each iteration of the event loop theapplication must wait for an event. Before the loop is first entered, the application creates a Message Port through which it will communicate with Intuition. A Message Port is a structure that has been designed to facilitate its use as a destination point for the reception of Messages, which are also structures.
When a window is opened, the address of a NewWindow structure is passed to Intuition. One of the fields of the NewWindow structure is called IFLAGS or Intuition flags. This field is a 32-bit (or four-byte) long quantity. Each bit in this field has a specific meaning. Since each bit can be either a one ora zero, it can have two possible states. These bits, or flags, each represent a different type of event that Intuition is capable of sending to our application. By setting a given bit to the value one, we are telling Intuition that we want it to send us information about the corresponding
type of event when it occurs. If a given bit is reset that is, made equal to zero we let Intuition know that we do not want to hear about the corresponding event should it occur.
The point is that, if we set any of these flags at all, Intuition will see that we are interested in receiving at least some types of messages and therefore we will need to have a provision for receiving them. In this case, Intuition will create a message port for us and, when a user-generated event occurs that concerns our application, Intuition will send a message regarding that event to our message port. After Intuition creates a message port for our application it will set the UserPort field of the Window structure that is returned by OpenWindow to point to the address of the message port.
There are various ways to get a message from this port. The one that we will use is: intMessage = (struct IntuiMessage T) GetMsg((struct Msg?ort *)gWindaw- UserPort); Here "intMessage" is a pointer to an IntuiMessage, which is the kind of message used by Intuition. GetMsgQ is an Exec BRIDGEBOARD USERS!
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Function that gets the next message from the message List of the given message port. Here it takes the address of our window's message port. The value it returns is cast as pointer to a structure of type IntuiMessage.
When the call to GetMsgO is made in the code above, GetMsgO will return immediately, whether or not there is a message in the queue. If there is none, GetMsgO will return a value of zero. In that case the program will go to sleep and wait fora message to arrive. It accomplishes this by calling the function WaitPortO as in the following code fragment: if(iintMessage) WaitPort ((struct MsgPort *) gWindow- UserPort); When WaitPortO is called the program will become inactive until a message arrives at this port. At that point, the program will resume execution at the line following the call to
WaitPortO. In our case, this will take it past the block following the "else" statement, down to the end of the main loop where, because it is a loop, control will be passed back up to the statement at the top of the loop, which is GetMsgO. To sum up, the main loop works this way: first, we enter the loop. Next, wesee if there isa message waiting a t our message port. If there is, we process it inside of tire "else" block and then go back to the top of the loop to see if there is another. If there isn't we go to sleep until there is, and then go back to the top of the loop in order to get it.
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CONTROLLING THE ZOOM BOX The purpose of the Zoom Box is to allow the user to toggle the window between two different states: the zoomed state, which is set by the programmer, and another, which is set by the user with the mouse. In order to do this we'll have to store the last size and position of the window before we zoom it. We'll have to know when to zoom it, and if the user zooms the window and then changes its size or position with the mouse, we'll have to reset the zoom box's state to indicate that the window is no longer zoomed out.
The last size of the window will be stored in two global variables called gWidth, and gHeight. A global variable is one that is declared in the same file as the one that contains the function main(), but before main() itself is defined. A global variable can be accessed by any function in the program although, if it is to be accessed bv a function defined in another file, it will have to be redeclared in that file as type extern, or external (to that file). In this program, all global variables begin with the letter 'g'. The last position of the window will be stored in the variables
gLeftEdge, and gTopEdge. When the user selects the Zoom Box, we will first copy the values relating to the current size and position of the window to their respective storage locations.
Then, we will move the window to its zoomed location at the upper left corner of the screen. Finally, we will size the window to its maximum size.
The window must first be moved, and then sized, because to enlarge the window to its maximum size while it is located near the center of the screen would cause a portion of the window to appear offscreen. That is a no-no. As far as Intuition is concerned, no window may exist outside of the screen boundaries.
How will we know when the user has zo omed the window?
When the user selects the Zoom Box, they uni] do so by clicking in i t with the mouse. They wil 1 d epress the left mouse button once, and then release it while the pointer is still within the gadget's imagery. Intuition defines this type of user-generated event as a GADGETUP event. In order to receive this type of event, we will have to set the flag corresponding to it in our NewWindow structure before calling OpenWindow ).
See the definition of MAIN JWINDOW_fFLAGS in the file ZoomBox.h. These are the IDCMP flags that will determine what kind of messages our window will be able to receive. They are different than MAIN_WINDOW_FLAGS which specify the type of window that we will receive. This is another case of the complexity of Intuition's programmer interface. It can be confusing, at first, remembering just exactly which flags belong to which variable. This is reminiscent of the Gadget structure which has three separate flag variables, again requiring that you know exactly which type of flag goes in which field.
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Jim Locker Amazing Computing When we receive the GADGETUP event for this window, we first test it for the zoomed state by use of the code fragment: if (gZo=r-3ox. Flags 6 SELECTED) No, the character in this line does not have anything to do with taking the address of something. I apologize for the bewildering nature of the C language. In this context is a boolean operator that "ands" the values of the Flags field of gZoomBox with the vaiue represented by predefined string "SELECTED".
If the flag bit corresponding to the selected state is set then the expression within the parentheses will evaluate to a non-zero value and the statement or block of statements following the "if" will be executed.
After the window has been zoomed out, the user mav move it again, or they may resize it. If the window is no longer in the upper left corner of the screen, at its max size, then the zoom box gadget's state must be changed to reflect this. When the user changes the size of the window, we will receive a NEWSIZE event. When they move the window, we will receive a REFRESHWINDOW event. The course of action taken in both situations is almost identical, we will merely be testing for different things. In the case of a NEWSIZE event, we will want to know if the gadget is selected at the same time
that the window has something other than its maximum size. In the case of a REFRESHWINDOW event, we will want to know if the window is both selected and has a position other than the one at the upper- left corner of tliescreen. In both cases, if the conditions are met, we remove the gadget from the window gadget list, change the gadget's Flags field by resetting (turning off) the SELECTED flag, place the gadget back on the list, and force Intuition to redraw the gadget by calling RefreshGListO- The gadget is removed from the gadget list before being modified, quite simply, because that is what
the Rom Kernel Reference Manual says you should do.
The Flags field of the gadget is reset by "and" ing it with ~ SELECTED. In this way, none of the flags in the Flags field of the gadget willbe disturbed except the SELECTED flag, which will be reset (turned off).
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HOW RETAB WORKS In addition to demonstrating the zoom box, the program also prints the text of a file, chosen by the user, in the window. The textisretab'd to a number of spaces that is also chosen by the user.
The text printing feature of the program is included to demonstrate the way in which an actual program using a zoom box might be written.
Jisers The reason that the program retabs the file before printing it is not what you might suppose. It was not originally included as a convenience. In fact, the file is being retab'd because I use the Graphics Library function Text() to print the text to the window, and this function does not perform formatting. It does not know how to interpret tabs, or other forma t characters, so I had to come up with a way to replace them with printing characters. "Retab" is a program I had written for the IBM PC. The laserjet print utility on the school network prints 8 spaces per tab, and my files were
usually set up for less than that, so I wrote a utility that replaced the tabs in a text file with the number of spaces indicated on the command line, it was a simple matter to adapt this program for use in the zoom box demo.
When the program begins, if the number of arguments on the command line is equal to three, including the program name itself, the second argument is taken as the name of a text file to be printed in the window. The third argument is taken as a string representation of an integer quantity which is to be used as the number of spaces. LoadAndRetabFileO is executed with the filename and number of spaces as input. Italso receives an integer address (int *filesize) and a character pointer address (char
* *filetop). The pointer, filesize, will be used to store the
amount of memory that is actually reserved. The pointer to a
character pointer (there is no reason why a variable cannot
take as its value the address of another variable whose value
is also the address of yet another variable), filetop, will be
used to point to the address at the end of the actual retab'd
file.
All right, let me explain that. Retab works in this way: first, find out how large the file we are going to load and print is. Next, since we are going to replace the tabs in that file with spaces, the resulting retab'd file is going to be larger than the original by some amount. That means that, in order to store the retab'd file, we will have to reserve more memory than is actually needed to store the original file itself. The question is: How much more space will we need to reserve for the retab'd file? There are many answers to this question. I chose the easiest for me to program in a
short amount of time. Here it is: Take the size of the file that we are going to open. Multiply by some amount, MULTIPLIER. Call the result "filesize". Reserve that much memory. Load the file in, a little at a time, and retab it to the memory we have allocated. If we find that we have run out of memory before the entire file is loaded and retab'd, stop. That's it, just stop. This is only a demonstration program and we don't have to be able to account for every possibility. We should be able to fit most files into the memory we have allocated. Any files that don't fit either have an awful lot
of tabs, or the user has specified a lot of spaces per tab, or both. If we find that the entire file has been loaded and retab'd before we run out of memory, save the address of the next memory location we would have written to and call this pointer "filetop".
Now, LoadAndRetabFileO is a function, "filesize" and "filetop" will be stored in the global variables gFileSize and gFileTop, but we don't want the function to actually refer to them by these names. This is because we may want to use this function again, with different variables holding the results, and we may Of Adver Please use a Reader Service card to contact those advertisers who have sparked your interest. Advertisers want to hear from you. This is the best way they have of determining the Amiga community's interests and needs. Take a moment now to contactthe companies with products
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Not want them to be globnls. The function LoadAndRetabFileO will receive, from the environment that calls it, the addresses into which the calling environment wants the function to store the values of "filesize" and "filetop".
That is to say, it will supply the address of an integer quantity (int *filesize) and a pointer to a pointer to type char (char
* *filetop). When LoadAndRetabFileO has determined the amount of
memory that will be reserved it will store that amount in the
address pointed to by filesize Cfilesize = amount). When the
function has determined the actual top of the file that has
been filled it will store that result in the location pointed
to by filetop (*filetop = actualEnd).
We need to know the exact amount of memory that has been reserved by LoadAndRetabFileO because we will need to deallocate it at the end of the program. Having a pointer to the actual end of the file will simply make it easier for us to cycle through the file when we print it out.
PRINTING THE TEXT The functions, FindNewLinrPlrQ and DrawWindowO together determine the starting line, in the text, at which printing is to take place, and print as many lines of the text as will fit in the window.
The purpose of FindNewLinrPtrO is to determine the starting location in the file at which the text will begin if it is moved up one page. This will happen when the user double clicks the left mousebutton. FindNewLinrPtrO works by subtracting the heights of the top and bottom borders from the height of the window and then dividing the result by a predefined quantity, PIX_PER_LINE and then subtracting 1. The value of PIX_PER_LINE, which is 8, was arrived at purely by guesswork. I would have liked to have had a function that could provide me with the height of the text in the current window or
RastPort, but the Graphics Library provides no such function.
DrawWindowO first clears the window by calling the Graphics function RectFillO and passing the rectangle corresponding to the window, minus its borders as a parameter. The function then determines the number of lines it has to print in the window as well as the length of the longest line that canbe printed in the window. Then it initializes the pen locations to the upper- left corner of the window but translated vertically downward to account for the height of the text. DrawWindowO then starts at the beginning of each line and goes until it finds a carriage return (" r"), a newline (" n"),
or it has goneas far as the maximum line length will allow. It then prints the line at the current pen location.
The function then looks for the start of the next line and, when it finds it, the function repeats the process until either all of the lines that will fit into the window have been printed or it has gone past the top of the text file.
When the user selects CLOSEWINDOW, HandieEventO sets gDone to the value TRUE. When HandieEventO returns to the main loop, the loop test fails, and the loop is exited. The function CieanUpO is then executed, and thisclosesordeallocates all of the resources the program has used.
To compile the program, the command line to use, for Lattice C, is: lc ZoomBo :Main ZoomBoKFunctions To link, make sure the object files and the with file, ZoomBoxwith, are in the current directory and type: Blink with ZoomBoxwith LISTING ONE: KocmffioxMain.c * File; ZoomBoxMain.e ¦ • Thoso aro tho 'Include1 files. They are • ¦ included at the beginning of tho program so ¦ • that the compiler may refer to tnea during * the compilation process. Among other things * I* they contain the structure definitions of *!
!* Windows, ir.tuixessages, and Gadgets. They • * also contain the definitions of structures * ¦ used by Exec, such as Node, and xessage. • • These definitions were created by Commodore.
"exec types.h" "exec memory,h" Mintuit ion intuition.h” “stdio.h” "libraries dcs.h" “libraries dosextens.h" ?include ?include ?include ?include ?include ?include f* ’ZooirSox.h' contains the definitions that * f* will be used in this program specifically. * * They were created by me. * ?include "ZootftBox.h" • In order to call functions in the Intuition * * or Graphics libs*ries, the compiler must know • ' where these libraries are located. Their - addresses will bo obtained by calls to the • * function CpenLi.brary () and will be stored in * * the appropriate variable. When an
Intuition * * function is called within the program, the ¦ T * compiler will refer to the variable • * IntuitionBase to determine the location in ¦ • the machine at which tho Intuition Library "!
I* begins. ¦ extern long IntuitionBase NULL; extern lcr.g GfxSase * NULL; « These are the Global variables that will be '!
I* used by the program. They are gicbal because * * they are being declared in the file of the * program, that contains main (I, and they are ¦ * being declared before mainO itself is *t * defined. All globals start with a small 'g' • • to signify the fact that they are global. • • Gicbal variables have the disadvantage that * ¦ they car. Be accessed from, within any function * i* of the program, which car. Make it difficult * * to debug & program if globals are being * * modified at many points. They have the * * advantage that they simplify the mechanism of * * passing
information to functions. For a small * * program like this they will not present any *7 • great problems. *!
Window *gWindow - NULL; gDone - FALSE; gCiess, gLSecs, gLMics, gCurSeca, gCurXics; gLeftEdge, gTcpEdgo, gWidth, gHeight, gChurLength.
GCcde; gBffr[BUFFSIZE],
• gFilePtr - NULL,
* gFileTop “ NULL,
• gLinePtr “ NULL,
• gTestEtring - "A"; gFileSire - NULL; Zoom Box Gadget definition
USHORT CHIP ImsgeDatali] - I OxFFFE,OxCQOe,0xDFF6,OstDFFS,
OxDEOS,OxDEF£,CxCOCfi,OxFFFE, 0x0000,0x0000,OxOOCO,CxCOOO,
0xQlF9,0xQ1FS,0xC1F8,0x0000 !; struct Image Image 1 - ( 0,0,
is,a, 2, ImageD&tal, 0x0003, 0x0000, NULL I; USHCRT CHIP
imsgcDataS[] - I OxFFFE,0x3006,CxBFFfi,0x3FFo,
0xSFF6,OxBFFc,0x6006,OxFFFE, 0x0000,0x7FF6,0x7FFS,OxlFF0,
0x7FFB,0x7FFB,Cx7FFS, 0x0000 }; struct Image Image! « 1 0,0,
15,B, 2, 0x0003,0x0000, NULL ! ; Struct Gadget gZoomGadget - i
NULL,
- 15,-16, 15, 8, c* GADGHIMAGE*GnDG:HAGE+GREL3QTTCM+GRLLRlGS17,
RELVER1FY+7CGGLESELECT, BOOLGADGET, (RPTR)t Imago J,
(ftPTRHIrr.age2, NULL, NULL, MULL, NULL, NULL I i void int char
struct registe
m. aih large, argv) argc;
* orgv[J; NewWindow aNewVfir.dow; : struct IntuiMessage *
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the New Window structure is i* initialized before it is
passed to • OpenWindow(J.
ANewWindow.LeftEdge aNewWindow.TopEdge aNewWindow.width aNowWindow.Height a NewWindow, Decs ilfer.
ANewWindcw.31sckPen aNewWindow.IDCKPFlags aL'ewNindow.Flags
a. VewWindow. FirstGadget aNewWindow.CheckKark aNewWindow.Title
aNewWindow.Screen aNewWindow,SitMap aNewWindow.MinHidth
aNewWindow.MinHeight aNewWindaw.MaxKidth aNewWindow.KaxHeight
aNewWindow,Type
- 40;
- 30;
- WINDOW_KICTH;
- WrHDO»THEIGHT;
- 0x00;
- 0x01;
- KAIKJIIKDOW_3FLAGS;
• MAIN_NINDCW_FLAGS; “ (struct Gadget ’) igZocmtGadgoc
- N’JLL;
- “Zoon Bex Window";
- NULL;
- NULL;
- windok_m : n_wi dth
- WIND0W~MIN~HEIGH7 ; “ WIN30W_MAXJWIDTn;
- WIN'DGW KAX HEIGHT;
- W3ENCH3CREEN; * Now we open the Intuition and Graphics *i *
Libraries. ¦ , IntultionBase
- CpenLibrary(“Intuitior. .library", INTUITICN_REV); if
(IntuitionSase NULL) CleanUpO; GfxBase “
GpenLibrary(“graphics.library", INTUIT’CN_REV); if (GfxSase --
NULL) CleanUpO; I* Here the window is opened. • gKir.dow
- (struct Window •)OpenWindow(isNewWindow); if (gWir.dov NULL)
CleanUpO,• ¦ if the correct ntrr.ber of arguments was passed
¦ * froir. The command line, open the file and * ¦ retab
it. Also get, the current time for wl * Doubleclick(I, and
find out how many pixels * * per character in this Screen. »
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Har.dleEvent O ; if(argc 3) I Cleanup( ; gFilePcr - (char •) LoadAndP.etabFlIe(argvElJ, igFiioSize, sgFileTop, atoi(argv[2))); gLinePtr - gFilePtr; CurrentTine(tgLSecs, igLMics); gCharLength « TextLer.gth(gwindow- RPort, gTestStrir.g, 1) ; • DrawWir.dcwf) prints the retab'c! File into the * • window. GfileSize contains the size of the • * retab'd file. If it is zero then chore is no • * rerab'd file. We will only draw the window if * * there is a file to print in it, * if(gFileSi2e 0) DrawWindcw(); • The Main Loop. If there is a message, then • * the else block copies certain
Information • * from the IntuiMessage before replying to it, * ¦ Then, HandleEvent is dispatched. * • This loop is executed as long as gccr.e is * * FALSE. GDone was set to FALSE st Che • ¦ beginning of the file when it was declared. * while(gDone -- FALSE) I ’ HandleEvent(1 dispatches the appropriate * function giver, the nature of the user * generated event. If it was a CLOSEWINDOW * event then the global gDone is set to TRUE.
Void HandleEvent0 i swiccMgClass) t case CLQSEWINDOVf; gDone - true; break; case GADGSTUP: HandleZoomiSaxSelact () ; break; case NEWSIES: HandleZooTiScxti'ewSize (); break; CJ30 REFRSSHKINDCW: HandloZocrr.3axftefreah() ; break; case HOUSESUTTCNS: HandleMouaeDavrr. I) ; break; default: break; ; intMessage - (struct IntuiMessage •) GetMsg((struct MsgPort •)gWindow- UserPort); if(!intMessage) WaitPort((struct MsgPort *)gWindow- UaerPort); gClass gCode gCurSecs gCurMlcs intMessage- Class; intMessage-xZoda; intKessage- Seconds; intKesaage- Micr03I ReplyMsglintMessage); * This function is called
when the user either * * selects or de-selects the zeem box. First, it *!
* finds out which. If SELECTED, the window'3 * * size ar.d position are recorded in the globals • * gLeftEdgo, gTopEdge, gWidth, ar.d gHeight. ¦ * Then the window is zoomed out. If ri0t « * SELECTED, the window is zoomed back. * void KandleZoomBoxSelect() I if (gZoor-Gadgec .Flags 5, SELECTED) I gLoftEdge - gWindow- LoftEdge; gTopEdge - gWindow- TopEdge; gWidth - gKindow- Width; ghe ight K«ight; n gLir.eFtr will fce updated by cr.e page that paga will be printed in the window.
Xcv*Windcw(gWindcwr ZOC«_LEf7-g1liftdow- b«£tEdge, S1 reWindow (gKindcw, gWir.dew- H*xHidth - gHindow- jfidth, g»indow- HaxHaight - gHlr.daw- Haight»; void Har.dleKouseDown() 3C0L isaouble; if((gflleSite C) it (gcode ( iaDouble - Doubleclick(gLSccs, gLXics, gCurSeca, gLiecs - gCurSecs; gLXics ” gCurXlcs; if (isDcuble) gLir.gPtr - (char •)FindNewLi.l*Pcr (}: DrawWlndcwO gCurXicsl; SireWindowlgWinSow, gWidth - cWir.d;v- Hi dth, gHeight - g*ir.d3v- Height) ; wlgWindcw, gLeftEdge - DOCMJ.EFT. gTcpEdge - ZCCM_TGP}; • When the user re-slres the window, the Zoom t* Bex must be reset it the
now size does not * conform to Its current state. The er.pty else * blocks are included for completeness, LISTING TWO: ZoomBoxFunctions.c * File: ZecttEexjunctions .c I include “exec types.h" finclude "exec memory.h" ? Include “intuit icn intuit ion.h' ?include "stdio.h- rinclude '“libraries das . H” ? Include “libraries dcsexter. S. h" void ; if C i If ((gVir.dcw- Nidth !- gWindow- KaxKidth II gKir.dow- H«lgIit J- gtfir.dew- KaxHeJ.ghtM Har.dleZoonocxNcwSize (J :.Flags 4 SELECTED) I RemavcGadget(gWindow, l struct gZocmGadgot.Flags i- ( AddGadget igwindsw, (St.
RcfreshGListfgEooaSadgat, gWir.dow, JrjLL, I); Ref roshWir.dowFra.Te (gwirdow) ; I else Jt f ff); are ail the variables declared globally • in the main file. Ir. Order to be used hers • they must tc re-ieclared as type extern Window *gXir.d3w: extern struct extern GBYTE extorn 'JLDN3 gLSers, gLXics, gCurSecs, gCurMirs; gLeftEdge, gTopEdge, gXidth, gSoijh:, gCharLength; gCode;
* gFile?tr,
• gFileTcp,
• gLi.-.ePtr, ‘gTest jtrir.g; gFileSire; gZoonGadgetr extern
SHCRT * Whenever the window has to be re-drawn, the • program
receives a REFRESH* II.'DCW event, If • • the window has teen
moved it will have to be t* t®-di»wn. If the acorn box is
selected and * * the window is no longer In the upper left ¦
• corner, then the ioot. Box will fce • I* de-selected. If
there is a retab'd file, then • ¦ it will fce drawn, *
extern USHCRT extern char extern int extern struct void
HandleZoonBoxRefreshO I BeginPofresh(gWindov)i
If(gZocrGadget.Flags i SELECTED!
I i£ I (gKindow- Lef*.Edg* ' - Z0CH_L£F7) II lgXir.dow- Tcp£dge *• 2QCM_T0?)) RerscveGadget tgKindcw, (struct Gadget *) CgZoomGadgot J: gZcor-Gadget. Flags 4- (SELEC7ED‘Cxff£f ; AddGadget(gWindov, (struct Gadget *1igZoomGadget, Pof zoshGList (gDoomGadgac, gKindow, NULL, L) i Ref teshKi r.dowFrama (gKindcv) ; • The job of this function is to detorair.o the • line at which the next page should begin.
" First, it finds the r.ucbe; of lines that can ¦bo printed in the current window. Then it • scans upward through the file looking for • carriage returns ( " r') and newlines (* r,'! .
* As it finds them it counts off the lir.es. If • this has taken
it past the actual end c£ • the file igFileTop), then it is
set tc point '• back to the beginning again.
ULCNG FindNewLir.ePtr ()
1) : else i (gxindaw- Height (g',Tir.dcv- Border Top +
gWir.dow- 3order5cttcal I PIX_?ER_L:N£ else I I iflgFiloSize
Ol OrawKindCw(); while ((nuxLines C) £4 (alir.ePtr k
gFileTcp}) i if (('aLinePtr -- ’ r'l II CaLinaPtr -- ' r.'))
SndRef resMgWindow); if(aLinePor - gFileTcp) aLinoPt: -
oFiieFtr; Cleanup(I tests each object, and, if it is not zoro,
frees or closes it.
Return((ULONG)aLinePtr); void CleanUpl) I if(gwindow) ClOSeKindcw(gWindow); } clears the window by filling a mt ' rectangle that is defined as the region c£ - * the window within its borders. The rectangle ¦ * is filled in with the background color. The * • number of line* that the window will hold is * • calculated. The maximum length of line that • • the window will hold is calculated. Starting * • at the beginning of the current line, and for * t ’ ny lines as car. Fce pr inted, the number * ¦ of characters for each lir.a is determined and ' • that line is printed. *
void DrawWindow() USHOR? Y; BYTE olhFgFer.; if.t r.unLines, lir.eLength, i-C, maxLir.e register char -aLir.ePtri, *aline?tr2; register struct Window *regWir,dow - gWindow; * Set the foreground pen to background color • * and fill in the entire visible portion cf the • * window. Reset che foreground pen to its * * original color. » if (Ir.tuitio CloseLifcraryCntuicionsase); iflGf.
CloseLibrarylGfx3asei ; If(gfilePtrl freoHerf.(gFilo?tr, gFileSlxe) ; r • This function first tests that the nouse • • click was in fact the left reuse button and * • that there is in fact a rotat'd file. Then * • it calls Doubleclick(I with the current and V • last values of seconds and micros. GLSoca, • • gLMIea, which hold the last values of seconds • • and micros are sec to their current values, * • ruspeotivoly. If there was a double click, * Length; oldFgPen - regWir.dow- R?ort- FcFen; Set Afor. 4 regWindow- R?;et . RegWi j dow- RPort- Bg?on) : RectFlll( regWindow- RFort,
rcgWindow- BordcrLoft, regWindow- 3ord©rTcp, rogWindow- Width-rogWindQw- BorderRight, regWindov Height-regWindow“ BordorBotcom) ; SutAPen(regWindow- apottr oldFgPer.) T ¦ Find the number of lines that will fit in • t* the window. • numLines ¦ regXindow- Height regWindow- 3order7op * regWindow- SorderBotter.)) P:x_PER_Ll?iS: * Sot tho starting left coordinate to the • * window'a visible left edge. Sot the * • starting vertical coordinate to the • * window's top visible cdgo plus the space * t* necessary the render one line cf text. • x - regWir.dow- 3orderleft; y -
r05VCir.dc:v- 3order7op»regXindDw- R?ort- 7x2ft so lir.e. • Sot tho rjximin number of characters that * * will fit horizontally in this window. • maxLineLength - ( regWindow-OVfidth regWindow- BorderRight+ regwindow- Sorderle£t) gCharLongth; ¦ Start at the beginning of the current page. *!
ALineFtrl - gLinePtz; • While there are lines left and we haven't * I * gone over the top of the file. * vhlleUrvumLinesi fit (aLlnePtrl gFileTop)) ( * Copy the current lino pointer, * aLinePtr2 - aLlnePtrl; t* Find the number of characters to print • * for this line. • lineLength - 0; while((‘aLinePt I ‘aLineFt (aLineFtr (line Lor. 5 rl !- ’ r'J rl !- ' n') 1 gFlleTcp) th maxLLr.eLer.i lineLength++; aLinePtrl++; ) • Print them.
The Memory Location Amiga specialists! Full service Commodore dealer.
Commodore authorized Educational dealer.
Pulsar Power PC 4mb 2630 Card (25mhz 68030) 2232 Multi-Serial port card 1950 Multisync Monitor AE High density 3.5" drive Mi Graph Hand Scunner Sharp JX-300 Color Scanner Sharp JX-100 Color Scanner Xapshot still video camera Canon RP-420 Video printer Gold Disk Office Disney Animation Studio BibleRcadcr Am ax II Home Front Wings Shadow of the Beast II Black Gold Heart of the Dragon Pool of Radiance Check Mate Over Run Second Front The Memory Location 396 Washington Street Wellesley. MA 02181
(617) 237 6846 Store hours: Mon.-Thur. 10-6,Fri. 10-8,Sat. 9-5
Commodore authorized repair on-premise. Low flat labor
rate, plus pans ’SSL SB-! Hi Movc(regKindow- RPort, x,
y*ti*p;X_FER LINED; Text lEogXindcwoRPort, aLir.eFtrl,
lir.oLangth); * New fir.d the next line * if( ‘aLineFtrl
’ r') || (‘aLlnePtrl -- ’ n'D aLinoPtrl+-,- lf(lineLength
- maxLinqLength) I while((‘aLlnePtrl !- * r') 44
(‘aLir.ePtrl !- ’ nr) U (aLlnePtrl gFileTcp)I aLlnePtrl,
r+; if(aLlnePtrl gFileTcp) aLir.ePtrl++; I • Decrement
the number of lines and * * Increment 1, which indicates
which line • • from the top we are currently printing. •
r. umLines ; I I * This function gets the size of 'filename* and
• * r«.torv«3 ranory to atom 'filename' plus tho • •
additional space that will be required by tho • ¦ spaces.
Then it opens ’filename' and loads it ¦ • in, IK bytes at a
tine, to the buffer gBffr. • * The file is retab'd to the
reserved memory • • buffer. The value pointed to by
'filesize' is * • set to the total amount of memory
reserved. ¦ * Tho value pointed to by 'flletcp’ is set to *
¦ point to the memory location after the last • • memory
location is actually filled during the ¦ • ratab process. *
ULQNG LoadAndRetabFile(filenamc, filesize, filetop, spaces)
char ‘filename, “filetop; int ‘filesize, spaces; I FILE
-infile; in’ nueChar, i, currontoutcol - 1, atempvaiue,- ULONQ
returnValue - NULL.* register char ‘inbffptr, ‘outbffptr;
• filesize - GocFileSire(filename)“MULTIPLIER; infil* -
fopenlfilename, “rb"); if(infile ““ NULL) Circle 107 on
Reader Service card.
• filesize - 0; return(rotj rr. Value)j I returnValue ¦ (ULGNG)
AiIocHom(*filosizo, KEMF_PUBLICIHEMF_CLEAR); if (returnValue
NULL) (
• filesize - 0; return (returnValue) .* 1 outbffptr - (char
•}returnValue; do ( nunChar - f rea J(gBff r, sizecf(char),
3UFFSIZE, infile); inbffptr - gBffr.* while ((inbf fptr IgSf
f r-r.umChar) 1 a (outbffptr (char *)
(secusaYalue+f-filesize}) I) ( if(‘inbffptr * t*) (
atempvalue - (currentcutcol spaces+l)"spaces; i *
currentoutcol; while!(i atompvalue) U (outbffptr (char * I
(returnValue*(*filesize)))) ‘OUCbffptr+'T - ‘ 1++;
currentoutcol - aterpvalue; I else I if(‘inbffptr ’ e* ||
‘inbffptr * n') currontoutcol - ij else cucrontoutcol++;
• outb£fptr++ » •inbffptc; ) inbffptr**; I while ((r.uaChar «¦
RUFFSIZE) 44 (outbffptr (char •) (returnValue-*! ‘filesize)
))) ;
• filetcp - outbffptr; (continued on page SS) PO owendibitu,
NTSC-PAL VI. 1 These two programs are great for both NTSC and
PAL users. They allow owners with the new PCS 1MB Agnus chip
(supplied withal! New A500s, A2000s,and A500Os) to switch from
PAL to NTSC. The author points out that NTSC to PAL lias not
been checked yet; still, no problems are foreseen. Users will
either boot in PAL or NTSC.
Advantages to this are pointed out in the documentation. NTSC users can now get a better quality picture with PAL, while PAL users will have less interlace Picker with NTSC. BootNTSC and BootPAL run only from the CLL NTSC-PAL can be found on Fred Fish Disk 387, Includes Assembly source.
Author: Nico Francois Insight into the Wo rld of Public Domain Software for Amiga SNOOPDOS V1.0 SnoopDOS is a utility that allows you to see AmigaDOS function calls. SnoopDOS opens a window that displays all the calls made by programs being run, plus it displays all libraries, devices and fonts that iiave been loaded. This is useful when trying to determine why a program will not run. You can check to see if all libraries, fonts, etc. are available to the program.
SnoopDOS can be run as is, or you can use the included settings, such as create printouts. The SnoopDOS window can be inactivated while the utility remains running.
SnoopDOS can be found on Fred Fish Disk 388. Includes C source. Author: Eddy Cnnvll RETAB V1.03 Retab is a useful utility that will change tabs to spaces, spaces to tabs, or change a tab size. Retab can be used on any text file. There are option settings to determine what type of formatting is desired. You can protect text inside quotes, brackets, etc. by using the "-p" option. The option was developed with the C programmer in mind. It is used in reformatting C source files.
Retab can be run from the CLI or Shell, and can be found on Fred Fish Disk 389.
Includes binary only. Author: Paul Klink UPDATES CrossDOS V4.00a is a mountable MS-DOS file system created by Consultron. This is a "read only" version (you can only read from the disk, you cannot write). You can contact Consultron for a full version. In this version a faster floppy device driver was added which can access data up to two times faster than the previous version.
A program, Install-MSDOSPS, is included to help you install CrossDOS on vour hard drive. Minor alterations may be needed in your startup-sequence. Also included by Aimee B. Abren VideoMaster The Integrated Desktop Video System For Amiga Computers VideoMaster integrates in a single system all the functions necessary to transform the Amiga computer into a fully featured multimedia workstation without using the video slot. VideoMaster performs the following functions: ? Genlocks the Amiga graphics to incoming composite (PAL or NTSC) ? A built-in RGB splitter provides for direct connection to a or
S-Video source (S-VHS. His or ED-BETA). Digitizer including a compatible interface to Digi-View Gold 4.0. ? The genlockcd video production is available in composite and S-Video ? A special effects generator produces horizontal, vertical, circle formats as well as RGB for optimum graphics. And inverted wipes-automatically timed or manually controlled.
Two Models NTSC (RS-I70A) and S-Video PAL and S-Video 625 The S-Video, V C signal is processed independently in. Through and out.
"Glitch Free” Switches Cut to any Amiga Reference video combination in the next frame of your recording with no flicker or artifacts.
Dissolve Control Bars Dissolve to any Amiga Reference Video combination. Also dissolve to black.
Wipe Switches and Control Bar Vertical, horizontal and circle wipes timed by VideoMaster or controlled manually.
Inverted or combined multiple wipes for special and unusual effects.
Digitize External Images Connect your Digi-View Gold 4.0 digitizer, set RGB splitter to Auto and VideoMaster will synchronize the digitizer to R. G and B signals. Under manual control, select RGB sequence and interface to most commercially available digitizers- no B &. W camera with color-wheel required.
. .'.I ¦ I B The S-VIDEO GENLOCK for all Amigas A-50Q A-1000 A-2000 A-2500 A-3DQO RGB Processor VideoMaster generates RGB video and graphics for direct connection to an RGB monitor or projector. The standard Amiga monitor can display reference video and Amiga graphics optimally in RGB mode.
Transcoding Create composite productions from S- Video reference source. Create S-Video productions from composite reference video. VideoMaster output is continuously available in all three formats. (Composite.
S-Video. And RGB).
Record with No Reference Video In No problem! VideoMaster generates internal sync to allow the Amiga artist to record his animation in either composite or S-Video.
Amiga RGB Session No recabling! Set VideoMaster to Off; Bypass and develop RGB graphics for your next production.
Key Out Compatible with the video mixer in your studio ensemble.
Leave your Amiga Video Slot Open For use with other video add-on cards that add sizzle to your productions.
External Power Supply Required for A-51M). Optional for all other Amigas.
Dealer Demonstration Program Video dealers should contact VidTech for details.
Warranty and Support VideoMaster comes with a full year warranty and Sill) number for customer service and support.
Call or write us today: VidTech International,Inc.
2822 NW 79th Avenue Miami, Florida 33122 800-727-2261 or 305-477-2228 Fax 305-591-1651 Price: SI295 Dealer inquiries invited.
U. S. Distribution by Micro-Pace. Inc., Champaign, 111.
V VidTech Circle 122 on Reader Service card.
Is a Technical Reference Manual on disk along with an 'In Case of Difficulty" file. The Technical files have an example mountlist, a small glossary, and device error codes. The Difficulty filecontains a list of common problems that you may run into, along with suggested solutions.
CrossDOS V4.00a can be found on Fred Fish Disk 382. This is an update to version 3.05b on Fred Fish Disk 252. Includes source. Author: Leonard Poma Msh V1.30 is an MS-DOS files system handler. This is patch 3 to release one. Msh VI.30 is fully functional with read and write capabilities.
With this new version, read error requesters no longer appear when a bootblock of a disk is unreadable. Also, the stack size of messydisk,device task and the file system was reduced.
Msh VI.30 can be found on Fred Fish Disk 382. This is an update to version 1.5 on Fred Fish Disk 327. Includes source.
Author: Olaf Seibert LHArc V1.21 is an archive program akin to ZOO and Arc. LHArc uses the LZHUF compression, and can store several files in one archive in a compressed form. This allows you to compress an entire floppy disk in one compression. One nice feature is that, when LHArc compresses, it retains the file attributes. LHArc has several commands and switches giving you a variety of compressing options.
A few bugs fixes were added to this version. Also, LHArc is now7 a "pure" program, so you can make LHArc resident using the AmigaDOS RESIDENT command.
LHArc VI ,21 can be found on Fred Fish Disk 383. This is an update to version 1.10 on Fred Fish Disk 312. Includes binary only. Author: Paolo Zibetti MandelMountains V2.1 renders 3-D images of the Mandelbrot & Julia sets. This is the turbo version, and it can run two to three times faster than version 2.0. You can define magnification windows to zoom deeper into the image.
With this version, the Workbench window will not be cleared during rendering, so the parameters remain visible. Also, the task priority is not changeable during computation.
MandelMountainsV2.1 can be found on Fred Fish Disk 383.
This is an update to version 2.0 on Fred Fish Disk 354. This program is Shareware. Includes binary only.
Author: Mathias Ortmann Pcopy V2.ll is a disk-copying program useful for producing large amounts of different copies. Pcopy is not known to copy copy-protected disks; however, it does produce reliable copies because if can verify the written data.
Pcopy displays a "Copy History" window which keeps a record of all copied disks as well as a Progression window which graphically displays the copying process. A nice feature included with Pcopy is Track Salvage which has the ability to recover data from a damaged track. Pcopy can be executed from the CLI or Workbench.
Pcopy V2.11 can be found on Fred Fish Disk 383. This is an update to version 2.0 on Fred Fish Disk 243. Includes binary only. Author: Dirk Reisig
• AC* (ZoomBox, continued from page 85) fclosa(Infile): return
(returnValueI ; ) • GetFiieSizo ) creates a FilelnfoBlock and
’ * Locks the giver, 'fiiePathh’ame'. The * ¦ FilelnfoSiock
is then filled with information *' * about the file by a call
to Examine0. The ¦ * filesize is extracted and then refurr.ed
tc * ¦ the calling environment. *7 int
GotFiloSizo(fiiePatnName) char *£iloPath!Jane; t struct
FileLock •aLock; struct FiielnfoBlock *an!nfo; int error,
fileSize; anlnfo “ (struct FiielnfoBloek *) AllocMon (sizeof
(struct Filelr.f oElcck J, MEMF_PUBLIC|HEKF_CLEABJ: aLock -
(struct FiloLock *) Lock (fi leFathVacno, ACCESS_R£AD)x ocror
Examine(a Lock, anlnfo); Ur.Lock (aLOCk I i filesize -
(int)anlnfo- £ib_5ize; FreeKen(anIn£o, sizeof(scruct
FilelnfoBlock)); return(filaSlz*)i I LISTING THREE: ZoomBox.h
I* File: ZooaBox.h ¦ ?ifndef SoomSox.h ?define ZccmBox.h *
Function prototypes. The C language assumes ¦ * • that all
functions return type integer unless * • otherwise stated. If
a function returns a * • typu other than integer, that
function must * • be declared before any function that calls
it * ¦ is defined. Theao prototypes also help to * * avoid
errors during function calls. When they • * occur, because of
the prototypes, the * ? Compiler can generate a warning. "
void Cloar.Up (void) , HandloSvent(voidJ,
HandlacoonBoxSeiect(void), HandleZocnBoxMewSizo(void),
HandleZoomBoxRefresh(void), HandloMouseDcvm (void); extern void
DrawWindov(void); extern ULONG FindNewLiriePtr(void!,
LoadAndRetabFile char •, int *, char **, int): * These are
special purpose constants that will • * be used by the
program. Cr.e reason for * ' collecting them together like
this is that * * they may be changed easily. If instead of •
* defining HI10TH to be 120 we simply * * used *120'
everywhere it is needed in the ’ * program we would have tc
remember all =¦- ’ * those places and change them separately
if we ¦ • needed to. Using ?define*s. We just change • *
this one occurence and the new value will *f * automatically
bo used when the program is * , • ro-compiled, • ?define
w:srGCVf_wiDTH 120 ? Define KINLCVf HEIGHT 30 ?define MAIM
WIKDOV FLAGS
K1NOCWSIZING1XtNDCXCEPTR1WIKOCWCLCSS|WIK3CWSRAS1S:MPLE_KEFRESH
? Co fine MAIM_MINDOW_: FLAGS GADSETUP ! CLOSEWIKDQ*INSWSI2E!
RIF R£ S H IS D C W1MOUS EBUTTONS ? Define WI NLC f_HIK_WIDTH 3
0 ?define WINDO w“y. I: “k EIGK7 60 ? Define hinlcw~MA : wi DTK
630 ?define WI ?,THDV!~KAX“h EIGHT 150 ?dofino ZOOK_LEFT 0
?define ZOOM_TOP 0 ?define IMTUTtI0N_REV 33 ?define BUFFSI2E
1024 ?define SPACES 6 ?define ?IX_?ER_LINE 6 ?define
KAX_LINE_LEh'GTH 80 ?define KULTIFLIF.R 2 ?ondif LISTING FOUR:
ZoomBoxWith File: 2conBoxWith FROM lib:c.o, ZGCmBOxNain.o,
zccmSosfur.ccicr.s.o TO Zqot3c-x LIBRARY lib:1c.lib,
lib;arriga.lib
• AC- AC'S BACK ISSUE INDEX ¥ Vol. 1 N'o. 1 Premiere, 1986
Highlights include: "Super Spheres", An A Basic Graphics
Program, by Kelly Kauffman "Dale Virus", by J. Foust
"EZ-Tcrrn", An Abasic terminal program, by Kelly Kauffman "Miga
Mania", Programming fixes & mouse care, by P. Kivolowitz
"inside CLI", A guided insight into AmigaDos, by G. Musser ¥
Vol. 1 No- 2 19S6 Highlights include: "Inside CLI: Part Two",
Investigating CLI & ED,bvG. Musser "Online and the CIS Fabite
2424 ADH Modem", by J. Foust "Supcrtcrm V 1.0", A terminal
program in Amiga Basic, by K. Kauffman "A Workbench "More"
Program", by Rick Wirch ¥ Vol. I No. 3 1986 Highlighls include:
"Forth!", A tutorial "Deluxe Draw!!", An AmigaBASlC art
program, by R. Wirch "AmigaBASlC", A beginner’s tutorial
"Inside CLI: Part 3", by George Musser ¥ Vol. 1 No. 4 1986
Highlights include: "Build Your Own 5 1 4" Drive Connector”, by
E, Viveiros "AmigaBASlC Tips", by Rich Wirch "Scrimper: Part
One", A program to print Amiga screen,by P. Kivolowitz ¥ Vol. 1
No. 5 1986 Highlights include: "The El SI to RGB Conversion
Tool", Color manipulation in BASIC, by 5. Pietrowicz "Scrimper;
Part Two” by Perry Kivolowitz "Building Tools", by Daniel Kary
¥ Vol. I No. 6 1986 Highlights include: "Mailing List", A basic
mail list program, by Kelly Kauffman "Pointer Image Editor”, by
Stephen Pietrowicz "Scrimper; Part Three", by Perry' Kivolowitz
"Optimize Your AmigaUasic Programs For Speed", by Steve
Pietrowicz ¥ Vol. 1 No. 7 1986 Highlighls include: "Try 3-D",
An introduction to 3-D graphics, by Jim Meadows "Window
Requesters in Amiga Basic", by Steve Michel "I C What I Think",
A few C graphic progs, bv R. Peterson "Your Menu Sir!”,
Programming AmigaBASlC menus, by B. Catley "Linking C Programs
with Assembler Roulines", by G. Hull ¥ Vol. I No. S 1986
Highlights include: "Computers in the Classroom", by Robert
Frizelle "Using Your Printer With The Amiga" "Using Fonts from
AmigaBASlC", by Tim Jones "Screen SaVer", Monitor protection
program in C, by P. Kivolowitz "A Tale of Three EMACS", by
5teve Poling ".bmap File Reader in AmigaBASlC", by T Jones ¥
Vol. 1 No. 9 1986 Highlights include: "The Loan Information
Program", A BASIC program for your financial options, by Brian
Catley "Starting Your Own Amiga-Related Business", by W.
Simpson "Keep Track of Your Business Usage for Taxes", by J.
Kummer "Using Fonts from AmigaBASlC: Part Two", by Tim Jones
”65000 Macros On The Amiga", by G Hull Vol. 2 No. 1, January
1987 Highlights include: "What Digi-View Is... Or, What Genlock
Should Be!", by J Foust "AmigaBASlC Titles”, by Bryan Catley "A
Public Domain Modula-2 System", by Warren Block "One Drive
Compile”, by Douglas Lovell "A Megabyte Without Megabucks", An
internal megabyte upgrade, by Chris Irving ¥ Vol. 2 No. 2,
February 1987 Highlights include: "The Modem", Efforts of a BBS
sysop, by Joseph L. Rothman "The ACO Project....Graphic
Teleconferencing on the Amiga", by S. R. Pietrowicz "Flieht
Simulator II: A Cross Countrv Tutorial", bv John Rafferty "A
Disk Librarian In AmigaBASlC”, by John Kennan "Creating And
Using Amiga Workbench Icons", by C. Hansel "Build Your Own MIDI
Interface", by Richard Rae "AmigaDOS Operating System Calls and
Disk File Management", by D. Haynie "Working with the
Workbench", by Louis A. Mamakos ¥ Vol. 2 No. 3, March 19S7
Highlights include: "An Analysis Of The New Amiga Pcs IA2000 &
A5Q0)", by J. Foust "Subscripts and Superscripts in
AmigaBASlC", by I Smith "AmigaTrix", Amiga shortcuts, by W.
Block "Intuition Gadgets", by Harriet Mavbeck Tollv "Forth!”,
Put sound in your Forth programs, by Jon Bryan "Assembly
Language on the Amiga", by Chris Martin "AmigaNotes", No
stereo? Y not?, by Rick Rae ¥ Vol. 2 No. 4, April 1987
Highlights include: "Jim Sachs Interview", by S. Hull "The
Mouse That Got Restored", by Jerry Hull and Bob Rhode
"Household Inventory System in AmigaBASlC", bv B. Catley
"Sccrels of Screen Dumps", by Natkun Okun "Amigatrix II”, More
Amiga shortcuts, by Warren Block ¥ Vol. 2 No. 5, May 1987
Highlights include: "Writing a SoundScape Module", Programming
with MIDI, Amiga and SoundScape in C, by T. Fay "Programming in
6SOOO Assembly Language”, by C. Martin "Using FutureSound with
AmigaBASlC", Programming utility with real digitized STEREO, by
J. Meadows "Waveform Workshop In AmigaBASlC", by f Shields
"Intuition Gadgets: Part II", by H. MaybeckTolIv ¥ Vol. 2 No.
6,Juncl9S7 Highlights include: "Modula-2 AmigaDOS Utilities",
by 5. Faiwiszewski "Amiga Expansion Peripherals", by J. Foust
"What You Should Know Before Choosing an Amiga 1000 Expansion
Device", by S. Grant "6S000 Assembly Language Programming", by
Chris Martin ¥ Vol. 2 No. 7, July 19S7 Highlights include:
"Video and Your Amiga”, by Oran Sands III "Amigas& Weather
Forecasting", by Breaden Lar.-.on "Quality Video from a Quality
Computer",by O. Sands "Is IFF Really a Standard?”, by John
Foust "All About Printer Drivers", by Richard Bielak "6SOOO
.Assembly Language", by Chris Martin ¥ Vol. 2 No. 8, August
1987 Highlights include: "Amiga Entertainment Products"
"Modula-2 Programming” "Assembly Language” "Disk-2-Disk", by
Matthew Leeds "Skinny C Programs", by Robert Riemersma, Jr.
¥ Vol. 2 No. 9, September 1987 Highlights include: "Modula-2 Programming", Raw console dev. Events, by S Faiwiszewski "AmigaBASlC Patterns", by Brian Catley "Programming with Soundscape", by T. Fay "Bill Volk, Vice-President Aegis Development", interview by Steve Hull "JimGoodnow, Developer of Manx'C"', interview bv Harriet M Tolly ¥ Vol. 2 No. 10, October 19S7 Highlights include: "Max Headroom and the Amiga", by John Foust ’Taking the Perfect Screen Shot”, by Keith Conforti "Amiga Artist: Brian Williams", by John Foust “All About On-line Conferencing", by Richard Rae "Amiga BASIC Structures",
by Steve Michel "Quick and Dirty Bobs", by Michael Swinger "Fast File I O with Modula-2", by Steve Faiwiszewski "Window I O”, by Read l’rcdmore ¥ Vol. 2 No. II, November 1987 Highlights include: "Jez San Interview", StarGlider author speaks!, by Ed Beroovitz "Do-it-yourself Improvements To The Amiga Genlock" "Modula-2 Programming", Devices, I O, & serial port, by S. Faiwiszewski "6S0Q0 Assembly Language", by Chris Martin "The AMICUS Network”, by John Foust "C Animation: Part II", by Mike Swinger "SoundScape Part III", VU Meter and more, by Todor Fay "Fun with Amiga Numbers", by Alan Barnett
"File Browser”, by Bryan Catley ¥ Vol. 2 No. 12, December 1987 Highlights include: "The Sony Connection", bv Stewart Cobb "CLI Arguments in C", by Paul Castonguay "MIDI Interface Adaptor", by Barr}' Massoni "Modula-2", Command line calculator, by S. Faiwiszewski "AmigaNotes", Audio changes made in the A500 &A2000, by Itick Rae "Animation for C Rookies: Part III",by M. Swinger "The Big Picture", Assembly language programming, by Warren Ring "Insider Kwikstart Review", RAM & ROM expansion: Comments & installation tips, by Ernest P. Vivekos, Sr.
"Forth!", DumpRPort utility for your Multi-Forth toolbox, by [on Bryan e Vol. 3 No. 1, January 1988 Highlights include: "AmigaNotes", Amiga digital music generation, by Rich Rae "C Animation: Part IV", by Michael Swinger "Forth", Sorting out Amiga CHIP and FAST memory, by John Bryan "The Big Picture", CLI system calls and manipulating disk files, by Warren Ring "6S0OO Assembly Language Programming", Create a multicolor screen without using Intuition routines, by Chris Martin "Modula-2 Programming", by S. Faiwiszewski 'The Ultimate Video Accessory: Part II”, by L. White "FormatMasten
Professional Disk Formatting Engine", by Cmann "BSpread", Full featured AmigaBASIC spreadsheet, by Bryan Catley
* Vol. 3 No. 2, February 198S Highlights include: "Laser Light
Shows with the Amiga", by Patrick Murphy "The Ultimate Video
Accessor)-: Part III", by L- While "Photo Quality Reproduction
with the Amiga and Digi- View", by 5:ephen Lebans "Solutions To
Linear Algebra Through Matrix Computations", by Robert Ellis
"Modula-2 Programming", Catching up with Calc, by Steve
Faiwiszewski "68000 Assembler Language Programm ing", by Chris
Martin "AiRT", Icon-based program language, by S. Faiwiszewski
* Vol. 3 No. 3, March 19S8 Highlights include: "Desktop Video:
Part IV", by Larry White "The Hidden Power of CLI Batch File
Processing", by J. Rothman "A Conference With Eric Graham",
edited by John Foust "Perry Kivolowitz Interviewed", by Ed
Bercovitz "Jean "Moebius" Giraud Interviewed", by Ed Fadigan
"PAL Help", A1000 expansion reliability, bv Perry Kivolowitz
"Boolean Function Minimization", by Steven M Hart "Amiga Serial
Portand MIDI Compatibility for Your A1Q00", by L. Ritter and G.
Rentz "Electric Network Solutions the Matrix Way", by Robert
Ellis "Modula-2 Programming", The gameport device and simple
sprites in action, by Steve Faiwiszewski 'The Big Ficture",
Unified Field Theory by Warren Ring « Vol. 3 No. 4, April 19SS
Highlights include: "Writing A SoundScape Patch Librarian", by
T. Fay "Upgrade Your A1000 to A5QQ 20QQ Audio Power", by H.
Bassen "Gels in Multi-Forth", by John Bushakra "Macrobatics".
Easing the trauma of Assembly language programming, by Patrick
J. Morgan 'The Ultimate Video Acccsory: Part V", by Larry White
'The Big Picture, Part II: Unified Field Theory", by W. Ring It
Vol. 3 No. 5, May 19SS Highlights include: "Interactive Startup
Sequence", byUdo Pemisz "AmigaTrix III", by Wrarren Block
"Proletariat Programming", Public domain compilers, by P Quaid
"The Companion", Amiga's event-handling capability, by
P. Gosselin "The Big Picture, Unified Field Theory: Part 111", by
VV. Ring "Modula-2", Termination modules for Benchmark and TDI
compilers, by Steve Faiwiszewski "6SQ0Q Assembly Language",
Peeling avvav the complication of display routines, by Chris
Martin "The Command Line: The First Installment", by Rich
Falconburg
* Vol. 3 No. 6, June 19BS Highlights include: "Reassigning
Workbench Disks", by John Kcnnan "An IFF Reader in
Multi-Forth", by Warren Block " Basic Directory' Service
Program", Programming alternative to the GimmeeZeroZero, by
Bryan Catley An Amiga Forum Conference with Jim Mackraz The
Amiga market as seen by the "Stepfather of Intuition."
The Command Line: Exploring the multi-talented LIST command", bv Rich Falconburg
* Vol. 3 No. 7. July 19SS Highlighls include: "An Interview
with'Anim Man Gary Bonham" bv B. Larson "Roll Those Presses!",
The dandy, demanding world of desktop publishing, bv Barnev
Schwartz "Linked Lists in C", by W. E. Gaxnmill "C Notes from
the C Group", The unknown "C" of basicobject and data types, by
Stephen Kemp 1' Vol. 3 No. 8, August 1988 Highlighls include:
"The Developing Amiga", A gaggle of great programming tools, by
Stephen R Pietrowicz "Modula-2 Programming", Libraries and the
FFP and JEE math routines, by Steve Faiwiszewski "C Notes from
the C Group: Arrays and pointers unmasked", by Stephen Kemp
"TrackMouse", Converting a standard Atari trackball into a
peppy Amiga TrackMouse, by Darryl Joyce "Amiga Interface for
Blind Users", by Carl W. Mann "Tumblin' Tots", Assembly
language program, by D. Ashley*
* Vol. 3 No. 9, September 19S8 Highlights include: "The Kideo
Tapes", A Georgia elementary school puts desktop video to work,
by John Dandurand "Speeding Up Your System", Floppy disk
caching, by Tony Preston "Computer-Aided Instruction",
Authoring system in AmigaBASIC, by Paul Castonguay "Gels in
Multi-Forth, Part II: Screenplay", bv John Bushakra
"AmigaNotes: How IFF sound samples arc stored”, by Richard Rae
"C Notes from the C Group", Operators, expressions, and
statements in C uncovered, by Stephen Kemp
* Vol. 3 No. 10, October 1988 Highlights include: "The Command
Line:NEWCLI: A painless way to create a new console window", by
Rich Falconburg "Record Keeping for Freelancers: A Supcrbnse
Professional Tutorial", by Marion Deland "On Tire Crafting of
Programs", Optimization kicks off our series on programming
savvy, by David J. Hankins "Bob and Ray Meet Frankenstein",
Create, animate, and metamorphose graphics objects in
AmigaBASIC, by R. D'Asto "Digital Signal Processing in
AmigaBASIC", Perform your own digital experiments with Fast
Fourier Transforms, by Robert Ellis "HAM ic AmigaBASIC", Pack
your AmigaBASIC progs with many of the Amiga's 4096 shades, by
Bryan Catley "CAI Computer Aided Instruction: Part II", by Paul
Castonguay %' Vol. 3 No. 11, November 19SS Highlights include:
"Structures in C", by Paul Castonguay "On The Crafting of
Programs", Speed up your progs, by D. Hankins "Desktop Video
VI: Adding the Third Dimension", by L White "More Linked Lists
in C: Techniques and Applications", Procedures for managing
lists, storing diverse data types in the same list,and putting
lists to work in your programs, by Forest
W. Arnold "BASIC Linker", Combine individual routines from your
program library to create an executable program, by B. Zupke ¥
Vol. 3 No. 12, December 19SS Highlighls include: "The Command
Line: What to do when the commands of AmigaDos fail", by Rich
Falconburg "Converting Patch Librarian Files", by Phil
Saunders 'The Creation of Don Bluth's Dragon's Lair", by R.
Linden "Easy Menus in Jforlh", by Phil Burk " Extend i ng Am
igaBasic”, The use of library calls from within Amiga BASIC,
bv John Kennor.
"Getting Started In Assembly", by Jeff Glatt "C Notes From The C Group: Program or function control coding", by Stephen Kemp "AmigaDos, Assembly Language, And FileNotes", Weapons in the war against tile overload; accurate, descriptive lile naming, by Dan Iluth r Vol. 4 No. 1, January I9S9 Highlights include: "Desktop Video", by Richard Starr "Industrial Strength Menus", by Robert D'Asto "Scrolling Through SuperiJitMap Windows". Bv Read Predmore "Sync Tips: Dot crawl, the Amiga and composite video devices", by Oran J. Sands "Slop-Motion Animation On The Amiga", by Brian Zupke "The Command Line:
New and improved Assembly Language Commands", by Rich Falconburg "Pointers, Function Pointers, and Pointer Declarations in C", by Forest W. Arnold "Death of a Process", Developing an error-hand ling module in Modula-2, by Mark Cashman
* Vol. 4 No. 2, February 19S9 Highlights include: "Max Morehead
Interview", by Richard Rae "A Common User Interface for the
Amiga", by Jim Bnyiess "SPY:Programming Intrigue In Modula -2",
by Steve Faiwiszetvski "Sync Tips: Getting inside the
genlock",by Oran Sands "On the Crafting of Programs: A common
standard for C programming?", by D J. Hankins "C Notes from the
C Group: An introduction to unions", by Steven Kemp "The
Command Line: Your Workbench Screen Editor", by- Rich
Falconburg "An Introduction to Arexx programming", by Steve
Faiwizewski r Vol. 4 No. 3, March 1989 Highlights include:
"Fractal Fundamentals", by Paul Castonguay "Image Processing
With Photosynthesis", by Gerald ! Lull Benchmark 1: Fully
Utilizing The MC6SSS1", Part 1: Turbocharging the savage
benchmark, by Read Predmore "Breaking the Bmap Barrier",
Streamline AmigaBASlC library access with Quick Lib, by Robert
D'Asto "Double Play", AmigaBASlC program yields double vision,
by Robert D'Asto "The Video Desk: The Amiga meets Nikon
Camera", bv Larry White m Vol. 4 No. 4, April I9S9 Highlights
include: "AmiEXPO Art and Video Contest Winners", by Steve
Jacobs "Adding the Xot*So-Hard Disk", by J P. Twardv "The Max
Hard Drive Kit", A hard drive installation project, using
Palomax's Max kit, by Donald W. Morgan "Svnc Tips: A clearer
picture of video and computer resolutions", by Oran J. Sands
"Passing Arguments", Step-by-step on how to pass data from the
Cl.I to AmigaBASlC, by Brian Zupke "Creating a Shared Library",
by John Baez ? Vol. 4 No. 5, May 19S9 Highlights include: "The
Business of Video", by Steve Gilhnor "Building Your Own Stereo
Digitizer", by Andre Thebcrge "MIDI Out Interface" by Br.
Seraphim Winslow "Digitized Sounds in Modula-2", by Len A.
While "Sync Tips: The secrets hidden beneath the fl kker mode",
by Oran J. Sands "Insta Sound in AmigaBASlC", by Greg
Slringfellow "C Notes from the C Group: Formatted output
functions", by Stephen Kemp » Vol. 4 No. 6, June 19S9
Highlights include: "Adventures in Arexx", by Steve Gillmor "At
Your Request: Design your own requesters in AmigaBASlC", by
John F. Weiderhirn "Exploring Amiga Disk Structures", by David
Martin "Diskless Compile in C", by Chuck Raudonis "Programming
the 'SSI Part 11", A discussion on how to calculate Mandelbrot
& Julia sets, by Read Predmore "C Notes from the C Group: Ways
to avoid problems when passing parameters between functions",
by Stephen Kemp r Vol. 4 No. 7, July 19S9 Highlights include:
"An Inside look at UltraCard", by Steve Gillmor "Adapting
Analog Joysticks to the Amiga", by David Kituer "Using
Coordinate Systems: Part II of Ihe Fractals series addresses
the basis of computer graphics", by P.Castonguay Plus A Look At
Amiga Entertainment r Vol. 4 No. 8, August 1989 Highlights
include: "Getting Started in Video", by Richard Starr "C Notes:
Directing programs via the Command Line", by Stephen Kemp
"Executing Batch Files in AmigaBASlC", by Mark Aydellotte
"Building a Better String Gadget", by John Bu'-hakra "On Your
Alert: Using System Alerts from BASIC", by John
F. Wiederhim w Vol. 4 No. 9, September 1939 Highlights include:
"Digitizing Color Slides And Negatives on the Amiga", by Ron
Gull "Improving Your Graphics Programming", by R. Martin "Cell
Animation In Modula-2", by Nicholas Cirasella "More Requesters
In AmigaBASlC", by John R. Wiederhim "DeluxePaint Hi The
Inside Story", FAN Dan Silva tells how DeluxePaint III
evolved, by Ben & Jean Means "Amiga In Desktop Presentation",
Presentation techniques to enhance your meetings and seminars,
by John Steiner "Multitasking In Fortran", by Jim Locker "Gels
In Multi-Forth: Part III", by John Bushakra r Vol. 4 No. 10,
October 19S9 Highlights include: "Better Track.Mouse", A true
one-handed trackball mouse, by Robert Katz "Conference with
Will Wright and Brian Conrad of SimCitv fame”, edited by
Richard Rae "A1D00 Rejuvenalor, Conference with Gregory
Tibbs", edited by Richard Rac "APL it The Amiga", by Henry
Uppert "Saving 16-color pictures in high-resolution", Part
Three of the Fractals Series, by Paul Castonguay "More
requesters in AmigaBASlC', by John Wiederhirn "Glatt's
Gadgets", Adding gadgets in Assembly, by Jell Glatt "Function
Evaluator in C", by Randy Finch "Big Machine On Campus",
Humboldt Slate University in Northern California goes Amiga,
bv Joel Hagen.
"Typing Tutor", by Mike"Chip" Morrison « Vol. 4 No. II, November 19S9 Highlights Include: 'The Amiga Hardware Interface", by John [ovine "The Command Line: Examine the features in the AmigaDOS 1.3 Enhancer software package", by Rich Falconburg ”C Notes from the C Group: Creating your own libraries in C”, by Stephen Kemp "APL The Amiga, Part II", by Henry Lippert "FastPixO", A faster pixel-drawing routine for the Aztec C compiler, by Scott Steinman "64 Colors In AmigaBASlC", by Bryan Galley "Fast Fractals ", Generate Madelbrot Fractals at lightning speed, by Hugo M.H. Lyppens "Multitasking in
Fortran", by Jim Locker
* Vol. 4 No. 12, December 1989 Highlights Include: "The MIDI Must
Go Thru", by Br. Seraphim Winslow "View From the Inside;
Bars&Pipes", Bars&Pipes designer gives a tour of Blue Ribbon
Bakery's music program, by Melissa Jordan Grey "ARexx Part II",
by Steve Gillmor "A CLI Beginner's Questions Answered", by Mike
Morrison 'Trees ar.d Recursion", by Forest W. Arnold "C Notes
from the C Group", A look at two compressing data techniques,
by Stephen Kemp "The Command Line: Exploring commands in
AmigaDOS".
By Rich Falconburg "Amiga Circuits", The techniques required to input information via the parallel port, by John lovine AL-,0: Fjfc&Jfcbt- 1 "mu Jtz: AnjvU'; AmiLxjm a Ssurjirbr
* tlA ftegtenwt * tytitHMss.
Fc rysnitlwM tt$ Iron. R&KTSf [f; rpnS5SE3Sri AmazingAmiga JL JlcxYMt't.Tiyf. CJJf ’ CAD ON THE AMIGA* X-CAD Designer 4 Protostlonoh UmraDesign, Adgls Dfaw 2000 OM more?
¥ Vol. 5 No. 1, January 1990 Highlights include: "The Making Of The 19S9 BADGE Killer Demo Contest Winner, The Sentinel", by Bradley W. Schenck "Animation For Everyone", by Barry Solomon "Animation With Sculpt-Animate 4D", by Lonnie Watson "Animation? BASICallylT Using Cell animation in AmigaBASiC, by Mike Morrison "Menu Builder", Building menus with Intuition, by T. Preston "Facing the CL1", Disk structures and startup-sequences, by Mike Morrison "Dual Demo", Programming an arcade game, by Thomas Hsholman "Scanning The Screen", Part Four in the Fractals Scries, by Paul Castonguay "It's Colder
Than You Think", Calculating the wind chill temperature, bv Robert Klimaszewski ¥ Vol. 5 No. 2, February 1990 Highlights include: "A Beginner's Guide to Desktop Publishing On The Amiga", by John Steiner "A Desktop Publishing Primer", Clearing up some of the mystery surrounding printers.
"Resizing the shell CLI Window", by William A. Jones "Call Assembly Language from BASIC", by Martin F. Combs "You Too Can Have A Dynamic Memory", Flexible string gadget requester using dynamic memory allocation, by Randy Finch "An Amiga Conundrum", An AmigaBASiC program for a puzzle-like game, by David Senger "View From The Inside: Scanlab". A5DG's President shares the development of Scan Lab, by Perry Kivolowilz "AM1GANET", by Ernest P. Viveiros, Jr.
R Vol. 5 No. 3, March 1990 Highlights include: "Screen Aid", A quick remedy to prolong the life of your monitor, by Bryan Catley "An Introduction to MIDI", by R- Shamms Mortier "The Other Guys' Svnthia Professional", review by David Duberman "Passport's Master Tracks Pro vs. Blue Ribbon Bakery's Bars& Pipes", by Ben Means ".Microillusions' Music-X", review by Rob Bryan Lon "Diemer Development's C-ZAR'3, review by R. Shamms Mortier "Dr. T's Keyboard Controlled Sequencer", review by Phil Saunders "MuskTiller", Generating a titler display to accompany the audio on a VCR recording, by Brian Zupke
» Vol. 5 No. 4, April 1990 Highlights include: "Handling MS-DOS Files", Adapting your Amiga to MS- DOS using a 5-25" disk drive, by Jim Locker "Bridging the 3.5" Chasm", Making Amiga 3,5" drives compatible with IBM 3.5" drives, by Karl D. Belsom "Bridgeboard Q & A", by Marion Deland "Handling Gadget & Mouse IntuiEvents", More gadgets in Assembly, by Jeff Glatt "Ham Bones", Programming in HAM mode in AmigaBASiC, by Robert D'Asto "Gambling with your video, Amiga-style”, Problems with trading genlocks with your friends, by Oran Sands "Distant Suns", renew by Mike Hubbart ¥ Vol. 5 No. 5 May 1990
Highlights include: "Commodore's Amiga 3000", preview "Newtek's Video Toaster", preview "Getting started With Deluxe Video IN", tutorial by David Johnson "Do It By Remote", Building an Amiga-operated remote controller lor your home, by Andre Theberge "Turn Your Amiga 1000 Into A ROM-based Machine", by George Gibeau Jr. & Dwight Blubaugh "Super Bitmaps In BASIC", Holding a graphics display larger than the monitor screen, bv Jason Cahill "Rounding Off Your Numbers", by Sedgewick Simons Jr.
"Faster BASIC Mouse Input", by Michael S. Fahrion "Print Utility", by Brian Zupke "Building A Rapid Fire Joystick", by John lovine "The AM 5121*, Upgrade your A500 to a 1 megabyte machine, by James Bentley "PagcStrcam 1.6", review by John Steiner "WordPerfect Macros", by Mike Hubbartt "DigiMatc III", review by Frank McMahon ¥ Vol. 5 No. 7, July 1990 Highlights include: "Commodore announces CDTV" "Apples, Oranges, and MIPS: 6S03Q-based Accelerators For The Amiga 2000", by Ernest P. Viveiros, Jr.
"Pixourtd", review’ by R. Shamms Mortier "Hypcrchord", review by Howard Bassen "Exceptional Conduct", Quick response to user requests, through efficient program logic, by Mark Cashman "Poor Man's Spreadsheet", A simple spreadsheet program that demonstrates manipulating arrays, by Gerry L. Penrose "Tree Traversal and Tree Search", Two methods for traversing trees, by Forest W. Arnold "Crunchy Frog II", by Jim Fiore "Getting to the Point: Custom Intuition Pointers In AmigaBASiC", by Robert D'Asto "Synchronicity: Right 5c Left Brain Lateralization", by John lovine "Snap, Crackle, & POP!", Fixing
a monitor bug on Commodore monitors, by Richard Landry W Vol. 5 No. 8. August 1990 Highlights include: "Mimetics' FrameBuffer", review by Lonnie Watson "The VidTech Scanlock", review by Oran Sands "Atnigas in Television", The Amiga in a cable television operation, by Frank McMahon "Desktop Video in a University Setting", The Amiga at work at North Dakota State University, by John Steiner "Credit Text Scroller", review by Frank McMahon "Graphic Suggestions", Other ways to use your Amiga in video production, by Bill Burkett "Title Screens That Shine: Adding light sources with DeluxePainl III",
by Frank McMahon "The Amiga goes to the Andys", by Curt Kass "Breaking the RAM Barrier", Longer, faster, smoother animations with only one meg of RAM, by Frank McMahon "Fully Utilizing the 68881 Math Coprocessor: Timings and Turbo_PixeI functions", by Read Predmore "APL and the Amiga: Part IV”, by Henry T. Lippert "Sound Quest's MidiQucst", review by Hal Belden ¥ Vol. 5 No. 9, September 1990 Highlights include: "Dr. T's Keyboard Controlled S equencer 3.0 ", review by Phil Saunders "Acting On Impulse", A visit to Impulse, by John Steiner "3-D Professional", review by David Duberman "Programming
In C on a Floppy System", Yes even a stock A500 with a 512K RAM expander, by Paul Miller 'Time Out", Accessing the Amiga’s system timer device via Modula-2, by Mark Cashman "Stock Portfolio", An original program to organize your investments, music library, mailing lists, etc., by G.L. Penrose "Voice-Controlled Joystick", by John lovine “FramcGrabber", review by Lonnie Watson "KARAfonts", review by R. Shamms Mortier "Gradient Color Dithering on the Amiga Made Easy", by Francis Gardino "Sculpt Script", by Christian Aubert "The Art Department", review by R. Shamms Mortier "Scene Generator",
review by R. Shamms Mortier "Breaking the Color Limit with PageRender3D", review by R. Shamms Mortier ¥ Vol. 5 No. 10, October 1990 Highlights include: "Notes on PostScript Printing with Dr. T’s Copyist", by Hal Bel den "BioMclal", Make the Amiga flex its first electric muscle, by John lovine "Atlanta 1996", Will Atlanta host the 1996 Summer Olympics?
Their best salesperson is an Amiga 2500, "Be A VAR!", With Commodore's new Value Added Resaler program, creating specialized Amiga applications could make you a VAR.
"CAD Overview: X-CAD Designer, X-CAD Professional, IntroCAD Plus, Aegis Draw 2000, UltraDcsign", by Douglas Bullard "Saxon Publisher", review by David Duberman "AutoPrompt", review by Frank McMahon "Centaur's World Atlas V2.0", review by Jeff James "Sound Tools for the Amiga", Sunrize Industries’ Perfect Sound and MichTron’s Master Sound, reviews by M, Kevelson "ProMotion", review by Michael Dispezio "Stripping Layers Off Workbench", Remove unneeded files on your Workbench to make room forother programs,by Keith Cameron "Audio Illusion", Produce fascinating auditory illusions on your Amiga, by
Craig Zupke "Call Assembly Language From Modula-2", Integrating small, fast machine language programs into BASIC, by Martin Combs "Koch Flakes", Using the preprocessor to perform selective compilation, by Paul Castonguay "New Products and Other Neat Stuff", Walt Disney animation comes to the Amiga, Alaska on videodisc, more.
"PD Serendipity", A look atSID V1.06a directory utility for the Amiga, by Aimee Abren "Bug Bytes", Upgrades this month include: F-BASIC 3.0, ProWrite 3.1, and shareware program GeoTime 1.2, bv John Steiner "Roomers", Will thosepeople who bought an Agnus upgrade for their A2000have to buy it again to get the new Denise chip?, by Tne Bandito "C Notes from the C Group", A program that examines an archive file and removes any Files that have been extracted, by Stephen Kemp ¥ Vol. 5 No. 11. November 1990 Highlights include: "Getting A Lot For A Little", A comparison of the available Amiga archive
programs, by Greg Epley “Amiga Vision", review by John Steiner "Video Expo New York", The Cammp multimedia show and Commodore in Manhattan "High Density Media Comes to the Amiga'1, Applied Engineering's AEHD drive, review by John Steiner "Fixing The Flicker", MicroWay's Advanced Graphics Adaptor 2000, by John 5teiner 'The KCS Power PC Board", Lf you have an Amiga 500, and need IBM PC XT software compatibility, the KCS Power PC Board can help, by Ernest P. Viveiros, Jr.
"Build An Amiga 2000 Keyboard For The Amiga 1000", Get a better-feeling keyboard for under 57.00, by Phillip R Conti's "Looking Beyond the Baud Rale”, The Baud Bandit 2400 & Baud Bandit MNP Level 5 Plus modems, by Ernest P. Viveiros, Jr.
"New Products and Other Neat Stuff", Draw 4D, A-MAX II, and the GVP Series II RH-5500 top this month's list "Bug Bytes”, Tne Deskjet 500 has been released by Hewlett- Packard. By John Steiner "PD Serendipity", more updates to the Fred Fish library. Plus, a look at SuperVievv 3.0, an IFF display program, by Aimee B, Abren "C Notes From The C Group", Programming with definitions known as ' enumerated 'data types, by Stephen Kemp "SAS C Compiler”, review by Bruce M Drake “Mind ware's 3D Text Animator", review by Frank McMahon "A Little Closer to Excellence", Micro-Systems Software’s excellence!2
0, review by Kim Schaffer H Vol. 5 No. 12, December 1990 Highlights include: 'Twin Peaks Amiga Show ReporF', AC traveled to AmiEXPO in Anaheim, CA and World of Amiga in Chicago, 11. To report on the newest and brightest Amiga products.
"Information X-Change", Keeping up to da teon the latest news via hardware, software, and cable TV, by R:ck Broida "Stepper Motors", Part One of three part series on building a simple stepper motor, by John Lovine "New Products", Gold Disk Office, Music-X, Jr., and holiday games.
"Bug Bytes", Workbench upgraded to 2.01 and Music-X upgraded to 1,1, by John Steiner "C Notes From The C Group", A discussion on cryptography, by Stephen Kemp "I’D Serendipity", New CI.I utilities and updates to the Fred Fish Collection, by Aimee B. Abren "Pro Video Post", review by Frank McMahon "Feeding The Memory Monster", the ICD AdRAM 540 and AdRAM 560D, review by Ernest P. Viveiros, Jr.
"McGee & McGee Visits Katie's Farm", review by Jeff James "MathVision 2.0", review by R. Shamms Mortier "Wings", review by I ick Broida "Making A Name For Yourself", Creating logos on the Amiga, by Frank McMahon "Hard Disk PrimerFor Floppy Users", Taking thesting out of the transition from floppies to hard drive, by Rob Havs "Shotgun Approach To Programming With AmigaBASiC, Bringing the fundamentals of AmigaBASiC programming into perspective, by Mike Morrison The Fred Fish Collection Due lo the increasing size of the Fred Fish Collection, only the latest disks are represented here. For a
complete list ol all AC.
AMICUS, and Fred Fish Disks, cataloged and cross-referenced for your convenience, please consult the current AC's Guide To The Commodore Amiga available at your local Amazing Deater.
Lit Rati Ora M3 LHArc An archive program kke Arc and Zoo. Wito a heavy emphasis maximum compressor lor minimum archive sice, usng LZHUF compression, This is version 1.21. an update w verson i.iOcn flsk3t2.
Binary orty.Airtocr: Pace ZfietS UqraryKaef A small uttry toa aicws you u remove tor ares mat aren't used any more. Verson i.O. incudes scvcem assembly. Autoer: Roger Rstttrt MandeiMountars A program rat renders tnt-dmensanai n- ages cf Wowues of re Uandefetci set rc-udes several example mages Ths is verson 2,t, an update swscn 2.0 on £5*354. The most vgrefi- cant enhancerne-t! Toe tors WtKrt is rat rj is t« to free tines taster flue s inclusion ot a specaty turned fxec point arL*ne:c package. Shareware, bnary cniy. Author Mathias Ortmanh rccpy An ntutcn based ttA coper lor AmgaDGS asks
featuring 7gh speed biskcspy w-to wis vert , data recovery from damaged tracks. Wl mutstasknj con- pas&ftty. And a user inenj interface. Tbs is vterti;n
2. 11. an update Q ver&on 2.0 on dish 243. With new data recovery
routines and seme minor bug ft set.
Binary only. Author: OfkReilig ftea Elsn Disk 364 Con'aci Demo version of a “pop-up" program tor managing personal contacls. Allows you to keep a name and address list alorg with phone numbers and comments. Can print marirg labels with a couple ol mouse cscks (supports PoslScnpl printers). Names and address car be 'dipped* into other programs soeh as wore processors. And Contact car even oat your modem for you. Version 1,0, binary only. Author; Craig Esher, CMP Software Elements very nice irosraeive dsfray g f tie the Periodic Taae of BeraenSs. Induces general row and cokmn r- fermaban, plus
a test mooe wrere re program asks speefe questions about tne selected element«raw ccHiTYt Tbs is vrson 2 3. An update io V»w, j 0 on ask 366. Bray cr.y shareware. Author ?aut Thcmas wier NamC A Ireety redsr.outaoie programme parage containing ii me programs required tor pevecpaj in c. Based on toe Sccoder, Ltd C comae', Char.e 3ao s asseir.uer, die Software Distikryi finher, arc portions from other sauces Steve has putfed everything together arc acded some enhancements n toe process Tbs is verson 1.2, an upda:e to verson n on disk 253. Changes ncude extraeiamptei, many bug fixes, further
documentation and some improvements The enwrcr.Tentts supplied compressed and unpacks to Two disks Paraal source is intuded.
Aumor: Sieve Hawtm, Charie G ttos, So;obcn Ltd, The Sottware Distitary and many others Erefl.FisrvDiSk.3o5 MoriCa'c Yet another loan calaiator. But toi$ one was wntten with accuracy in mind. The monthly payments tm.es toe number el months should balance toe total pnno- pal pus interest. B the cert. Version 25. (redware, scute included. AuTcr: Mcftd Laa'toene XuspStal A statistical program based on David Betz' Xlsp. It does some o! Me most advanced dynamic staitxal grapntcs.inc!‘jdecbruShjngJunkng,aTd3DrotatBns. Menus and requesters can be created dynAMIGAlly with simple &$ p commands, and
treated as lisp objects, so Lrtal toe program coJd be used tor many otoer non- statistical purposes, such as interactive expert systems. Xusp-Stai has an Are*i port so that an editor may be used to prepare lisp programs and send tnem direcry to Xusp-Stal to be executed Commands, as character strings, may also be sen: from Xjjsp-Stat wtti the Esp command, ‘area’. Al graphics produced maybe sa-.ed to ties in IFF lermaL This version of Xlisp-Stat (v,2.i, release 11 has been ported to toe Amga by James Lindsey. Irom die Mac version suppled by Luke Tierney, Requires a rumen- cai coprocessor
(M6S6SI V5S362) and an M6802C MSS030 processor. Tb s Ask contains me eaecuiayes. Manual. And :;p files The scaees can te to-jrtd an fisk 336. Audior Da«J Se'j. Luke Tierney, Jar.es Lindsey EotlfiaDittffi Satpac* Demo verson ct a sansres anc daa manpuacan pograT,. Verscr. 32. Btfary oby Aumor janes bncsey XlispStal A slattspcai program based on Davd Be-tr' Xlisp. It does seme ol the most ajvan«d dynamc sta stca!
Grapbes, inducted brushing, tnkrng. And 3D rotations,
f. tenus and req-uasto’s can be created dynamtaSy win trnpe asp
commands, ard treated as tsp objects, so mat me program ca*J
be used tor many cner non- statsteal fwrposes. Such as
interactve expert systems. Xbsp-Stal has an Arexx port so nat
an edtor nay be used to prepare lisp programs and send mem
frecHy to Xusp-Stai to be executed Commands, as Character
stongs, may atso Ce sent from Xlisp-Slal with She isp
com,mand, ‘Wn’. AE graphics produced may be Mved to fttes n
IFF lormat.
Thjwston oi Xusp-Stet(v2.1,ieiea» 1) has been ported to the Amiga by James Lrdsey. Irom me Mac version supplied by Luke Tierney. Requ et a numerical coprocessor |M668fivM63832) and an M66Q2& M68030 processor. Tr»s ask contains re soixcss.
The executabies. Manual. AndFsp Stescan be lound on tfsk 335. Author: David Bet;. Luke Tierney. James Lndsey Fred Fill CisR 337 BfctlerSand An rieresug ce-XJa automata program Jha: gets s roots from a ‘sandpV. Irt-gurg to waich irvpudes assemb'y soirw Authcr; JakeCrttfi EitFutoProc tiwna: Fuxicn Process Atows eieoacn oi any ]fira. Mxw trar-, smpie tasks even if ne« funcscns requre a process en.romem For experienced programmers because there r$ ni any Pop;nerta:cn written ye! But ony an example.
EitFuxEroc is usee by CMC it ors inder : 5 io.
Beiarycrty. Ajffvsr Gocu Ujeiter GMC A console harxfar w.fri command [me edtmg tfd tuncson ktey suppon. GMC pra.t3es extended command line editing, ignction ey ass-gnmen: tn lour levels, extended command tme hstory, onLne help lor functions m |he handier, and an comfy function This is verson S.2, an update to version 4.0 on disx 2S1.
With many new features, including an output buffer (dump to printer and window), filename completer, script (unction, undo function, prompt beeper, pathname in window lice, ctosegadget for KS2.0, etc. Shareware, binary only. Auihor: Goeu MueSer H2i Translates CirxJixto Uestntoassembierirxiude ftes.
UKW tor programmers mat use both C and assem- Per code in toe same program. Hefps lo keep Lie structure definitions consistent. Version 1,1, shareware, binary only, Au?iar: Goeu Mueser MandAnton A Mranoetorct Ararabcn program rat aicws you to easily generate seres ct b-reslB-otr pcures.
Features fun mouse andor keyboard operation, teems, auio-save, hgn (cneati speed, ccn ten.
At The generated txcuxes ai remember me if po- soons&hdsetmgssotoieycan&e'e toaded Version
1. 1. bnaryprVy. Audv: EkkeVrtteU MandtfBLtz Very tost Vandefbroi
pecer wth tots ct randy func- sens such as ccto* cydbng, room,
soecra' pa'ese wnjfoL fte reqjestonj ix more veraon i,C.
Binary OrtyAuCxXt NiCSFraXOiS f-tenu a fast-acoess menu system
cortg-jratte via a sept lie Ttot altows the user run seteced
programs. Version 2,0. Binary on'y. Author: Stefan Mflmhag
NTSC-PAL Two programs Bat give A5C0 A20M owners wen me new ECS
I Mb Agnus instated the atxhty to boot nto either a NTSC or
PALenvrormert, ‘Very* useful tor both NTSC and PAL owners
alike. Version 1.;. ncboes assembly scuee Author Nqo Frangcis
Wreq Replace “pop-up' requestors with ine-oriented re
questers (Srt-iar to Lhose found n an MS-DOS envi* ronment)
dial can be easily handed from the key- board. If mere a no
interactive console tor me process, me requester won'l appear
includes assembly source Author TuomoMckelsson
EtedEiah.Diak3M Cat A shed sryte. Command-fene catiAator, Cat
does no: ha ve a fancy keypad 6splay as many oner calculator
programs do instead, i| is caoabte Of laterg its input from a
Lie. The keytoard, or a Command line and output* ting its
rasutts to a Lie o me screen. ItcanaJso app'y a
singleequaoonio al d me values stored ma fie (or toes), s
handles an common mathematical expressions, can optionally
predefine physical constants and store watte*. Verson 20.
Binary only.
Author; BiJDimm Octock A “D-jr.b Clock* utlity that dsptoys me dale and ur.e n me Worttoenchscreenbwoar. Trusa version 127, anupdaieVERSIONi.i2d«i!fiur.bef325. Many more useful ennaxerrenfsbug fixes, inctoding an Afteo interface. L-dudes source.Author: O-af 3arme; D £d AW- screen ANSI editor inctoo ng an ansraticn lo1 ty.
Provides PAL and NTSC compattfliy. ManyuseM teatures such as nenzonta art verbal stock at pastng opera tori, ine Woe*, screen centering, save Petouts arc more Verson 2.4. &nary onfy. AcGhor: F-ERaue Free Osptoy low much free space :oytes or aocks) ycu hate on any or al of yew mqjnted a**, souves F utts from Cli oriy Based on “Free “ by Ton Smythe on Ftsn Disk 66, but to tally rewritten and mhanced.
Verson 1.01. xvpudes source. Autoor DaAti Jay BareC KeyMapEd Ajows you b change the KeyMaps used w to. Set Map This is a toll featured editor prsvding suppcn for norma1, srng aid dead keys. Tne keybca'd represented «s Insm an A300G A2000 A500 but t is iu*y ccmpaiKe wth AiODO keyboards. Tits is VERSION
l. li, an 'update to verson 1.02 on disk rvnbe? 133, txnaryonfy,
Autw: Tim Fr.es: SnocpQcs ArtSrylpfiTioftioringAmigaDOScars
hpancular, it aaows you to see was itoranes. Dewcet, fona,
enwronmert vanatfes or startup files a program it looking for.
Very uMlul wfUfn yOu ro tryirg [5 i.TJUI a new appfcalion.
Verscn 1,0. Mciude* source in C Author: EddyCarrcii FT Fiih
PirtM?
Kick Axmer screen hack, speciftoaity tor A!OO A2OO0 owners. I oont wan: so spoi any surprises tul re- pcrtedy cases some machnes lb crash. Binary orty. Ai.'thon Tony Sotomon.PaJ Form Ftot A 3-D funccor ptonng prqyam w® prflnpons tor coordinate translation on both ans. Parametric equabenj. And s indartijed rotalon o! Toe pew functor (i y wfKh new works as spe?'td) Ths n version 5.1 .an uacate toVERSION4londsxi75,win seme edfiancwena arc bug fixes Bnary orty Author: Terry Grt; PofySyS An extended version of tfte Cl-iyS5«m (sinng fewftj- ing- deserted in The Stence cf Fractal vrages led led
by Fietjen ax Sajpej The base a'gcrtr.T has been exqanped and mod***d enenvveiy, and toopmg ccmmarC* Stfnlib to those tovrtj m Otoer Turtte gratto-cs systems (L o, ef:l have been added.
Support tor rtvee-dimenstonal d'awing. With per- spectne, i* also included- Version 1.0, bnary orty Author: Terry Girtz Reap Useful cam-nand-fine lab-ta-space* and ‘space-to ab'expanson utility. Several command-lne options so specily s12e.setings and ’ho ability lo protect ma- terialer.ctowdbycein;ters|quolcs. brackets, carats, elc.) From expansion Version 1.03. binary only.
Author: PaulXlink ZPPt Graphs Icmuias based on a-D comper number ptar.es Zpiot currently supports the Mjroe:oro! Set.
Jtiia sets, and Phcenrx curves, wto ever 500 mappng variabohs. The nan functions supported ndude sirH2). Smftij. 1% e'z. :*n. Sqrt(z). Oaat), cdsni), tan z). Tarftz). To :), r z) sx rr'z. Verson iCd, binary oty Author Tery Girtj FrrtFtstiPi 3a Fip Aicws you » qxwy ana easJy s*ton between vanou* seraans. Can dose screens. Pur fen up, and acfr.aie wr ws. Has toe uraque teatote pf soc-ng screens r a way fa: an t tte bara a c wi*blt a: one trre. Ths s vers-on 2.0, arary any. Autoor Lars £ ei RaacmeMaster A “vty Use database tor finqng nose pro crams toat you know etost somewhere i"5?1) p the
Amiga LtoOisk library. Mairtainj a fceywd dcbonary cf toe Contents descrp'jcns that aitows searching by (Ssk numbe', program bde, authors name, or some ctoer descriptive word. Currently supports disks 1- 360, an update to the verson on d-sk number 163 Binary oniy. Autoot: Harold Morash SeiCtock A uttiry 10 se! Or read me hardwara dock on a Spirit Technology memory e«panson board. Works in a manner simrar to the SetQccAmily which is suppled by Commodore wth Amigas that have hardware flocks as Standard equipment includes source in PCO Pascal and assembler. Author: WiS Kusche SM Small utity to
center the display. Recoded version ol ‘ScreenSrtft' by A.nsor Mah |[ sk 63), 0“tiy half the sue. Ind-jdes source. Author Arson Man. Laitce VsjW rearing fry Oliver Wagner Fred Fish Disk 391 Curses A ink library containing many of tne lermnaJ mdepencant standard ‘cases’ functions.
Designed primarty for those rterested in porting tm screen based programs to the Amga. Version
1. 10. binary only. Author Smon John Raytxjuid Ea An ECHO
repaceneni when alerts many escape sequences for cotors, text
styles. Cursor posoionng.
System variables, and much more. Has PURE bit seI and can be made resident. Version 3.40. includes source. Author Daro M JudcCus FractalLab Tvestgate toe realm ol fractals and a’cw your imagnaSon to run wid. Virtualy an urtumtec number cl tr e$ e sen - Simla curves car be created wi? FractalLab 'mctodes several miereslng samptes. Veraion l.O.tcaryorly. AutXrt Terry Grtr Us ot A 2D piol&ng program bat aroma toe Pi°;OT ptorrg itrary is prixeteadrarage is fit! It supocrts a vanety C yaoacs ctevcw 3 defaut ffjlput is sere a a window on tne Amiga $ screen.
Though command I re epbons. Toe grajxi can be sent a any pra'erences primer wen gragno 2sab5:y stored as an IFF fie. Sired m kpGl to'r.at. stored in Aegs Draw 'ormat cr stored as ar Ehcapsufa:*d?cs:Kr:p:FJe. A •rarefy ct line styles and co'crs are available. McuKs source Author: Frederic* R. Bartram and Anthony M. Rcha'dson FffdFiihDl3h.3S2 BTNTape A -Better Than tato-tog' SCSI rape device handler.
B provittes tel f e aaess to a SCSI tape Cnve from appipaUon programs using srrp’e DOS cans 10 ReadO and WnteQ- It can also be used wth tote Amiga TAR utfily for dik backups. Fjes may span multiple rape volumes ire may s:an a: any aw dock. Ths hander requites a 'SCSl-cirec:' compatible rjrd dra* driver. Version 1.0. v fljdes source. Autncr: Robert Reihemeyer Cptot Graphs l-near functions n two dimensions. SHviar a a Mandetaro! Ptoi You start wito a linear function fte 50sn(x"2-y"2) and C-Pfc; treat* each port on toe screen as an X-Y ccctoirate, cator- sea;rg ft accorfl-g to is magnitude for a
preset range cl inputs, mdupjs seme very rite sarrpte crea'j&ris. Version 1.0. binary arty Autoor Terry Gnu
P. mode very sm&e command sne u'My so send escao sequences to
toe prner»change prt jiytei SpestaSy tested a NEC P6 Pis. But
It sx-.‘d wont wto many pmers. Indudad scaa snoud make t easy
to add modescaw sequences Autocr: Daio de Judcbus SetNoCick
Very sinpte program to set toe NOCUCK 'eg m. tote pubic secbon
of a tracsdsk um: Orty worts win
* «on 35 anj 10 of tracWfrskoewc* rawes sq K Author; Marc cducher
Spases Amiga'iced version cf '.fiepwura' art game. Ths i* a
singte player verson, where you ptay one hane and tot computer
frays your partnt' and also yOur bvo opponents, Veraort 1,1.
Indudes sourae, Autocr: Greg Stelrnack EiefljEstLPJsK-aaa
FiielO The dissidents file requester. Ttks is verson 1.9. an
update lo version 1.6 on disk 343. Binary only, Author;
JeflGlatt, Dissderts Sofrware FomCofwen A printer tom
conversion program 10 convert Standard Amiga lonis mio a form
su tafre lor downcabi-g to a prwie' mat supports user definec
prater fonts. Version 1.3. includes source. Author: QaTQisen'
Barthei FufteLa A program that alow* you a add cr ternc-e text
Uvfor. Hxares. Autoa: jefi G'cd, OsskJert* Software IL3UU) A
shared library f Jbrr to re ad write IFF Be*, de--ted fryr.toe
Ea:FF co» aiorgwOvanou* enorcemer-ts. Verscn 0 J. a partial
uocare ;a verscn on is* 345. Author, .ert Gtati Dssdems
Software tulT00 A program that arews jcj to oeve op C or
esserciy code &ra tner aidi'jy tun i msa a Shared i.drary Also
cererates at suspcrt ties lor your ferary incl-jjng Pragma "es
(both Manx and Lacire). Scrap fifes, rc’uce '*es. C interface g
ue files. Can be used r: make a device, too Author; Jeff Gian.
Csssidena Schware PrmtSpooi A smai prirt spooling shared
f'trary that pro-ides an easy way ta print graphes and text lor
any apfrcatcrt. ;t can prvr,; aspi :en of any iergm or dumo any
pari cr al ol a rastport Takes care of operxng ihe
pnrter.device and manages its own resources. Verscn 0.1. binary
crJy, vr.to source coos examples. Autocr; jqff Gian. Dissidents
Sofrware RexzhtAon This is a Areri firooh iibra.7 mat alows ycu
d open wrrfewsscreens from an Are« scrp: acacn menus, gadgets.
(Be) requesters, load and save IBM pcture ties, au'c
requetters. Pm! Text ard graphic dumps, and compete! interact
with toe user in an ntuton environment Adds al cf toose Arnca
featae* that Are« lacks, Aj?w : Jefl Giafl Dissident Sofrware
FiexxLi: A shared fibrary fai car be easily used by any C or
assembly programmer to add an Arexx interface 10 his programs.
Handles al cl tote messy details including message
creaCondeteiion and error harxJing Autocr: Jeff G'ato.
D-ssidems Scfrware Fiftfl Flih DiaK 3Sj AriipfrsG Some more
animated pfrnters :o cfroo se from to ni«tn‘ up your Ssfray
enwnjnmert. Other pointers from Sob are on ctsks 332 and 36- 3
na7 orty.
Author 3cb UcKain. Porter anirrraoofi program by TmKemp Ijner A shareware c.Tiner whose funcbon i$ fc create outoires fcr notes or export 50 other programs.
Liner can save an cudne as ASCII text, and .s flobcara compabbte. Erhane«nem c er re prewOu* verson include Sucport for Areu.
Wcn-bench. EverscamM screens more trar ere ifte pf text per oufrne render, a preferences Ste.
And search replace. Verson 2.00, a- upgrade :c verscn 122 bn cSsk 2£5 Jhcudes C sou-rae.
Autocr: Dave Schre.be' Pics Some miscellaneous picture s with a teanoon’ theme. Author: Sob McKain Printi nage A simple program that provides an easy way to print IFF H8M images. Version 1.0, includes source.
Author; Ofel 'Olsen Barfriel EaUBaLlM m This disk is cn h&d cue 10 copyright questrcns frrt Fisn.Ptsx 3?s ColorCatch A utility that lets you grab colors from a screen ate save them as ar executable Sie. Version i.O. ¦Tfitee? Source ft assem.yer, Author: Prewn Nielsen NewLook A proyant shat changes the system gadgets in all to screens and windows. Version tJ3, rnsudes source in assembler. Author: Preben Nielsen Fbar An editor to change re pattern to the windows drag Par and save the pattern as an execetaWe fife with an icon looking Ske [he pattern. Verson 1.0, irvchJdes source in assembler.
Author. Pre ten Nielsen Pcaiender A little calender program which lets you took through years and months using the arrow keys.
VERSION i.O. includes source in assembler. Author Preten N«fsen Pctock A iitde dock program which shows the time and the available CHIP aw FAST memory. Verson i.G, includes source m assembler Author. Preten Nielsen Pfler A very good and sm a® fJe requester to ink onto your own programs. Version 1.0, incudes source in assembler. Author: Preben Nielsen Resident A restoen! Slanup mteufe tor Aztec C. Verson 10.
Naudes source Author: Oaf OtKfl* Barro RoadRoute Trp planner prog*am to find T»s! Road route* terween any two poets ol travel. Features xteitee me user customzation cl cities and roads ties to sot travel interests and provision lor very large Pty menus and itineraries Also includes RoadScan. A checker IcrRoadRcute ties (Cl TIES and ROADS). Very large fifes may contain coots (oUes with no roads, (he same road entered twice, etc.). cr oddities (direct road not as last as multipoint). These are pointed out. Together with areas wrwra users might wish to make economies in the data base. Version
1.6. an update to vers®n fi on &sk 353. Includes source. Author; j.m Butterfield TutoTcpazTwo Te»! Spee: up programs ike FastFonffi.
Aitows replacement ol the Topaz-30 font tram pom Oil and WofkBench. Tnctodes a pregram lo measure to speed of Ted speed up programs.
Version 1.0. mtLtoes source in assembler. A„TOr.
Preten N.etsen FrrtfishJMSSZ DkBTrace A com pfe:e ray tracer that supports arbitrary quadnc surfaces | spheres, ellipse ies. Cones, Cjftoders, plaros, etc.), constructive soft geomeoy.
And various shading models resection, refraction, marbfe, wood, and many others). It also has special case code to handle spheres, plane s. triangles, and smooth mangles, ay using these special pnn Sves. Tne rendering can be done much more quickly than by using the more genera quadncs. This s verson 2.0 and includes source in
C. Author; Date Buck pyed Fish Disk 356 Dctock A 'Dumb Clock-
tb£ty mat dsptays the date anc time m the Woritbencri screen
tlfe bar. Lteufles an
A. Reu totertace. This is version * .2S. an update to version
1.27 cn &sk 333. Includes source, Author: Cla? Bartnel
Formater A fasten and mere user tnetety floppytfsk formatter
that is also an example cf hew to format Am.ga fife systems n
general and get AmigaDOS to accept them. Formatting without
verify takes aficu: 50 seconds, witn verify takes a&cut 100
seconcs.
Vers«cn 2.7, indites source. Autnor: Otaf Barnet GMC A ccn&ote hancier with command Ene editing and function key subpcrt. GMC provides extended command line efitng, function key assignment in lour levels, extended command ITO history, online help for functions in the handler, and an sonify function. Also includes an output buffer (dump to printer and window). Rename completer, script function, undo funcbon, pxompl beeper, pathname in window tiBe.ctose gadget tor KS 2.0, etc. Ths is veraon 9.6, an update to version 5.2 on disk 387.
Shareware, binary oray. Author. Goes MueSer HurkFunk a program to tesaswnbfe' any t£ en AmigaDOS hunk 6ie. Which includes executa es. Inker locates, inker object fees, overtayed fifes, etc. Written as an exercise by TO auflw lo Jean a few cnings atcut AmijaDOS hunk structures. Indites source Author Gal Barrel KeyVacro A keyboard macro program. ConSguatJe v« a text fife, that af« supports hotkey program execution.
You can map ip to eight luncticns to each key, including keys such as cursor keys, the return key.
Etc. Version 1.6. an update to version 1.4 cn disk
354. Incluoes source. Author QafBarftel Fred F(sHPi&i33 AutoCLI A
PopCLf type replacement that works with WorkBench 2.0. Also
fixes tte problem with PopCU crashing the machine if used on
a PAL Amga to open a CLI window with a vertical see greater
ran 200 fines. Oner features incite an optional Funewrvkey
press wiin thequafifier to execute an $ 3ccpt fka Verson 1.6,
binary orty. Author Ntc Wilson CCUb An implemontaScn of the
standard C runtime library, with a few extra goodies thrown
in.
Supports a large number cf Junctions Including stream l-O, tow-level 10. String, memory. Linked ist.
Sonmg. Time, process control and more. Version
3. 0, indites source arte several uflty programs.
Author: Robert W. Albrecht PrettyWrtJows Three tJUlerertt 0 routros a add various borders inside cf windows fncktes soiree and a demo. Author. Tnon Roberison TrackDisptay A simple program mat catetetesfi monitors and dspays toe current track for each soppy d s*.
Ixttes souca. Author: Otaf Barrel Fred Fish Disk 400 DRIVEWara DrveWare is a Shareware srocrem up game that pits you, dfO: or dl Jagainst a computer virus Dai is about to destroy at U.S. records cl Iraq’s positions during operation Desert Shield, in verson t .0, you must fy dJO: through the computers and destroy ail contaminated chps and disks. Author: Joe Angel I ParNel The Software Distillery’s NET: file system using Mat: Dillon’s parallel pen ate. Using a special DBH5 cable, two Amigas can t» connected via tte parallel pert One Amiga can mount tte other as a devce ate readvrte the Res as iJ
they were local, Verste 2.4. binary only. Author: Doug Walker.
John Toebes. Man Won ReqUb a runsme. Reentrant L&rary designed to make it easer ter programmers to use powerfJ, easy to use req rosters. Tor communicating with users.
Incites such ‘uxtens as a color requester, fie requester, message dsptey requester and many tonctons to make tte creaton o! Gadgets for your own custom requesters easer. 3;nary only. AuTOr: Ccfin Fox and Bruce Dawsen SefCPU A program cesgned to ate* the user to detect and modify various parameters related to 32 at CPUs, includes commands to enable or disabe tte text' data caches, switch on or off the U30 burst cache lute fiit request, use tte MMU to run a ROM image from 32-bit memory, ate to report various parameters wten called from a script This is version t .60, an update to version t .5 on
d-.sk 223.
Incites source. Autror Dave Kayrse SF2 File search utility. Default searcmng scares from :he roof directory cf the spec fed device ate descends down into its sutttrectories. Searching rvdudes tooling into archive Ees generated by various compression ubfi&es. Archive fies eaSng w.D a ARC. U-2. HP ate ZOO are curretey supported.
Lois of command Sne options. Requires ARP 1,3 (rev. 39.11, Version 2.0,binaryordy, shareware.
AuDor: Aterea Suatom fitflfiih.cja.40i CrcLists ComptoB CRC check Slas tor disks M1-400 using me bnk program. These were made direcSy frcm my master dsxs. Tni$ is an update to tne lists on disk 293. Autoor: FredRsh Happy Song A song created using TO Ireefy distri&utabfe program MED V.2.10. Player program included.
Author; Aex Van Starrex EtMLEIaaJttiaUfl2 A Dec A free! Y rettstnburawe te'p VuSty for the Amiga.
Aiows you to have permanent te’p on any sub.ect you want. Major feature is automat* searching cf TO word on wbeh jou ctcfied- includes a S3 K& nelp fiFs (French only) on a: toiitton ate Dos fmctcncaUs. Ths is version 3.10, binary oriy, Fre-teh ate English versions. Aulnof: Denis GCUNELLE Aprl A free: y reostnixra e prrong uPlty for the Amiga.
Major features are fyl Inturilon inrerface, preview tunc son, pace se ecscn, margins setop. Tte rumbemg. And mere. This is verstoa 2.E2. bnary only. French and Engfish versions. Auihor; Dens GGUNELLE.
Pcopy An inhjiten based disk coper for AnugaDOS asks featuring high speed (SSkccpy win write verify, data recovery from damaged tracks, fufl muititask-ng compabbdity. Ate a user friendly interface. This is verson 2,12, an update to version 2.11 on ctsk 363, with new dafa recovery routines ate some bug fixes. Binary only. Author Dirk Re:£»g PLW Pfwne-Une-Watcher. For users of Hayes compatible modems. Monitors the serial pen and records aJi incoming calfS. Alovs a re,mote user to legn. Receive ate leave a message, ate transfer files via Zmodem in ester direcoora Two level DOS access, osabiad DOS
requestors ate more. This is version 3 3. An update » verscn 2.8 on dsk 372.
New teatures tektee TO abtity to cefTO extsma!
Programs as netiu options (ha! Can be executed by TO remote user Shareware, binary orJy. Audxv: Christian Fries PnntSludo Very nice intuition based general purpose pent utility lhal pnn:s text win a variety of options. Punts several graphic formats will yet more options. Print any pan ol a picture, print screens and windows, save screens and windows as IFF fifes, modi fy color palettes, change porting parameters and tots more! This is version 1.25. an update to verson 2 on disk 266. Shareware, binary cnly, Author: Andreas Krebs StoFito A module That can be I inked with any Intufcon based
program to provtee a standard fife requestor similar to tte one m AmigaDOS 2.0. Even if you use TO standard requestor under 2-0. If is usef-J to have one available for use i! You need a run on pre-2.0 Systems, incudes source. Authcr. Jeff Lytoen ate Re ter da Swa EniBMmia FixDsk A program to recover as much as possible from a detective disk, ft can sometimes recover damaged (unreadable) tracks, crock file integrity, check the directory sfuctire, uteeieTe fees, copy or stew files, fix corrupted directory ponters, etc. ri l msuipon interface. Inis is version t .2, an update ta verson 1.0 on dsk
223. Briary era y. AuTOr: Werr.vr Guenther KawaEdfcrA Kawa; Ktedtor (apparerrsy sane krd cf mid based ruse syranesizer) veracn i,0, shareware, bnary only. Author. Jan Saudte NiftyTerm Niff Term is an hf 5 VTlOZVT52 emiiator for TO Amiga, ft was originally desgnea to be used win Dnet. Cxu; t. has teen expanded so mat it may te used as a normal lerr.irai emutatcr. Nittyterm was desigrod to be a good err.ufatcm ot itese terminals, as we" as being fairfy smaJ and fast, verson 1.0, txnary only, source available trom authors. Author: Christopher Nfewman, Todd WiBamson PokeiDemo Demo version cf seme
Solitaire card games from UnSane Creations. Includes'Accordion-,
• Calcutaton’. ‘Poker Soteie’, and 'SeaHaven Towers’, Bmaryonty.
AuTOt: Steve Francis RexxHoslbb This is a shared library
package to simplify TO Arexx test creaSoa-'management
procedure.
Rew-message parsrag is also irokxted making i| possible to control Are« from programs such as AmijaSASiC (can you imag ne AmigaBASiC caibclL-g ATJgaTeX?). This ts versicr. 36. H, an update to version 34*2 on fisk 355 Difsrenees include a few bug fixes ate newiuxtons -teudes source. Authcr: Oaf 3a-TO: Fred Fish Ols* tt» LHArc An archnre program ike An: and Zoo. With a heavy emphasis maximum compression tor nrtmum archive size, using LZHUFcompression, Tras is verson i .30, an update to version 1.21 o.n dsk 333.
Binary only. AuTor; Pacto Zibeld NGTC Release Cne of a mvia game based cn ‘Star Trek: Tro Next Generation* tv series. Contains over 500 questions on Season Qro of ihe seres with ever 50 audo Video cJues. Tlras disk contains TO game moo-Je and pan i of to Tnvia Database.
You MUST nave ask405 wncn contains me res; cl TO Tnvia Database ate TO requ red player program. Created with The Director. Bnary enfy.
Author: Gregory Epiey FadRgiElaiifiq GiFMa neA program mat wit corwed CompuServe GIF image fitesr.to IFF SHAM ate 2-t ! ILBMs. I; offers a amber of extra options fikedTOr ng. Honzcmal and verxal ftp, aswei; as automatic bcrder removal. Recj-res KckStart version 20 or greater lo run Version 2.104, ncftees wurce. Author; Christopher Wichura NGTC Release Cne ol a trivia game based cn 'Star Trek: The Next Generation' TV series. Contains over 500 questons cn Season Oro of TO setes with over 50 audio-video dues. This disk contains pan 2 cl TO Triva Database ate the ‘Projector* player, Ycu MUST have
disk 404 which contains TO rest ol the Trivia Database ate TO game module. Created with The Director. Binary orJy. Autnor: Gregory Epiey Fred fist! Disk 406 ATCcpy A program to copy fifes from to Amga s da cf a sys:em eqjppte with a PC AT badge team, to TO PC soe, usng wiidxtes. Cepes dreed through to shared memory. Supports cli ate WcrkSew usage. Verson 2JD, shareware, binary onfy. AuEhcr: Peter Vonwk DxWorit A las; small simple efficen: ste eware DrUtlty mat gets direc'ories off fep es n about hart TO normal 5me. Configurable optens and buttons, as weit as ail the usual features This is
Vers on i, 12, an update lo TO one on dsk 328. Binary only. Author: Chris Haras ?MS OISK-Masher is a utihty that aitows users to compress ate arcivve enjre Soppy disks. Offers tour different types ol compression, extended virus checking ol bool blocks, ate data encryption.
Requires at least 512K of memory. Ths is verson
1. 01, txna-y only. Autteh SD5 Software GnuAwk GNU awk Is TO GNU
Project's impiemeniabon of TO AWK programming language, ft
ccnforms to to definison ate desenpbon of TO language in The
AWK Programming Language, by Ate, Kemighan, ate Weteerger,
with TO addtonal features defined r to System v Release i
version of Unix awk. Version 2.10 beta, rteudes source. AuTOr:
Paul Rubft. Jay FerJascn. Arnold Robbins, et aJ, GnuGrep The
grep program trcm TO GNU project. Reoiaoes grep tgrep, egrep,
ate cmgrep. Tras is an update to version 1.5 on disk 2S5 ate
now hatees ArngaXS style wUeard specifications includes
source. AuTOr: Many (see README nle MadBianker A cute screen
blanker that bounces a transparent rectangle sreute on TO
screen, like a theater spotfight, with configurable opoens
wheft ifteude size ate whether or not you want the rectangle
to change sze. Version 2.0. includes soura. AuTOr:
K. Mardam-Bey Dmouse A verste screen A mouse Barker, auto wteow
activator, mouse accefereior. Pope, pop wteow to troni push
window to baOx. Etc. wtejet Tres is Dmouse i-erson i i4, an
update to version 1.20 on dsk 258. Tnfl’jdesso'jrce. Aurora
Matt Diton Ffex Ffex is a repfacemert tor the UNIX hex*
(lexica!
Analyzer generator) program that is taster lhan lex, ate Ireeiy redistribu'abie. This is version 2.3. an update to TO version on dsk 156 inctodes source.
AuTOrs: Jel Poskanzer. Vem Paxson, W.ifiam Lcbus, eial.
Yi&teerSound Wondersoute a an additive hamtoftic instrument design tcoi win a separate envelope design widow ate 16 reiasve harmorcc sfrengLh ate prase artee coramls. Versicn 1.4. binary only, Auror: Jeffrey Ha.'nnglbn Fred Fish Disk4M Dcmd A u'iiry fia: monflori a CLTs console O ate copies it to a user specified fife. The console 'O is unaffected by bus mentoring. Version t.0O, includes source. Author; MaJTOw Djton KicxDate Saves ate retrieves TO current system date stamp to tne first sector c! TO tdcksJarf disk. This is handy for A1CC0 users with autobcct-ng nard dnves. Since it can save the
system time across system resets ate power cyb’es. Version 1.0. includes source.
Author: Joe Porkka MoniOre A cute linte ‘screen hack*. Be sure to turn up tro sound. Srnary only, source avalaMe Irom authcr.
Author: DavxJDorJey Post a*i excellent PostScript rcerpreier for to Atiga whtoh supports TO fuB Adobe language ate :ypc l PostSaipt fonts, includes Charter font n Reran, Rare. 3cfd, ate 3oxt-ra)c. And Courfe' ten: in Roman, RomarvOfeique, So-to, Ate EcrcOoteje.
Requires A-p Sbraxy V3&- ate CcnMan VI.3*. Verson 1.3, indtees source « C. Author. Adrian Ayfinurd Trek An excelfent shareware S:a* Trek game. Tro objeci of to game ¦.% to stay asve, heaffty, And maintain TO Enterpnsa n good qpteson As Captain of tro ship, ycu must go on .missions where you show your ccmrcn sense ate level headedross. An every causeys Captam win loose res ship as we5 as a careless or irratonat Capfam, This distribution unpacks info two a’-mosl full disks.
Verson 1.0, txnary ohy. Author: Tobias Rchter run,pm m MechRgnt A roie pia .ng game where you explore a wote, buy or find rfems. Ate fight aganst robots ate atfens.
Dj-ring tne game you are asked to perform certain tasks. This is verson 1.0, c-raary ohy. Aim: Fujian Mareuard: V!t VlT is bcth a VtlOO emulator ate a Tekfrorti (40U pta sudset of 4105) emu’ator. Currency in use at SLAC(Stanbrd Linear Accefera«r Center).
Attnough the l TiDC pan was originaSy Mse-i on Dave Wecker et al.'s VT500. M any enhancements were mace. Features tefude use cf ARP. An Areir pen. XMODEM itVCRC Ate Ksrnit prctccc-'s. Suppon for addtnnal sariaJ pons, external file transfer pretoccis (XPR). A -ctei- mode. And scrcltback-review history bu“er. I! Ccrres intwo versions, cne with Tektronix emufafion, ate one without. The Tektronix emulation a’lows saving IFF files, PostScript files, and printing bitmaps lo the printer. This is verson 4.646. an update to verson 4.428 on d-.sk 336. Binary crty. Auino*: Wily ungeveid To Be
Corainoed...... In Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, the materials in this library are freely distributable. This means they were either publicly posted and placed in the public domain by their authors, or they have restrictions published in their files to which we have adhered. If you become aware of any violation of the authors* wishes, please contact us by mail.
IMPORTANT NOTICE!
This list is compiled and published as a service lo tha Commodore Amiga community for informa- tonal purposes only. Sts use is restncied lo noncommercial groups only! Any duplication for commercial purposes isstricil forbidden. As a pan of Amazing Computing™, this list is inharsntiy copyrighted. Any infringement on thisproprietarycopy- n'ghf without expressed written permission of the pubiisherswili incur the full force ol legal actions.
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P. O.Box 869 Fall River, MA 02722 AC is extremely interested in
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1 to 9 disks 56.00 each 10 to 49 disks $ 5.00 each 50 to 99 disks $ 4.00 each 100 or more disks $ 3.00 each $ 7.00 each tor non subscribers (three disk minimum on all foreign orders) Amazing on Disk: AC 1 Source A Listings V3.8 A V3.9 AC 2.. Source A Listings V4.3 A V4.4 ACS3 . .Source A Listings V4.5 A V4.6 AC 4.. .Source A Listings V4.7 A V4.8 PDS Disks: $ _ Acff5.. .Source A Listings V4.9 AC 6.. .Source A Listings V4.10 A V4.11 AC 7., .Source A Listings V4.12 A V5.1 AC 8.. .Source A Listings V5.2 A 5.3 AC 9.. .Source A Listings V5.4 & V5.5 AC 10 ..Source A Listings V5.6 A 5.7 InNOCKulation Disk:
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AMICUS (numbers 1 through 26) Fred Fish Disks (numbers 1 through 410; FF395 is currently unavailable. Please remember Fred Fish Disks 57, 80, & 87 have been removed from the collection) Complete Today, or Telephone 1-800-345-3360 M Mm.
At the World Of Commodore Amiga in Toronto, Commodore gave the first public showing of CDTV. Heading this demonstration was Nolan Bushnell, General Manager of the Consumer Products Division at Commodore. AC had a chance to ask Mr. Bushnell his viewson the introduction of this new,and very important Amiga component.
AC: Give us your view of CDTV.
Bushnell: CDTV is multimedia made affordable, and that is what I really love about it. I've always felt that the promise of computing is, in fact, the ability to have massive amounts of memory on-line to do graphics and sound and data manipulation. Not just for game-playing standpoints, but to give entertainments that have depth to them. I've always felt that one of the reasons that more adults don't play games is because there is not enough complexity, not enough information content, and not enough richness of environment. I believe that is one of the promises that CDTV gives us.
And then, of course, in the educational field, the cost effectiveness is so important in the delivery platform: "eeks and squeaks", stickmen going across computer screens is notcducational software, whereas the richness of being there...a generation of children that have been raised on Sesame Street want production values and we can give them all those kinds of things. CDTV has a richness of authoring tools and, so, relatively unsophisticated people are going to be able to write programs. My dream is that we can have tremendous leaps forward in education. I've said that the best one
percent of the teachers are only being heard by one percent of the students. I want one percent of teachers to be heard by 100 percent of the students, and I think that can make a big difference.
The system, in its simplicity and in the things all Amiga people know and love, all of a sudden can be put in the hands of tho masses, and so it gives the people a tremendous publishing menu. I mean CD-ROM disks are so cheap to manufacture that, once they are pressed, the cost of distribution becomes almost non-important. So there [are] going to be some CDTV millionaires created in developing software in the next few years. Who knows who they are going to be, but the opportunities are clearly going to be there.
I see that once this unit gets into a million American homes (a tremendous amount of softwarethat iscunently written forthe Amiga [is] so superior to what's available on Nintendo or [in the] DOS world or what have you), [it] is going to bring the economic extremist back to light about some of those older products as well. 1 just really think the opportunity is awesome. I think it is going to be for the bold to take hold of it and really make it sing. After all, hard ware platforms [are] no good without good software. But now we've gotten a new arrow in the quiver. Think of 28 hours of au
dio intermixed with graphics.
[The] mind boggles. Who knows what kind ofrich story you might learn, what kind of interesting branching algorithms can be created. All these things and more will be available very, very shortly.
AC; Can we also see this in business as a training tool?
Bushnel 1: Absolutely, the business applications, of course, are legend. More and more the employers are taking on the burden of training the employee. More and more we are finding that the burden of rudimentary skills reading, writing, arithmetic are falling on the employer.
This is going to give him an opportunity to stop that gap. A lot of the training systems up to date either require a group, a teacher, or a relatively expensivesystem, so you're talking about maybconcea month or once a year training. Webelieve CDTV systems can be cheap enough that they can be scattered throughout the workplace so that the training and operation become almost seamless...so that people train themselves before every coffee break on a different aspect of a particular function.
You see that the point of sale is terrifically important. As thesalecycle for many items become more and more complex, the skill of the salesperson needs to be greater. I'm not even sure that that's going to happen but at least we can put at point of sale an ability for a customer to be trained or to be taught some of the feature benefits so that a new form of advertising I think is going to be very important, ana it is really training advertising. What is this unit? And then once I've decided to buy it maybe 1 can stay there a little bit and know how to set it up...So that if wc have a
better way of training, if we have a better way to train, if we have a better way to teach, if we have a better way to communicate, wc can use this thing to make everybody's lifca richer, more interesting experience.
AC: What about military applications?
Bushnell: Military, of course, is a very important feature. The military spends literally billions of dollars on training. The high-tech army is not something that you could do trivially and, so, to put these systems throughout the military is almost a forgone conclusion.
AC: Anything else you want to add?
Bushnell: What we are really trying to do is to make multimedia a reality and I think we've done that.
AC: A lot of this goes into AmigaVision how it can be utilized in this and how you can have a large database on CD utilizing the components of both AmigaVision and the CD to actually produce a tremendous number of different things not only in entertaintnent, training, and education.
Bushnell: We're standing on some very, very strong foundations.
AC: And when will we see CDTV in the states?
Bushnell: February 15th in quantity. It's going to be a regional roll-out and so probably won't quite make it into Canada until Spring.
AC;So unlike the 2S6LT that they announced up here and sold up here first, we'11 actually get CDTV first.
Bushnell: CDTV will probably be in California slightly before because we want to fine tune some marketing plans.
¦AC* EE NEW PRODUCTS FROM ICD licker Free Video™ 'ith Flicker Free Video (FFV) and a standard VGA or multi-frequency monitor, any Amiga’ 500, 1000, or 2000 imputer can produce a high quality display, free of interlace flicker and visible scan lines. Installation requires no 'Idering or advanced technical knowledge and frees the video slot in Amiga 2000 computers for other uses. FFV is impatible with all software, works in low and high resolutions interlaced or not, and has no genlock conflicts. FFV ,es a multi-layer circuit board and surface-mounted components, packing a lot of power into a
very small space, ath PAL and NTSC are automatically recognized and fully supported. Full overscan is supported, not just a nited overscan. Three megabits of random access memory' are used to ensure compatibility with overscan screens large as the Amiga can produce, Aspeed™ ID expands its line of innovative enhancement products for the Amiga with the introduction of iiSpeed, a full featured 14.3 Mhz 68000 accelerator for all 68000-based Amiga computers. Ad Speed ffers from other accelerators by using an intelligent 16K static RAM cache to allow zero wait state .ecution of many operations at
twice the regular speed. All programs will show improvement, dSpeed will make your Amiga run faster than any 68000 or 68020 accelerator without on-board AM. Ad Speed works with all 68000 based Amiga computers, including the 500. 1000, and 2000. In- allation is simple and requires no soldering. AdSpeed has a software selectable trtie 7.16 Mhz 68000 mode for )0% compatibility your computer will run as if the stock CPU was installed. 32K of high speed static RAM used for 16K of data instruction cache and !6K of cache tag memory. A full read and write-through cache ovides maximum speed.
.dSCSI 2080 he fastest, most versatile SCSI host adapter (hard drive interface) available for e Amiga 2000 now comes in a new configuration. AdSCSI 2080 is not DMA.
It its clean design and advanced caching driver provide greater throughput than ty available DMA interface. All the features you want are included at no Iditional charge: autoboot from Fast File System partitions, Commodore5 FSIDirect and Rigid Disk Block conformance for no mountlist editing and tmpatibility with third party SCSI devices, and the most advanced removable cdia support available, including automatic DiskChange and no partitioning strictions. AdSCSI 2080 also includes sockets for adding two, four, six, or eight megabytes of AM using 1 megabyte SIMMs, If expansion slots are in high
demand, then this card could be your tswer.
1220 Rock Street Rockford, IL 61101
(815) 968-2228 Information
(800) 373-7700 Orders only
(815) 968-6888 FAX 'icker Free Video, AdSpeed, and AdSCSI 2080
join ICD’s existing and growing line of power peripherals
and ihancements for Amiga computers. Our experience and
expertise allow us to give you the products and support you
tserve. From beginning to end, every' possible aspect of
product development and production is handled in-house. We
¦sign all the hardware, lay out all the circuit boards, and
write all the software. We assemble and test our products
in irown facility, providing us with an unmatched level of
control over the finished product. It is never out of our
hands, tese are more examples of the advantages you get
from ICD. The best product. At the best price. With the
best support,
o compromises.
:ker Free Video, FFV, AdSpeed and AdSCSI are trademarks of ICD, Inc. Commodore is a registered Irodemark of Commodore Electronics limited. Amiga is a registered demark of Commodore-AMIGA, Inc. Alt photographs are of a tual DCTV screens.
A Capture a video frame in 10 seconds from any color video camera. (Also v ¦' J*’-' v • 5-r*_ i1 tt '¦ -1 •'* ¦':v M A Convert DCTV1M images to or from any IFF display format (including HAM and 24 bit) digitize and conversion software are all included.
A Works with all popular 3D programs.
A Animate in full NTSC color.
Min. J Meg. Required DCTV "(Digital Composite Television) is o revolutionary new video display and digitizing system for the Amiga. Using the Amiga's chip memory os its frame buffer memory, DCTV""creates a full color NTSC display with all the color and resolution of television. Sophisticated true color video paint, digitizing and image processing software are all combined into one easy to use package included with DCTV 7 DCTV "also works with all popular 3D programs to create full color animations that can be played bock in real time.
C R EATIONS 286S Sunrise Boulevard Suite 103 Rancho Cordova CA 95742 Telephone 916 344-4825 FAX 916 635 ©1990 Digital Creations. Amiga is a registered trademark of Commodore Business Machines. Patents applied for.
Circle 163 on Reader Service card.
1 highly recommend using hi-res in all animation projects, if at all possible. However, if you have only I meg of memory and no genlock, then work in lo-res and plan the scene so that it can be done in either 8 or 16 colors. This can be done on a 1 meg computer and can give very pleasing results for personal viewing.
Save thedrawing to disk and label itZW-G("ZW" is short for "Zeke Walking"). I number working drawings -0, -00, -000, etc., to indicate that they are not part of the finished animation.
Once ZW-Q is saved to disk it can be loaded into a paint program.
An extra step is required here because Digi-View records black line art as color ff 1 and the white background as coior 2. We need to reverse that.
Here are the steps: 2 completes (returns), the local stack space where variables were declared becomes technically "undefined". Whenever a function must return a pointer, it must be a pointer of a global variable or 3 Vol. 5 No. 6, June 1990 Highlights include: "Convergence", Part Five of the Fractal series, by Paul Castonguay "C + + : An introduction to object-oriented Amiga programming", by Scott B. Steinman "APL and The Amiga: Primitive Functions and Their Execution", by Henry T. Lippert "Amiga Turtle Graphics", by Dylan .YlcXamee

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