Liste des magazines disponibles sur AMIGALAND.COM
AMIGA is a registered trademark ol Commodore-Amiga, !nc. Amazing Dealers The following are Amazing Dealers, dedicated to supporting the Commodore- 1-508-6 78-4200 Amiga. They carry Amai11g Computing, your resource for information on the Amiga. If you are not an Amazing Dealer, but would like to become one, call. Amazing Computingis also available in most B. Dalton Booksellers, B. Dalton Software Stores, Crown Books, Software Etc., selected WaldenBooks Stores, and Walden's Software Store locations. The Amiga Encounters A Month Of Highs And Lows. This has been one of the craziest months we have ever experienced while working with the Commodore Amiga. From a superb new marketing campaign (see the articles on the roll our covered on page 54), through an earthquake in Northern California which severely hindered the first AmiEXPO in Santa Clara (see the article on page 62), to the attack on the Amiga in particular and the computer industry as a whole by Thl1EMagazine (see the article on page 10) to the blast Commodore executive and chief stockholder, Irving Gold, received at the hands of FORBE5Magazine (sorry, no story for that one) the Amiga has been elated and deflated by events both in and out of Commodore's control.
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PROGRAMMING Xrexx Part II 35 by Stere Gillmor "Now that I've got Arexx, what do I do with it?"
Col.l'MNS No Fishing! 27 by Graham Kinsey More great PD programs including a slideshow program, ShoWiz.
The MIDI Must Go Thru 12 by Br. Seraphim Winslow Br. Winslow shares his experiences in expanding his Amiga into a fullblown MIDI studio.
View From The Inside 16 by Melissa Jordan Grey Bars & Pipes1 designer gives us a tour of Blue Ribbon Bakery's hot new music program.
Commercial Rollout 54 by Jean & Ben Means Commodore celebrates "The Computer for the Creative Mind".
Behind The Scenes 54 by Geoffrey Williams Geoffrev takes a closer look at 1 fit Commodores new S15-million advertising campaign.
AmiEXPO Santa Clara 62 by Rosie O’Grady Amiga developers show off their LeggoMyLOGO 104 by Mike Morrison Logo uses a turtle to help teach kids about computer programming.
Delphi Noetic's F-BASIC 2.0 79 by Robert J. Tiess "F-BASIC is a complete language and development system."
A CLI Beginner's Questions Answered 82 by Mike "Chip ' Morrison Answers to some of the first questions new Amiga owners ask about the CLI.
Trees and Recursion 87 by Forest W. Arnold An introduction to what trees are and a discussion about recursion.
New Products and Other Neat Stuff! 31 by Elizabeth G. Fedorzyn
T. A.C.L., Celebrity Cookbook, Swords of Twilight, and more!
Video Schmideo 42 by Barn Solomon The 1989 Video & Graphics round-up.
Snapshot 48 by Brad Andrews Race with one of the most powerful race crafts in space, or beat goll pro lack Nicklaus at his own game, The ring master loses bis pants in Minclscapes's Fiendish Freddy's Big Top O' Fun.
Bug Bytes 67 by John Steiner Bug fixes and improvements are available in WordPerfect's update.
Also some problems with DeluxePaint
• CONTENTS • PAPERBOY 47 reviewed R.J. I licks And you thought
being a paperboy was an easy job. Well R. J. tells us
Roomers 75 by The Bandito A sneak peek at Apple's I.CM. and the Amiga 3000 may be closer than you think.
PD Serendipity 69 by Mike Morrison A review of Escape From Jovi 111 and Mach 2 utility.
C Notes 85 by Stephen Kemp A look at two compressing data techniques.
The Command Line 101 by Rich Falconburg Exploring commands in Amiga DOS.
Amiga Circuits 107 by John Iovine Learn the techniques required to input information via the parallel port.
REVIEWS Public Domain Archipelagos 50 Software 110 reviewed by Miguel Mulet Can you save the world from the decaying nuclear reactor obelisks?
Support Your Local Library' 71 reviewed by Marion Delaud A review of WordPerfect's desktop utility’, WordPerfect Library.
The Great Amiga Holiday Games Tip 53 by Barry "Santa"Solomon Santa gives us two hot tips for the Holiday Season.
Index of Advertisers 96 Feedback Forum 6 DEPARTMENTS From the Managing Editor 4 Robert J. Hicks Doris Gamble Traci Desmarais Donna Viveiros Virginia Terry Hicks Robert Gamble Acft Pics Suggested Retai $ 49.95 Managing Editor: Associate Editor: Hardware Editor: Technical Editor: Music & Sound Editor: Video Editor: Copy Editor: Copy Editor: Copy Editor: Art Director: Photographer: Illustrator: Research & Editorial Support: Production Manager: Map Pics - World*"1 Suggested Retail $ 59.95 Heraldic Pics Suggested Retail $ 34.95 China Pics Suggested Retail $ 34.95 Bird Pics Suggested Retail $ 29.95
Deluxe Paint II is a trademark of Electronic Arts: Amiga and AmigaDos are trademarks ot Commodore Amiga.
Quality Clips for Your Quality Art!
All packages require AmigaDos V1.2 or V1.3, a minimum of 512K of memory and a painl package.
These image-packed screens are in 16- and 32- color IFF format for use with paint packages such as Deluxe Paint II on an Amiga
500. 1000 or 2000.
To order, see your dealer or contact : Tangent 270 PO Box 38587-A1 Denver, CO 80238
(303) 322-1262 Christmas Pics tm Suggested Retail $ 34.95 Amazing
Computing™ (ISSN 088&-94S0J is published monthly by PiM
Publications, Inc., Currant Road, P.O. Bex 669. Fail River,
Subscriptions in the U.S., 12 issues tor $ 28.00; in Canada a Mexico surface, $ 36.00; foreign surface for $ 44.00. Second-Class Postage paid at Fall River, MA 02722 and additional mailing offices.
POSTMASTER: Sand address changes to PiM Publications Inc.,
P. O. Box 869, Fall River, MA 02722-0869. Printed in the U.S.A.
Copyright© Nov. 1989 by PiM Publications, Inc, All rights
Rrst Class or Air Mail rates available upon request. PiM Publications, Inc. maintains the right to refuse any advertising.
Pim Publications inc. is not obligated to return unsolicited materials, All requested returns must be received with a Sell Addressed Stamped Mailer.
Send article submissions in both manuscript and disk formal with your name, address, telephone, and Social Security Number on each to the Associate Editor. Requests for Author's Guides should be directed to the address listed above.
Amazing Computing For The Commodore AMIGAT ADMINISTRATION Joyce Hicks Don Hicks Elizabeth Fedorzyn Ernest P. Viveiros Sr.
J. Michael Morrison Richard Rae Barry Solomon Airnee B. Abren
Derek J, Perry Troy J. Thomas William Fries Paul Michael Brian
Fox Karen Donnally-Solomon Donna M. Garant 1-500-678-4200 FAX
1-508-675-6002 SPECIAL THANKS TO: Buddy Terrell & Byrd Press
Bob at Riverside Art, Ltd.
Swansea One Hour Photo Pride Offset, Warwick, Rl Mach 1 Photo ADVERTISING SALES Advertising Manager: Jannine Irizarry Marketing Assistant: Melissa J. Bernier International Coordinator: Marie A. Raymond Marketing Manager: Ernest P. Viveiros Sr.
Publisher: Assistant Publisher: Circulation Manager: Asst. Circulation: Asst. Circulation: Corporate Trainer: Traffic Manager: EDITORIAL AMIGA™ is a registered trademark ol Commcdore-Amiga, Inc. Circle 153 on Reader Service card.
The Amiga Encounters A Month Of Highs And Lows.
This has been one of the craziest months we have ever experienced while working ¦with the Commodore Amiga. From a superb new marketing campaign (see the articles on the roll out covered on page 54), through an earthquake in Northern California which severely hindered the first AmiEXPO in Santa Clara (see the article on page 62), to the attack on the Amiga in particular and the computer industry as a whole by TZMEMagazine (see die article on page 10) to die blast Commodore executive and chief stockholder, Irving Gold, received at the hands of -'O iBfiNMagazine (sorry, no story for that one)
die Amiga has been elated and deflated by events both in and out of Commodore’s control.
ROLL ON ROLL OUT!
On October 11, 1989, Commodore Business Machines gathered die press together for a first glimpse of the new major marketing campaign created for the Amiga.
Wanting to attract as much aitenuon as possible, Commodore executives first displayed their new advertising campaign to die East Coast in a New York press conference, dien boarded a plane for California. Taking advantage of the time change, CBM executives dien celebrated die campaign’s unveiling before a large crowd of reporters in Los Angeles.
Cheers and applause greeted each portion of the campaign as it was oudined. From print ads to television spots, Commodore had chosen a solid, open way to relaunch (or reintroduce) the Amiga to die public. Harry Copperman, President of CBM USA, confessed “Commodore markets one of the best kept secrets in the PC industry today. It is a product line called the Amiga.” He went on to say, “You'll be delighted to know that despite, in hindsight, some very poor marketing and positioning of die product, we have sold over a million machines. We sold our millionth machine in February.” Part of
Commodore's strategy is to air these spots in special time slots in selected market areas. Although we have received word that some Amiga dealers are upset that diey will not be seeing the new television advertisements in their areas, most of the Amiga dealers and vendors we have talked to have been excited widi the new campaign.
EARTHQUAKE SHAKES AmiEXPO On October 17, while most of us ’were getting ready for die World Series, Northern California experienced dieir worst earthquake since 1906. Hours slowly rolled by as more and more informadon came through only hinting at the devastadon yet to be seen.
The following morning, the East coast greeted a new day, but still very little Information was available from the quake area. It was still dark in San Francisco and the only information that was forthcoming was not good. Reports were coming in of an entire area with no water, electricity, or gas. Airports were closed or operating on restricted schedules, and rental cars and gasoline were rumored to be in short supply.
At 8:28 A.M. EST, AC received a FAX from AmiEXPO headquarters in New York. Basically the FAX stated that everything was fine in Santa Clara and that the AmiEXPO was continuing as scheduled. We were faced with a dilemma.
On one side, we had four national news networks explaining the hazards and turmoils of the Bay area, while, just 13 miles from the epicenter of the quake we had received a report diat all was well.
In short, after doing all we could to establish contact with other resources in the area, we were forced to make a decision (we wrere only hours away from our flight time). AC decided that even though Santa Clara was doing well, AmiEXPO was created as a regional show and the people of California had more important concerns. We were forced to withdraw from the show.
AmiEXPO went on as planned and received a rather mixed review from the attendees we have interviewed, AmiEXPO announced that there were 7,632 in attendance. This number has been questioned by some and supported by others. What is important is that AmiEXPO was created to support the Commodore Amiga and provide access for Amiga developers and Amiga users to meet and exchange ideas. AC continues to support this cause and, barring any further national disasters, will attend AmiEXPOs for this purpose.
TIME The October 30,1989 issue of TZV Ereferred to CBM’s new marketing strategy by saying "...tire event seemed more like a benefit for an aging star." Using the reintroduction of the Amiga as a starting point, Mr. McCarroll went on to characterize die entire Computer industry as losing its “pizazz".
Unfortunately, Mr. McCarroll was more interested in the caviar and champagne than in the circu instances of the prom ot ion.
In a two page story, TIME reported the current “slump" in computer sales as a direct result of a lack of innovation.
Amiga as dressea-up old technology? Perhaps it is old for Commodore, but very few others have a similar technology and none at these price points.
FORBES VERSUS IRVING GOULD Strange, when it rains, it pours and this time Irving Gould was soaked by FORBES. It seems that Evan McGlinn has taken exception to the “absentee-landlord management style of Commodore's globetrotting chairman and chief executive, Irving Gould.” in a piece on CBM titled “Lost Opportunity”.
While many Amiga enthusiasts will quickly agree that the Amiga has been all but forsaken by the management of CBM, these same sceptics are delighted with the new marketing and support the Amiga is enjoying. Amigans also are savvy enough to know that CBM does not manufactur video games. And the comment that the advertisements star famous alleged Amiga users like B.B. King is both contemptuous and inaccurate.
A TEMPEST ROARS It is unfortunate, but it appears Commodore's long awaited Amiga marketing blitz has brought forth an assault from the media. These writers appear to want to use this opportunity to address separate grievances.
The last few weeks have been event filled. I am reminded of what I was once told was an old Chinese curse, “May you live in interesting times.” Mac-2-Dos lets you read and write Macintosh diskettes on your Amiga!
Mac-2-Dos gives your Amiga the power to read and write files to and from 400k and 800k Macintosh floppy disks using a standard Macintosh-compatible 3.5-inch external floppy disk drive connected to your Amiga.
Here are a few typical Mac-2-Dos uses: ? Amiga users can now have access to the extensive variety of Macintosh clip art available on Macintosh disks! ? Amiga users can now lake their Amiga PostScript files (on a Macintosh diskette) to most any typesetting service bureau to be output on professional typesetting equipment! ? College students who are required to have a pricey Macintosh can now choose the Amiga and still meet the require ment ot being Macintosh compatible! ? Amiga users can transfer all kinds of files, like word processing and desktop publishing files, spreadsheet files, or
database tiles. ? Musicians can quickly and easily transfer Standard Midi Files (SMF) between the Macintosh and Amiga!
The FASTEST Hard Disk Backup Utility!
".. .Quarterback is the program I've chosen to keep my bard disk backed up .. Given the added power and lower price of Quarterback, it would be my first choice for a hard disk backup program.''
- Matthew Leeds. Commodore Magazine, June. 1989 Transfers MS-DOS
and Atari ST files to and from AmigaDOS!
Mac-2-Dos includes a custom hardware interface, driver software. File conversion software, and, optionally, a Mac-compatible 3.5-inch floppy drive. The hardware interface plugs into the Amiga external disk drive connector or into the last external drive of the daisy-chained disk drives. The Mac drive draws its power from the Amiga.
PACKAGE A: Package A includes a custom hardware interlace, tile transfer software, and file conversion software. Only S99.95 PACKAGE 8: Package B includes a custom hardware interface, tile transfer software, file conversion software, a Mac-compatible 3.5-inch floppy drive, and a software driver to allow the Mac drive to be used to read and write standard AmigaDOS diskettes as Only S349.95 LIMITATIONS: Mac-2-Dos is a disk file transfer utility program: it is not a communications program, nor is it a Macintosh emulator. It DOES NOT permit Mac programs to run on the Amiga.
4 Plus S3.00 shipping handling.r Plus S5.00 shipping handling CO residents add appropriate sales tax.
Central Coast Software 424 Vista Avenue Golden, Colorado 80401 M Phone 303 526-1030 | FAX 303 526-0520 Dealer Inquiries Welcome Circle 145 on Reader Service card.
It transfers both binary (pure data) and ASCII (text) files.
Let D0S-2-D0S be your PASSPORT to the rnrld ot toreign disk lormats.
Only $ 55.00 Plus S3.00 snipping and handling. CO residents adit appropriate sates tax Only S69.95 Plus S3 00 snipping anc Dandling. CO residents aflfl sales tax.
Coming Soon! QUARTERBACK TOOLS A collection of high-quality user-triendly utilities.
Dear AC: I just recently discovered your magazine and am favorably surprised with its quality. I have been buying it since the May 1989 issue and find something of interest in each issue.
One of the most interesting articles to date is the one on the Amazing Audio Digitizer by Andre Theberge. 1 have successfully built and used the digitizer with much help from Mr. Theberge, He lives here in Montreal and attends die meetings at our local Club Amiga Montreal.
His support has been unfailing. I hope you will keep publishing projects of his in die future.
I much prefer technical articles about hardware, programming or graphics and video. Your coverage of die Modula-2 language is particularly dear to me so don’t quit! On the other hand, reviews about game programs for example are definitely boring. Superficial gossip on the latest AmiEXPO doesn't interest me either. I get that at the dub anyway.
Yet your magazine is one of the best, right up there with the Transactor. Keep up the good wrork!
Amazingly yours, Michel Lefebvre Montreal,QC, Canada Andre Theberge’s hardivare products are always nicely done. We always receive letters like yours, telling us bow much people enjoy his projects. We will continue to bring you hardware projects in the future. -ED Dear AC: In the August 1989 issue (Volume 4, No.8), die program “Batch File Demo", provided for the article “Executing Batch Files in AmigaBASIC”, was missing some important code between lines 52 and 53: IF answer$ ="N" THEN Do.Volumes.Over PRINT "Enter the number of the file (5) to be copied one at" The code should have read: IF
answer$ ="N" Then Do,Volumes.Over 5orcvol$ =scrcvol$ +"C" destvol$ =destvol$ ="C" 'Read the names of the files in the 'directory.
CLS skip 111!)
PRINT SPC(30).-"Reading Directory..." CALL Dir(sorcvolS,count) formatS=" [ ¦) ]... copy=count+l commands(copy)="Just copy 'em all dude!"
'Let user specify the files that are to 'be copied.
Do. Selections.Over; CLS PRINT "Enter the number of the fiie(s) to be copied one at" I hope tiiat these corrections clarify- any problems that readers may have been having with “Batch File Demo.” Sincerely, Mark Aydeiotte Gainesville, FL TbanksMark. We inadvertantly hacked out those lines! Sony if this caused anyone problems. -ED Dear AC: It is with considerable interest that I have followed the series of inquiries about scientific graphics programs for the Amiga.
I needed such a tool a short while ago and set out looking everywhere to find one.
There seemed to be no commercial products which directiy addressed the need. I did find a few programs in die public domain which produce 2- dimensional scientific plots.
The first such program was AmigaPlot which I obtained in early 1988 from its author (James R. White, Idaho Falls, ID).
Others included MCAD, Multiplot, and Egraph, all of which I dow-nioaded from BBS's. The Fred Fish Library also lists a few plotting programs, Plot (Disks 49,121, and
175) and PlotView (Disk 165).
I tried most of these programs but found each one limited in some critical aspect, like requiring more than 1 MEG of RAM (I have only 512K on my 1986 vintage Amiga 1000), very restricted axis annotation facilities, inability to produce hard-copy on a dot-matrix printer, etc. This led me to write my own program, UPLOT, which I uploaded in January 1989, to several bulletin boards in the Boston metropolis (617 area code); Amiga Colony (641-1629), Channel 1 (354-8873), IDCMP (769-3172), BCS Commodore (862-5779), and BIX (Amiga Forum). I also uploaded AmigaPlot, MultiPlot, MCAD to these BBS’s.
UPLOT is a stand-alone program written in C, which takes a table of ASCII numerical data and produces 2- dimensional scientific publication-format plots on a standard page (8 1 2” x 11"). Up to 8 curves can be produced on the plot area. I set this number at 8 only to ensure that the plot area is not overcrowded. The plots can be saved as bitmap files and printed out on an EPSON-compatible dotmatrix printer. With a fresh ribbon very good quality plots are obtained.
I plan to extend UPLOT to a lull-blown commercial package with many desirable features-minimum memory requirement, Arexx binding, several plot-save formats like IFF, GIF, HPGL, hardcopy print-out on almost any dot-matrix printer, etc, In the meantime, I am willing to send to anyone, for a generous donation, the latest version with user instructions typeset in TEX.
Tonyo Poweigha, PhD
P. O.Box 1271,Kendall Sq Cambridge, MA 02142 This information
should help others who have looked for si miliar software in
the past. Thanks for your letter and we look forward to seeing
your product when completed. -ED Dear AC: I recently bought a
PanaSync C1391, a Panasonic multi-sync monitor. Being rather
naive, I thought that building a cable would take an hour
including reading the manual.
_(continued on page 5 j Easy-to- Install, Autobooting Hard Card with WordSync™ Interface WordSync Interface Kit also available separately Interface transfers 16 bits at once, giving DMA Speed Without DMA Problems Eliminates the sound, video, and serial I O interruptions found with DMA iinterfaces 1-slot design & SCSI-out port Easy On Off Autoboot Jumper Compatible with Amiga Bridgeboard, RAM, digitizers, and other boards Includes SupraBoot & SupraTools two full disks of utility software Up to 30 Partitions All available file systems supported: FFS, MS-DOS, Unix, Macintosh, etc. Access to
low-level parameters without maintaining MountList Excellent Technical Support Made in the U.S.A. SupraModem 2400zi Half card modem fits in any Amiga bus slot Up to 5 modems per computer Works with all popular Amiga telecommunications software 100% compatible with the industry-standard “AT" command set Asynchronous 2400 1200 300 baud operation Compatible with Bell 103 212A and CCITT V.21 V.22 V.22bis Autoanswer Autodial (tone or pulse) Adjustable-volume speaker Nonvolatile memory stores custom modem configuration and one telephone number Includes free subscriptions to popular on-line services
Made in the U.S.A. $ 179.95 2400zt SupraRam 2000 2, 4, 6, & 8MB configurations available Installs easily into any Amiga internal expansion slot Easy to expand from your initial configuration Start with 2MB & add RAM at your convenience 6MB configuration allows for maximum benefit with the Amiga Bridgeboard Lets you run larger and more sophisticated programs Allows creation of large and extremely fast RAM disks Test mode & test software make troubleshooting easy Made in the U.S.A. 8MB RAM Board 0MB $ 199 with 2MB Installed $ 449 with 4MB installed $ 649 with 6MB Installed $ 849 with 8MB Installed
$ 1049 30MB (40 ms.) $ 649 AVAILABLE AT YOUR LOCAL DEALER, OR CALL: 40MB (11 ms. Quantum) $ 799 80MB (11 ms. Quantum) $ 1099 40MB SyQuest Removable$ 1199 WordSync Interface Kit $ 19995 SupraDrive, WordSync, SupraModem 2400zi, and SupraRAM 2000 are trademarks of Supra Corporation.
Amiga is a registered trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc. Supra corporation 1133 Commercial Way Albany, OR 97321 Voice: 503-967-9075 Fax: 503-926-9370 ORDERS: 1-800-727-8772 Circle 168 on Reeder Service cord.
ABOUT MUSIC SOFTWARE IS NOW AVAILABLE!
Music X surpasses all current state-of-the- art professional music software packages, enabling you to open new worlds of creativity. Completely integraded, Music X is on easy to use, full color graphic oriented music creation tool. With a sequencer, bor and event editor, filters and key map remapping, samples, generic librarian, patch and protocol editing pages, what more would you need? Video Support? Music X has it!
EXPERIENCE THE POWER TO PRODUCE... Music X is multitasking on the Amiga™ computer and supports Microillusiarts’ Time Code Reader Generator (TCRG-102), Midi-X, as well as other midi interlaces and SMPTE readers.
Fm Cffw 'Ike PouuM to PwSbvx 17408 (halsworth Sr., Granada Hills, (A 91344 Inside CA (018) 360-3715 Outside CA (BOO) 522-2041 Circle 132 on Reader Service card.
After four hours of futile effort, I decided to try the customer-support number die next day. On the forty-first try, I got through to die customer support, and they put me on hold for ten minutes. At least it was an 800 number.
The first question that die "expert” asked was "Is Che Amiga IBM-compatible?"
I said no, and he dien asked what kind of video card I had installed. He then offered to fax me the connections for various video cards. Eventually, I was put in contact with an "engineer.” Obviously, die "engineer” was using the same documentation that I was, and had no experience with the monitor.
On die third evening, I finally got the monitor to work in spite of the errors in the monitor manual. Here are the connecdons for the cable: 3-1, 4-2, 5-3, 10-4, 16-8, 17- shell. The firs: number is for die pin on die 23-pin connector, and die second is for die 9-inch connector. The pin numbers on the cable should be used, and not the pin diagram in the manual. A pretty' simple cable for three nights w'ork.
Still hacking away, Wesley Ebisuzaki Temple Hills, MD It seems that whenever someone buys a product for their Amiga from a company that produces products for many computers, they almost always get the runaround. Often the tech-support doesn’t understand the Amiga. The information you supplied in your letter will hopefully save someonefrom going through a similar hassle. -ED Dear AC: This is further on my letter re: Amiga hi-res flicker of 8 May, and your response.
Enter and run die attached program.
(There are a few' options for experiment, but ignore diese for now.)
Pull the hi-res screen down about an inch to show WB screen in the background.
Use the H-frame adjustment on the monitor to shift the display to the left, until the end of the scan lines appear.
Note Che short fractional line which appears at the very top of the HR screen. I make it 10 pixels long. Note die fast flicker of the first two pixels. Note die “teeth” on the side of the screen, and the way these move upwards. And adjust the vertical hold for a slow roil, and note the missing part of the last visible line, and die 2 pixel flicker.
My monitor is a 1080.
Conclusion from this: diere is a bug in the hi-res screen generation. There is definitely somediing wrong when either die short line or die moving teeth appear.
The problem may lie in the timing generation part of the video chip, due to improper count ratio, or the presence of sliver pulse. Or it may lie in the interrupts which occur in the vertical blanking interval. I don't have the necessary fast scopes and source code to chase tiiis down.
If you want to check further, change the program to generate two screens, and switch between them at a rate around 60 Hz. They flicker badly. But the flicker rate becomes very slow if die switching rate is set to 56 Hz. But notice die difference between die screens. It is this nearly 4 Hz effect which suggests the interrupts.
I get the impression that someone in the early Amiga days made die comment that high-resolution screens flicker, and that no one really looked at the problem. It is true that normal NTSC will produce flicker under extreme conditions. But this is an intensity problem, not the position problem evident in the Amiga.
I’m sending a copy of this to Amazing Computing and Transactorin the hopes of arousing someone with the necessary7 equipment to really dig at the matter.
SCREEN 2,640,400,2,2 WINDOW 2,, (0, 0)-(617, 385),31,2 PALLETTE 0,1,1,1 PALLETTE 1, 0, .3, .7 PALLETTE 2,1,1, 0 PALLETTE 3,0, 0,0 FOR N=15 TO 615 STEP 60 LINE (N, 20)- IN,370),3 NEXT N FOR N=20 TO 370 STEP 35 LINE (15,N)-(615,N),3 NEXT N FOR N“0 TO 600 PSET (N + 15,100-COS (N 50) -t-200) , 3 NEXT N INPUT tS WINDOW CLOSE 1 SCREEN CLOSE 2 Yours Very Truly
R. P. Haviland Daytona Beach, FL.
How about it readers? Who’s up for the task of helping R.P. solve this bi-res problem? It seems like R.P. has nanowed the problem down, and all he needs is a little help. -ED
• AC- oncepts N FROM THE ISLAND OF LOST HOPE . Dan9er You are
ayoung captain searching for the treasure of forgotten souls.
Unfortunately in your quest you run into a band of cutthroat
pirates led by the infamous Captain Black. They sink your ship,
killing all of your crew and stealing your cargo. You are
thrown overboard in the battle and drift until washed upon a
nearby small island. Now you stand there watching the pirate
ship, anchored within sight, as they gloat over their victory.
All the resources you had at hand are now lost and only your
wits will get you out of this alive. The treasure seems so
distant now and your only thoughts are on survival and revenge.
?evoor ies- Face numerous obstacles and perils ranging from bloodthirsty pirates to huge snakes. The game is a two- disk graphic text adventure which features a multiple word parser, full keyboard and mouse interface, and a large variety of graphics, animations and sounds.
LORDS OF WAR f The kingdom is plagued by a fierce dragon and the king being a weak and feeble man has offered his kingdom to the strongest knight. This knight must prove himself worthy by defeating his rivals and the evil dragon. Four of the lands strongest men have been gathered for this task. The knights must engage in war amongst themselves until only one survives. These men will forever be known as The Lords of War.
Po We Arcade action for one or two players. Defend your castle against attacks from three deadly adversaries while at the same time trying to defeat them. Each level changes and new obstacles block your attacks. Gain magical powers along the way to help your fight, but hurry or doomsday will be upon you.
INTRUDER mm pt' vrtA strategy arcade game that comes with a construction set for creating your own r f personalized levels. One or two people may play simultaneously battling robots card TO and even each other in a greedy attempt to find the exit and continue the quest.
'''"nfOPuter Find the transporter and venture into the next grueling mission. The game comes iiTe cotoP Use c r eltyt. Complete with and entire array of levels, but you can also create your own. In a yfiioCk techno-world gone mad only you can destroy this complex of robots.
PROFESSIONAL LOTTERY SYSTEMS ** A unique program for analyzing the lottery systems around the world. It has a full featured generating system which allows for user customization of the software to accommodate most every lottery. Features include database computation of daily and lotto-type lotteries, graphs, hot and cold deviations, frequency distribution of numbers, and a multitude of wheeling systems. A must for anyone with a serious attitude toward lotteries.
Digital Concepts 4303S Hayes Rd. • Suite 229 • Sterling Heights, Ml 48078 • (313) 772-1416 Also available from Digital Concepts: Torch 2081.
ALL SCREEN SHOTS ARE FROM THE COMMODORE-AMIGA PERSONAL COMPUTER.
The Island of Lost Hope, Lords of UK?r, Intruder. Professional Lottery Systems, and Torch 2081 are Trademarks of Digital Concepts.
Copyright Digital Concepts 1989.
® AMIGA is a registered trademark of Commodore Business Machines. Inc Circle 146 on Reader Service card.
An open letter to... TIME Don Hicks Managing Editor Amazing Computing PiM Publications, Inc. Dear TIME, While your October 30, 1989 issue was impressive with the complete coverage of the San Francisco earthquake (an excellent example ofwhy the print media will always have a place in the world of multiple media communications), your commentary on the decline of the computer market in the United States was extremely myopic.
Mr. McCarroll seemed to be more Excerpts From TIME concerned with what he was being served October 30,1989 at Commodore's press conference than the objective of the celebration. Instead of addressing the issue that CBM USA President Harry Copperman presented that the Amiga had technology and potential still unavailable through other computer equipment, and that the Amiga offered advanced technology at a third of the cost of other systems Mr. McCarroll instead referred to the event as seeming “...more like a benefit for an aging star.” The reasoning for this misrepresentation became clearer as
the stop.’ progressed. Mr. McCarroll wanted to make a point of a computer sales "slump” due to an industry of "incremental improvements or product refinements.'1 Throughout the article, the reader is switched from one point to the next. We are told that manufacturers of mainframes and minicomputers are suffering as customers tum to powerful but less expensive workstations, yet we are also told that “many computer customers believe the industry's innovative efforts at the moment are failing to fill user's needs.” While a “prime reason for the slump is that corporate customers are cutting back
on spending as they go through buyouts, mergers, and restructurings” and “Big customers are hanging back because they don’t have any money,” we are told that the industry is “shooting at the wrong target...” Which is it? Is the computer market introducing new and more powerful tools aimed at the wrong targets, or is it that corporations have no money to buy?
Mr. McCarroll gave little reason why the Amiga would deserve a new marketing campaign. Obviously he was busy elsewhere when Mr. Copperman said, “Commodore markets one of the best kept secrets in the PC industry today. It is a product line called the Amiga.” Or Mr. Copperman's comment that, “despite, in hindsight, some very poor marketing and positioning of the product, we have sold over a million machines. We sold our millionth machine in February.” It was apparent to most attendees that this event was to provide the marketing muscle Commodore felt the Amiga deserved and had not yet received.
Yet, Mr. McCarroll wished to make a separate point. He turned to large graphs showing yearly the percent of total venture-capital funds, the amount invested by venture-capital funds in the computer industry, and the Standard & Poor's stock - price index of computer companies. I believe the maturity and health of any organization or industry should not be measured in the amount of high-risk capital it accepts. Venture-capital may have started the computer industry, but a solid company or industry would certainly not search for more than it needs.
Why were we not shown graphs of units sold, or even comparisons of older product powers to current ones. Is it possible that these figures would not have substantiated Mr. McCarroll’s views of the computer industry?
Perhaps we would not be so hard on TIME and Mr. McCarroll if not for three items of note:
1. 77.V £engaged in the same slanted approach to the Commodore
Amiga in a Febatary 1986 article entitled “Adios Amiga.” The
reader was incorrectly informed of losses at Commodore which
could bring the demise of CBM's new machine,
2. Commodore had picked TIME as the first print media to display
their new multi-page advertisement. While I am certainly a
believer in keeping advertising and editorial separate. I must
wonder why, if Commodore's approach was so distasteful, did
TIME accept their seven- page advertisement?
3. In the same October 30 issue, Laurence I. Barrett has an
“Dog Bites Dog Journalism.” Mr. Barrett's main concern is journalistic inaccuracies and the unchecked-error syndrome. It would appear that a copy of that article should be taped to the front of every reporter’s notebook.
In an otherwise noteworthy issue, TIME should fee! Ashamed of Mr. McCarroll's article. I can only believe that the editors were more involved with the rapidly expanding coverage of the quake than with the actual state of the computer industry' in the US.
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For Amiga 500,1000 and 2000 systems with 1 MB memory. A hard disk is recommended THE MIDI MUST GO THRU by Br. Seraphim Winslow 1QLT qx nr: AMIGA in L AMIGA OUT IN IN lb 0 1c YMC-10 DX10G OUT OUT Id Neither plug, nor chip, Nor tangled cord Can stop the cue.
We're set up to record.
The MIDI must go THRU??
My interest in music was revived by a penny whistle just before I bought my Amiga 1000. In fact one of the many reasons for buying the Amiga was that it would help me learn music. Now I use the machine mostly for music and writing. I am going to try to tell you about the trials of expanding my Amiga into a full blown MIDI studio.
It is hard to tell which comes first: the programs or the hardware. But like the mailman and chicken I will blame it all on the ha I'd ware and just mention the programs in passing. The Music Studio was the first music program I could get for the Amiga and it worked great for playing duets with me and my flute. I felt I needed more voices,though, and easier input methods, so I got a DX100 Keyboard. I could not get a MIDI interface however, and had to make one with some wire, a resistor, and two plugs (See June '89 AC).
Now I had created the simplest MIDI system. The Amiga sent music to tire keyboard (Figure la); but there was no MIDI input from the keyboard, because the Music Studio for the Amiga did not accept MIDI. I waited long months for a real MIDI interface and finally it came. Then, shordy after, Deluxe Music came out. A real system was starting to form with both input and output and my stereo-sysrem as an amplifier, mixer, and recorder; I even made some tapes (Figure lb). But I still wanted more voices. I added the FB-01 sound generator and a small Radio Shack mixer.
Next came a four track tape deck and a YMC10 synchronizer, I thought I had it made.(Figure 3), but it would not go together. I could not get the keyboard and the synchronizing signal from the tape into the computer at the same time. By this time I had SoundScape: a program that would take the inputs quickly, unlike Deluxe Music. The problem was the MIDI input to the computer. I thought 16 MIDI channels could pass through tire same wire at once; well not really at once, but one after the other very fast. That was the problem; one after the other and which goes first, the keyboard or the
MIDI sources also send MIDI clock messages; more then one clock in a system really causes havoc. What I needed was a MIDI merge box which would let two MIDI data streams take turns and filter all the clock messages out of one of them. I had just bought a 6-channel mixer and a compressor limiter, so T did without merging for a while. I was doing really well in music, learning to play a real flute and making great progress, even without a teacher, accepting lots of advice from friends and plugging at it everyday.
The Amiga played duets with me and, therefore, I always had a correct example to follow.
Listening to someone practicing music is seldom a joy especially if they are a beginner.
Enter the WX7 wind controller, the TX81Z tone generator and some earphones. Now I really needed the merge box and some way to control which output went to what input without unplugging any of the mess of cables I had . One could go broke buying MIDI cables. I made most of my cables. Making my own cables also let me keep them short, which is recommended, i made a MIDI switch, a MIDI THRU box, and a patch bay for audio and MIDI signals; and finally got the merge box (Figure 2), For software Dr.T’s 4-OP Deluxe for voicing and KCS for sequencing, and editing was added. Now, I am in control. I can
almost play the WX7 and synchronize while looping back to KSC to record the MIDI while catching it five on the 4-track tape deck. AH this going on and the Amiga seems not to be working hard at all. Note the "almost" back there; i still can not loop back as they call it in Dr.T's KSC. That is, I cannot make a MIDI recording of what I am collecting on the audio tape and synchronize from tire tape at the same time.
Let us look at the system as it developed, with the goals of each step. For that I have made a table for hardware, software, and goals (see Table 1). We are going to concentrate on how tire MIDI THRU and merge make the system stick together. The simplest system of a keyboard and a computer needs only IN' and OUT, but as soon as another device is added choices have to he made. If you add just a sound generator like the FB-01, it can FB-01 Ol T SWT DX100 be plugged into the THRU of die keyboard, then the computer could play jt_but not the keyboard. If the FB-01 were plugged into the OUT of the
keyboard then die computer could not play it. This is because most MIDI devices do not pass the input to the output or add the output to the THRU.
In fact,widiout some kind of merge function it is not possible to have both the keyboard and computer play die sound generator. Many programs have merge, so, connecting the DX100 IN to the computer OUT, die FB-01 IN to the DX100 THRU, and the DX100 OUT to die computer IN makes a loop with a tail diat will let the computer play die DX100. This setup will also let die DX100 play the FB-01 if die merge function in the computer is on; as the computer can dien retransmit the DX100 signals back dirough die DX100 to die FB-01. Watch out though, because if the send and receive channels on the keyboard
are the same it may make MIDI feedback, which is sometimes useful, but most times a pest like audio feedback. This system looks good until voice editing time. Then a cord must be connected from die OUT of the FB- 01 to die computer IN to get data from the FB-01. A simple double-pole switch to control the MIDI IN of the computer is a lot better dien plugging and unplugging cords (see Figure 2). If more MIDI devices are used they can be added to die system by connecting them to the THRU ports of the previous device. This is called daisy chaining and makes a serial string of MIDI devices (see
Figure lc). Another way of doing the same thing is to parallel die devices with a MIDI THRU box. This is a MIDI device that has one IN and many OUTs. It is very easy to make a passive two- output MIDI THRU box; more then two outputs require an amplifier (see Figure 3).
Figure Hardware "Ta- Amiga DX100 lb lc FB-01 (not Shown) 4 track recorder lc YMC10 & MIDI switch (not shown) 6 channel mixer, limiter compressor MIDI & audio patchbay Id MIDI THRU (not shown) WX7&TX81Z 2 YMM2 (not shown) Table 1 Goals and Equipment Software Goals Total of Voices Music Studio Duet Practice 4~ Deluxe Music MIDI in out, .more sounds 5 SoundScape MIDI Input from DX100 13 Multi-track recording Audio layering (see note below) More audio control System management 4 OP Deluxe Voice management 21 Practice without noise Adding the WX7 to layering KCS Improved MIDI editing Note;
Layering makes it seem like more voices are present by synchronizing new tracks over previously recorded tracks. It is possible with this system to have 63 voices without rerecording any tracks or 84 voices by recording into the mix-down to the 2-track recorder.
It can make the single-output Amiga MIDI interface into a multi-output unit also making it possible to remove one device from the system without affecting the others. It also avoids the possibility ofMlDI delay which I have never encountered, although some say it is a problem. If the THRU box has switches on each output, it makes a great system control center. Do not change the switches when MIDI signals are going through it unless you want stuck notes, which are great for bagpipe effects (but not much else).
So far the system can have two sources of MIDI and as many MIDI users as needed. It can also switch MIDI sources for programming voices with the .Amiga. This could be called the master controller system. The system is perfect for live performing and MIDI accompaniment but only one source of MIDI data can enter the Amiga at a time. You could stop right here, but if you have a multi-track tape deck you will want to take all the sounds you have and layer them up to the big band level at least. This requires merging data in many cases.
Layering of sounds requires that there be some way to synchronize the sounds of tracks recorded previously with new material. This is done by having the tape recorder send MIDI clock signals to the Amiga. There are several ways of doing this. I am only going to consider die simplest. Tire tape is prepared by recording a clock track from the Amiga through a MIDI device that sends MIDI clock signals back to the system when the tape plays. For example, first I record (lay down) track 1, die clock track, and track 3, sixteen voices of strings. Then I add track 2, the other 21 pieces of my
orchestra, with track 4, the soloist. The clock track keeps die two halves of the band together, and that leaves me, die soloist, to be the only one diat flubs up.But we now have two sources of MIDI.How can we record the MIDI data from the soloist in order to be able to fix those mistakes ? In my system these two sources are the WX7 MIDI wind controller and die YMC10 synchronizer. Bodi of the devices output MIDI clock signals, while I want die die tape recorder,through the YMC10,to control die timing. Both signals can be combined by the YMM2, a MIDI merge device that can filter out the clock
from the WX7 and then send the rest of the combined output to the computer. This device does not change the system very much. It fits between the MIDI switch and die computer. Two more cables please!
And one extra cable is needed from die MIDI THRU box to the input of the synchronizer so die YMC10 can make the clock track on die tape from the Amiga's MIDI clock signal. Now the big band is on its way to that sold gold master.
That wraps up the Amiga with 16 MIDI cables and lots of black boxes with buttons that 4 can control. Well, I could use some kind of MIDI foot switch; the WX7 uses all my fingers. And a MIDI mixer would be nice and one of those... I hope diis gives you some ideas on how to pul your own system together. Remember to add a litde extra to the budget for diose MIDI connecting boxes which run about $ 100pluseach. Oh! How come you haven’t seen me in the the Top Forty? Just give me a litde time. KITARO look out!!
• MIDI THRU with switch selects either, both or off.
• Do not expand to more than two thru units as the input device
will not have enough power to activate them.
• Do not use this to merge two MIDI cables. (See text regarding
merging and clock signals.)
• Position 4 is an LED test circuit.
• The lower circuit is the same without a switch, switch Radio
Shack 275-1380 plugs Radio Shack 2 74-005 Figure 3 MIDI THRU
Boxes with switch (above) without switch (below)
• AC* Products Mentioned: Electronic Arts 1820 Gateway Drive San
Mateo, CA 94404
(800) 245-4525, in CA (415) 571-7171 Deluxe Music Construction
Set, $ 99.95 Inquiry 234 Dr. T's Music Software 220Boylston
Street Chesfernut Hill, MA 02167
(617) 244-6954 KCS (Keyboard Control Sequencer)
VI. 6 $ 249.95 4 Op-Deluxe: Voice Editor Librarian $ 149.95 Inquiry
235 Activision. Inc
P. O. Box 7287 Mountion View. CA 94039
(415) 329-080) Music Studio, $ 34.95 Inquiry 236 Mimetics
P. O. Box 60238 Sta. A Palo Alto. CA 94306
(408) 741-0117 SoundScape, $ 179.95 Inquiry 237 All screens from
Amiga 1-Megabyte versions, v are the same versions running
Ies running migdsoftwa.
Distributed by MELBOURNE HOUSE Mw
- TTT- a.g.ITFH SQFTKiAltE I Published ! J 18001 Cowan, Irvine,
CA 92714 (714) Circle 14B on Reader Service View from the
Inside: by Melissa Jordan Grey urid in the, cu?- Using Bars &
Pipes View from the Inside is the first in a series of articles
written by developers. This first installment, written by
MellissaJordan Grey, designer of Bars & Pipes, is a quick tour
of a very interesting new music program by the person who knows
it best. Tjjis article is not a revieiv, nor is any endorsement
of the product intended by AC I’ve been told on more than one
occasion that music is the universal language. I agree,
although I realize that with any language, there are the
literati, who so brilliantly breathe life into every word they
speak, and tire pupils, who are eager to leam yet still not
hilly capable of creating great works. With this disparity in
mind, my partner Todor Fay and I set out to create Bars &
Bars & Pipes is the first object-oriented musical composition environment.
Unlike die average MIDI package, we tried to incorporate in Bars & Pipes a higher level of musical knowledge, so it would go beyond the ability to quantize, cut and paste musical input and provide tire ability' to create sophisticated harmonies, chord substitutions, special effects and algorithmic compositions, just to name a few'.
Most importandy, whether you're a musical genius, tone-deaf or somewhere in between, you’re only bound by creativity and individuality. To better understand Bars & Pipes, look at tire program's four major components.
THE PIPELINE The Pipeline guides musical input from conception to performance. It is called the Pipeline, because it actually resembles the kind of plumbing that exists beneath a house or apartment. By arranging the pipe and valve icons, the flow of musical information can be directed on a track-by-track basis. Two or more tracks can be connected together by using special connector icons. A track name is assigned to each pipeline. There is also no limit to the number of tracks that may be recorded Essentially, die Pipeline consists of two parts: the preproduction side and the post-production
side. To understand die flexibility we tried to offer, the Toolbox must be explained.
THE TOOLBOX The Toolbox contains dozens of modules that process MIDI information as it flows through the Pipeline. These are called module Tools. Each Tool functions by musically enhancing the inputted notes.
A few examples:
• The RANDOMIZER takes input and randomly varies its timing. This
Tool is especially handy when trying to attain a minimalistic
or impromptu feel to the composition.
* The HARMONY GENERATOR provides interval harmonies to an
inputted melodic line. Simply specify both the interval and key
signature and this Tool will embellish die composition.
• The CHORD INVERTER allows you to set high and low note
boundaries and octaves.
Thereafter, you are able to play a series of chords in whatever way is technically comfortable, yet the chords will sound as inversions with proper voice leading. This Tool is especially handy for those whose primary instrument is not the keyboard. (For untrained musicians, here is an explanation: Harmonic chord inversion occurs when the lowest note of a chord, the root, is in an upper position instead of the bass.
This is done so that one chord will connect smoothly with the next.)
* The KEWOARD SPUTTER allows you to divide what you play on the
keyboard onto two different tracks. For example, you could
direct your right hand, which typically plays the melody,
onto the trumpet track and your left hand, which typically
plays the accompaniment, onto the organ track.
Some Tools are musical in nature, while others perform the more technical tasks. Some even provide graphic applications or act as hooks into compatible programs. Others still act as building blocks in the design of user created Tools. All Tools can be customized to personal specifications.
One of die most powerful aspects of the Toolbox is its open-ended nature. You can program your own Tools or use Create-a-Tool to assemble MacroTools.
Create-a-Tool allows the combination of any configuration of Tools in order to save time or to create a specialized Tool of individual design. For example, a MacroTool which consists of a Tool that randomly selects and plays notes and rhythms with a Tool that filters out all notes but diose in a preselected key could be assembled. This way, a random effect can be achieved within key and scale mode boundaries.
Assembling a MacroTool is easy. Tire Create-A-Tool Window allows buiiding- biock Tools of choice to be imported directly from the Toolbox. Drag tire appropriate icons onto the Pipeline template and place them in the desired order. The MacroTool icon can be painted in using the Cre- ate-a-Tool easel and palette. After you’ve painted, named and assigned an identifier to your MacroTool. It automatically becomes part of your Toolbox to use as you would any other Tool.
THESEQUENCER Graphically, the Sequencer sits in the middle of each Pipeline, dividing the pre- production deft) side from the post-pro- duction (right) side. Functionally, the Sequencer records MIDI data which flows in from the left side of the Pipeline and plays it back, passing it through tire right side of the Pipeline. .Among other things, the Sequencer makes it possible to graphically view what has been recorded as well as cut, copy and paste all tracks at once. Its Looped-mode Recording option allows repeated recordings of one selection, until the performance choice has been
THE EDI TOR The Bars & Pipes Editor was designed with both amateur and professional musicians in mind. For those who can read music, a staff displays notes on a treble and bass clef. For those who do not read standard classical notation, a piano roll displays the notes. Regardless of which system you prefer, Bars & Pipes provides full editing capabilities widi each.
The goal in designing die Editor was to allow the composer as much flexibility as possible while editing work. I call this the “one-size- fits-all principle.” In other words, if a note needs to be drawn, that option is available. If the note needs to be typed in the information window, that option is also available.
Even playing the note via the input device (keyboard, wind controller, etc.) is possible.
Now that four main components of Bars & Pipes have been introduced, I can explain the power we tried to program into the Tools concept.
POWER TOOLS Bars & Pipes flexibility lies in the interaction between die Pipeline, Sequencer, Toolbox and Editor. To take advantage of diis unique flexibility, simply drag a Tool onto either side of die Pipeline or place it into the Toolpad in either the Main or Edit Windows. An exampie of each scenario: As previously mentioned, the Pipeline has two sides, the left side which is die pre-production end and die right side, which is die post-production end. Dragging a Tool onto the “pre” side of the Pipeline, while hitting a key on the (musical) keyboard, causes the note to pass dirough
the Tool, and it is recorded exacdy as it was played. For example, dragging die Echo Tool onto the “pre" side of the bass line track, each time a key on the keyboard is struck, causes the note to sound with an echo. While placing the Flip Tool next to the Echo Tool, each note will sound with an echo and will be flipped over the specified note axis. Ail notes processed by Tools placed on die “pre” side of the Pipeline will be recorded with the processing.
Above: Bars & Pipes' colorful main screen. Notice the “pre”and 'post” pipe like structure.
Below: The main screen with song loaded. Note the time signature and numbered measures (above bar), instruments (left) anclplay (P) and record (R) status on each track.
The post-production side of die Pipeline utilizes the Tools in a different manner. Instead of affecting notes before they are recorded, tiiey affect notes only on playback. At first glance, this may seem trivial, but by taking a look at some examples, this concept can be better understood. Suppose an individual records a track only to find that what plays in his head isn't necessarily translatec through his fingers. In other words, the whole diing was a sloppy mess. By dragging the Quantize Tool onto the “post" side of die Pipeline, it can be cleaned up. This time, when die track
is played back, the notes will sit neady on the beat. To take away the Quantize Tool, remove it from the Pipeline and the music is returned to its original state. Or, instead of removing die Quantize Tool altogether, read the Qu antize parameter values only. In either case, because Tools on die “post" side only affect notes on playback, nothing changes in the recorded sequence.
While other programs do allow quantizing and “un-quantizing," they don't allow die same freedom with other forms of data manipulation such as echoing, randomizing, harmonizing, note filtering etc. We tried to make Bars & Pipes’ Pipeline adaptable enough to encourage experimentation and risk taking during composing and performing. This flexibility manifests itself during exploration with Tools that provide special effects and stylistic musical changes.
By interchanging some options, for instance die Flange for the Arpeggiation Tool, die appropriate musical treatment can be found without making a backup track in case HIGHER LEVELS OF MUSICAL KNOWLEDGE I mentioned earlier in this article that Bars & Pipes incorporates higher levels of musical knowledge, but what does that mean? Higher levels of musical knowledge refers to the inclusion not only of technical concepts rooted in computer science, but also of concepts related to music theory and composition. For widespread use to occur, technology must assimilate itself into die cultural
mainstream. This involves speaking the proverbial native tongue. In die case of Bars & Pipes, this refers to music as it has existed since long before the advent of computers. Before I explain how theoretical knowledge of music was inter- grated into Bars & Pipes, some of the basics of music need to be examined.
The first basic is the key signature. A key signature, designated by die sharps and flats appearing at the beginning of each staff, indicates the key, or tonal center, of a composition. Now, what is a tonal center?
The tonal center is the single note around which music revolves. In the key of “C major,” this is the note “C". In the key ‘‘A-flat minor," this is the note “A-flat.” For nearly every piece of music composed, a key can be ascertained and assigned.
The key, and hence tile key signature, provide a framework for composition.
Directly related to keys and key signatures are scales. A scale, in its simplest definition, is a series of notes ascending from a specific note.
Every type of scale is formulaic in nature; each is determined by half-step and whole- step relationships stemming from die tonal center. (On a piano, “C," a white key, is a half step from “C-sharp," a black Above: With the Toolbox open (top right comer) Tools can be moved into “pre” or “post”positions on any track. (Note Sax track.)
Below: A-B-A Requester allows song segments (such as: verse-chorus-verse- bridge) to be organized and placed into proper sequence.
Key, and a whole step from “D,” another white key. Although not every white key is a whole- step from the white key next to it and a half-step from the black key next to it, for the most part, this is true.) For example, the formula fora major scale is to begin with die tonal center and progress a whole- step 080, W, half-step
(H) , W, W, W, H. (All the white keys in succession from “C” to
“C" on a keyboard.) Minor scales are a bit trickier as there
are several types.
Although most American music fits into either die Major or Minor scales, many other scales exist. Some of these are the Whole Tone, where every note is a whole-step beyond its predecessor; the Chromatic, where every note is a half-step beyond its predecessor; the Pen- tatonic, containing only notes 1,2,4,5,and 6 of die major scale; and the Gypsy, whose formula is W, H, W+H, H, H, W+H.
Now chords enter the picture.
Chords consist of three or more notes played at once. Many types exist, although major, minor and derivations of tiiese two types most commonly appear in popular music. Basic chords can be formed by taking the first three of every other note in a scale and playing them at once. Sound confusing? Let's look at an example: A “C major” scale consists of the notes “C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C.” To form a triad (a chord with only three notes) in this key, pick a root note (the bottom of the chord) and build up from it by choosing every odier note in the scale. A “D" triad in the key of “C” consists
of die notes “D” “F” and "A.” An “F” triad in the key of “C" consists of the notes ‘;F’’ “A” and “C.” By skipping every other note, you can form basic triads within a key.
Every triad or chord conveys a certain emotional tone.
A&Sjf SunRi e Industries How does IMG Scan work?
With IMG Scan you can use your dot matrix printer to scan pictures.
Simply attach the IMG Scan fiber-optic sensor to your printer, and use the IMG Scan software to digitize photographs and drawings. You can then save the picture in standard IFF format for use with your paint, desktop publishing and video programs.
Which Printers will IMG Scan work with?
IMG Scan will work with any dot matrix printer that has adjustable vertical line spacing and a print head which moves across the carriage. This includes such printers as Epson, Panasonic, Citizen, Citoh, Star and most compatible printers.
IMG Scan features: ? No video camera required ? Scans up to 360 dots per inch ? Scans in 256 gray levels For example, minor chords are often used to project sadness, anger or seriousness, while major chords tend to sound happy and pure. Since a major scale contains seven distinctnotes, seven basic triads exist within the scale. In other words, a triad can be constructed by using each note of the scale as the bass note; "CEG,” “DFA," “EGB," and “FAC” are the First four triads in die key of “C.” More specifically, rules govern the “flavor" of each triad as it relates to the key.
In a major scale, for example, die triad built on the second note in die scale is always minor. The triad built on the third note is minor, too, but the triad built on the fourth note is major. If a keyboard is available, play die triads moving note by note up die “C major” scale and you will hear the difference in tonal quality; Some triads are major, some are minor. Major triads are based on the interval formula “root note + two whole steps + a whole step and a half."
Minor triads are based on die formula “root note t- a whole step and a half + two whole steps.
Time signature and rhythm are also important elements in musical composition. A time signature appears at the beginning of a piece as two numbers, one above Circle 191 on Reader Service card.
Die odier; the lower indicates the type of note that will be used to measure each beat, (half note, quarter note, etc.), while the upper indicates the number of such beats per measure. 4 4 is by far the most common time signature. Time signatures provide the basic rhydimic framework of a piece.
Though most popular music, such as rock- n-roll, rhythm and blues, and funk, tend to be in symmetrical meters (2 4,4 4, or 6 8), uneven meters (3 4,5 4) often lend a fresh feel and unpredictability to music, Rhythm, in its simplest form, is die motion of music. Beats of varying lengths are organized into rhythmic patterns.
Rhythms can be simple or complex, on the beat or off the beat. Certain styles of music are noted first and foremost for their rhythmic form. For example, Samba music is characterized by syncopated rhythmic patterns (where the emphasis is shifted to the upbeat, or second half of the beat) over a 2 4 meter and Shuffle is known for its triplet-based feel in 4 4 time.
Key, scale, chords, time signature and rhythm combine to form the underlying structure of tradidonal music. (I say traditional music because there are always those who love to break die rules.) These elements comprise the building blocks of composition. Consider diem as a springboard into musicality.
In designing Bars & Pipes, we sought to encompass this knowledge by assimilating key, scale, mode (which was not discussed here due to its complexity), time signature and rhythm. By opening the Editor for any track and selecting die key, chords, rhythm and time signature options from the Display menu, a palette of compositional options can be accessed.
The Key option provides a selection of keys, scales (major, minor, chromatic, whole-tone and gypsy) and modes (Aeolian, Locrian, Ionian, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, and Mixolydian). Simply pick the key or root note and select the scale or mode wanted. If there are no scales you like, create one by clicking on die graphic keyboard display. From then on, Bars & Pipes displays the key signature on the Staff Editor and illuminates die appropriate keys on the scale or mode on the piano roll.
Also, Bars & Pipes furnishes a “snap to” option which snaps any notes inputted into the selected key and scale mode.
The Chords option presents an assortment of chord types including major, augmented, major7, major6, dominant?, minor, minor-6, minor+5, minor6, minor?, minorMA7, diminished, minor7-5, dimin- ishedMA7, dominant 7-5, major9, domi- nant7-9, dominanti-HS, dominant7 -9 +5, and the list goes on. Like the scale mode feature, personal chords can be created, if something suitable cannot be found, By picking the root note and chord type, the chordal structure of a piece can be mapped out, or Bars & Pipes can score in the selected chord progressions on whatever track is specified. If a key and
scale mode type is choosen, Bars & Pipes will enter die proper triad based on die root note of the selection.
The Rhythm option stems from our attempt to plug a MIDI cable direcdy into die brain. This feature came about because we realized diat some rhythms, while difficult to map out, are simple to tap out. Why require someone to calculate the beats when lie or she can tap them directly and allow Bars & Pipes to analyze them rhythmically? In order to take advantage of this feature, mark off the measure(s) in which the rhythm will occur and choose a rhythm from the provided template list. To add personalized rhythms to this list, transfer any recorded sequence into die template list. Creating your
own rhythms is as simple as tapping them directly onto a track.
The Time Signature permits a different time signature to be assigned for every measure that exists in a sequence. Tliis enables experimentadon with a multiplicity of beat resolutions. Standard dme signatures are provided; however, in keeping with die “one-size-fits-all principle," signatures as bizarre as 77 8 or 36 2 can be inputted. To enter a time signature, select one from the predetermined palette or enter a personalized one.
These four opuons, Key, Chord, Rhythm and Time Signature, can be used globally as well as on a track-by-track basis.
They combine to fonn die variables necessary for many Algoridimic Composition Tools. For instance, the Accompany B Tool generates notes using die rhythm template for articulation, dynamics and rhythm, and the chord template to determine the note value assigned to each element of the rhythm. Another feature of musical composition is lyric writing. Lyrics are words which accompany music. They exist in opera, pop, jazz, heavy metal, gospel and many other musical forms. Lyrics can verbally reinforce a composition's tone or contradict that tone altogether. This stylistic choice, as well as
what type of meter, rhyme scheme, and rhythm, can complement the music and add an extra layer of meaning. Be careful, diough, diat the lyrics don’t distract from the underlying composition of die piece.
In recognizing that not all music is purely instrumental, Bars & Pipes allows lyrics to be entered direcdy above die measures in which they occur. To do so, first select the Lyrics option from the Editor’s Display menu. Then, access the Lyrics requestor by clicking on the posdon where the lyrics will begin. In die requestor, type in the lyrics and indicate the phrase length in measures over which die lyrics will occur. Click on the “okay” button and from then on, the lyrics will occur over the proper measures. Of course, die words can be edited or rearranged on screen.
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(608) 273 ¦ 6585 _Amiga 15 a irademarit o) Commodorc-Amiga,
Inc. IBM PC AT is a trademark of IBM Corp._ ORGANIZING MUSIC
Music, like any other language, consists of letters (notes),
words (measures), phrases, (groups of measures), sentences
(secdons), and paragraphs (movements).
There are introducdons (intros) and conclusions (codas). There are acts (movements) and intermissions (tacets). And just as stories can be broken down into one of several plots, music can be divided into one of several typical chord progressions.
Music, like any language, has structure.
(Even the most avant garde of composi- dons has a beginning and an end.)
Circle 112 on Header Service card.
Breaking the music down into sections facilitates tighter composition. By setdng up a paradigm of sorts, ideas can be carefully mapped out and presented in a polished manner. Rules were made to be broken, but it’s better to know diev are being broken than it is to break them without knowing. Most contemporary music can be broken down into sections. In pop music, section “A” is typically the verse, secuon "B” is the chorus and section "C” is the bridge. Patterns of pop songs usually manifest themselves as A-B-A-B-C- B-A-B-B. Of course, variations exist, but by and large die A-B-A... pattern
is most common.
With Bars & Pipes, you can compose in secdons by designating a letter for each section of a song. “D” can be the intro, "A” the verse, “B" the chorus and so on. Formerly, composing meant that every measure of a composudonhad to be transcribed by hand, even the secdons that were mere repetitions of those earlier. By using Bars & Pipes "A-B-A" Song Construction and Editing feature, die piece can be mapped out.
And everything that repeats during recurring sections only has to be entered once.
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Mean te; Lfl rnate Go* * a sraoerujr* ot Account AMIGA -I A S' CoflWOOOre-AiT.g*. ir when working on die accompaniment section of a tune, all parts involved can be assigned to one group. By recording die accompaniment into all Group tracks at once, playing the same thing over and over is avoided. Once the basic accompaniment line is recorded, each track can be modified withing the group, time-shifting some, transposing some and leaving odiers alone.
Or a different Tool could be used on each track in the Group. Eidier way, the musical line shifts timbres, octaves, and or actual notes providing musical elements which are immediately continuous and contrasting, In anodier example, selected tracks could be isloated into a Group, then the entirety could be affected with a special effects Tool such as die Echo Tool. This way, only that segment of die composition exhibits an echoing quality.
Groups also ease die complexities of mix-down. In die past, when the time came to transfer die music from disk drive to analog recorder, I had to wrrite down which aggregate of tracks would be assigned to which band on the reel-to-reel recorder.
Because the reel-to-reei only synchronized eight tracks, I had to bundle several .MIDI tracks onto one analog track. My old music software, however, failed to provide a method of organizing. So, I reverted to the THINKER irj ror AMIGA "..stunning capabilities.simple to operate.." "..superbly crafted." - Gary Gehman. Amiga Sentry. 6189 Hypertext and Outline Processing combincci.f Powerful Hypermedia application combines Word processing and database ideas into an' Idea Processor. Link applications, pictures, tcxt. The latest technology for organizing information. Use Thinker for writing,
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To do this, dick on the A-B-A View button on the Main Screen to access the A-B-A Requestor. Type in die order of die song, section by secdon, indicadng either the lengdi of each section or from what measure to what measure each secdon occurs.
From then on, a recurring foundation can be laid, or as die song progresses, similar sections can be embellished. Rearranging the song is as simple as editing the letters in the A-B-A string.
The Groups function was created to design a system that benefits from both the compositional experience of hundreds of years and die recent innovations springing from the birth of MIDI. This feature comes into play during two phases of the modem musical process: composition and mix- down. Specifically, die Groups function enables you to work with several tracks at a time. Each Group is subjected to mute, solo, copy, load and or save; any Tool can be used on each Group; and each Group can be transposed and time-shifted. Bars & Pipes permits up to eight Groups at one time. Selecting Groups is
simply a matter of choosing the group number (numbers one dirough eight) and assigning die member tracks by clicking on each one, A track can belong to several Groups at once.
During composition. Groups can be used in a number of ways. For instance, 68000 DISASSEMBLY ANNOUNCING... DSM VERSION 1.0(1 OTG Software DSM is a full-featured disassembler for the Amiga. Check out these features and you'll see why programmers agree, "DSM is the best disassembler currently available for the Amiga, bar none,"
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Ol’ pen and paper method (which I inevitably misplaced every time). With the Groups function, pen and paper are no longer needed for organization. Instead, simply assign the tracks into Groups and solo each entire Group as it is mixed down.
DYNAMICS, PHILXSING, ARTICULATION AND TEMPO Another important element of composition involves the assignment of Dynamic Markings. These indicate the volume at which each section of music should be played. From classical notation, these markings can be recognized as the following lower case letters: “pp," "p," "mp,” “mf,” “f," and "ff." These abbreviations stand for pianissimo (very soft), piano (soft), mezzo piano (medium soft), mezzo forte (medium loud), forte (loud) and fortissimo (very loud) respectively. A crescendo gradually increases the volume. The inverse is true of a
diminuendo. Without dynamic road signs, music sounds stagnant and lifeless. The proper use of dynamics focuses attention on and away from various segments of a piece. And ironically enough, sometimes a quiet section of music is easier to hear than a loud one.
This brings to mind die phrasing issue as well. Phrasing is a means of shaping the linearity of music It’s a stylistic choice of emphasis, ju st as verbal emphasis is given to certain words within a sentence and certain sentences within a paragraph.
Phrasing connects musical thoughts and gives them continuity.
Articulation occurs within a musical phrase. A form of musical punctuation, articulation connotes the attack and duration of each note. Several types of note articulation exist. The following are most common: Staccato, signified as a dot above a note, indicates a duration of usually 1 4 its full length value; Portato, signified by die absence of a marking above the note, indicates a note duration of 1 2 its full length value; Leggerio, signified as a horizontal line above a note, indicates a note duration of usually 3 4 its full note value; and Legato, signified with an arched line above
a series of notes, indicates a note duration equal to its full value with no perceptible space between each note.
In many forms of articulation, dynamics play an important role. In these situations, not only is a note accented in a specific manner, but the note’s character assumes a distinct volume. A good example is the sforzando (sfz), a mechanism by which a note is heartily accented, then sustains a volume above that of the previous note. With another form, a sforzando piano (sfzp), notes are punctuated by an accent, then followed by a reduction in volume. It is easy to see that varying degrees of punctuation and dynamics add more dimension to a piece.
Just as a connection exists between phrasing and articulation as well as articulation and dynamics, so exists a link between dynamics and phrasing. A phrase should assume some form of dynamic character. For example, a phrase could start off softiy and slowly progress in volume only to recede by the phrase's end. Or a phrase could continue to build in volume, hitting a pungent chord in its climax.
Whatever its shape, a phrase should not stagnate or the listener will quickly tire off it.
Dynamics, phrasing and articulation interrelate significantly. These factors transform notes on a page (or notes entered via a MIDI device) into music laced with emotion and texture. Opponents of computer music often criticize it for being mechanical in nature. To a great degree, I concur. In fact, in the past I have neglected the importance of phrasing, articulation and dynamic variation in my own computer-assisted composition. After years of playing acoustic instruments, I took these forms of expression for granted and failed to realize that without that expression, music would merely be
a succession of notes. My computer-aided compositions failed to address dynamic variation in part because the software never considered dynamics a factor in composition.
We tried to correct this with Bars & Pipes. It will allow a dynamic level to be set, the phrasing to be shaped and articulations to be entered for every note in tire composition. To set the dynamic level, select a singular dynamic marking (ff, f, mf, mp, p, pp) from the Editor’s Dynamic Button menu and draw in tire appropriate note with the Editor’s Pencil. Alternatively, use the global or track-by-track Dynamics option, which allows dynamic levels as well as crescendos and diminuendos to be entered, to affect notes already input. To shape the phrase, either scale the Editor to encompass the
entire length of the phrase and draw in tire shape of the phrase with the Velocity option in the Editor’s Display Menu, or use the Phrase-Shaper Tool, which determines the shape of the phrase based on what has been entered into the Dynamics option. To enter articulations, either use an appropriate articulation Tool such as the Sforzando, Sforzando Piano, or Accent Tools, or select one from the Editor’s Articulation Button menu and draw it in accordingly.
A fourth element, tempo, provides divers ity to your music without changing a single note. By definition, tempo is the speed in which the music is played. But, music which clings strictly7 to a single speed sounds monotonous and mechanical. A drummer's rhythmic fallibility' or a horn player's occasional lack of intonation give music its human quality7. Music isn’t the notes that are played so much as it is the way those notes are play7ed. True, a fine line exists, but this line differentiates an assemblage of notes from the real thing, MUSIC.
Music is the encapsulation of emotion, Computers have no emotions, therefore it’s up to the user to supply this element. Bars & Pipes is designed to aid in this supplementation. Its Tempo Mapping feature can gradually speed up tire tempo (accelerando) or conversely, slow it down (ritardando or ralientando). (Ritenuto is the immediate reduction of speed.) To alter the tempo, click on the metronome on the Main Screen. Fill in the starting and ending times in either real time hour, minutes, seconds and frames or measures beats and clocks. Determine the ending tempo, Then, select from
one of four tempo curves: linear, exponential, logarithmic or instant.
Related to the tempo timing issue is quantization. Quantizing is a means of conforming inputnotes to a spedficbeat or beat fraction. By quantizing, sloppily played notes are “cleaned up". Most other sequencers provide methods of quantizing that are rigid and based on beat divisions of two. Systems like this ignored styles of music that are based on a triplet feel (beat fraction of three).
In Bars & Pipes’ Quantize Tool we take into account not only the triplet feel, but also consider whether the beat should be anticipated, handy in composing funk, or "laid back,” for instance, with a walking jazz bass line. The accuracy can also be set to emulate the worst of musicians, 0% accurate, or the best, 99% accurate. (Only a machine can be 100% accurate.) The parameters can be set so that only7 notes falling within a determined clock region will be quantized. All these parameters help attain a less automated, more human feel. Best of all, because quantizing is implemented as a Tool,
new quantizing applications can always be added.
EXPLORE This article is by no means a complete tour of Bars & Pipes. For that, contact Blue Ribbon Bakery, Inc, directly. Regardless of what system you use for composing, remember that no software, even the most learned, can write for you. You must strike the keys. You must make artistic choices.
All die bells and whistles in the w'orld won't make a difference if your signature isn’t firmly inscribed across your music, A saxophonist with whom I once studied told me that a good musician can play one note and make it swing. Although I didn’t understand what he meant at the time, I later realized that music isn't a fancy' array of notes that only the technically' adept can master, and it isn’t necessarily what the majority' wants to hear. Music, however, is honesty without words and the confidence to express. With Bars & Pipes, we have tried to provide you an abundance of musical
expertise. But what we cannot give you, at any price, is tire courage to create.
That, I’m afraid, is yours for free.
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(404) 435-1445 Bars & Pipes, $ 249.95 Inquiry’ * 255 The
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Circle 114 on Reader Service card Gunship is an attack helicopter simulation that incorporates the United States’ premiere attack anti-tank helicopter, the AH-64 Apache, into combat simulations against various opponents around the world. The aircraft is supplied with the best weapons systems in the Western world, all of which are actually employed by the Apache, up against some of the most threatening forces in the world in locations such as Vietnam, Central America, the Middle East, and Western Europe.
After you have completed your training and mastered the super hi-tech you in a new tour of duty, and become a part of some of the most feared fighting units of the US including the legendary 1st "Air” Cavalry (Vietnam), the 82nd Airborne (Central America), the 101st “Screaming Eagles” Air Assault Wing (Middle East), and the 3rd Aimored Divi- son (Western Europe).
For your first assignment, you are advised to choose the easiest option, Vietnam. As an ambitious pilot, you will want to make rank and receive decorations quickly, but to do so you will have to perform well and gain experience by completing missions and receiving points. Therefore, Southeast Asia and Central America are perfect places for the young pilot to gain valuable combat experience in a relatively “safe” way. If you choose the Middle East or Europe, you will not see many promotions, because dead pilots don’t make rank.
No matter what assignment you choose, you will have to face an enemy who is armed with a variety of Soviet-made weapons.
You will learn to recognize these weapons, finding ways to avoid their strengths, while taking advantage of their weaknesses. You will face armored vehicles such as APC’s, tanks and the self- propelled surface-to-air missile launchers that support them; bunkers and infantry that use small hand-held missiles; radar- assisted anti-aircraft guns, bodr mobile and fixed; and of course enemy bases, depots and headquarters which can be defended by any number and combination of forces and equipment.
MicroProse's Gunship review by Derek J. Perry But land targets are not your only concern. You will also be confronted by the Soviet Union's heavyweight helicopter, die Mi 24 Hind. It is larger and faster than its American counterpart, but is relatively less sophisticated and much less maneuverable. Perhaps, die Hind is your most concerning direat. Once sited, it must take immediate priority and be destroyed.
THE APACHE COMM T RMDY7 The simulated helicopter is flown by die same type of controls found in real aircraft a cyclic stick (die joysdck) and a collective control (function keys F1-F4). Due to die complexity of the flight characteristics of die simulation, it took some time over the practice range to learn how to execute effective and precise combat maneuvers such as evasive flying; high speed, low-level flying; and quick alignment of targets for rocket attacks.
On the batdefield, or I should say over the batdefield, the Apache is everything it should be. The simulated weapons are very effective and highly impressive, it is clear [hat die developers incorporated into die simulation the advantage a real Apache would have over its opponents. When properly used in a given situation, the AH-64 is dominant over its victims. The Hellfire antitank missiles are instant death for enemy armor and bunkers. Once fired, they automatically search for their target; very seldom wtili a Hellfire miss! The 2.75" rockets, when fired accurately, wreak havoc on enemy
infantry, installations, and anti-aircraft guns.
The Apache also employs the super-accurate and maneuver- able AIM-9 “Sidewinder” missile, developed for jet fighters, against opposing helicopters in air-to-air situations. All these weapons each serve a specific purpose, but the most versatile weapon and the mainstay of the Apache is the 30mm Chain Gun mounted under die nose of the aircraft, This heavy-hitting gun tracks its targets by way of a laser-optic sight attached to die gunner’s helmet. Wherever die gunner looks, the gun follows. This weapon is the only perma- nendy mounted system on the aircraft, and it is effective in any role die
aircraft may undertake. Its only limitation is its maximum- effective range. For a head-on shot, this range is a little less dian a kilometer depending on the aircraft’s altitude. But a defection shot is limited to a few hundred yards.
Due to the limitations imposed on the simulation, by even the marvelous machine it is played on (die Amiga), it is impossible to incorporate the tracking cannon in the game the way it is found in real life. Therefore, in the simulation it automatically tracks whichever target has been acquired by die TADS (Target Acquisition and Designation System) system. The TADS system automatically identifies targets, allowing you to tell if it is friend or foe and plan your attack accordingly. When a target has been acquired by the TADS system, it will appear in die CRT display magnified for
identification. All the information obtained by the TADS system will be relayed to the pilot through the CRT, which is basically a small television screen inside the cockpit of the aircraft.
The last item I will discuss In relative detail is the threat display. This is a small radar screen on the control panel that identifies any threats to die helicopter. Once an object has been identified on tire screen it is truly a threat, because this system is an “1 can see them, but they can see me" system, which means exactly that. Your radar has identified them but, in return, their radar has identified you.
There are other systems and controls found on the aircraft, but because of space limitations and the fact that all are thoroughly covered in the operations manual, I will not explain them here.
THE HEA T OF BATTLE Perhaps die two most important things to remember when engaging die enemy in combat are to fly at very lowr altitudes, and to use the contours of the terrain as your allie, At higher altitudes (over 150'), your aircraft is easily picked up by enemy radar, allowing them to fire missiles at you. Flying low at high speeds (150 knots) gives you die advantage of surprise, allowing minimum time for the target to defend. Using the hills and mountains as shields from your enemy gives you the opportunity to slow your speed and bring the gunship to a hover. Then, fining up several
targets found on your threat radar, you can boldly pop up from behind the hill firing several missiles at delayed intervals. Again, you have gained die element of surprise, and firing at delayed intervals at several targets allows for multiple hits on multiple targets. And if trouble should arise in the form of a missile, drop down behind the hill and break contact with enemy radar. This is standard training for real gunship pilots and, when properly applied in die simulation, die result can be extremely effective.
Completing your mission and returning to base allows for continuation of tile game, while being captured or killed results in die end of the game for that pilot. In Gunship you are allowed one life, and one life only. If you are killed, you must re-enter your name as a new pilot and start over at the rank of sergeant (the training rank of a pilot). However, your survival allows promotion up through the ranks until you reach colonel (the highest rank a pilot is allowed to fly in combat). In order to survive, it is imperative that you monitor your flight systems, the three most important being
the damage indicators, fuel gauge, and weapon stores. Sustain too much damage, or run out of fuel or ammunition, and you will be lucky to make it back to a base for repairs and resupply.
DRAWBACKS The only weak points in this game can ail be grouped under one heading graphics. I know all games are not originally created for the Amiga, but they should be. The Amiga's advances in animation, graphics, and sound make the machine a games powerhouse with effects that rival and sometimes eclipse arcade machines. Then why not take full advantage of the graphic ability of the Amiga? It is obvious that Gunship was designed for another system and ported for use on the Amiga. However, MicroProse promises that future simulations designed for the Amiga are coming, and their graphics are
supposedly far superior to that of Gun- ship.
Nonetheless, Gunship is plagued with graphics problems.
Objects on the battlefield tanks, APC’s, AA guns, and even other helicopters are displayed as abstract rectangular and triangular forms that barely resemble what they are intended to. At afar everything appears as a dot, but at close range objects just get downright ugly! A tank appears as a rectangular block with a triangle on top and a long narrow cylinder protruding from tire triangle.
Worst in appearance are tile APC’s, which are of the same rectangular shape, but with just the cylinder representing some sort of gun. In the case of infantrymen, they turn from a single dot, at a distance, into several dots when closed upon. Even at twenty feet of altitude at a range of about thirty yards, infantrymen don't get any larger. Opposing helicopters are merely three-dimensional triangles with a line rotating at its midpoint. However, by far the most repulsive object on the Gunship battlefield has to be the anti-aircraft gun. It Is represented by a mere line protruding from
another line at its midpoint. Ugly! Ugly! Ugly!
The graphics on this game are truly that bad. Everydiing that exists outside the cockpit of the aircraft is far below Amiga standards. The only thing that saves the graphics from being totally un- exceptable and ruining the game is the color of the objects. The use of colors for shading and variation between the different times of day leave tire game’s graphics daggling on a string just above a large, rancid garbage disposal. Hopefully, that String will not snap in the eyes of other Amiga users.
BY THE BOOK I have talked about tire worst part of the game. Now it is time for me to expound on Gurrship’s finest feature. The instruction manu al is outstanding. All other manuals should take the ir que from this one. It is thorough in every sense, covering completely everything you need to know about the game (except how to fix tire graphics).
The manual (all 80 pages of it) is laid out in a fashion similar to a military technical manual. It is broken down into two parts. Part One, Operation Instructions, begins by explaining tire game itself.
It goes over all the screens that a player will encounter before actually starting tire game. It then moves on to thoroughly discuss everything a player will find appearing in the cockpit at the bottom of the simulation screen. It explains the use of tire controls found on tire keyboard, as well as the use of the joystick. There is a keyboard overlay that is extremely helpful in locating tire keyboard controls all 29 of them! The last two sections of Part One are comprehensive explanations of the physics and use of helicopter controls, including the normal controls and those used in combat.
Part One concludes with two beginners tutorials entitled “Learning to Fly" and “Defense and Gunnery.” But Part Two of the manual, Apache Pilot’s Manual, is tire kicker. It begins with a brief but amazingly thorough section on aerodynamics and the principles behind helicopter flight, including autoration (a helicopter’s ability to laird without engines), unsafe flying, open field landings, and weather. Continuing on, it discusses all tire weapons and defense systems of the Apache, and the tactics that apply to each weapon. There is also a listing of military equipment found on the modern
battlefield that includes illustrations, stats, and background information on both Western and Soviet- bloc equipment. Also included in Part Two are descriptions of the regions in which the Apache will be deployed. The manual then concludes with a glossary for those not very knowledgeable in military terminology'.
As you can see. Tire manual is very telling, and it makes tire simulation easy and quick to learn. Coming from a military' background, nry home library' includes references to some of tire same material contained in this manual, and when I compared numbers and stats, it all matched up. The information in tire manual is as accurate as it is impressive.
DEBRIEFING Gunship requires your taking some tinre to learn how to fly and control the aircraft in combat. It is definitely not for someone who wants to start setting high scores the first day out of the box.
Despite the gross unjustice the game’s graphics do the Amiga, I must recommend Gunship to all others, especially warmongers, It is well worth the above average price.
I give MicroProse high marks for the effort put into the simulation and its playability, despite its complexity. Low marks are given for tire poor graphics, but MicroProse’s promise to do better next time and the outstanding manual make up the difference.
,_______i -AC- Gunship U Microprose Software, Inc. 1 80 Lakefront Drive Hunt Valley, MD 21030 i
(301) 771-1151 Price: $ 54.95 Inquiry 209 No i Fishing!
The Ones That Got Away ’.yC' j A closer look at PD software not currently in the Fred Fish Collection.
By Graham Kinsey This month we have another batch of interesting public domain and shareware programs. The two most exciting programs reviewed this month are a new type of file compressor and a major update to the slideshow program ShoWiz.
For each program listed, the author will be named (when known), and in most cases the AmigaZone download file number will be listed as well, so those of you who do have access to 1’eopleLink and its .AmigaZone can quickly download this file (if no file number is given, it doesn’t mean that the program isn't on PeopleLink at the moment, only that I obtained it from another source).
When a public domain program has been classified as shareware, this will also mentioned, with the suggested price if applicable. Due to the large size of most animations that are coming out for the Amiga, we will assume that the average size of an Amiga animation is one megabyte. This means that unless I specify otherwise, ALL animations reviewed here will require at least one megabyte in order to run. So, if you own an Amiga with only 512K, keep this in mind until you can add some more memory to your Amiga.
HandWipe HandWipe: by Mike Williams (Ami- gaZone file 17149). For those who have DeluxePaint III, but do not have enough time to produce lots of effects with it, this is an animation that can be used with any 320x200 picture. Once the picture has been merged into the spare screen of the animation, a bunch of tiles falling apart and disappearing into tire distance can be viewed, revealing tire picture in back.
Inform Inform: by Rick Bowers (AmigaZone file 17826). An improved version of the AmigaDOS Info command that includes all the information that Info provides. Inform’s added features include block size, total blocks on die device and infonnation on free memory7.
InitCLI InitCLI: by jorsten Juergeleit (AmigaZone file 16885). InitCLI modifies various attributes concerning the CLI window (although most will apply to the Workbench as well). In addition to mundane stuff like toggling interlace and removing borders, InitCLI can also alter die Work- bench CLl colors to simulate a monochrome screen, and it can also reduce the screen display to one bitpiane which is very7 helpful if y ou are low on memory (or if your processor is being overworked). Since this program is written in German not all features are obvious (the translation document isn’t
clear in every case).
Countdown Countdown: by Oran Sands (AmigaZone file 17106). Designed for video professionals in mind, this 320 by 400 ANLM-format is simply a ten second countdown to be placed at the beginning of a video production tape. The animation is comprised of a large number in the upper left hand corner which represents the actual countdown. There are also 30 small circles, each one representing l 30th of a second or one frame of video, which fill up one at a time. This animation will run on a 512K Amiga.
WB-Anim WB-Anim: author unknown. A small cute ANLM-format animation that appears to take place on the Workbench screen.
This animation features a rather stubborn Workbench icon, and a user’s attempts to “tame” it. This animation will run in a 512K Amiga.
TrackBall TrackBall: by Eric Fleischer (a.k.a Dr. Gandalf). The Doctor has created yet another great animation. TrackBall is simply an animation of a ball rolling around a rather bizarre course. TrackBall features fantastic graphics (via Turbo Silver), and very appropriate and well-done sound effects that help to maintain, if not enhance the Doctor's reputation.
Luxo Teenager Luxo Teenager: by Brad Fowles (AmigaZone file ’s 18355 through 18357).
A very nice animation that is based on Pixar’s aw7ard-winning animation (SIGGRAPH ’87) by John Lassiter. Luxo Teenager is a short animation of wo animated desk lamps, in which one is constantly giving the other grief. Parents wili especially relate to this animation. The frame for Luxo Teenager w7as created with Sculpt 4D, and assembled into an animation with PageFlipper Plus F X. This is also the first animation I have ever seen that w7as rendered via Amiga Transactor’s Lucas Board Project.
Atree Atree: by Don Schmidt (AmigaZone file 18193). While Atree is similar in some respects to directory utility (DirUtil) programs, Atree offers some important differences. Atree’s most obvious difference is that instead of merely displaying a set of files in the display window, it displays the entire directory tree (it also uses a separate window to display files in a given directory). As a result of this, Atree's main display window can scroll in four directions. In addition to scrolling up and down through a set of directories on a given level, Atree can also scroll the tree
display away from tire root level or towards it (if you can’t view7 all the levels in the tree within the window'-Atree’s window7 is big enough to display trees at least five levels deep all at once).
Since Atree was intended for use on large hard drives it has many features that make it even easier to work with veiy large trees. First, it is possible to load only part of the directory tree or multiple tree sections.
Sections may be added or deleted, and it is even possible to shift a viewable section up or down the tree at any time. Up to three places in a tree can be marked, making any of them viewable, at any time, within tire current tree.
Of course Atree supports tire various copy, delete and numerous other functions that you would find in the average DirUtil, but Atree extends the usefulness of some functions. For example, with Atree’s Graft option it is possible to copy an entire section of a tree to another directory. Atree also supports a config file to set various settings, but dre program doesn’t require a config file in order to run-it merely informs the user (perhaps a bit too rudely though) that it couldn't find dre config file when it loads up. Hard disks owners may find Atree to be much more helpful to them dran any
DirUtil, and even floppy owners may want to check this program out. WARNING: Atree crashed multiple times when I was using it, although all crashes were recoverable via GOMF 3.0. ClockDJ ClockD(_v3.07: by David Jenkins (Ami- gaZone file *17262). ClockDJ has been upgraded enough to now' be considered as a full-blown multi-utility program. It includes many of the standard things drat would be found in a multi-utility program, including programmable hot keys, Window to Front (and to back), SunMouse, pointer accelerator, screen blanker, and more. Although ClockDJ may not render the other
three multi-utility programs (Machll, Qmouse and Dmouse) useless, it is at least another program tochoose from in this very important category of public domain programs. If you still aren’t using a multi-utility utility program then your Amiga isn’t as easy to use as it could be!
Cloud Cloud: by Mike Hall (AmigaZone file 17407). A fractal generating program that simulates pictures of natural terrain (such as island chains and snow-capped mountains) and puffy white cloud-filled skies.
Cloud offers the user some control over how it generates these types of graphics, including reversing tire color palette, however it is not possible to change the palette from within the program. One may select from four different scaling options, and a delta value (used to determine randomness). The biggest problems with this program are that it has no save function
(i. e. time to load up ScreenX) and that the image doesn’t cover
the whole screen. If you can live with these two major hin
drances, Cloud can create some great backdrops for you.
Creditbook Creditbook: by Sanford Finley (AmigaZone file *17329). This program isn’t really worth mentioning solely as a database program for maintaining records of credit card transactions, because it is written in compiled AmigaBASIC. And even with WordPerfect as the only other running task on the Amiga, this program is almost too slow to be usable. However, Creditbook has a special feature. If any of your credit cards are lost or stolen, Creditbook can print out letters for notifying the necessary companies, and in the process save you from even more grief.
Power Packer could free up space on your drives that can be used to store many more valuable files and programs.
Easy Banker Easy Banker: by Patrick Goudeau (AmigaZone file *17272). If there are still people out there that buy a computer to balance their checkbook out there, here’s a decent program that does just that. Easy Banker's functions include just the basic operations that would be expected from such a program. The only thing remarkable about Easy Banker is its colorful iconic user interface which it filled widi nicely drawn images.
PcPatcb II PcPatch II: by We mer Gunther (AmigaZone file *17261). This is version il of the Amiga MS-DOS read write utility PCPatch. Many important improvements have been made to PcPatch. First of all, unlike the original version PcPatch II is guaranteed to work on Workbench 1.3’s PcCopy and PcFormat utilities. Second, the patch programs also enable you to read write format 720K MS-DOS disks, wliich needless to say makes PcPatch a much more valuable tool than it previously was.
As if this wasn't enough, PcPatch now includes a format editor that allows you to customize the format that PcPatch uses (the audior includes sample files for reading Atari ST disks). The author wisely warns people that PcPatch can NOT help them, if they need to access 1.44 MB MS- DOS disks, since tire Amiga just can't handle 1.44 MB disks yet. If it is necessary' to deal with MS-DOS, PcPatch is now a must-have utility, especially if you don’t already have a commercial MS-DOS read write utility like DOS-2-DOS.
SuperDeciGEL SuperDeciGEL: author unknown (AmigaZone file *16886). If you still have a 68010 based Amiga and are annoyed with arcade games that won't run with that CPU, SuperDeciGEL may be able to help. This is identical in basic function to die ancient program DeciGEL except that SuperDeciGEL will remain active and operational in the system even if a warm boot is performed.
Power Packer Power Packer: by Nico Francis (AmigaZone file*17 77: Shareware: $ 15). While file archivers (like Arc and Zoo) and track archivers (Warp) have been around for a while, there is another type of data compressor that Amiga users haven't been able to take advantage of. Now all Amiga users have access to an executable compressor in the form of Power Packer. Executable compressors operate files just like standard archivers do (as opposed to track archivers), however executable compressors operate on executable programs ONLY.
Executable compressors reduce die size of the file, while still allowing you to run the file normally (the only sacrifice is a longer load time). Executable compressors aren’t designed for uploading files to bulletin boards, since they do not merge multiple files into a single archive, but what they can reduce die space executable programs take up on a storage device.
Needless to say floppy-based Amiga users will love this program, once they get ahold of it, since it can free up 200K or more on a standard Workbench disk!
Power Packer isn’t just a skeleton program either, it has an Intuition menu- driven interface and menus containing many features. For example, diere are five different levels of compression to choose ALF 2 Amiga Loads Faster Increased speed, safety, & efficiency on the Amiga.
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From, so you can decide if you only want to wait a few minutes for a crunched file, or if you don't mind leaving your Amiga on all night in order to get die maximum compression possible. Not only does Power Packer support multitasking, but it also has an option to allow you to turn multitasking off in order to devote all the processor time to Power Packer. As if this wasn't nice enough already, Power Packer’s script file capability makes it possible to tell Power Packer to reduce the size of all the executables on your crowded hard drive while you’re off skiing for the weekend! If you want
to keep tabs on Power Packer while it’s working, but don't need to run other tasks in die process, the LED Crunch option will flash die Amiga's power light while Power Packer is cnmching, so that you can leave die monitor off. There are also different decrunching color options.
In addition to having one of the Workbench screen’s colors flashing, you can choose to have just the pointer flash as a crunched program loads, or to not have any special effects happen instead. And for diose who are tight on memory, there are options to dose down the Workbench screen, and to tell Power Packer to go to sleep (both free up around 50K). The only major problem with Power Packer is diat it cannot work on executable programs diat use overlays (WordPerfect and De- luxePaint ill are important examples), so it can’t work on everything. But in most cases Power Packer will indeed reduce
die size of programs by 50 percent or more.
For those who don’t have infinite storage space on their hard drives (not to mention diose widiout hard drives) Power Packer could free up space on your drives that can be use to store many more valuable files and programs.
ShoWiz ShoWiz version 2.0: by J. L. White (AmigaZonefi]e 17386; Shareware: $ 10).
This is version 2.0 of the powerful slideshow ShoWiz. In addition to displaying pictures and text files, ShoWiz can now play IFF sound files, using either a left or right channel. The looping option has also been greatly improved, as pictures can now be displayed in alphabetical order.
If you are using random wipe mode, the wipes are no longer die same for each picture as you go through successive loops (which used to be a big nuisance if you were using ShoWiz for extended periods of time). However, the big new improvement is script support, and ShoWiz’s List of script commands gives Now Available in the U.S. 3 YEAR WARRANTY!
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You almost limitless control over what you can do. Besides die normal commands like looping, time delays and pauses, ShoWiz includes commands like turning on die Workbench screen’s colors. ShoWiz’s scripts can display requesters for allowing interaction with the user, or even show a custom version of die dreaded Alert requester (a.k.a die Guru message), if the script writer feels this is really necessary.
While tiiese commands alone are very nice, the Execute command is the most powerful option.
Execute allows you to run external programs from die script. For example, via ShowANIM or Display you could display IFF animations from ShoWiz. You could also run other presentation programs, special effects programs or even odier slideshows! Since ShoWiz scripts can be started from the CLI, integrating ShoWiz into die world of Akexx isn’t even an issue, so the possibilities really are limidess.
ShoWiz should no longer be considered just a slideshow program, rather a powerful multimedia presentation program that shouldn’t be ignored by anyone diat has to present graphics of any sort. Some people might consider labelling this program as a public domain alternative to The Director blasphemous, but I don’t diink this comparison is so ridiculous.
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Tbar Tbar: by John Everett (AmigaZone file *17539). Programs that graphically jazz up the Workbench Intuition environment are always welcome by the Amiga community. This is a small but nice program in that category. Tbar replaces the thick lines on a window's drag bar with a pattern. While the built-in patterns like hearts and zippers are nice, what's more important is that you can design custom patterns simply by imputing your own design in the form of a few hexadecimal codes (the examples given make this less painful for non-programmers who aren't used to computer-related numbering
VirAnim VirAnim: by Plink ID: TOM*OCEAN (AmigaZone file *17456). A small but very funny animation! This ANIM-format plays on the Amiga computer virus scare, depicting what could happen if you don’t protect yourself. While seeing animations that "appear” to take place on the Workbench screen are cute, what I liked most about this animation is that there is so much activity that it takes quite a while before you notice everything. If drawers on fire, bleeding windows and obnoxious disk icons sound funny, then be sure to check this one out.
This animation will ran just fine on a 512K Amiga Judy 2 judy2: by Ron Peterson (AmigaZone file *'s 17S72 through 17874). This is the second in the series of very humorous talk shows created via The Director. Just like in the first episode, our (pampered) hostess, Judy Masque, gets into hot water again, this time by hosting her show in a kitchen where she tries to make a wonderful cake (when about the only thing's she appar- endy qualified to make is reservations!).
The digitized scenes in this version are just as good as the last, and the story may even be funnier. Again the commercial is one of die best parts (this time taking pot shots at Ted Turner), but watching Judy fumble around the kitchen is even funnier (not to mention die birth of... MudboyQ. Not only are Ron's creations hilarious, but they are also great examp! E of how The Director can turn a few basic components into a work of art (or comedy).
Preview Next mondi, I will be reviewing a program diat in many ways is a preview of what is to come widi Workbench 1.4, plus the latest episode in the sporting life of AmiGuy and more. As always, 1 can be reached on the AmigaZone on PeopleLink (ID: G KINSEY), or on die IDCMP BBS (617-769-3172 0 12 2400 baud, 105 Megabytes online, running 24 hours a day), addressed to SYSOP).
If you have written a public domain shareware freely distributable program, or have obtained one that you think is worth mentioning to all Amiga owners, please contact me via die above contacts, or through Amazing Computing. See you next mondi.
For information on obtaining some die programs that are listed as not being on die boards (or for those who don’t have a modem), please write (and or send $ 2 for ail Amiga PD catalog disk) to: SMAUG 1015 S. Artery *112 Quincy, MA 02169
• AC- ZSA ZSA IN A DIFFERENT SORT OF FRYING PAN New Products and
Other Neat Stuff by Elizabeth G. Fedorzyn Are you one of those
people willing to pay SI 1.00 for a curkey-on-rye just because
it is touted on the menu as being a special favorite of Ed
McMahon’s? Do you ever find yourself somber at the dinner
table, unable to eat a bite because you’re preoccupied with
thoughts of what Richard Chamberlain is having for dinner?
Well, have we got a cookbook for you!
USA Media has released The Celebrity Cookbook, Volume One, Version
2. 0, and the new ACE Professsional Catering Environment that
contains 125 professional catering recipes. The Celebrity
Cookbook, Volume One features favorite recipes of the "stars”,
among them Juliet Prowse’s Bombay Fruit Dip, Ed Asner's Deep
Pot Apple Pie, and Jerry Lewis’ Granny Vinegar Cake. There’s
also Chicken Soup as prepared by Shirley MacLaine (a twist for
Shirley as she actually was a bowl of chicken soup in the 18th
ACE is designed for the cooking enthusiast, as weli as tire small caterer or restauranteur, ACE allows you to use twelve on-board cookbooks, or you can create your own additional cookbooks.
ACE calculates the number of tables and tire room space that will be required to cateryour functions. You can also calculate recipe prices, and create food and beverage ordering lists.
ACE even includes a customizable Wine List so you can get sloshed just like real celebrities. And the program allows you to resize your recipes from 1 ter 9,999 servings. (Don’t you just hate it when an extra, oh, 8,000 people show up to a dinner uninvited?) Program operation is made easy. Using pull-down menus, you can load, save, delete, or print your recipe files.
Also available from USA Media is The Great Recipes of Italy. Although this collection does not contain Stallone Spumoni or other celeb recipes, it does provide 160 Ed Asner's Pot Apple Pie and more!: The Celebrity Cookbook and ACE Catering Environment.
Tumingfantasy into reality: TA.C.L.from Micro Momentum, Inc. recipes, divided into 14 separate cookbooks, as well as an Italian Wine Directory.
Great Recipes is programmed to run with the ACE Catering Environment. The Celebrity Cookbook, ACE Catering Environment and Great Recipes work with all Amigas and support all Amiga-compatible printers.
The Celebrity Cookbook, ACE Professional Catering Environment USA Media Rt 2, Box 41 North Patuxent Beach Road California, MD 20619 Celebrity Cookbook ACE Catering Environment: 5 79-99 Great Recipes of Italy: S24.99 Inquiry .228 (continued) ADVENTURE TINKER TOY Need a litde adventure in your life? Well, surely you’re not going to just sit there and wait for it to happen. It’s time you brought your dreams to life. Any ambitions you have, any reverie thai has been kept dormant, should be attended to immediately some might even say tackled. The more adventuresome ’would say T.A.C.L,
Written by Alternate Realities and produced by Micro Momentum, Inc.,
T. A.C.L. (The Adventure Construction Language) is a fully
featured text graphics adventure language that allows you to
unleash your creativity; to travel the dark corridors of your
psyche and bring the images ofyourmind, however bizarre, into
T. A.C.L. is a programming language designed specifically to
allow anyone from novice to experienced programmer to
construct their own commercial-quality adventure games. Travel
back in time, into the future, to another dimension you’re in
Among its many features, T.A.C.L. supports IFF graphics, sound, a variety of text styles, and vector graphics (drawn with VGED, which is included). Unlimited “rooms” and “objects” are available. And graphic scenes may be imported or drawn for inclusion in your adventures.
T. A.C.L. source code may be ported and compiled on other
computers for which T.A.C.L. is available (1BM and Macintosh
versions are currently in die works).
T. A.C.L. runs on all Amigas, widi a minimum 512K and V 1.2 or
The package is available at Amiga dealers, or you may order T.A.C.L. by contacting Micro Momentum, Inc, directiy.
TA.C.L. Micro Momentum, Inc.
P. O. Box372 Washington Depot, CT067SM
(800) 448-7421 Price: $ 99.95 Inquiry ~229 Ogres, ghouls, and
skeletons abound: Swords of Twilight from Electronic Arts.
Nothing amateurish about it: TVText Professional from theZuma Group.
RUN AWAY, RUN AWAY!
Seven Shadowlords threaten the worlds joined by die Rainbow Road. Seven swords can defeat them. It is up to you to enter the fantasy world filled with ogres, ghouls, and skeletons (no, it's not A Current Affair). It is up to you to save die realm of Albion.
New from Electronic Arts, Swords of Twilight is a multiplayer fantasy role-playing game that puts you in the role of knight or mage in search of the coveted jeweled swords. Designed by Free Fall Associates, Swords of Twilight allows up to three players to choose from a cast of ?1 characters and travel togedier in this search, with all three characters being able to converse and act simultaneously as they explore ruins, temples, and castles.
Swords of Twilight is unique in its attention to real-world elements from 1 he realistic time flow, to the fact that people and places change, each character's actions affect all other characters, and each character is unique in personality, abilities, anti attitude. .As co-designer Jon Freeman, commenting on the game’s intricate makeup, stated, “This is the first game that mixes the variety, color, and scope of epic fantasy with real-world logic, ethics, and consequences.” Indeed, you must take care when dealing with the characters you encounter.
As each represents a unique personality, characters must he dealt with on an individual basis. While there are some who will settle for nothing less than a sword to the shoulderblade, other characters will he content with a few words of wisdom.
Remember, these townspeople are a gossipy lot, and acting without forethought and or in an overly harsh manner can result in your receiving bad PR in a land. As the manual points out, “Leaving people hostile or dead will cause you trouble later...” It's such a fine line.
Swords of Twilight requires 512K minimum memory. The package includes a program disk and data disk, as well as 30+- page manual providing you with hints and tips, as well as a cast of characters and a list of favorite spells, enchantments, etc. Swords of Twilight Electronic Arts 1820 Gateway Drive Sail Mateo. CA 94404
(415) 571-7171 Price: $ 49-95 Inquiry: 230 CAN YOU SPELL QUALITY:
No more second-rate video titling. No more excuses. The
folks at Zuma Group have just made it easy for .Amiga
videophiles to get professional-looking titling without
getting into an ugly brawl with their wallet.
TV*Text Professional, die latest addition to the Group’s line of desktop presentation tools, is a titling program developed specifically for die Amiga to provide dazzling, professional-quality lettering and graphics for desktop video projects and presentadons.
TV*TextPro enables the user to build their graphic image in a logical manner, beginning widt the background. Backgrounds may be generated using eidier die program’s background-generation tools, or by importing an IFF image file produced widi an Amiga paint or digitizing program.
The program generates backgrounds with color gradients, as well as tile, wallpaper, and grid patterns (for diose of you working on a recreation of die Brady Bunch).
The background may be locked into place, whereupon a wide variety of stylistic effects may be applied to text, shapes, and IFF images. Thirty-six different rendering (continued) BRIDGEBOARD USERS!
Don’t waste money, slots, or desk space buying extra IBM-compatible or Amiga floppy drives! The Bridge Drive Commander + gives you direct access to all your internal and external Amiga drives from the Bridgeboard, and direct access to IBM type 360K and 720K drives from AmigaDOS.
Bridge Drive Commander + is totally transparent and automatic. Put an IBM type disk in any drive and use it just like on any IBM compatible! Put in an Amiga disk and return to Amiga use! Just that simple, just that fast! One drive can use Amiga disks at the same time another is using IBM- compatible disks. Disks are completely usable by other Amiga and IBM-compatible computers. All hardware, no software drivers to load, no precious memory or expansion slots used up. Plugs onto motherboard at internal drive connector. (No soldering or wiring changes.) Compatible with all Bridgeboards (8088,
80286), SideCar, all accelerator boards (any 680x0), hard disks and other hardware and software.
Bridge Drive Commander + S 97.50 MJ SYSTEMS Dept 10A, 1222 Brookwood Road, Madison, Wl 53711 1-800-448-4564 (24 hours MasterCard VISA) Product names a re trademarks of their respective companies.
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DeluxePrint II, Version 1.1 Electronic Arts 1820 Gateway Drive San Mateo, CA 94404
(415) 571-7171 Price: $ 79.95 Inquiry 241 Fiendish Freddy's Big
Top O’ Fun Mindscape, Inc. 3444 Dundee Road Northbrook, IL
(312) 480-7667 Price: $ 49.95 Inquiry 242 ImageLink Active
Circuits, Inc. 106 Highway 71, Suite 101 Manasquan, NJ
(201) 223-5999 Price: $ 299.95 Inquiry 243 Interactor Very Vivid,
P. O. Box 127, Stn. B Toronto, Canada M5T 2T3
(416) 686-7850 Price: $ 99.00 Inquiry 244 International
Championship Wrestling Avatar Consulting 9733 Roe Drive
Santee, CA 92071
(619) 449-7780 Price: $ 32.95 Inquiry 245 OttlEK ff ODUGTE
DECEIVED The Investor's Advantage 2.06 Software Advantage
Consulting Corporation 37346 Charter Oaks Blvd.
Mt. Clemens, Ml 48043
(313) 463-4995 Price: $ 99.95 Inquiry 246 JMFI Easy Tiller,
Version 2.0 JMH Software of Minnesota 7200 Hemlock Lane
Mapie Grove, MN 55369
(612) 424-5464 Price: S49.95 Inquiry 247 Last Duel CAPCOM
U.S.A., Inc. 3303 Scott Blvd.
Santa Ciara, CA 95054 Price: S39.95 Inquiry 248
L. E.D. Storm CAPCOM U.S.A.. inc. 3303 Scott Blvd.
Santa Clara, CA 95054 Price: $ 39.95 Inquiry 249 Powerdrome Electronic Arts 1820 Gateway Drive San Mateo, CA 94404
(415) 571-7171 Price: $ 39.95 inquiry 250 Street Fighter CAPCOM
U.S.A., Inc. 3303 Scott Blvd.
Santa Clara, CA 95054 Price: $ 39.95 Inquiry 251 The Tarot Master Empire Graphics
P. O. Box 964 Union, NJ 07083
(201) 964-7864 Price: $ 29.95 Inquiry 252 VidGen, Version 1.0
Microft Software, Lfd.
P. O. Box 1072 Exton, PA 19314 Price: $ 149.95 Inquiry 253
X-Shell Grafx Computing 6680 Wittste Road Panama. NY 14767
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Styles are provided including outlines, shadows, and metallics, as well as color- animated glows, glints, and cycles. Fancy!
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The TV'Text Professional package includes one program disk, three font disks containing Zuma Fonts Volumes 1, 2, and 3, and a hefty 220-page spiral-bound User’s Guide. TV'Text Professional works with all Amigas and is genlock-compatible. All current Amiga display modes, except HAM, are supported. The program will run on 512K, although 1 MB of RAM is recommended for hill operation. The Professional package will not replace the original TV'Text, but users of the original package can upgrade to TV'Text Professional. Contact Zuma Group for details.
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Oriental Desk Top Art Vol. 1:Oriential artwork.
Vol. 2:Martia! Art figures.
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And lose those Doan's Pills and bifocals, because AmiSound fits beneath your Amiga, thus propping your monitor up to TUTORIALS For the Exploration of Amiga Graphics PRINTABLE NEW STEP BYSTEr DRAWING INSTRUCTIONS. TECHNIQUES USABLE IFF TO ENHANCE IMAGES YOUR ART pio&mfr * ivxioMmoofS DTSigvt * ‘W0rTWCI9 § 2 Disk set $ 19.95 Ask your dealer or order direct FOR ART’S SAKE (904)25A-MIGA 2455 Volusia Avc. 206 Daytona Bch, IT. 32114 Circle 167 on Reader Service card.
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EVENT DATA Part 2 the Adventure Continues... Arexx by Steve Gillmor Since Commodore confirmed the inclusion of Arexx in tire V1.4 operating system, the steady growth of Arexx-compatible programs has accelerated at a feverish rate. Compounding the problem of keeping up with die volume of new Arexx implementations has been the wide disparity in the way Arexx has been implemented. Some programs will respond to Arexx control from outside, yet cannot send Arexx messages back. Others can send Arexx programs ou t, but they cannot receive. Although tilings are improving, documentation is often limited
to a readme file on disk. Arexx suppport is trumpeted in packaging and advertising, yet many tech support personnel are not well-versed in Arexx issues. And the poor Amiga user is still faced with the basic question: “Now that I’ve got Arexx, what do I do with it?” For those who have gotten over the hurdle of beginning to experiment with Arexx, a new set of problems is surfacing. As the number of Arexx scripts (programs) in your rexx: directory mounts, so does die need to manage your Arexx environment. In this second installment of Adventures In Arexx, we will examine several different
approaches to managing Arexx, continue to report on new programs and techniques using Arexx, and explore some simple Arexx example scripts.
Last time, I described the development of an interactive Arexx environment incorporating Nag 3.0 (Gramma Software), CygnusEd Professional (ASDG, Inc.), and MicroFiche Filer + (Software Visions, Inc.) into a seamless ‘'super-application.” A series of linking automated Arexx scripts, combining timed action events from Nag, with data from the MFF+ database, loaded into the CED editor with a time stamp ready for note-taking. After several months of using this system, my notes directory, where these files are automatically created and stored, became unmanageable.
Indeed, CygnusEd's file requestor began to inform me that I had reached tire limit of displayable filenames. The solution to this temporary problem, fixed in die latest revision of CygnusEd, was to create subdirectories by category, organizing the growing volume of notes and scheduling data into related topics.
This created a new bottleneck, however. I now had to navigate several levels down the directory tree to find and load a file. 1 decided to take advantage of die new Arexx capabilities introduced in the Nag 3.1 update. In tire new release, you can fill an action event line with single words, that when clicked on with the right-mouse button, fire off rexx programs of the same name.
Nag adds the “.rexx” extension automatically before running die script, which it locates in your rexx: directory, then executes as if you had typed from cli: “rx filename.rexx”. For example, I filled an event line with the names of files or directories I access frequently like Amazing, Plink, Bix, AR2 (the nickname for this article), and so on. Then I created the following simple Arexx script to test out the system: *AR2.rexx' ADDRESS 'rexx_ced' ’open' ’dhl motes articles a rexx2note s' ’cedtofront' EXIT 0 When run, this program addresses the CygnusEd Arexx port, opens the nested file, then
brings the CED window to the front. It works fine, but there are several weaknesses. First, it assumes CED and Arexx are already running, likely on my system since “rexxmast" and the editor are run from my startup-sequence. Second, if I already have a file loaded in CED, this script will simply load right over the existing file. And of course, I would have to alter multiple copies of this script to fit the various paths and files I wanted to load.
Together with Richard Stockton, the author of Nag 3.1, I broke the expanded program into two parts: loadced.rexx, and a short rexx: program to call loadced.rexx and pass, or give, it a file to load. Here is the short part which I copied over die original AR2.rexx script: *AK2* call loadced.rexx(Mhl:notes articles ar2notes") Now here la the complete commented loadced.rexx program: * loadced.rexx - loads filename sent in ARG into CygnusEd * I* (c) 1989 Steve Gillmor, Richard Lee Stockton and Gramma Software. * * This code is freely distributable as long as this copyright * (* notice
remains, unchanged, at the start of the code. Thank you. * I* From CLI 'rx loadced.rexx myfilename' * 'TRACE ?R* OPTIONS RESULTS * need to get 'status' from ced * filename = * initialize filename to blank * PARSE ARG filename * get the incoming filename * IF filename”"" THEN EXIT 10 * no arg?, then quit ¦ IF -SHOW Ports,' rexx_cedr) THEN * if ced isn't up, run it ¦ DO ADDRESS COMMAND 'run dh0:ced' DO i=0 TO 100 WHILE(-SHOW(Ports,'rexx_ced'}) * wait for port * call DELAV (50) * 1 sec delay * END IF i=«10Q THEN EXIT 20 * die, couldn't find cedport after 100 seconds * ELSE
ADDRESS ‘rexx.ced’ f9 otherwise, get in communication with ced 7 END ELSE t9 if ced is up, check contents for file 7 DO ADDRESS *rexx„ccd’ * get in communication with ced 7 ‘status 17' * ask ccd how many lines 7 IF RESULT 0 THEN ‘open new’ • if 0 lines, open a new window * END 'open 'filename * fill ced with file * 'cedtofront' * make ced the front screen * IF WORD (STATEF filename), 1) *«' DIR' THEN 'open' * if it's a DIR, show it * EXIT 0 Keep in mind that you should be able to understand most if not all ofwhat is going on here just by looking at the comments, the script
contained within the * and * characters. I will skip around a bit to point out how various elements of the script work to solve the previously mentioned deficiencies of the first attempted program.
The question of whether CvgnusEd is running or not is dealt with on the lines beginning with: IF -SHOW(Portsrexx_ced') THEN * if ced isn't up, run it * This determines whether or not tire CED Arexx port is available by checking the list of current ports in the system for the given port name. If not then DO ADDRESS COMMAND 'run dhO:ce i' DO i=0 TO 100 WHILE(-SHOW(Ports,'rexx_ced')) * wait for port CALL DELAY(50) * 1 sec delay * END CED is run as if from tire CLI, and a loop is entered to check for tire port until it appears. Each time through the loop, we "wait one second; for readability,
the first END is indented below die interior DO to indicate drat it is the end of this loop.
IF i==100 THEN EXIT 20 * die, couldn't find cedport after 1G0 seconds * ELSE ADDRESS *rexx_ced' * otherwise, cet in communication with ced * END Finally, if the port still has not shown up, we exit. If the port is found, then we address it to get in touch with CED.
The second deficiency concerned the fact that tire program failed to check for an already-existing file loaded in CygnusEd. To determine the status of CED, we first turn on OPTIONS RESULTS at the beginning of the script. This makes sure that the results of tire CED 'status’ command are returned in the variable RESULT.
ELSE * if ced is up, check concents for file * DO ADDRESS ‘rexx_ced' • get in communication with ced * 'status 17' f* ask ced how many lines ¦ IF RESULT 0 THEN 'open new' • if C lir.es, open a new window *f END If we had determined earlier that CED was running, we would not have entered the DO loop we previously discussed. Therefore, we would skip down to ELSE, and now address the CED port. Status 17 returns die number of lines in an already-loaded file in CygnusEd. If the Result is greater dran none, i.e. there’s already a file loaded, then a new window is opened.
Now we’re ready to load the file, but where do we get the filename and path from? Remember that we passed a variable filename in our short AR2.rexx script. The mechanism to handle this variable is at die beginning of loadced.rexx, right after OPTIONS RESULTS.
Filename = * initialize filename to blank ¦ PARSE ARG filename • get the incoming filename * I IF filename***"- THEN EXIT 10 * no arg?, then quit ’I First the container “filename” is set to blank to give it a value we can check for later. PARSE ARG extracts one or more variables from die input argument and assigns them to a variable or variables, in this case ‘'filename”. Aiterthis operation, if “filename” is still blank, then we know the input argument was blank, and we exit.
So now we return to the end of our script: ‘open ‘filename * fill ced with file * 'cedtofront' ¦ make ced the front screen IF WORD(STATEF(filename),1)=='DIR' THEN ‘open' * if it's a DIR, show * EXIT 0 We wouldn’t have gotten here without a filename, so it can now be loaded into its window, and the CED window brought to the front.
The next litre performs the task of determining whether the variable in ‘‘filename” is a file or just a directory. The function STATEF returns either “FILE” or ‘‘DIR” as its first WORD, and if it’s “DIR” we send the CED command “open”, which has tire effect of opening dre file requestor for the indicated pathway. If I fire off loadced.rexx with PLINK.rexx, for example: *PLINK.rexx* CALL loadced, rexx ("dhl :plink oet ") There is no filename passed, so a file requestor will appear in CED at dre appropriate subdirectory. 1 can dren easily click on the file of my choice, in this case one of
dre daily Plink conference capture files from the current month.
Here's another Arexx example, filepage.rexx. which uses loadced.rexx to load text files into CygnusEd, by clicking on a list of your favorite files displayed in a window on your Workbench screen. Flere, we'll use the rexxarplib and rexxsupport libraries we installed previously for use in the viewpic.rexx program in “Adventures In Arexx” (AC V4.6). In drat article, we first ran setup.rexx to check for and call these libraries, but filepage.rexx does this checking itself.
* filepage.rexx - allows 1-click loading of favorite files into editcr * * copyright 1589 Richard Lee Stockton and Gramma Software. * * This code is freely distributable as long as this copyright * * notice remains, unchanged, at the start of the code. Thank you.* * from CLI: 'run rx filepage.rexx' ¦ files. - * initialize stem, then fill in up to 12 file names. * files.1 = “dhl:Notes Anaztng" files.2 = “dhl:Notes articles arexx2nctes" flies.3 = “dhl:piink cot " files.4 = “dhl:bix oct " files.5 = “rexx:loadced.rexx" files.6 = “rexx:filepage2.rexx" files.7 = files.8 ** “" files.9 =
*fill in with more favorite files* files.10 = “" files.11 = files.12 = * find longest file name so we can set window width accordingly * longest - 0 DO count*l TO 14 WHILE files.count--"" 1 = LENGTH files.count) IF I longest THEN longest=l END ¦ store total filenames in the 'zero' stem.* * Why 'count-1'? Because in the lines above, the last 'count' is a blank • * since the loop stops AFTER the count reaches a blank entry*' files.0 = count-1 • Check to make sure the needed libraries are loaded. ¦ IF -SHOW('I', “rexxarplib,library") THEN DO CALL ADDLI9(‘rexxsupport.library',0,-30,0)
CALL ADDLI3(’rexxarplib.library',0,-30,0) END IF -SHOW(’I7, "rexxsupport.library") THEN EXIT(10) IF -SHOW('1 , "rexxarplib.library") THEN EXIT(10) CALL SCREENTOFRONT() * This function is in the rexxarplib * * Window sizes. Width assumes characters are 8 pixels wide. * * Height is a function of the number of filenames * * Checks to see if final values are within normal WB range *
w. width s 25+longest*8 IF(w.width 640) THEN w.width-640
w. height » 14+14*files.0 IF (w.height 200) THEN w.height»200
w. topedge ¦ 200-w.height
w. leftedge ** 640-w.width !********************** Setup
FAVorites Host. «*¦»*»»**********»* * First, write a 2 line
temporary file to ram: which the 'newcli1 * * or 'newshell'
commands can use as a startup script, * CALL
OPEN(f,"ram:host.scp","W") CALL WRITELN(f,"rx ’CALL
CreateHost(FAVHOST,FAVPORT) ' ") CALL WRITELN(f,"endcli") CALL
CLOSE(f) ADDRESS COMMAND newshell “NEWCOK:550 175 85 20 "
FROM *ram:host,scp" * Delay until the HOST has opened its
port. *1 DO SO WHILE -SHOW(Ports,'FAVHOST') * Wait up to 10
secs for port * CALL DELAY 10 * 1 5 of a second delay * END
IF -SHOW(’Ports','FAVHOST') THEN DO * Hcst failed to open,
quit. * SAY "Couldn't open port FAVHOST."
w. idcmp = VCLOSEWINDOW+GADGETUP
v. flags = 'WINDOWCLOSE+WINDOWDRAG+WINDOWDEPTH+3ACKFILL'
w. title =* “Favorite Files" * Open the HOST window * CALL
w,idcmp,w.flags,w.title) * Note the extra comma character
added to break and continue the line * * Add the gadgets to
the HOST window. One gadget per filename. * DO i=l TO files.0
CALL AddGadget(FAVHOST,10,14*1-1,i, files.i, files.i) END *
Open our port. This is where we RECEIVE the signals from the
host port* * In this application: FAVHOST sends messages,
FAVPORT receives them.
* CALL OPENPORT(FAVPORT) DO FOREVER * Wait for messages at
FAVPORT * * Don't process an empty packet * CALL
WAITPKT(FAVPORT) p - GETPKT(FAVPORT) IF p -== NULL ) THEN DO
thisarg = GETARG(p) * Get the argument info from the packet *
* Always REPLY() as soon as possible * * User wants to quit
CALL REPLY(p,0) IF tllsarg == 'CLGSEWINDOW' THEN DO SIGNAL
ALLDONE * Skip out of loop down to ALL_DONE: * END ELSE *
Not ‘CLOSEWINDOW', MUST be a filename gadget * DO SOFTWARE
2341 Ganador Court, San Luis Obispo CA 93401
(805) 545-8515 CALL loadced.rexx(thisarg) * Load the editor *
END END Circle 1Z1 on Reader Service card.
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ALL_DQNE: * All endings come here • CALL CLOSEWINDQW FAVHOST) * Closes window AND CLI (if any) behind iz* J ADDRESS COMMAND ’delete ran:host.scpr EXIT 0 * Always gives a clean exit (returns 0) * Filepage.rexx sets up a container with up to twelve full paths and or filenames. The program then takes the longest filename, and uses its width along with the total height, derived from the number of files listed, to determine the dimensions of the window' to be created.
Next, we make sure the rexxarplib.library and the rexxsupport.library are available, add them if they're not, then confirm that they are listed. These libraries give us the ability to create a window on the Workbench screen from widiin an Arexx program. Then, we bring our Workbench screen to the front so that the window we are about to create will be visible. The next few lines calculate the appropriate size of this window, and place it in the lower right hand corner of a normal 640 X 200 Workbench screen.
The next step is to create the window, first writing a two-line script to a temporary file in ram:, then executing the script with the Newshell command. When we do that, we create a new process and a new port for that process called FAVHOST. This is the port out of which messages will be sent. We wait to see if this “host” port shows up on the port list (quitting if it doesn't), then set the rest of the parameters for our window. Then, we call OpenWin- dowO with these parameters, add the gadgets, each one of which contains a file name, and finally open the port which will receive the messages
sent by the FAVHOST port.
We want this window to function until told to go away, so we start the main loop with “DO FOREVER." We are expecting one of two possible actions at this point: clicking on one of the file gadgets or clicking on the CLOSEW1NDOW gadget. The loop waits for some message to appear, then takes the appropriate action, closing down the two processes we’ve created here, or passing a variable to our old buddy loadced.rexx. We dean up by closing the FAVHOST process, and delete the script file from ram:. Arexx takes care of deaning up FAVPORT as it exits.
You may have noticed I listed filepage.rexxas one of the files I load frequently. This is so that 1 can edit the latest favorite files in as they are needed. Then I close the filepage window, and run it again with the new file gadgets. It is easy to see how this script could be modified to do other tasks, such as executing CLI commands, loading picture or sound files, and so on.
There are several programs either in release or coming soon that can be used to manage your Arexx and multitasking environment. Thinker (Poor Person Software) is being upgraded in version
2. 0 to support Arexx; its hypertext engine can trigger the
display of picture and sound files as it jumps between linked
text. It also can be used as an index to Arexx-compatible
databases, and can send messages to .ARexx ports in other
Who! What! When! Where! Blue Ribbon Bakery has also added an Arexx port, letting you trigger an .ARexx program whenever an appointment is due. The program’s ability to handle up to 14 separate user's schedules makes it useful in a small business environment. Magellan 1,1 (Emerald Intelligence) is finally here with its Arexx port, which, in conjunction with the companion Interface Toolkit, allows you to clear, load in and attempt new knowledge bases under rule-based control. As with
1. 0, you can send Arexx commands out via the CL!, and the
Toolkit will support hooks to Lotus 1-2-3 compatible
spreadsheets like Analyze (Micro Systems Software) and
MaxiPlan 5 (Intuitive Technologies), as well as databases
created with Superbase (Precision).
The new wave of authoring and application building software gives the Amiga user the opportunity to configure their system to their own particular needs. There are currently five programs in this category, at various stages of readiness, all supporting Arexx.
CanDo (Innovatronics) will allow you to not only prototype, but actually compile stand-alone applications. V.I.V.A. (MichTron) and the as yet unnamed Commodore authoring system are both targeted at creating interactive video audio presentations, including videodisk and CD-ROM support.
TASS (Mindware) is an integrated series of modules tied together via Arexx, that can be configured to control your desktop video environment, as well as tying Together Arexx-speaking applications for business and programming tasks. Several of these modules, including an animations player, a directory requestor tool, a text viewer, and an image processing module have been released into the public domain. The commercial version will include graphics tools to configure your TASS environment with buttons to fire off Arexx scripts, and will be bundled with a new version of Page Render 3D. This
version of PageRender will use TASS to personalize your own interface to the 3D program, and supply Arexx macros to do automated rendering and object creation.
The fifth program, Ultra Card, is now in release version 1.2.2. The program allows you to prototype applications using the built- in UltraTalk language, an English-like subset of Apple’s HyperTalk language, bundled with HyperCard. In addition to creating objects (buttons, text, and data fields) that execute UltraTalk scripts, you can also fire off Arexx macros from within object, frame, and stacks scripts. Here is an example UltraTalk script frorn an object in an UltraCard stack. This stack contains a multi-line text field with a number of file paths and names in a list. When a particular file
name is clicked on, an Arexx macro passes the file name to loadced.rexx. uitraCard-ARexx Manager
- cl989 Mike Lehman and Steve Gillmor Select.Up: End_5elect.Up
Select.Down: global top.1,top.2 if shift.key is 0 - so we only
execute when not entering data get the top.line of object(me) -
so we can handle a scrolled field put it into top.l
- calculate the relative line number get the top.edge of
object(me) put it into top.2
- pixel offset is current mouse position (MOUSE.Y) minus the top
- edge of this object put mouse.y - top.2 into top.2
- make this pixel offset into a line offset (0 based) divide
top.2 by 8 - TOPAZ 8 font only
- now add a 1 based offset into the current top position
- because the LINE function uses 1 based line numbers add top.2+1
to top.l - top.l now contains valid argument for line func
- make sure we haven't clicked off the end get the
value.line.count of object(me) if top.l = it - then we are in
- Now create and run an Arexx script that talks back to UltraCard
- to get the value you clicked on and pass it to some other
program, ii this
- case LoadCED.Rexx fbegin * Obligatory Comment * address
'ULTRAl' options results "Get Line (top.lrFAVES)" * Go get
value from UltraCard * 2414 Pendleton Place ¦ Waukesha.jA l
53188 9 AM to 5 PM M-F "say it" CALL loadced.rexx(result)
lend Circle 134 on Reader Service card.
Shareware Access (Keith Young) all supporting Arexx, die telecommunication picture is the envy of odier computer platforms.
The Atredes BBS program (Incognito) will have hill Arexx hooks, as will the Paragon software when it is released later this year.
Since UltraCard has no bit-mapped paint tools, Digi-Paint 3 is a good fit with its Arexx interface. The ham paint program is Arexx-addressable, but does not allow macros to be run from within die program. The software uses its own scripting language in addition to Arexx, and a demo example is included on the disk.
The demo controls all aspects of the program, including text, shadowing, blending, transparency, and all functions accessible by either menu or mouse. The basic commands are identical for both die internal scripting language and Arexx, but you need to adapt the formats for the demo script to run widi Arexx. For example, here are several lines from the demo script DemoStartUp: put "C:run C:rx" into external.scripter - Async Arexx command Arexx go run the Arexx script shown above endif endif End_Select.Down A detailed explanation of UltraTalk is beyond the scope of this article, but briefly,
this script stores the data from die object clicked on into the UltraCard container “it”, then calculates the line number of the specific file clicked on. Then an Arexx script is created that addresses UltraCard’s port, turns on OPTIONS RESULTS, and gets this Line value as its RESULT. Then, optionally, die narrator device “speaks” the filename, and finally loadced.rexx is run with the filename passed to it. This Arexx script is then run, and, as with the previous filepage example, the file is loaded into Cy gnusEd. Widi UltraCard, not only can Arexx scripts be run from bit-mapped filled
objects, but also by clicking on hypertext-linked keywords or phrases. Ofcour.se, UltraCard also listens to its Arexx port for UltraTalk statements, so any communication in eidrer direction is possible.
Hey DigiPaint Load ;Hey DigiPaint Dnam:Images remove the semicolon to use Hey DigiPaint Fnamlmages Fashion Hey DigiPaint Okls ok load save (file requester button) Hey DigiPaint Pfil palette from file Hey DigiPaint Oklo ok load (palette, shrink, ok, cancel buttons) and here is a similar Arexx version of the same script fragment: *loacsequence.rexx* if ’show (P,' digipaint') then exit 21 * bye bye if no port *f address 'digipaint' * host address * 'load' * *Dnam:Images' remove these comment characters to use * 'FnamImages Fashion 'Okls' * ok load save (file requestor button) * 'Pfil' *
palette from file *
* 0klo'_ * ok load (palette, shrink, ok, cancel buttons * Arexx
programs currendy running from the UltraCard front end include
Nag 3.1, CygnusEd Professional, MicroFiche Filer +, and two new
releases, Baud Bandit (Progressive Peripherals and Software)
and Digi-Paint 3 (NewTek). Baud Bandit has a complete Arexx
interface, both incoming and outgoing, and telecommunication
can be easily automated widi die help of several examples in
the manual. The program is well-suited for online conferencing
and message-handling; Arexx systems are currently being written
or in place to automate Plink and Bix sessions. With Atalk III
(Oxxi), Online Platinum (Micro Systems Software), and soon the
Spotlight on Software Altered Beast .
33.69 AM AX 135.00
Animation Station 61.99
Archipelagos 27.50 Baud Bandit
. 33.99 Can Do
.. 88.99 Cross DOS
..... 24.99 Deluxe Paint III
.. 100.00 Dlgl-View Gold ..
140.00 Fiendish Freddy's Big Top 32.99 Hawaii Scenery
Disk 20.00 It Came From The Desert Call Jack
Ntcklaus Course Disk .... 14.75 MAC 2
DOS ... 85.99 Night
Dawn ... 21.25 Omega
. 31.10 Omni Play Basketball
33.89 Optlcks .. 120,00 Pen
PixetScrtpt 88.99 Populous
Powerdrome . 29.00 Red Lightning
...... 43.99 Shadow of the Beast .....
33.89 Space Quest III .... 41.00 TV“Text
Professional .. 99.00 Where USA Is Csandlego ....
30.00 White Death . 36.69 Spotlight on
Hardware 501 Clones. 512K 115,00 502 Clone,
Cltd., OK ..... 115.00 8-Upl Board OK DIP or SIMM 179.00
Color Splitter. SunRize 90.00 Floppy Drive (Int) 2000
... 90.00 Floppy Drive, Unldrive 140.00 Future Sound 500
93.95 HardFrame 2000
250.00 IMG Scan, SunRize 120.00 Joystick,
Advanced Gravis .. 39.99 Joystick, Zoomer ..
53.99 Modern, Supra 2400 ..... 125.00 Panasonic 1410
Camera .... 215.00 SCSI Controller. Byte Sync Call SCSI
Controller, Word Sync 170.00 SCSI Controller. Kronos 220.00
SupraRAM 2000 2 Megs Call Toot Box 1000
...... 222.00 VI 500 VI 2000 w RF Mod 70.00
Orders Only Please 800-544-6599 Visa MC CODs Two notes:
remember the obligatory comment at the beginning of all Arexx
scripts, and notice diat the port name is case sensitive. The
problem with using Digi-Paint 3 as a paint tool for UltraCard
is that UltraCard does not support TliM in its current release.
So for die time being, I’ve used die image-processing module
from TASS to convert from HAM to 32 colors. An Arexx macro
fiied from UltraCard runs Digi-Paint, dien takes die resulting
HAM image and processes it with TASS before automatically
reloading it into die backdrop frame of choice luck in
Justin McCormick, author of Pixmate and the FrameGrabber software (Progressive Peripherals & Software) is currently at work creating an Arexx-driven modular version of his programs. This system will consist of image processing and framegrabber modules inputing graphic data to an Arexx image server. Once loaded, the IFF pictures will be converted and stored in an internal Arexx graphic format, possibly breaking each scan line up into 64K text strings. The process is reversed to reconvert to IFF for output to whatever odier programs are chained in die external environment.
Deluxe Video III (Electronic Arts) is coming this fall with many important improvements, including support for all resolutions including HAM, multiple viewports, animbrushes, and anims in partial, as well as, full screens. Topping it off is the Arexx support, which is only in the output direction, for triggering external single frame controllers, genlocks (SuperGen so far), and odier yet to be imagined events and hardware. You simply adcl a new track and assign an Arexx macro to a point in time in your video script. When die video is played, the Arexx script is executed at the appropriate
time, and you can create interactive user-driven videos using these tracks to branch and chain anims, sounds, and music.
T. A.C.L. The Adventure Construction Language Written by
Alternate Realities. Produced by Micro Momentum, Inc.
T. A.C.L. allows you to unleash the creativity of your mind and
bring it to reality. T.A.C.L. is a full- featured
text graphics adventure language.
Anything your mind can imagine can be brought to reality using T.A.C.L. Into the future, back, in time, into the 5th dimension you arc in control.
T. A.C.L. has the following features:
- Supports IFF graphics, sound, different text styles, vector
graphics, and more.
- Includes PADV, the adventure player that is
freely-redistributable so you can distribute it with your
favorite public domain ad- entures.
- Includes VGED, a complete vector graphics editor that allows
you to have many drawings with each adventure without taking up
large amounts of
• A disk space.
It is clear that diere are many existing and soon-to-arrive programs that can interact in this new Arexx environment.
Pioneering programs like CygnusEd are being updated with more Arexx abilities, additional documentation and examples. Development software like M2Sprint (M2Sprint), Cape 68 and lnnova- tools 2 (Innovatronics) use Arexx to extend and customize their programming tools, as well as simplifying the creation of Arexx interfaces for new programs. There are holes in the Arexx workstation environment, particularly in the area of Desktop publishing and business software. PixelScript (Pixellations) has added an .ARexx port, Scannery (Inset Systems) uses Arexx to automate connecting the Amiga to HP
ScanJet, and Arexx is coming in the next version of ASDG’s Profession, i! ScanLab. In the video arena, die Mimetics Framebuffer software is Arexx-control- lable, and we will see .ARexx in Progressive’s 3D Professional, Hash's VideoTitler and Gold Disk’s MovieSetter 2.
- T.A.C.L. source code can be ported and compiled with no
modifications on other computers that
T. A.C.L. is available for (IBM and Mac versions in development).
- T.A.C.L. will allow you to create commercial- quality adventure
games. Send us a copy and we will consider distributing it for
This is a time of transition for the Amiga, with full-fledged advertising campaigns and disappearing developers, distributors, and dealers. The vendors who survive seem to understand the marketing value of Arexx, as is evidenced by the growing nu it tber of users who are taking advantage of the ability to create powerful multitasking workstation environments with the wide variety of Amiga productivity software. A freely distributable program by Khalid Aldeseri, Scripit, combines the simulation of Intuition events with an Arexx port to allow automated operation of virtually any program under
script control. The future of the Amiga is now in the hands of its users, as die tools to control them machine are now at hand. It is up to all of us to further die progress Arexx has spearheaded. Make your vote count: buy Arexx. Use Arexx, share Arexx.
- Runs on all Amigas w ith 512K RAM and AmigaDOS VI.2 or above.
- Available at Amiga dealers or direct.
Suggested Retail $ 99.95 Micro Momentum, Inc. H
P. O. Box 372 Washington Depot, CT 06794 Order Phone:
800-448-7421 Circle 125 on Reader Service card. *AC Theirs
DeluxeVideo III :iC Yours For A Special Price With DeluxeVideo
Ill's desktop video capabilities you can turn graphics,
animation, music, and sound into impressive video productions
for home or office. Powerful Visual Scripting lets you focus
on the creative process, instead of program loops and
sub-routines. Better yet, you don't trade off any power for
ease of use! Plus, for a limited time DeluxePaint III owners
can get DeluxeVideo III at a special price.
S Works in all Amiga resolution modes, including HAM. Extra-Halfbrite, overscan, and interlace.
? Define paths and edit object motion using only the mouse. Even supports Anim brushes.
Control external devices, including single frame VCR’s through Arexx1" message port Supports 8SVX sound and SMI'S music files, plus MIDI output for professional quality music.
Also compatible with oilier great products from Electronic Arts like DeluxePaint¦ III and DeluxeMusic Construction Set', GET DELUXE VIDEO ID, THE PERFECT COMPANION TO DELUXE PAINT HI FOR Ml PRICE This special limited time offer is available to Dpaint III owners until 2 28 90. Get Dvideo HI for only $ 75 + shipping & handling. OR DeluxeVideo 1.2 owners can upgrade anytime for only $ 50 + shipping & handling. For details call (US & Canada): Electronic Arts Direct Sales: 800-245-4525,8am-5pm, M-F, Pacific Time. Demo disks are available for $ 10 (applicable towards purchase). Call for details!
Suggested Retail: SI-19.95. Amiga is a registered trademark of Commodore-Amiga. Inc. Akesx is a trademark of William Hawes. DcltnrePaint, DeluieVideo, and DeluxeMusic Construction Set are registered trademarks of Electronic Aits.
DeluxeVideo III software by Mike Posehn, Granite Bay Software.
1989 Video Graphics Round-Up and a look info our crystal ball!
By Bany Solomon Well, it's just about time to bid a fond farewell to 1989 and (as we wipe a tear from our collective eye) welcome the New Year, full of promise and promises which, we all hope, will be fulfilled. It’s been an exciting year for Amiga Video and Grapliics. A few new products were released, but mostly there were new versions of old favorites. Luckily, many of these new versions were so spectacular that they seemed more like brand new programs than upgrades. Honestly, I find it an encouraging sign of a market that is maturing without stagnation.
The following products are the ones which stand out in my mind as 1989's most impressive graphics and video hardware and software. I’ve probably forgotten some neat stuff (possibly my ever-advancing age), and I may well have named something of which you are not terribly fond. My apologies either way. These are only opinions, and they're only mine, but I feel they will make me more friends than enemies. So sit back, relax, and let’s reminisce.
NEWTEK By now you’ve probably all heard about Digi-View 4.0. The folks at NewTek have been keeping very hush-hush about its development, probably because of tire incredible ribbing they've taken over the Toaster (only some of it deserved).
Anyway, they had planned to make the announcement at the AmiEXPO in San Francisco, but apparently they had decided the night before to hold off on the announcement one more week. Well, I guess the irrepressible NewTek President Tim Jennison just couldn’t hold it in. At the end of his keynote speech on Saturday he spilled the beans (much to the surprise of his pals). So the announcement was made and die world (or riiat small part of it that was willing to risk the aftershocks) got to see it!
What, you don’t know what jt is?
Why it’s hi-res HAM! That's right, in case you haven’t heard, NewTek's done it!
Dynamic HiRes (as they call it) is just one of the many new features of Digi-View 4.0 This finally allows the Amiga to display a hi- res HAM overscanned picture. (Take that, Mac! So long, IBM!) This new Digi-View upgrade also includes a feature called Dynamic HAM that is supposed to make for much sharper HAM pictures, and (they say) will “virtually” eliminale that annoying fringing common to the HAM mode. A HAM artist’s dream. And then there’s the Lbj noise reduction (no relation, I’m told) that selectively filters the background noise to allow extra-sharp pictures.
Yet anodier nifty feature of this new package is called Digi-Port. This allows you to port your captured Digi-View pictures directly into Dlgi-Painr 3. Other new features include improved multitasking, 24-bit output support, better memory management, better file requesters, 68020 support and much, much more. (By die way did you know that, according to NewTek, Commodore says that Digi-View is far and away the biggest selling piece of hardware on the Amiga market. In fact, NewTek claims it’s the world’s bestselling digitizer.) I haven't seen this miracle with my own eyes as yet, so I'm relying
on press releases as well as reports from people who were at the show. (My managing editor, apparendy feeling dial: I’m on sliaky ground as it is, refused to allow me to go to California for this show.)
Speaking of Digi-Paim 3, it’s really quite an intriguing program. Written in 100% Assembly language, NewTek claims it’s die fastest HAM program ever for the Amiga. This new version allows for antialiased fonts and rainbow fonts, and has real-time scrolling of its Super-Bitmap (1024 X1024) pictures. Anti-aliased texture mapping is another of their new features.
NewTek also deserves a serious pat-on- the-back for 1989’s outstanding contribution to customer service! With a new 800-number policy, they offer free technical support from 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. (Central Standard Time.)
HAM PAINT WARS Also new in the HAM arena this year was Photon Paint 2,0 from Microillusions. White it seems to be lacking some of Digi-Paint’s spiffier features, it does have animation!
What, you haven’t seen it yet? That’s right, it does animation. Using a relatively intuitive user interface (much like Dpaint Ill's) you can produce some very nice HAM animations. (To be fair, Digi-Paint 3, which is fully Arexx-compatible, can produce animations via Arexx, but for the hundreds of thousands of Amigans out their who don't know what .Arexx is, or do not fully understand how it works, Photon Paint 2.0 is the animator’s way to go.
I’m glad to say dial both of this year’s combatants in the HAM Paint Wars are winners and I’m happy to recommend bodi programs. Both NewTek and Microillusions may hate me for saying this, but there are a lot of HAM painters and animators out diere who are going to insist on owning both! In fact, I promise I will never use the term HAM Paint Wars again.
GENLOCKS Returning to die hardware scene, 1989 saw Magni Systems, Inc. release their S-VHS Magni boards for the Amiga. (Actually with separated Y C output that is, separate chroma and luma they are completely compatible with any Y C system such as S- VHS, BetaED and Iii-8mm video systems.)
The 4004S is truly an outstanding hybrid of Amiga technology and video technology. By the way, the folks at Magni, who have been making professional video equipment for over six years won an Emmy award diis year in the Video Engineering category. (Sorry, it wasn’t for the Amiga boards, but rather for a new test signal generator.) Congratulations, anyway: it just shows what a real video company can do.
Also new this year wras die 1187C Image Master from Neriki. This is the Y C version of their previous Image Master, with a few new features. The Neriki folks have chosen to go a different route than the people at Magni. The Neriki genlocks are outboard equipment with their own power supplies, taking up no slots in your machine. They provide dissolves and have 180-degree chroma phase control as well as synced RGB output (for studio use). Also new from Neriki is a scaled down version called the 1189C Desktop. At less dian half the price, this unit uses the same video board but provides no RG B
sync out or key out.
TITLING In die tiding arena, again we have two winners: Pro Video Gold from Shereff Systems and TV'Text Professional from die Zuma Group. Both are upgrades.
Hosvever, both have a number of exciting new features. Pro Video Gold has a number ...my personal hope for 1990 is that Commodore, the dealers, and the developers will finally realize that we’re all in this together. What’s good for the Amiga community is good for all of us.
Of new effects including several new transitions, a mirror option for the wallpaper feature, and selectable screen save sizes. PV Gold also has a new (overscan) screen size: 720 X 4480.
There is also a version of PV Gold (which should be available by the time you read this) which will mn from the Workbench. (If you are not familiar with any of the Pro Video products, diey have traditionally only run from the CLI.)
When you buy the new Pro Video Gold (or upgrade to it) you now get several sets of anti-aliased fonts. These are very nice and a number of people have anxiously awaited them. (By the way, you need at least 1.5 meg of RAM to run the anti- aliased fonts and the new Fat Agnus and at least 2 megs (1 meg chip RAM + 1 meg fast RAM] to run the Workbench version.)
As a registered owner, I upgraded to Pro Video Gold a few months ago and I have been very pleased with it. I recendy became aware (through a newsletter; they seem to have forgotten to let AC know) that they have just released four additional antialiased font sets! I was hoping to check them out for this column, but when AC contacted the usually very nice folks at Shereff about getting these fonts for review we were told, radier icily, that they do not give out fonts for review. They wouldn't even discuss it!
Personally, I was stunned!
(Question: if you made an Amiga product, wouldn’t you want to get a copy in the hands of every reviewer on the planet? I mean, if they don’t send it, we can’t write about it, and that means you can't read about it!) Anyway, my personal hope for 1990 is that Commodore, the dealers, and the developers will finally realize that we’re all in this together. What's good for the Amiga community is good for all of us. But I digress... On the TV'Text Professional side, this amazing litde program has a lot of new features. While it still doesn't do crawls, wipes, fades or any of the other marvelous page
or line transitions that PV Gold does (it’s also half the price), it can do many things that PVG cannot; and it can make beautiful title pages with practically no effort!
While it does not, per se, offer antialiased fonts, with its outline system (with adjustable diickness no less!), anti-aliasing is rarely a problem. New features include haif-brice support, 16 colors in hi-res (as opposed to 8 in the previous version), and dithering for both the background and the foreground. The new version also has the ability to lock backgrounds and stencil foregrounds. Better font handling capabilities were added as well. (The last version's font requester could list only 12 fonts while the new one can list as many as
255. A definite boon for hard drive owners!)
Personally I was not familiar widi the original TV'Text, but after only a few days of playing around with the upgraded version, I fell in love with it! Buy TVT_Pro while you can...it’sso much fun someone’s bound to come along and make it illegal!
TVT_Professional comes with three disks full of the fabulous Zuma fonts (in all sizes). If you need the kind of page transitions that only Pro Video Gold can provide there is actually no reason you can’t create your screens with TV'Text Pro and load them into PV Gold as IFF MB________ TEGHNOLO ES a- n MUSIC MODULES MUSIC MODULES it in integrated package uf toftwire programs which turn your AMIGA* into a musical instrument, a MIDI event processor, and an audio special effects generator ALL AT THE SAME TIME (I! The MUSIC MODULES STARTER KIT contains these 5 feature picked modules: KEYBOARD
CONTROLLER fuse AMY'i keys like puna kevs + mouse pitchbend & volume), MOUSE TO MIDI (use AMY's mouse to um in any one of 144 musical xcilet + pitchbend ? Volume), SAMPLED SOUNDS PLAYER (use up to 40 IFF sound files at once, each w independent volume, pitchbend. & tuning), HARMONY (automatically plays one of 29 types of harmony while you plav the melody, use multiple modules for automatic chords). MIDI DELAY A SHIFT (real time delay adjustable from 16 mtec to over 8 seconds ¦* pitchshift + feedback). MUSIC MODULES hat extensive MIDI capabilities for the pro musician but is easy to use and
entertaining for the hobbyist.
STARTER KIT ONLY S49.95 MUSIC MODULES is flexible and expandable. Call for info on new modules.
CALL: (508) 688-0599 MUSICOMP TECHNOLOGIES 176 BROADWAY,3RD FLOOR METHUEN, MA 01844 OVERSEAS SmiPPW AGO O.OT MASS. RESIDENTS ADO S* TAX VISA AND MASTERCARD ACCEPTED SEALER MJUIAIE5 WELCOME AMIGA IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK CF COMWOOOREAMGA . INC. Circle 159 on Reader Service cord.
Backgrounds. Once again, there can be many reasons to own more than one program in a category. (Keep your eyes open for an upcoming review on TVT_Pro.)
3D RAY TRACING Next in our quest we have this year’s top entrants in the 3D Ray-Tracing category: Turbo Silver 3-0 and Sculpt 4D. As any of you who have ever used these programs know, each takes a radically separate view of the problems involved; each is very different in style and form.
Turbo Silver 3.0, from Impulse, continues to be one of the ray-tracing leaders for the Amiga. Their new version
3. 0 is not a radical departure from their previous versions, but
rather an attempt (a successful one, to be sure) to make it
all come together better, and work more smoothly.
Starting off w'ith a completely new manual that offers much better documentation, they have added more (and better) menus, tweaked a lot of features, and eliminated many inconveniences (along with a few bugs).
They have also made the animation feature much simpler than in their previo us works.
I was a bit late getting this new version. Still, I spent die weekend trying it out and I just love it!
As for Sculpt 4D, their latest version
(2. 09) has also made a lot of improvements.
The people at Byte by Byte have taken the best features from all of the Sculpt-Animate series, added some new ones, tempered both with die best of user feedback, and come up with anodier winner. Enhanced scripting, better requesters, ability to type in coordinates, refractive glass mode and faster overall rendering are among the newest features. Also new are the ability to use the Anim format, several new textures, single-frame controller support, motion blur and key frame as well as global animation.
At over 17,000 users (of the entire Sculpt-Animate group), the Byte by Byte folks claim diey have diey best-selling 3D Ray Tracing software around! Maybe I'm just selfish, but I can’t live without both. I'm afraid I’m going to have to declare another de.
MISCELLANEOUS I’m going to take a lot of kidding about this, but I fell in love with a new' clip-art package last month. (I’m so easy, aren’t I?) In love?
Clip art? That’s right. The package is called PIC MAGIC and it’s from a new company called, appropriately enough, Joe’s First Company. Based in Toronto, Joey Rubenstein and friends have put out what 1 feel is a truly unique set of clip art. Over 250 super-bitmapped, black and white line drawings on ten disks. There’s just something about that sketched style that I really love. This set wrill be very useful to me in my video work as it will, I predict, for many.
OVERALL WINNER I’ve saved my favorite “new'” program for last. I think in many people’s mind, as wrell as mine, the overall winner of the year in so many ways was Dan Silva’s Deluxe Paint III from Electronic Arts. Though the initial version 1 bought was rather buggy (many problems widi memory fragmentation and, I’m told, problems running with the new fat Agnus), EA sent me the fix and 1 ’m pleased as punch with the program! (To be fair, 1 probably ran into more problems than most people w'ould because I tend to push a program like this to its limits.)
I could write pages and pages about DP Ill’s incredible new animation abilities, but, unfortunately, many odters have beaten me to the punch. I will simply say that DP Ill’s animation feature will allow me to do almost everything that I would like it to do (which is quite a lot!), and do it very well. The interface for animation and the move requester are, to put it simply, elegant. Simple-to-use and very well explained: if you have had any experience at all widi any Amiga paint program, Deluxe Pamt Ill’s excellent tutorials will have you doing beautiful animations in minutes (literallvl).
On die purely paint side, there are quite a fewr new features. They include extra-half-brite support, overscan painting, two newf brush modes, and four new fill types. Another major improvement for easily confused types (like myself) is vasdy improved documentation for their perspective feature, along with a brand- spankin’ new tutorial. This was a brilliant, very necessary move for EA as in this newr version, with its move requester (part of the animadon facility'), it is vital to really understand howr perspective works! If you have ever had any problems with or confusion about DP’s
perspective feature, this should clear tilings right up!
More Preference options, selectable brush handles, automatic outlines and a new font requester which allow's you to access fonts on any disk, in any directory are among die outstanding new features that make Deluxe Paint 111 such an important new package!
THE SHAPE OF THINGS TO COME So, w'hat does 1990 hold in score for Amiga Video and Graphics? It seems diat die big news on the horizon revolves around video hardw'are. Digital Creations, the makers of SuperGen (probably the best selling genlock out there), have already announced an entirely new' video line. It will be based around their new SuperGen 2000S: a new internal genlock board forthe Amiga.
I've talked to die folks at Digital Creations and they seem to diink diat dieir new genlock will be more than a match for the Magni (interesting concept). The entire system is composed of die 2000S, die Living Color Paint Box, the Living Color Frame Buffer, and the Living Color TBC Digitizer Option for the Frame Buffer. They will also be offering die Vmachine.
The Frame Buffer will provide the Amiga with full 16-miLion-coIor output capability and will include the Living Color Paint Box. (Digital Creations says they will have a standard Amiga-resolution version of this paint program available as well.) The Living Color TBC Digitizer Option will w'ork in combination widi die Frame Buffer to allow digitization of pictures in a full 24- bitplane (16-million color) mode. This option will include a full video Time Base Corrector.
Also included will be the Video Artist Workstation w'hich wil 1 allow* for the creation of special effects. This combination will perform real-time shrinking, zooming, and movement of the digitized image in relation to the incoming Compatible with Dpaint III animation... r TtiE JIMCIOGf Display and Animation Language 'The Director is the most powerful animation tool I use. Once this power is in your hands, you will be hooked. I have built everything with it, from a simple slideshow with sound to a complete hypermedia environment.,. this program is a must" Gene Brawn Amigaworld, June 1989 "No
video professional would be caught unarmed without this program. It’s simply the tool you use to create custom applications. With the addition of the Director toolkit it's even more powerful. If other programs, won't do what you want then it's a good bet you can do it with The Director," Oran J. Sands, III INFO, October 1989 “If an Oscar were to be presented for Technical Excellence in Amiga Graphics, the winner would certainly be (the envelope, please) - The Director.. an exciting, unique program.. likely to become a classic."
Steve King, Commodore Magazine April 1988 ... And that is only the beginning. In addition to giving you frame by frame control over multiple Anims, The Director can add page flipping, sound, text generation, and mouse or keyboard interactivity to your presentations. Create anything from the simplest slideshow to the most sophisticated desktop video production.
Script your production with an easy, Basic-like vocabulary. The Director provides powerful image and memory management, blitter, text and effects control. A freely distributable player program, the Projector, is also included.
• Use IFF images in any standard resolution including HAM and
• Preload images, Anims, fonts and sounds up to your memory limit
• Basic-like vocabulary: For Next, Gosub Return, If Else Endif
• Arithmetic expressions, random number generator, variables
• Execute AmigaDOS commands from your scripts
• Fades, Dissolves, Blits, Wipes, Stencils $ 6995
• Page flip full or partial screens
• Text string and file input and output ALSO AVAILABLE:
EXPERIMENTAL LASERDISK DRIVER ALLOWS DIRECTOR PROGRAM CONTROL
OVER PIONEER LASERDISK PLAYER FUNCTIONS. SlO.OO DIRECTOR DEMO
DISKS PROBE SEQUENCE (512K) $ 10.00 RGB (1 MEG) _$ 1000_
• Keyboard and mouse interaction
• Drawing and palette commands
• Digitized soundtrack module
• Supports IFF Anim playback
• PAL compatible
• Not copy protected NEW! DIRECTOR TUTORIAL VIDEO $ 3995 A step by
step guide to using The Director. The tape takes the novice
through AmigaDOS CU commands, script editing, adding effects to
slideshows, and page Hipping animation. The more experienced
user will learn double buffering, effects with Anims, the sound
module, the array, and advanced techniques.
TOOLKIT for THE DIRECTOR $ 3995 The Director Toolkit is a disk packed with features and enhancements to expand the capability of The Director. There are new wipe routines, a palette selector, a pie chart generator and much more. The new and enhanced BLIT Utility has a powerful interface to help create Wipe, Dissolve, and BLIT operations. It also automates toe process of moving an object over a background, generating a complete working script This disk is intended to be used with The Director software.
• New wipe routines
• Enhanced BLIT Utility including object movement over
• Standard file requester callable from Director scripts
• Screen save from Director scripts
• MIDI input module
• Standard Anim compressor Check or money order payable to: Rif
At Answers Bo* 3699 Torrance, CA USA 90510
(213) 325-1311 Please add $ 3 shipping and handling California
residents add 616% sales tax.
All orders outside the U.S. must be paid by International money order.
• Pie chart generator
• Sine and cosine functions
• Card game example
• Palette selector
• And more!
Circle 144 on Reader Service card.
Video (the signal being inputted to the 2000S). Hmmm...sounds like they may be creeping up on another company... The Vmachine, as I understand it, is a stand-alone, all-in-one TBC, Keying system and real-time Digital Video Effects (DVE) system. The folks at Digital Creations said they will try to get these new pieces to AC for evaluation as soon as they can. Personally, I can’t wait! Stay tuned for further developments.
IT SLICES, IT DICES, IT TOASTS!?
Last but certainly not least, 1990 is supposed to be the year of the Toaster!
NewTek’s Video Toaster is probably the most anxiously awaited product in Amiga history. NewTekhas taken a lot of abuse on the Toaster subject. After several long talks with the folks at NewTek, particularly Mark Randall, I honestly believe that this is really a case of a product that just kept getting better. The Toaster is the central piece of a system which will allow full 24-bitplane output (16-miilion colors) for the Amiga.
The Toaster, as planned, will be a genlock (and encoder, obviously), TBC, digitizer and Digital Video Effects Generator (DVE) with over 100 preprogrammed video special effects. With a built-in camera input switcher, the Toaster will perform its special effects magic on live video input as well as on tire Amiga’s output. Future add-ons will probably include Toaster Paint and Toaster 3D. All in all, if the Toaster is half of what NewTek claims it will be, it could sell thousands upon thousands of Amigas.
WRAPPING IT ALL VP So, 1989 will be remembered (by me at least) as an excellent and progressive year for Amiga Video and Graphics. With what 1990 holds in store, including the Amiga 3000 (you think?), OS 1.4 and the new Denise chip (anybody interested in 1000 X 800 resolution?), there’s a better-than-even chance that 1990 will blow ’89 away! It even looks like Commodore is really going to get their corporate act together in 1990.
With their new organization, new people, new dealer policies and new marketing plans (including a new ad agency and a new public relations firm) they may well stand die computer world on its collective ear next year. If those new LucasFilms-produced commercials don’t sell a ton of Amigas, then my name isn’t..,uh...what was that name again? (Just kidding!) See you all next year!
• AC* Sculpt 4D Byte By Byte Arboretum Plaza !l 9442 Capitol of
Texas Hwy., North Suite 150 Austin, TX 78759
(512) 343-4357 Price: S499.95 Inquiry 218 SuperGen 2000S
Vmachine Living Color Frame Buffer (w L.C. Paint Box)
Living Color TBC Digltizer Option (w Video Artist
Workstation) Digital Creations 1333 Howe Ave., 208
Sacramento, CA 95825
(916) 344-4825 SuperGen2000S: SI595.00 Prices on Frame Buffer,
TBC, and Vmachine unavailable inquiry 219 Deluxe Paint HI
Electronic Arts 1820 Gateway Drive San Mateo, CA 94404
(415) 571-7171 Price: $ 149.00 Inquiry 220 Products Mentioned
Turbo Silver 3.0 Impulse, Inc. 6870 Shingle Creek Parkway
112 Minneapolis, MN 55430
(612) 566-0221 Price:$ 199.95 Inquiry 221 PiC MAGIC Vol. 1 Joe's
First Company 208 Glenayr Road Toronto, Ontario Canada
(416) 322-6119 (800) 387-8967 Price: S85.00 Inquiry 222
Magni4004S Magni Systems, inc. 9500 S.W. Gemini Drive
Beaverton, OR 97005
(503) 626-8400 Price: SI695.00 ($ 1995.00 with 4010 rem ote)
Inquiry 223 Photon Paint 2.0 Microillusions 17408
Chatsworth St. Granada Hills, CA 91344
(818) 360-3715 Price: $ 149.00 inquiry 224 1187C Image Master
1189C Desktop Neriki Dist. ByTelmak, Inc.
P. O. Box 54 Plainview, NY 11803
(800) 637-4540 1187C Image Master: $ 2200.00 1189C Desktop:
$ 1050.00 Inquiry 225 Video Toaster Digi-Paint 3 NewTek 115
W. Crane Si.
Topeka, KS 66603
(913) 354-1146 Video Toaster: $ 1595.00 Digi-Paint 3: $ 99.95
Inquiry 226 Pro Video Gold Anti-aliased Font Sets Shereft
Systems 15075 S.W. Roll Parkway Suite G Beaverton, OR 97006
9503) 626-2022 Pro Video Gold: S 299.00 Font Sets: $ 129.95 each
inquiry 227 Revieiv by R.J. Hicks So you thought it was
easy to be a paperboy. The arcade classic, Paperboy brings
home how difficult and challenging the job of news carrier
PAPERBOY Life in the News Business Paperboy, for the Amiga, works on the Amiga 500 1000 2000 with 512K required. A joystick is recommended for easier play.
After the initial title screen appears and the introductory music is played, the player is offered a menu selection of one of three delivery routes: Easy Street, Middle Road or Hard Way. Once you have selected a level of difficulty, you must brave the path you have chosen. As you begin your route, you have a certain amount of customers.
Your job is to deliver a paper to each house with a mailbox labeled “SUN”. Sound easy?
Complete the track in the amount of time given in order to advance to the next day.
Crashing in the practice track ends your bonus time, but does not cost a life.
Your boss’ daily report appears after the practice track. The screen will display a row of houses ¦which are colored in yellow and gray. The gray shaded houses are non-subscribers, w'here as tine yellow' shaded houses are still your customers for at least one more day. If on any day you did not miss one customer, the words “PERFECT DELIVERY" will appear on one of the streets you see on the screen.
As you progress through the w'eek your task becomes even more challenging.
As you pedal along the street you will encounter obstacles determined to keep you from reaching your goal. Among some of the hazards you will find on your way are charging dogs, daydreaming pedestrians, rolling tires, speeding traffic, runaway lawn mowers, and possessed remote control cars. Failure to deliver a paper to a customer will result in one less subscriber. If you break the window' of a customer, the result will be the same.
Your wreek starts on Monday with six lives. These lives will be lost by an unfortunate collision with any obstacle.
Points will be scored by breaking windows of non-subscribers, correctly delivering to subscribers and by picking up stacks of papers off the sidewalk. The stacks of papers not only earn you points, but replenish your paper supply for your customers.
Bonus points, which will be used at tire practice track, are accumulated by hitting an interfering pedestrian with a newspaper, knocking off the tops of gravestones or striking garbage cans.
If you make it through the first day with as little as one life left, you will enter ffie practice track. The time you are allowed to weave your way through the practice track is based upon bonus points accumulated during the day. As you rapidly make your w'ay through the course, you throw newspapers at bull’s-eyes to score extra points. Jumping ramps gives you extra papers to toss. It is not necessary to The obstacles become more frequent and persistent, If you survive the first week on Easy Street, you are advanced to Middle Road.
The only drawback seen so far is the inability to gain extra lives. On a whole, the game is fast-paced, challenging and most of all a whole lot-o’-fun.
• AC* PAPERBOY Mindscape, Inc. 3444 Dundee Rood Northbrook, IL
(312) 480-7667 Price:49.95 Inquiry 240 POWERDROME With the
current popularity of simulations, nearly every subject has
been modeled, from cars and planes to motorcycles and
tanks. Companies are always searching for a way to make
dieir product stand out and break new ground. Electronic
Arts seems to have found a slightly new twist in die
popular racing genre with Powerdrome.
Powerdrome takes the player to the 25th Century, where race cars have grown wings. The goal is to win die Cybemeufe trophy. And only a few final races remain, but your opponents are four of the meanest and most determined racers in the galaxy.
Only one of you will walk away with the trophy.
Your craft is a quad boosted Typhoon racer, one of the most powerful spacecrafts in the galaxy. Fortunately, it is not limited to die ground like racers of old; for the tracks are no longer flat, rather they are a tortuous series of three dimensional twists and turns designed to tax the skills of even die most proficient racer.
One at a time, you will need to learn and conquer each of the five racetracks that make up the championship circuit. Not only will you have to learn die precise layout of each, but you will need to adjust your craft's performance to make the most of the Looking out the windshield of your quad booster Typhoon racer.
Different atmosphere at each site. Ranging from filter changing to speed and yoke controls, these factors will allow you to squeeze the maximum performance out of the craft, without losing control.
The main play screen features the dash board of your vehicle along the bottom of the screen, with the usual readouts of fuel level, speed reading, engine temperature, and other important information.
The top section shows the current race clock information. All of the rest of die screen is taken up by a clear view out your front windshield. Three dimensional solids are used to render most items during the race, including opponent’s craft and die racetrack itself. Limiting the race to a son of "tube" avoided a lot of the extra scenery found in most traditional racing games.
Eidier the joystick or the mouse can be used to control the craft during flight.
1 found the joystick to work the best, pushing it in eidier of die four principle directions turns your craft that way, while pressing the fire button and pushing the stick forward or pulling it back to eidier accelerate or decelerate your ship. Unfortunately, the controller cannot be switched during game play, and since the mouse is the default controller, you must watch out at game start, or you may be in for a long uncomfortable lap.
Three basic options are available for racing, you can practice any track, you can race any track, or you can compete in die championship circuit. You can choose your own track for the first two options, selecting the third causes the program to take you to each track in succession until you have finished the entire series.
Prior to a race, each racer must run a qualifying lap to determine their place in the starting lineup. Then the race will begin. Round and round die track you go until you either complete the required number of laps or drop out of the race to finish last. A pit area is available each lap for stops to repair and refuel your craft. But do not take too many or you are sure to finish last.
While I found die controls a bit difficult to master, I could easily recommend the game to any racing game fan.
They even have a head to head option which is included, so you can play against a buddy, or widi either an Amiga o r an Atari ST with another copy of the program.
Golf pro Jack Nicklaus sets up for his shot.
JA CK NICKLA US GOLF Computerized golf has long been one of my favorite subjects. While I have never golfed myself, I enjoy the feeling of making par on some of die toughest courses in the
U. S. Accolade has just released a new entry in this area, Jack
Nicholas’ Greatest 18 Holes of Major Championship Golf. Quite
Where to begin? The game is very good. I would say it was the best I have seen except for a couple frustrations I will mention a litde later. The graphics are the best I have seen in a golf game for the Amiga, yet. A wide variety of colors are used to provide a good feel for what the course is like.
The various parts of each hole, tee, rough, fairway are all well distinguished, with black used for shading and to indicate sloping. The trees and hazards are all
• Jack Nicklaus’ 18 Holes of Championship Golf
• Fiendish Freddy’s Big Top O' Fun
• Shoot ’em Up Construction Kit rendered in intricate detail and
add greatly to die feel of -'being there”.
The normal play screen features die usual power bar found in most golf games along die left hand side. The bottom holds a status area for the current active player.
The rest of the screen is taken up with a three dimensional perpective view of the area in front of die golfer. The feel of depth is maintained, and you can easily see the ball sailing down the fairway after a successful shot. An overview of die current hole is available before any stroke, and this also has a nice appearance.
Included with the basic program are three different courses to play on, jack's pick of the 18 best holes in golf and two courses designed by Mr. Nicklaus, Casde Pines in Colorado and Desert Mountain in Arizona. An additional course disk of Oak Hill, Royal Troon, and Kemper Lakes is also available.
Either die mouse or die keyboard can be used during play, and both work equally well. Once die shot has been set up, the player must dick the mouse button at three different times as a power bar rises and falls in the power box area.
The more accurate each click is, the more accurate die shot should be.
While you will most often strive for the ideal shot, it can be advantagious to occasionally error intentionally, such as hooking a ball to counteract a strong wind.
While most games usually allow one to four people to compete in normal head to head play, JN Golf goes even furdier and plows some new' ground. Eight different computer players are provided as possible partners. They range in skill, from die relative novice, to Jack himself. While it can be fun to beat the "bad” players, true joy comes when you finally win a game against the pro, Mr. Nicklaus.
JN Golf also allows you to play the skins varient of golf against one or more computer or human opponents. In skins, each hole counts for casli awards. While each hole can pay off any amount, it generally works that the first six holes will pay one price, the next six will pay twice that, and the final six wil pay three times that. The cash winnings for any tied hole are carried over to the next one, making for a some very tense dmes and large pots.
As I said, the game is not widiout its flaws. Because of the graphical detail, the three dimensional view draws slowly, you can almost see each vertical line getting added to the picture in sequence.
Anodier problem is supposed to be a feature. The pin is randomly moved around the game each playing session.
While this does allow for more variety, the location algorithms are not quite perfect and can sometimes put the pin in a location that is extremely hard to get to. Just before writing this article, I was playing a skins game where the third hole’s pin happened to be just on the edge of a steep slope. This might not have been so bad except that even lighdy putted balls would roll right down the hill and into die nearby water, adding a 1 stroke penalty.
The final problem I noticed is the speed of the program. Besides the delays for drawing the perspective graphics, die game takes alot of time to get onto the next hole. There are so many informational screens and hints from Jack to wade through that going from hole to hole can get tedious.
On die whole, 1 like the game very much. The problems with the game are relatively minor and fade when put up against the excellent graphics and nice interface used for play.
TARGHAN On to Targhan, imported into the U.S. by DigiTek Software. This is a graphical adventure with many arcade-like qualities in which you must free your world from the influence of die evil one. (Isn't that how these always go?) The entire game is supposed to contain 120 different landscapes and 40 different character types.
The best part of the game is its graphics. The backgrounds and character sprites are equal to those in any other Amiga game I have seen. All views are from the side, the same as in Sword of Sodan or Prison (reviewed last month). A nice added feature is the illusion of depth given during game play. If you walk behind a pillar, you will seem to disappear behind it until you reach the other side. This is nice, but can be confusing sometimes with a few- of the wider pillars.
Ccontinued on page 52) Mankind had finally done it. After decades of pollution the Greenhouse Effect became a reality', causing tire polar ice caps to melt, flooding the Earth. The great continents were reduced to mere islands, at which time man built nuclear reactors to supply energy' to a dwindling civilization.
But it was too late to change the planet, and as a result man terraformed and colonized the moon, leaving Mother Earth behind.
Archipelagos Your chance to save the world?
Review by Miguel Mulet After hundreds of years, man has returned to reclaim the Earth. The earth remains mainly water with 9,999 archipelagos scattered across radioactive oceans. On these archipelagos remain the decaying nuclear reactor obelisks and their power nodes, along with die bizarre plant- life that can still live on the radioactive planet. Your job, should you accept it, is to decontaminate these archipelagos one at a time.
The title screen from Archipelagos showing the viral trees, the obelisk, and the power node.
That is the premise of die game Archipelagos. Returning to earth in a hoversphere, your official title is “Environmental Purifier" (EP). Using the mouse to move die hoversphere over land, it is your job to purify what is left of Earth.
On each Archipelago, the main goal is to destroy die nuclear obelisk and its power distribution nodes. To do this, you must make sure that each node has a nonradioactive path connecdng it txith die obelisk. Then the node can be destroyed with an undescribed device in the hoversphere.
After all die nodes have been destroyed, you have 90 seconds to return to the obelisk and destroy it before it reaches critical mass. If you are successful, you may move on to another archipelago. If not, you are "reborn" to try again.
Hindering your task are several obstacles. The first is decontaminating radioactive or creating nonradioactive land to connect the power nodes to the obelisk. This drains the hoversphere’s power quickly, limiting the amount of terraforming that it can do. To replenish the ship's energy, shoot the numerous “sand pods” which can be found on the islands. This increases your energy' a little at a time. These sand pods regrow, usually in the same vicinity, allowing you to return for more energy' later.
The hoversphere does not allow you to hover over radioactive land, sand, or water, because this would instandy cause your death. Thus, you cannot move onto a radioactive piece of land. Areas of radioactivity can move under where you are hovering if you are not careful. This occurs when the mutant viral trees, which were invented to cleanse the air but failed, move closer to you. You must also beware of the Necromancers. These were previous EP's which have died and became supernatural spirits that are bent on your failure. They appear as large eyeballs which surface to watch you. Their greatest
direat to you comes from dieir activity.
While you try to connect die power nodes to the obelisk, diey are destroying what you have already connected.
The hoversphere affords an almost 360 degree view. To look to the left, move die crosshair (using die mouse) to die left.
If you feel lost, you can get an overhead map displayed on die computer screen by hitting F2 (the map is also displayed before you start each archipelago). To decontaminate a parcel of land, point die crosshair at the contaminated square, and hit die FI key. To create land where there Meet a team of the friendliest financial organizers you’ll ever run across.
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VISA SEDONA SOFTWARE SEDONA SOFTWARE 11828 RANCHO 8ERNARD0 RD . SUITE 128-20 SAN DIEGO, CA 92128 CALL (619) 451-0151 is water, do the same thing point the crosshair at the water and press FI. Moving your hovershpere is done in a similar fashion just move die crosshair to the square you want to move to, and press the left mouse button. To destroy nodes and obelisks, or to drain energy from a sand pod, just point,at die crosshair at the object and hit die left mouse button.
The game graphics are fairly sparse.
Looking at the screen, you can see a pseudo 3D display which shows the landscape going off into the distance. The land is made up of colored squares, Any shade of green is safe, nonradioactive land, anything else is radioactive. Superimposed on this background are die viral trees, sand pods, obelisks, nodes, etc., illustrated in two dimensions. At the bottom left of the screen is a green energy bar, which decreases as you use energy. At die bottom right of die screen is die number of power nodes diat are present and how many more of them that must be destroyed. When all the nodes have been
destroyed, a red “time” bar appears, and diminishes as time runs out. The graphics aren’t bad, but diey’re not spectacular eidier. Several times during game play the screen would Circle 119 on Reader Service card.
Momentarily flash a litde bit of graphic garbage which would disappear, and sometimes the timer bar would leave litde pieces behind. Neidier of these problems were very annoying, but they could have used a little more polish.
Use of sound in Archipelagos was a little better, with a continuous sound track which plays in the background. This soundtrack changes when all the nodes have been destroyed, to indicate that you only have 90 seconds left to reach and destroy the obelisk. The sound can be toggled on and off with the F7 key.
Unfortunately, there is no pause key. The player must finish the archipelago or start over.
Once again, copy protection rears its ugly head. At the beginning of the game, the player must enter a HOVERSPHERE ACTIVATION CODE in order to get the game to start. I didn’t mind diat; the problem is that they printed the codes with black ink on maroon paper (maybe so they couldn’t be copied?). This scheme is EXTREMELY difficult to read (And I just returned from the ophtiialmologist, who assured me I have 20 20 vision), As you go from archipelago to archipelago, die game saves the highest level achieved. That’s OK except that means you have to turn off the write-prorect notch, and I’m always
afraid that somediing is going to happen which will destroy the disk. Backups are available for S12 when you send die registration card in, Replacement disks are available after die 90-day warranty period also for $ 12, Overall, Archipelagos is a fair game.
I found die game too easy at the outset; it was only after the 13di archipelago diat die game became a little more challenging. I found myself growing increasingly more tired of the game after about 3 to 4 hours of play. 1 can’t tell you what happens if you decontaminate all 9,999 levels I don’t think I’ll ever get that far. My best advice is to tiir before you buy.
Archipelagos Developed by Logotron Published by Fanfare, a division of Britannica Software 345 Fourth Street San Francisco, CA 94107 Price: $ 39,95 Inquiry 210 (continued from page 49) The game includes a nice little background sound track that plays at various times, though it is not that long and can become annoying. Actual game action sounds are appropriate, you grunt when you thrust your sword, the bats screech as they come at you, and you can hear the giant smash the ground with his club. All are realistic and seem to be digitized.
Targhan starts to falter in the area of control. Either a joystick or the keyboard can be used for control but Targhan requires too much to be done with the joystick. Without the button pressed, each of the nine possible joystick directions causes a possible movement action, and with it down, the nine directions each cause a combat action. It will take a bit of training to get the right combination at the right time. Unfortunately, you may be dead before you figure out what you arc doing.
And since diagonals are important, it is very easy to do the wrong tiling if you are off just a hair.
The game plot is very simple, keep pressing into each new screen until you reach the end and kill everything that you come across that will stand still long enough. They are all against you.
The game can be very annoying. The manual Is very sparse, and besides a little backgrotind fiction and joystick control diagrams, it contains little of real value to game play.
Those who enjoy sweating over tricky puzzles and quick arcade-style action may enjoy the game. If you get frustrated easily, you should probably look elsewhere.
FIENDISH FREDD Y A sinister scumbag is about to call your $ 10k note and bankrupt your circus, and he has sent Fiendish Freddy to foil any attempt at financial freedom. To survive, you must perform six perilous feats with perfect precision and raise enough money so the show can go on.
Each event has its own personality.
Horace tire high diver jumps into small buckets, performing various poses on the way down. Jeffy-Joe the Juggler dazzles the crowd with his juggling skill. Finola of the Flying Fuller Family performs death defying acts of courage in scanty outfits high above the center ring.
Knancy Knife spins around while you use your culinary arsenal to eliminate the many balloons scattered about the circle she is spinning on. Tony Tiptoe totters across the high wire. And Fernando, The Human Cannonball, aims himself at a mobile target.
Fiendish Freddy has his own tools in each event to ruin your clay. Take too long to pose Horace, and on he comes with a large portable fan to blow our hero off course, and splat! He will be glad to throw a bomb or missile into the juggling queue, ruining your day if you should drop it.
The animation in FFBTOF is truly wonderful. It has an animated feel to it reminiscent of die old Saturday morning cartoons. All actions are animated out, and you will often find yourself intentionally losing just to see what will happen. The sound also fits with the theme and is well done.
Each event can be practiced before you attempt to raise the needed money, and practice you will need to do. Some activities can be learned quickly, while others are very' difficult to master. The game also works well with multiple players. Each will compete not only to raise tire needed SlOk, but also to outscore all other scores.
The joystick is die input device, and each event has its own guidelines about what various positions mean. A few of die events are fairly simple and can be mastered quickly, but some will require many hours of play to become comfortable with the necessary gyrations to perform at peak efficiency.
I would almost recommend getting the game just for the animations, they are almost worth the price all by themselves.
Play is fairly good, though the difficulty' to master some events is annoying.
SHOOT ’EM UP CONSTRUCTION KIT Finally, this month, I want to take a quick look at the Shoot ‘Em Up Construction Kit.
Released under the Avantage label from Accolade, it is designed to allow anyone to produce their own arcade game in minutes.
The package includes three sample games created with the system, This can serve as examples to help start the would be game designer down the creative path.
The program includes all the tools necessary' to create all the components of a video game. You can create and edit sprites, the characters and bullets that move around tire screen; backgrounds, generally these scroll, but they can be static if desired; and sound, what sounds are made when you die, an enemy dies, your bullets hit, etc. Don't plan on building the next Defender with the program. True arcade game construction requires a bit more delving into programming than what is provided here. But that does not mean tire package is worthless. Enough is provided that a would-be designer can
leam many things about good game design by doing some design of their own, later, that person can apply those same techniques to “real” programming.
I have to admit I did not create any of my own games. I simply played around a bit with the program and the sample games they included. After playing the samples I was very' dissapointed with their quality'.
But when I reconsidered tire price point of tire program, I decided it might be worth while after all.
As long as your expectations aren't to high, you couldn't do that wrong buying this “toolkit". If anyone designs any games with tire system they drink are truly great, please send me a copy. I would like to know if the package can truly do more than I think.
Hopefully you all get lots of good new games for Christmas. Happyr Holiday’s!
• AC* Products Mentioned Powerdrome Electronic Arts 1820 Gateway
Drive San Mateo. CA 94404
(415) 571-7171 Price: S39.95 Inquiry 212 Jack Nicklaus’ Greatest
18 Holes of Major Championship Golf Accolade 550 South
Winchester Boulevard. Suite 200 San Jose, CA 95128 Price:
849,95 Course Disk: 819.95 inquiry 213 Targhan ¦ Produced
by Simllarls Distributed by Star Games 708 W. Buffalo Ave.
Suite 200 Tampa, FL 33603 Price: $ 39.95 inquiry 214 ..
Fiendish Freddy’s Big Top O' Fun ; Mindscape 3444 Dundee
Road Northbrook, IL 60062
(408) 985-1700 Price: 849.95 inquiry 215 Shoot ‘Em Up
Construction Kit Accolade 550 South Winchester Boulevard.
Suite 200 San Jose. CA 95128 Price-SI9.95 Inquiry 216
Profile by Barry “Santa”Solomon Ho, ho, ho!. Merry
Christmas, Feliz Navidad, 'TLs die season, etc. Well, it’s
that time again! Most of you folks out there in Amigaland
are probably preparing for Christmas or Hanukkah. Well,
whatever your holiday, I’m sure you'll have a great time.
Tilings will build to a fever pitch, gifts will be
exchanged, old friends will be hugged, strangers will be
kissed (under the mistletoe!?). This old Santa sees only
one problem: no matter how much fun the holidays are, there
is always that big letdown afterwards. And often, the more
fun you have, the bigger the letdown! Bah, humbug.
‘Tfie Great Glmiga tHotiday Qames Tvp This year, however, there’s a cure on die horizon. If you're one of the thousands of avid Amiga game players out there, then this Santa's got a big tip for you.
Actually, this is a two-part tip. Part one? The Star-Cursor Professional Computer Joystick System. Phew! That's a long name for just a joystick. But it isn't for this particular joystick. Manufactured between "barbies” in the Land Down Under, this joystick is hot. Multicoin Amusements (the proud folks who make this little wronder) happens to be a large manufacturer of “real" professional joysticks (i.e., die ones used in arcades).
This nifty little sdck has a large square-ish base for stability. On the bottom are four sturdy suction cups. They work!
Give them a nice smooth desk-top to hang onto and they will for dear life. Handheld joysticks are nice, but give me diat good old, solid built-in, “arcade feel" anytime. Just close your eyes; you’ll swear you're at an arcade.
The PCJS (as I like to call it) is a two- button joystick with one button on die stick and two on die base. (One of die buttons on die base duplicates die stick button.)
There is no switch for base or stick. I especially enjoy this feature because it allows me to change my firing mode at will.
(And when I’m in the heat of battle I’m very unpredictable!)
There is also a switch on the bottom of the base which allows you to change between 4-way (up, down, and side-to- side), and 8-way (die same plus diagonals) contacts. This truly professional touch can really customize the stick for the particular game you play.
The Star-Cursor has just the right “click” to its contacts, and just the right “feel”. Even die buttons feel just like the real thing from the arcades.
What about Part Two of Santa's Great Amiga Game Tip? Well, this one will only help out if you are the kind of Amigan who loves a good shoot 'em up. If these are the games that really get your blood running, well pards, strap on your six-shooters and follow me.
The tip: buy an Uzzi!! Wait, wait... Before you call your local fuzz (oops! I gave away my age!), I mean the Micro Momentum Uzzi. This little gem comes not from Australia, but from (of all places) New England (practically around the comer as this crow flies).
This lean, mean, arcade machine weighs in at around, well... about die same as two packs of cigarettes. And it's only about, oh, half the size of a pack of cigarettes. (Sorry, I recendy quit!) But you get die idea.
What die Uzzi does is give you automatic, continuous firing at a rate much faster than these old fingers can muster. The Uzzi can provide you with fire rates up to 30 times faster than normal, depending on the game. That’s right, diere’s a catch. It goes like this depending on the game, the Uzzi either: A, won’t work at all; B, won’t make much difference; orC, tear your head right off your shoulders.
Apparendy, ir depends on the game; die language die game was programmed in, the operating speed of the microprocessor and how often die joystick is “read” by the game program are among the factors which determine the Uzzi’s effectiveness. It seemed, from my tests, diat the Uzzi was more likely to work well with newer games, but I doubt if that’s an absolute. On some games die Uzzi just doesn't do much, and on some others it does nodting. Luckily, those clever Micro Momentumites put a little pass-through toggle switch on it. If you don't want to use the Uzzi or if it doesn’t work on die game
you’re currently playing, just flip the switch: no more Uzzi. This saves a lot of unpleasant plugging and unplugging.
When it works, watch out. I meant to spend a couple of minutes widi it, but it ended up being a couple of sweaty and scary hours!
The Uzzi Interface works with any Amiga or C64 128 as well as (Heaven forbid!) An Atari and can be put in-line with ant’ input device (mouse, joystick or trackball). The Uzzi has an adjustable fire rate and even a spiffy little firing rate indicator light. Even though it won’t work on every game, if you’re a hue Amiga game fanatic die Uzzi is a must.
So, what is the perfect game player's cure for die After Holiday Blues? Take a Star-Cursor and an Uzzi, have a groovy time (darn, I did it again!) And call me in January.
...Merry Christmas to ail, and to all a good night.
Santa Santa Mentioned: Star Cursor Professional Computer Joystick System, $ 49.95 Manufactured by: Muiticoin Amusements Pty. Ltd.
Queensland. Australia Distributed by: Micro Momentum, Inc.
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P. O. Box 372 Washington Depot, CT 06794
(800) 448-7421 Inquiry 239 by Ben andJean Means Commodore has
pu: on a whole new face in a S15 million ad campaign, and
they threw a world class party with celebrities,
limousines, lobster and champagne to celebrate “The
Computer for the Creative iMind.” It was die Amiga event of
the year, and what a party it was! Commodore unveiled their
new commercials with a cast of stars like astronauts Buzz
Aldrin, Scott Carpenter and Gordon Cooper, Burt Bacharach,
Litde Richard, Tommy Lasorda, the Pointer Sisters (in
sparkles and feathers), former Speaker of the House Tip
O’Neill brandishing a fried chicken drumstick, and of
course Stevie Palmer and die litde Amiga That Could. We had
heard that the new commercials were exciting, but who was
prepared for this!?! You haven't seen so many celebrities
in one place since the Academy Awards, not to mention an
arsenal of Industrial Light and Magic special effects. No
other commercial had ever levitated a house before! It was
Commodore’s handsome new president Harry Copperman said, “We put together an advertising campaign that not only would relaunch the product line, hut would demonstrate that Commodore is a high quality company, capable of producing high quality products and representing ourselves in a high quality fashion. This campaign is designed to relaunch a very exciting product and position Commodore where it really belongs.’1 So Commodore loosened their purse strings, and Julie Bauer, Director of Marketing Communications, hired Messner Verere Berger Carey Schmetterer, an ad agency that AD WEEK, agreeing
with Fortune and The New York Times, named “Creative Agency of the Year.” Messner Vetere produced the slick full-color seven, (that's right, seven!) Page spread to appear in Time, Life and Newsweek, followed by a stretch of single page ads. But the Great Commodore Coup was signing LucasFilms to produce their commercials. Finally the old stigma of last year’s "Scratch and Sniff’ spots could he laid to rest. Advertising Age called the new spots, which are the first LucasFilms commercials ever aired, “wonderful, hilarious."
Commercial Rollout Copperman said, “It still amazes me that we spent as much money as we did, and it's over in 60 seconds. But the papers say I got my money’s worth, because they're high quality with a lot of detail the kind of commercials that you can watch ten or 20 times and still see something different.’’ Commodore strutted their stuff with world-class excellence in two days of by Geoffrey Williams It looks like Commodore is getting serious about the Amiga. With many new executives and an enthusiastic outlook, Commodore launched their new $ 15 million dollar advertising campaign in
October. With both expensive multi-page print ads and a television campaign directed by feature film director Matthew Robbins, the Amiga will finally be getting some attention.
Much ofwhat prompted the campaign was the desire by new Commodore executives to help the Amiga reach its potential. One of the major players championing the new approach to marketing is Lloyd Mahaffey, Vice President of Marketing. Prior to coming to Commodore, he spent six years at Apple, starting out in sales and moving up into running their U.S. Education department.
Following that, he was Director of Apple's Federal Sales program in Washington, D.C. Behind The Scenes He finds it amusing to now be talking about the .Amiga. “In 1986, when I was director of U.S. education for Apple, we took a hard look at the Amiga and said, 'You know, if some smart marketing executive ever decided to make this product a serious threat in the marketplace, we’d be in real trouble’. Only in the fall of 1987 did Commodore make that kind of push, and it didn't really go anywhere, so tltrec years later I get to figure out whether the V.P. of Marketing, which is me. Is smart
enough to make that threat happen." It appears that he takes tins challenge seriously.
According to Commodore President Harold Copperman, who spent twenty yearswith IBM and 2 years at Apple as their VP of Eastern Sales, he came to Commodore to tum the U.S. sales situation coast-to-coast fetes held in New York, Los Angeles and Washington D.C. Fleishman- Hillard, Commodore’s public relations agency, kicked off die marathon gala in New York's financial district on Wednesday, October 11. USAToday aired die story on television, and in its Thursday edition even the Wall Street Journal toasted Commodore's optimisdc future after a laclduster past.
The Commodore exec team lived in jets and limos as diey spanned four time zones twice in two days for press conferences held later that night in Los Angeles and the next day in Washington.
Commodore spared no expense to repair its faded, somewhat battered image, and this reporter was on the scene at the lavish LA affair where even the setting in Hollywood’s glamorous Raleigh studios-made you feel starstruck.
A large white tent billowed elegandy in die soft California night air of the Raleigh studio bacldot while valets parked cars and extras made casting calls at die neighboring stage. Commodore turned out in full force with CEO Copperman, Marketing Vice President Mahaffey, Vice President of Sales Ken Weber, Marketing Communicadons Director Julie Bauer, PR Director Kate Prohaska, Ad Manager Marian Dunshee, the charming Western Sales Manager Ed Havlik, Video Savant Keidi Masavage and of course the infamous techie Rick Unland.
With faces wreathed with smiles, they pumped our hands in goodnatured abandon. (A memo had come down from up high, ordering all Commodore employees to “be nice to people.’’) The carefully pressed dark suics of the Commodore execs stood out against the elegant glow of candles whose shadows danced upon the tent. The tables were set with w'hite linen cloths and centerpieces of lilies, roses and baby's breadi, while waiters in tails and bow des served endless silver trays of canapes. A center buffet displayed yet more tempting treats on gleaming silver beneadi tall exotic flowers. The smoked lamb
on puff pastry was particularly good, but others argued favorably on the merits of die lobster quiche. The open bar stocked name-brand liquor, along with wine, beer and champagne, w:hich all flowed freely. Were we in the right place, or had we mistakenly stumbled onto the set of “Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous”?
If the Amiga is dubbed “Hollyw-ood’s Best Kept Secret,” then the posh LA press around. Wltile Commodore is now a successful $ 2 billion company, most of its sales are overseas. He realized that they needed to put togedter a muld-product strategy diac would reflect die Amiga's leading edge technology and create consumer awareness of its capabilities, which he feels have been a well kept secret.
The campaign was also designed to help turn Commodore’s reputation around, and reposition them as a high quality company that produces high quality products.
Copperman has first hand experience widt the popularity of die machine. His son left his Macintosh at home in favor of the Amiga when he went away to college. He felt it did everydiing he needed die Mac to do, plus it had many other capabilities unavailable on the more expensive Mac.
The new ad agency that developed the campaign was hired last May. It is a well- respected firm with clients such as Walt Disney World and LIFE magazine. It’s interesting to note diat two of the firm's partners w'ere also responsible for the launch of the Commodore 64, one of the most successful computers of all time.
Tom Messner, a partner in die firm and an important figure in the campaign’s development, feels that the Amiga is unique in the marketplace beyond just its teciinical capabilities. After doing research on Amiga users, he discovered that they were "extremely passionate about this computer. It wasn’t just some passing diing in their lives. It was a key thing in their lives.
They wrere also not computer nuts. What diey were is video nuts, they were music nuts, they were graphics nuts. They weren’t computer hackers as much as they were music hackers or animation hackers. The computer in dieir lives made these diings happen. If there was anydiing in common, it was the creative mind - someone with ideas and imagination and thought. They wanted to use this computer to make those diings come alive.” This realization that Amiga users -were much different from most computer users was the jumping off point for the wdiole campaign, and the inspiration for die new slogan,
"The Computer for die Creative Mind.” Another factor that strongly influenced the look of bodi the print ads conference must have been its second best secret because where was die press? With such elegant fare, a critically acclaimed LucasFilms director, the CKO of a billion dollar NYSE corporation, astronaut Buzz Aldrin. Little Richard and most importantly free liquor, how can you keep the press away? We didn’t even see the cute invitations, but we heard they were “darling little shirts with a tie made of film clips from the commercials.’’ Only supersleuth reporters with esp survived to take
a great story back to copy-hungry editors.
Certainly, there were a lot of Fleishman-Hillard people in attendance, and one representative laughed nervously, “We wanted to fill the tent.” LAAUG’s affable President Rick Smith made the understatement of tile evening; thrilled by the new Commodore, he was “unimpressed by Fleishman Hillard.’’ Bodi New York and Washington had strong attendance, and one industry spokesperson wanted to know why Commodore events don't do well in LA.
These reporters can furnish him widr one small hint: having written dozens of articles praising die Amiga, we weren't even in Fleishman-Hillard’s LA office database.
More amazingly, Jean’s name tag read “Amazing Computer;" it’s hard to believe that someone handling tile Commodore account did not even know the name of a major Amiga publication! “That's a big part of die problem," one editor astutely observed. Ben Means had been completely left off the guest list, but they let him in anyway.
Otherwise, die evening was a grand success! The reception lasted an hour, and then Commodore opened up one of the plush studio screening rooms for its press conference. "Although die Amiga has sold over a million units worldwide, sales in America have Sagged behind,” said Harry Copperman in his opening speech.
Copperman is bright, aggressive and handsome; he could grace the cover of GenUeman's Quarterly while inspiring even die wary investor to buy Commodore stock. AD WEEK agreed, and put him on die cover of the October issue.
While one PC trades editor deemed Max Toy "the sweetest man that ever walked on God’s Earth,” Copperman, who learned the art of winning from two years at Apple and 20 years at IBM, looks tough as nails. With flinty determination, he took over the reins of a sagging Commodore in April (after three predecessors had left in four years) and installed a whole new management team. According to Copperman, “one of die ways that you reestablish accountability is to hire outstanding people who will do outstanding work for you. I was very fortunate to hit a home run on both points."
One of the first things that Copperman did at Commodore was to hire
C. Lloyd Mahaffey, who is also from Apple, as the Vice President
of Marketing. The 34 year old Mahaffey said, “In 1986when I
was director of US education for Apple, we took a hard look at
the Amiga and said that if some smart marketing executive ever
decided to make this product a serious threat in die market,
we're in trouble. So Sections of the "Levitation" storyboard,
showing that the Amiga is so powerful that it raises the
And the commercials was a desire to set some “high water" marks in the way you advertise computers.
The basic concept behind the commercials was cofeature a teenager who used the Amiga to enhance his creativity.
There are four commercials in all. “What’s a Mother to Do" is die longest, at sixty seconds, it also features a host of celebrities, including astronauts Buzz Aldrin, Gordon Cooper, and Scott Carpenter, musicians BurtBacharach, Lade Richard, and die Pointer Sisters. Dodger Manager Tommy Lasorda, and former House Speaker Tip O’Neill. All of these people siiow up one evening to get Stevie's advice (using the computer, of course), and create total pandamonium as diey all try to squeeze into Stevie’s room. There is also a 30 second version.
This commercial has one of the most eclectic mixes of celebrities ever, but it seems to work. As an article in a recent issue of Ad Week commented, they are not just using celebrities for the sake of having recognizable names, but also because it makes sense for them to be there.
“The Girl Next Door" is a 30 second spot that features Stevie trying to impress his next door neighbor by hooking his Amiga up to her television to convince her and her friends that he is appearing on an awards show as the winner of die best new performer award. “Levitation” is a 30 second spot that features Stevie “accidentally" levitating his house using his Amiga, a feature I assume we'll have to wait for in Workbench 1.4. To get the absolute best in state of the art for the commercials, they turned to the new commercial division of LucasFilm, and to LucasFilm director Matthew Robbins.
Robbins has directed such feature films as BATTERIES NOT INCLUDED and DRAGONSLAYER, but these would be his three years later, I get to figure out whether the VP of Marketing, which is me, is smart enough to make that happen."
“We cried to do a couple of things with the campaign,” he added. “First of all, we tried to strengthen tire image of die company and second, to reposition die Amiga in the market. But to a large degree, we’re really trying just to position the Amiga in the market because an awful lot of people just don’t know it at all."
In the next 12 months, Mahaffey intends to develop a sustainable, defensible marketshare in the four computer markets: home, business, government and education. He says, “Commodore has been in the home market for a long time. Really we’re in die home office, home education, home entertainment, We think that the education market is going to be one of the largest markets for us, along with the government market."
“Four years ago when the Amiga was inuoduced, it had this thing called color- graphic-sound animation, and the market had no clue what to do with it. But in 1989 die hottest buzzword is multimedia; you read about it in everything from Time to Newsweek to Business Week, It is projected to be close to a $ 20 billion market in die very near future. What we have is die one machine that can do all of die things diat everyone would like to do and it can do it today for a price that is incredible."
Mahaffey’s strategy was to create consumer awareness and demand through world-class television commercials and educate the public through the print campaign. But he added, “We’ve gone beyond that; we’ve tried to reach out to the people who sell our product, and help them market die product to die end user through a range of point of sale materials that you will see in dealerships across the country.” “Finally we've tried to think about when die person buys the machine and takes it home, what kind of experience diey're going to have. We’ve done some products that are actually going in die box
with die computer to make it a better experience on Christmas morning or whenever diey open it. (These new products) will really tell die new buyer how to use the Amiga because we want die experience to be successful!"
Julie Bauer selected die bright young ad agency, Messner Vetere Berger Carey Schmetterer, and directed the whole campaign. According to industry sources, Bauer made a smart move in retaining Messner Vetere, whose other clients include LIFE Magazine and Walt Disney World, because die agency' is young and “willing to put in overtime" to establish an impressive reputation.
Managing partner Tom Messner figured strongly in the marketing push of the early 1980s which positioned the C64 as the ideal home computer against Apple, IBM and Radio Shack and helped establish the C64 as the best-selling computer in die world. After in-depth marketing research, Messner took over the podium to report his findings, “Strange to say, the (.Amiga) only sold a million units, but these million people felt extremely passionate about this Sections of the "Girl next door"storyboard showing ’Stevie' using the Amiga and a Genlock to fool the girl next door.
In order to help convince him to join die project, dicv sent him die storyboards.
Although he liked the concept, what sold him was a package he recieved a lew days later - an Amiga of his own. He set it up with his family, and could not believe all of die color and animation and detail diat was coming out of the screen. Commodore got die best thing diey could want from a commercial director, he says. “I became passionate about die product”. He now preaches to his friends to get rid of dieir Macs and get an Amiga, and has become an ardent Amiga supporter.
Working with LucasFiim also provided a team of experienced professionals to work on the commercial.
Executive Producer Ken Rudnick has worked on such films as JUMPIN’ JACK FLASH, BREWSTER’S MILLIONS, and LADYHAWK, as well as on commercials for Coca-Cola, Chrysler and AT&T. Visual Effects Supervisor Bruce Nicholson has won two Academy' Awards for his work on EMPIRE STRIKES BACK and RAIDERS OF THE LOST ARK. Along with over a dozen feature film credits encompassing many of the top science fiction movies of recent y'ears. Four time Academy Award nominee Dave Grusin produced the sound track.
Julie Bauer, Commodore’s Director of Marketing Communications, had the responsibility' of sheparding the project for Commodore. She was also responsible for the original launch of the Amiga, and is very' pleased to see Commodore finally following up and taking die marketing of the Amiga seriously'.
If; She enjoyed working on the commercial, and felt that tilings went very smoothly, thanks in large part to the tremendous professionalism of the production team. The only real glitch was with one very furry but Uncooperative computer. This wasn't just something that they passed along and they liked; it was a key element in their lives! They weren't computer hackers; they were music hackers or animation hackers. They loved animation, music and graphics and the computer in their lives made these things happen.
“...The common element was that this unique computer was for a creative person, somebody who had a creative mind, who wasn’t a numbers cruncher dealing ¦with columns of figures. It w’as somebody who had ideas, imagination and thought and wanted to use die computer to make diose thoughts come alive. Tire line for the computer is ‘The Computer for the Creative Mind,’ and that is precisely what it is."
Messner announced that the campaign would begin on October 23 with seven consecutive pages in Time magazine "that will reintroduce this computer dre way it should have been introduced in the first place.” (See print ad sidebar.)
After the initial seven page insert, Messner Vetere has placed a stretch of single pages about real people who use the Amiga to earn a living or to have a good time. For example, Rich Probst is a Hollywood graphics designer; he's using dre Amiga to become an overnight success (ever hear of Three Men and a Baby?) Jeff Zaremba shows home movies with professional touches; he’s using it to make people jealous. Kevin Reagh is a professor of art at Ohio State University; he's using it to create the next great artist. Janice Miller and her daughter Kassondra are using it just to make birthday cards
and (partner Barry Vetere said), “having a very' good time.” Vetere added, “We hear this so much 'How7 could there be this technology? 1 didn't know’ about this.'
People need things that the Amiga can provide, and yet people don't know about it. One of the things wre discovered was when we were editing the commercials.
The people in the editing houses and the transfer places were knocked out by the Amiga...and needed to know about it."
The climax of the evening w’as the commercials, and Vetere introduced them with the early morning observations of a New Yorker, “These spots were so interesting that he felt they deserved credits at tire end.” Duly credited by Vetere with bringing "a care and a love rare to the cynical world of making commercials," Matthew Robbins, a director for LucasFiims’ newr commercial division and feature film director of critically acclaimed Sections of the "What's a mother to do" storyboard featuring The Pointer Sisters, Burt Bacharach & Little Richard, and Tommy Lasorda (left to right).
Actor. In the levitation spot a dog is supposed to jump into the arms of the man walking by the house. All he had to do was run up a ramp and jump. After shooting all night on location, they ran through the jump. The dog would jump into anyone's arms except the actor playing the old man.
It took 33 takes for this one simple shot.
Another interesting story that Julie relates regards Tip O’Neill, When he comes to the door, the mother offers him some chicken and, in the original script, tells him that Stevie's room is “die first door on the right”. Tip O’Neill went up to the director and said, “I usually don’t comment on the script, but wmuld you mind changing the line to “the first door on the left'? I've never gone to the right in my life”.
She felt that the most interesting shot w’as when Stevie’s room was filled with people. Buzz Aldrin looked around, and commented to a cameraman "Its amazing to think that I’m in the same room with Little Richard and Burt Bachrach and Tommy Lasorda.,.", and the cameraman looked at him and replied, “How can you be amazed? You’ve been to die moon."
There were also a number of Amiga artists who worked on the project, providing the computer graphics diat appeared on die Amiga screen.
Rick Probst, of Pacific Motion, was originally called in to appear in the print advertising. Rick pioneered the use of the Amiga in the creation of titles for feature films. He creates all of his tiding work on the Amiga, and it's then bumped up to a high end graphics workstation and transformed into the very high resolution graphics required by film. He has created tides for “Three Men and a Baby” and “Good Morning Vietnam”, among many' others.
He also created the graphics for the “Girl Next Door" commercial. Rick designed the “Best New Artist" graphic which is seen for only a second as the picture glitches and changes to the video from Stevie's room. Rick also created the “Best New Performer” graphic that flies in.
It took him two weeks of refinement, with almost daily overnight deliveries of videotape to New York for approval.
This particular commercial has been highly touted in Commodore's press releases because of the Amiga graphics and genlocking features that were used in its creation. Rick brought in Digital Creations, who supplied a SuperGen 2000S. It was linked to a SuperVHS Camcorder, and everything was done In real time for the shoot. To avoid excessive flickering of the monitor, they used a film speed of 30 frames per second rather than the traditional 24 frames per second of film.
Because of the lighting required by the “Batteries Not Included” and “Dragonslayer" stood to a thunderous applause. He said, “I’ve never directed a commercial before; I come out of the world of feature film making, and I was intrigued at die idea of doing a project that only lasted a minute. It turned out to be just as much work as a feature film, some kind of a Zen exercise of paring down.
“When Tom and his partners sent tne his storyboards, I found it to be such a charming concept that it was irresistible.
The thing that did die trick is diat Tom and Barry Vettere sent me one of diese computers; I don’t know anything about them. But it arrived at the house, and I had to beat die kids off. 1 just couldn’t believe it when all diis color, animation and detail came up on the screen! They got die very best thing they could get out of a director for their commercials they got somebody who soon became passionate about die product. I could sell it widi sincerity.
“We had a very entertaining shoot,” he added. “Pan of my job was to provide a party atmosphere for all die people who came on board and I think we did that."
Coppemian concluded die hour long program by announcing that the ads would run starting the following Wednesday in 18 major markets with very' high frequency: “If you live in a city where we run the ads,” he promised, "you will see them multiple times.” Copperman visited die set during the shooting of the commercials and ended die Panavision camera used to film the commercial, the graphics came out looking much too yellow. Traditionally, the graphics and video of Stevie wanning die award would have been recorded onto tape in advance and played back during the filming. Because they were
actually using the Amiga and a camcorder to generate the images in real time, they were able to use Deluxe Paint to color correct the graphics on the spot so that they w'ould look good on film.
Reichart Von Wolfshield of Silent Software also made the trip to New- York to appear in the print ad, and wound up creating 3 of the 5 animations for the commercials. The animadon used in the “What’s a Mother to Do” spot in which Willie Randolph’s picture pops up when Stevie is talking to Tommy Lasorda on the phone was created in Deluxe Paint III. He also created the music animation for Litde program on a poignant note, “There was one guy who kept the morale up dirough the whole shoot, and it probably came through on the commercials, and that was Litde Richard.” The lights broke the awesome
reverie of those glorious commercials, and once again we were off to the candlelit tent for more fabulous food, drink and great conversation. “We like to party," said Kate Prohaska, who is one of the most naturally pleasant people you coidd ever want to meet. Soon the bartender ran out of die small glasses and had to pour drinks in the large double glasses, so the party' got a whole lot merrier. But these reporters were hard at work catelling up with all the luminaries in attendance: Astronaut Buzz Aldrin had a lot of fun shooting the commercials and reminisced fondly about the day when there
was a mixup with the limo picking him up in Orange county' so instead they sent a helicopter which flew him over the top of LA just in time to get to the set.
Litde Richard makes everything special and he was bubbling with enthusiasm about the Commodore commercial: “Ooh, it was ajoy!!!” he said as his eyes grew wide. “It was beautiful. I would like to do it again. It looked like a little movie to me, like a miniature little movie. This was my first time to work with an astronaut. I may have not have gone to the moon, but I was ON HIGH!! It was beautiful.” Hide Richard admitted he Richard, and the graphics used in the space docking featured at the end of the commercial (Leo Sdiwab did the actual 3D programming). You might also take a look at the new
Amiga 500 demo disk, which was created by Reichart and Jim Sachs.
Reichart noted that everyone on the set wanted an Amiga. As the shoot came to an end, diere were about 15-20 people, including many on the crew' and even the actor who played Stevie, who crowded around Rick Unland from Commodore to find out where they could buy one.
What does the luture hold for the Amiga? At the official launching of the new campaign, Commodore executives gave us some dues. Lloyd Mahaffey pointed out that four years ago, when the Amiga wras introduced, it had sound, graphics, and animation, but no one really knew what to do w-ith these capabilities. In 1989, the hottest buzzword is Multi-Media, which is learned a lot from Stevie Palmer and die Amiga, "The Pointer sisters want to do their album on the Amiga, and I want to do my new album on it, too!” The brilliant Matthew Robbins says that when he was asked to direct these unique ads, “I
didn't know anything about home computers; I knew there was an .Amiga, but I had it confused widi the Atari.
All my friends are these Macintosh snobs, and diey acted like the Amiga is a games computer, for kids. But it turns out that they are all wrong, diey are really wrong! The Amiga IS what Macintosh WAS when they were going up against IBM. It's kind of this secret litde race car; die genius of this campaign is not to sell it as this low' budget thing diat you get at Toys R Us, but to make it look very', very slick.
“I hope the commercials do the job because speaking purely as a naive American consumer, probably a target market, I thought the computer was a great tiling! They sent this paint program and a game program called Arkanoid, w'hich my son is probably playing right this minute. 1 had seen paint programs at Industrial Light and Magic, but this was six years ago, and here it was IN MY HOUSE!” Robbins plans to put “this secret little racecar" to work in his future movies, “I can do storyboards, 1 can work with a production designer, we can do renderings, put in the perspective changes.
It’s absolutely fabulous! By die time 1 got through shooting, I really felt like a projected to be a 20 billion dollar market.
The Amiga can already do all of die things you need for multi-media applications, and it is incredibly inexpensive.
Along with emphasis on the Multi- Media market, over the next twelve months drey plan to develop solid positions in the home, education, business, and federal markets. They have hired four new people who are dedicated to development in specific markets: a Video Applications Manager, an Interactive Video Manager, a Graphic Design-Desktop Publishing Manager, and a Multi-Media manager.
Commodore also wants to offer better dealer support. They will be making funds available to local dealers for local print and television advertising, and they are providing point of sales material including demo disks and videotapes.
Also on tire dealer front, Commodore recently signed a snajor reseller agreement believer! It isn't everyday that yon make a commercial where you actually enjoy the product; how many commercial directors eat Wheaties?"
No partyr would be complete without tlie irrepressible and utterly adorable Reichart von Wolfsheild who thought dial the commercials “were fun, and there aren’t many commercials that are fun.” Speculation raged overwhether the 29 year old CEO could upstage even charismatic Linde Richard. Reichart was willing to try, but in a moment of candor, he did disclose that his motiier chose his unique name because no one could ever make it sound cute... We had heard rumors diat Reichart was holding Leo Schwab prisoner at Silent Software, and Leo confirmed diat Reichart had him slaving away on a top
secret project. “He makes me do my best work, and he wouldn't even let me go to the Renaissance festival," lamented Leo from beneath a green velvet cap.
Art director Richard Lewis (also of Amazing Stories and Coming to America fame) announced that Max Headroom is currently showing in South America, where the President of Bolivia is an ardent fan of the redoubtable Max. It seems the Bolivian head of state made a formal visit under armed escort to Eleadroom’s US production stage, because he “wanted to meet Max Headroom.” In a meeting of lofty minds, Copperman spent a quiet time talking with with Connecting Points of America, die fastest growing franchisor of computer retail stores in die country’. They have also made an agreement with Midwest
Communications, the largest video dealer in the U.S., who will be carrying Amigas in tiieir 53 U. S. outlets. Commodore even spent two mondis providing training.
While all of diis renewed activity by Commodore is exciting, die Amiga has managed to do pretty well even when Commodore -was neglectful. According to Keith Massavage of Commodore, a recent survey by one of the top research firms in die video and graphics markets showed that by units sold, the Amiga has vert’ good showings. Tt has about 75% of the 3D modeling and animation market, competing against such veterans as Cubicomp, Pixar, and Wavefront. The astronaut Buzz Aldrin and Mrs. Aldrin, who are still in love after all diese years; “he’s the greatest,” she cooed proudly.
Joe Conti lamented that the packaging house had, "Shrink wrapped our first shipment of 3D object librarians... and melted every one! How can you possibly shrink wrap 200 boxes wrong?" He exclaimed.
But was all this just so much pomp surrounding an ambiguous circumstance?
When told of Commodore's new direction, one insider scoffed, “I don’t believe it!"
When we insisted that the film was in the can and die money was laid out for the ad campaign, he remarked, “They'll blow it!"
An editor of a leading PC magazine added, “This IS Commodore after all; diey’ll find a way to shoot themselves in die foot.” But when one financial analyst learned of die new ad campaign and Copperman's past experience with the major players, his reply was short... "Thanks for the dp!"
Clearly, Copperman and his all-star' team have their work cut out for them.
While it may take more than one ad campaign to convert the computer heathen of America, it never hurts to hit a home-run in the first inning. The bases are loaded with new major computer sellers like Connecting Point added to the batting order, and otiier announcements are imminent.
The Computer for the Creative Mind promises a bright U.S.A. sales future indeed.
• AO Amiga also has 33% of the Paint market, and 2-1 %of the
Character Generator market (give or take a percentage point or
This strong showing encouraged Commodore to have a major presence at die upcoming National Association of Broadcasters convention and at Video Expo in New York.
It remains to be seen how effective Commodore’s efforts will he. Having had the opportunity to talk with the new people running Commodore. I am impressed by tiieir professionalism and knowledge of die industry’. Ii does appear that they are now willing to commit the resources to make die Amiga name a household word. It would be nice to have the rest of die world learn what we already know; that the Amiga is the best low cost personal computer there is.
• AC* You think they're having fun now..?
Wait ‘til they find j out what Santa brought them!
Don’t your friends deserve a subscription to and AC GUDE amigA' Be a good Santa... give them the gift they’ll enjoy all year long!
A Winning Hand with an Ace in the Whole!
Amazing on Disk Source Listings and Executables from the pages of Amazing Computing!
Only $ 6.00 per disk ($ 7.00 for Non-Subscribers) AC Disk 1: source and executable code: AC V3.8 & AC V3.9. Gels In Multi f orth Parts I X 11 Learn how to use Gels in MultiForth. Author: John Bushakra FFP & IEEE: An Example of using FEE A IEEE math routines in Modula-2. Author: Steve Faiwiszewskl CAI; A complete Computer Aided Instruction program with editor written in Amiga BASIC- Author: Paul Castonguay Tumblin' Tots: A complete game written in Assembly language. Save the falling babies in this game. Author: Davd Ashley Vgad: A gadget editor that allows you to easily create gadgets. The
program then generates C code that you can use in your own programs. Author: Stephen Vermeulcn MenuEd: A menu editor that allows you to easily create menus. The program then generates C code.lhat you can use in your own programs. Author David Pehrson Bspread: A powerful spread sheut.program written in AmigaBASIC. Author Brian Cately AC Disk 2i source and executable code for AC V43 and AC V4.4. Fractals Part I: An introduction to the basics of fractals with examples in AmigaliASIC, True BASIC, and C. Aulhor: Paul Castonguay Shared Libraries: C source and executable code that
- --1 shows the use of shared libraries. Author: John Baez A '
- -Q I MultiSort: Sorting and intertask communication in
_ZJlA__j Tr | Modula-2. Author: Steve Faiwiszewski Double
Playfield; Shows how to use dual playftclds in AmigaBASIC,
Author: Robert D'Asto ‘881 Math Part I: Programming the 68881
math coprocessor chip in C Author [tead Predmore ArgS; Passing
arguments to an AmigaBASIC program from the CLI. Author: Brian
Zupke Kemp Better String Gadgets: How to tap the power of
string gadgets in C. Author John Bushakra On Your Alert: Using
the system’s alerts from AmigaBASIC. Aulhor: John F.
Wiederhirn Batch Files: Executing batch files from AmigaBASIC.
Author: Mark Aydellotte C Notes: The beginning of a utility program in C. Author: Steven Kemp AC Disk 5: source and executable code for AC V4.9. Memory Squares: Test your memory with this AmigaBASIC game, Author: Mike Morrison High Octane Colors: Use dithering in AmigaBASIC to get the appearance of many more colors. Author: Rotten D’Asto Cell Animation: Using cell animation in Modula-2. Author Nicholas Cirasclla Improving Graphics: Improve the way your program looks no matrer what screen it opens on. In C. Autliro: Richard Martin Gels in Multi-Forth-Part 3: The third and final part on using
Gels in Forth. Author: John Bushakra C Notes 4.9: Look at a simple utility program in C, Author; Steven Kemp lD_Celis: A program that simulates a one-dimensional cellular automata, AuthoriKussell 'Wallace Colourscope: A shareware program that shows different graphic designs. Author: Russell Wallace ShowILUiM: A program that displays lo-rcs, hi-rcs, interlace and HAM IFF pictures. Author: Russell Wallace Labyrinth_II: Roil playing text adventure game.
Author: Russell Wallace Most: Text file reader that will display one or more files. The program will automatically format the text for you. Author: Russell Wallace Terminator: A virus protection program. Author Russell Wallace AC Disk 3: source and executable code for AC V4.5 and AC V4.6 Digitized Sound Using the Audio.device to play digitized sounds in Modula-2.
Author: Len A. White '881 Math Part II Part II of programming the 68881 math coprocessor chip using a fractal sample, Aulhor: Read Predmore At Your Request: Using die system-supplied requestors from AmigaBASIC. Author: John F. Weiderhim Insta Sound: Tapping the Amiga's sound from AmigaBASIC using the Wave command, Aulhor: Greg Stringfcllow AC 3 V4.5 & V4.6 MIDI Out: A MIDI program that you can expand upon.
Written in C. Aulhor: Br. Seraphim Winslow Diskless Compiler: Setting up a compiler environment that doesn't need floppies. Author: Chuck Raudonis AC Disk 4: source 3nd executable code for AC V4.7 and AC V4.8. Fractals Part II: Part II on fractals and graphics on the Amiga in AmigaBASIC and True BASIC. Author: Paul Castonguay Analog Joysticks: The code for using analog joysticks on the Amiga. Written in C, Author: David Kinzer C Notes: A small program to search a File for a specific string in C. Author: Steven AC Disk 6: source and executable code for AC V4.10 & AC V4.ll Typing Tutor. A
program written In AmigaBASIC that will help you improvr your typing. Author: Mike Morrison Glut's Gadgets: Using gadgets in Assembly language. Author: Geff Glatt Function Evaluator: A program that accepts maihamatical functions and evaluates them. Written in C. Author Randy Finch Fractals; Part m AmigaBASIC code that shows you how to save load pictures to disk. Author: Paul Castonguay More Requestors: Using system calls in AmigaBASIC to build requestors. Author; John Wiederhlm Mulll-Forth: Implementing the ARP library from Forth.
Author: Lonnie A. Watson Search Utility: A file Search utility written in C. Author Steven Kemp Fast Pics: Re-writing the pixel drawing routine in assembly language for speed: AuthorScott Stcinman 64 Colors: Using extra-half-brite mode in AmigaBASIC. Author: Bryan Catley Fast Fractals; A fast fractal program written in C with assembly language subroutines. Author: Hugo M.H.Lypperus Multitasking in Fortran: All the hard work is done here so you can multitask in Fortran. Author: Jim Locker A Cl r AijlIJlHAjl O' Ocixltd JxClLex by Rosie O 'Grady It was a miracle that die Santa Clara AmiEXPO
even took place. A 7.1 quake had rocked die valley just three days before, leaving a trail of twisted buildings, impassable bridges, and collapsed freeways. President Bush declared Silicon Valley a national disaster area. Businesses closed for more than a week as crews worked overtime to restore essential services like water, power and telephone lines. Even the legendary WorldSeries pitting die Oakland A’s versus the San Francisco Giants in an unprecedented cross-bay showdown went on hold, but not AmiEXPO.
Some attendees were tiiankiul just to still be alive. Antic editor Mike Evans, shaken by the destruction of die Antic Publishing offices, said, “I had just gotten off work and was waiting for my bus when I noticed some gravel falling to the street.
So 1 moved into a doorway and a huge chunk of concrete and bricks fell right where I had just been standing!" (Due to the damage of their building, Antic was one of ten no shows at the Expo.)
A-Squared dragged along their only casualty, an A500. “It fell fiat on its keys!"
Said Wendy Peterson, laughing. “A couple of keys still work but you can’t really type anything in." Luckily the mouse was still fully functional, so A-Squared used it to show a new product, Focus Video.
Santa Clara was only a few miles from the epicenter of California's second worst quake of the century, but it sustained little damage. As the emphasis in San Francisco was on the serious losses it suffered, including mortalities, low attendance obviously resulted at die Bay area’s first all Amiga event. Many exhibitors expressed frustration at AmiEXPO’s decision that ‘the show must go on’ only three days after the disaster. Show management reportedly offered exhibitors who wanted to pull out, 30% off on booths at upcoming shows, offering more funds to the dismay of those who like their ground
solid and stationary.
In the -wee hours of Friday the 20th, a violent aftershock shook Santa Clara sturring the Expo participants in their beds.
After that, tine atmosphere almost settled to normal in time for the show.
Amiga VIPs, like Doug Barney, Tim Jenison, and Albert Absmeier made keynote speeches and Amiga luminaries like Cal Vomberger, Jim Sachs, Steve Segal, Rob Peck, Ben Means, Tony Dispoto, and Paul Schecter revealed their technical secrets in Master Classes. But die strange reordering of panel and seminar lineups as well as booth spaces, added a strange frenzy in die air to the ordinarily well structured Expo proceedings. Still, despite the jitters of tine shaken local residents and Lhe blind fear of out-of-state reporters (like diis one) who aren’t used to ground that occasionally acts like
jello, some business actually did get done.
In his keynote speech, Doug Barney addressed die Amiga’s poor stand in the market, despite its technical excellence.
The popular press often excludes or misrepresents the Amiga, while IBM and Apple steal all the attention.
After four long years of benign neglect by the major media, AMIGAids are doing something about it. Doug Barney announced the formation of the Amiga Developers Trade Association to build a common platform. ‘We want this market to growr, and people buy what diey read", he said, “The ADTA will be a strong voice, an independent voice to the outside world about the strengdis of the Amiga."
Anyone with a vested interest in the Amiga from artist to vendor can join, and membership is free. The Trade Association will kick off on March 15th, the day before the start of AmiEXPO Washington DC, with the nomination of an executive board. Get involved and make a difference.
Rolling Stone's November 16th issue is just one example of general press malaise and gross inaccuracy; their story, called Computer Ease by Cliff Roth, had the first 15 paragraphs on the IBM and IBM clones and one little paragraph which completely dismissed the Amiga.
This paragraph put die Amiga in the same class as die ancient monochrome Mac Plus and said, “Similarly, the Commodore Amiga 500 is fantastic for manipulating video images, and a complete system may cost no more titan SHOO. For word processing, however, the Amiga lias its drawbacks because it is primarily a color computer, text looks fuzzier than on a done or a Mac."
The article ends with this insult, "Thus the humble PC clone, made by literally hundreds, if not thousands of different companies, is usually your best bet for word processing on a modest budget." If you disagree, contact this magazine about joining die Amiga Developers Trade Association and protest these blatant inaccuracies. Write some strong words to the publishers of Rolling Stone; Straight Arrow Publishers, 745 Fifth Avenue, New* York, NY 10151.
Paul Montgomery had other strong words to say about the planned release of die Toaster (around die first of die year.)
“For the most part, the hardware is done.
The software is what’s holding up die release, and if the programmers don’t ship by die end of die year, diev will DIE!!! Die whole Alcatraz team. There are five people w'hose ENTIRE EXISTENCE is to get the Toaster on the market!" He added that master illusionists Penn and Teller LOVED the Toaster and were creadng a commercial on the product FOR FREE! (Can they possibly rival die megabuck LucasFilm commercials for Commodore?)
One of die highlights of the show' was the announced release of DigiView 4.0 (shipping mid November.) This major upgrade includes Arexx hooks to do stop modon and hands-free digitizing, but even better, new Dynamic HAM and Dynamic Hi-res modes for fringe-free pictures.
Dynamic Hi-res has a separate 16 color palette for EACH scan line in resolutions up to 704 x 480! The results are mind-blowing, or otherwise simply gorgeous. On die down side, this mode is incompatible with all current paint software.
Digital Creations announced that their SuperGen 2000S S-VHS genlock is in full production with release planned for Christmas. DC’s Randyjongens said, “The 2000S is the cornerstone of a series of products that will allow' you to start with a genlock that handles Y C signals all the way through and expand to a system that will eventually allow you to do A B roll editing and professional 24 bit paint."
Professional quality has its price, and the $ 1595 introductory' price for die SuperGen 2000S is going up to S1995 on January 1st. Who knows what price adjustments may occur to die fabled Vmachine (estimated at $ 6500) before its planned June release? Still, compared to comparable gear from video big guns like Pinnacle, the Vmachine promises a lot of bang for the buck for small video production facilities and cable systems trying to emulate the big budget look of network TV.
The Vmachine will replace the case for the A2000 and will make it about diree inches taller with all its connectors available on die back panel. Digital Creations also plans a transcoder for working with pro video decks in Y C and anodier cranscoder for use with M-2 and Betacam formats.
For those on a budget, A-Squared announced that Live! 2000 is finally shipping, as well as a 1.2 software upgrade which includes a new HAM still capture mode and a RIFF stop motion animation grabber. It sure grabbed the attention of joyful animator Steve Segal!
A-Squared made a first-time showing of FOCUS VIDEO ($ 159) by NOVA RESEARCH, INC., which interfaces with Live! Hardware to produce a number of scientific industrial image processing tricks. Focus Video can save die result in your choice of PostScript, Sun (tm) color Rasterfile, or IFF formats for output later. And who else but the friendly folks at A~ Squared would bring us THE ART OF GO ($ 49.95) on computer disk in living color?
Now Go fanatics like Dan Silva can play against die computer or a human opponent with numerous options to hone their Go skills razor sharp or even modify' dieir computer opponent’s personality’.
A-Squared actively encourages third party support for Live, with Elan Design and Tensor Products contributing to the Great Amiga Bay Conglomerate. Elan Design showed their new upgrade, INVISION PLUS ($ 299) which adds new special fx modes to Live! Invision Plus offers a genlock montage mode which can blend up to three video and graphic levels in real time, an automated time lapse ANIM capture mode and 21 bit averaging HAM still capture. Elan’s Daniel Kaye and Peter Tjeerdsma threw caution to the wind as diey drew huge crowds witii a very slick demo reel, followed by a live psychedelic
performance. Have mercy!
A couple of booths down, Tensor Productions Joe Shen demoed VIDI MICE ($ 85) which works with Live! To make your vicleo input control cursor movement in video, music, or painL programs. Also showing was MIDI MICE ($ 85) which does the same thing, only with MIDI input controlling the movement. These products open up some wild possibilities for Top: Elan Design once again showed their wares.
Bottom: Jay Miner and Dale Luck don't look too badly shaken by the quake.
Performance art, home automation, and interactive learning.
TV TEXT PROFESSIONAL ($ 169-95) is now shipping, and Zuma Group’s John and Copper Bittner showed off the features of their new titling collosus which has up to 64 colors in lo-res interlace, color cycles for glows, glints and sheens, comes with ZUMA FONTS Volumes 1, 2 and 3, and has a new font requester allowing up to 255 available fonts for those of you with BIG font collections.
Alter the Zuma crew left the fold, BROWN-WAGH didn’t let the grass grow' under their feet, altiiough Dick Brown said diat his desk did jump up and beat him out diedooron Earthquake Tuesday. Instead, diey announced two new programs and die 1.2 upgrade to Softwood’s PEN PAL word processor ($ 149-95) which offers improved printer handling and output, increased font flexibility, and more database capabilities. The update is FREE to registered owners, so dig out that registration card if you haven’t sent it already.
Look for two new business products from Brown- Wagh this Christmas: B GRAPHICS by TECHNICAL RESOURCE LABORATORY and SERVICE INDUSTRY ACCOUNTING by SYBIZ SOFTWARE. B GRAPHICS ($ 195) transforms all those boring numbers in your spreadsheet into colorful 2 or 3- D bar charts, column graphs, pie charts, line graphs, area charts, or free form diagrams. The Amiga has needed a pro business graphics package for serious consideration in the business sector; let’s hope this is the start of a trend. SERVICE INDUSTRY ACCOUNTING ($ 395) is an accounting program tailored specifically to the needs of service
companies for tracking jobs from bid to billing.
SPIRIT TECHNOLOGY covered their table widi a number of new expansion products like the OCTABYTE ($ 299 writh Ok) 8 meg RAM expander, the INTERLOK genlock, and die controversial AX-S expansion system which includes a housing with seven slots and a 200watt power supply. The AX- S slots are XT AT compatible but do not need a bridgeboard. Spirit has artfully designed translation software that allows die Amiga to treat XT AT peripherals as if Above:New Tek 's President, Tim Jertnison, shows off their latest transportation hardware.
Right: Copper Bittner of the Zuma Group proudly displays their brand new TVText Professional they belong to the Amiga. Since these IBM peripherals are cheap and plentiful, AX-S is an intriguing system.
Spirit has not finished programming all the drivers you might need for all those boundless IBM add-ons, so they have posted their RESOURCE LIBRARY SOFTWARE on CompuServe, PeopleLink, and Genie as “AXS.Library" so you can program y7our own.
LATTICE INC. added a whopping 50 enhancements for a beefy version 5.04 of dieir C compiler, free to registered users, and is offering greater techni cal support via a special conference on PeopleLink.
VIDTECH toasted current sales of over 1000 units of their budget SCAN LOCK genlocks.
While MIKE LEHMAN sat in bumper- to-bumper traffic, due to an accident on California’s infamous freeways, his good buddy JAY MINER cheerfully filled in at the INTUITIVE TECHNOLOGIES booth to show ULTRACARD 1.4 ($ 50) which boasts enhanced digitized sound and supports color cycling and overscan. For you programmers, ULTRACARD PLUS ($ 100) has an XCODE instructor for writing extensions to UltraTalk in C or Assembler language.
Newly formed TALIESIN INC. debuted their first product called PROVECTOR, a structured drawing program slated for first quarter '90 release at “under $ 300.” ProVector saves in PostScript, IFF, or its own format, is Arexx compatible and can import IFF graphics for digital rotoscoping. Is this the drawing program eagerly awaited by Amiga desktop publishers? Let’s hope so.
TERRY VARGA and DENNIS WINKLE MANS were locked in a death struggle playing some vicious twitch game with their new MOUSESTICK (tm) (SI29-95) over at the ADVANCED GRAVIS booth. Showing amazing human multitasking, they explained that the Mousestick was an optical controller with 1200 fine resolution that can be used either as a joystick (Look out! Here's one up your afterburners, buddy!) Or as a mouse (Bogey at 8 o’clock! Shhhh pow!) Mousestick comes with four programmed X-Y response modes (Thought you had outsmarted me, Octar? Think again!) Which the wary Amigan can edit into hundreds more to
optimize stick response for all your software. But are bosses ready for the sight of employees twiddling joysticks gleefully while using productivity7 software? Stay7 tuned to this Bat Channel.
CENTAUR SOFTWARE entered the world of Amiga music with QUASAR SOUND sampling software ($ 59.95) which can also be bought bundled widi their STARSOUND hardware sampler ($ 149-95 for both.) Also shipping is the educational WORLD ATLAS ($ 59-95.)
How do sound samples and educational software go together? It must be a new trend because THE OTHER GUYS were also showing prime education fodder like MATH ODYSSEY and WORLD ODYSSEY along with a professional synthesis sampling package SYNTHIA PRO ($ 395.) Synthia Pro creates and edits sounds in full 16 bit fidelity7 with MIDI dumping to a wide range of professional 12 and 16 bit MIDI samplers. Synthia Pro can also save in IFF 8SVX, so game designers can translate sounds from the huge sound libraries available for pro samplers. With a plethora of synthesis modes and a plague of eq and fx modes,
this is one lean mean sound machine.
All you astronaut lime traveler space beings will be glad to hear that VIRTUAL REALITY LABORATORIES picked up GALILEO after die demise of Infinity Software and rechristened it DISTANT SUNS ($ 69.95) which now runs a reported 300% faster, New features include a full screen star display with expansion disks forthcoming to show details of deep sky objects and additional star catalogs.
SOFT-LOGIK showed eight new font disks ($ 39.95 per) with three fonts on each disk in both PostScript and dot matrix versions. PageStream 1.8 is imminent and includes improved font handling, more control of PostScript, more print drivers, and most importantly, lots of bug fixes.
Soft-Logik’s DAN WEISS said, “We’ve made a lot more tweaks. Hmmmmm a lot more."
SUPRA announced three new products including their new WORD SYNC SCSI hard disk interface. Supra claims DMA speed for their non-DMA interface yielding fast transfers without sound, video, or serial I O interference.
The DESKTOP ADVANTAGE introduced the PRO-RES still-video interface ($ 399) which is designed for high quality, hands-free color transfers to Digiview with control over contrast, brightness, sharpness, color, and tint. A demo of PRO-RES showed the transfer of Canon Xap-Shot still video camera pictures onto the Amiga with glorious results. PRO- RES offers manual control for other slow scan digitizers.
The AmlEXPO crew jetted over Co Cologne, West Germany for their next show November 10-12, and they'll be back in the states with another Amigafest of the best in Washington DC March 16 through
18. See you there!
• AC- Are you ready for... BloodMoney reviewed by Joe DiCara
DOUBLE HEADERS One of my favorite things to do as a youth was
to go to a baseball game and an extra special treat was a
double header. A double dose of Mickey and Yogi; yes my idea of
the best way to spend a Sunday afternoon.
With the release of Blood Money, Psygnosis has produced their own version of a computer double header. The front end of this twin-bil! Is a tour-de- force of “Amiga only” sights and sounds....an introduction routine to end all routines. The night cap, Blood Money itself, is one of the most challenging, coin-op quality, shoot’em up’s yet produced for any home computer. Boot disk-one and hold on to your monitor and CPU. You're about to be dazzled by stereo sounds and music, by multi-colored backdrops and scenery, and by high-speed animated objects.
This disk reveals the origins of Blood Money, as it loads a high quality digitized voice and a colorful title screen proclaim that, “First there was Menace...Now Psygnosis presents Blood Money”. Then yon are treated to some of the most dazzling graphics yet seen on the Amiga. One sequence looks like it came right out of Star Wars or Blasteroids. You’re following closely behind a spaceship as it weaves a high speed path through a maze of tumbling asteroids. Finally the spaceship breaks clear and a moon glides by to reveal a planet first class Amiga pyroteclmics. The speed of the animations, the
detail and coloring of objects, combined with fast paced music, must be seen and heard to be fully appreciated. If you’d like to impress your PC or Apple friends, let them see this disk.
Actually this first disk shows off more than just the Amiga's abilities and the programmers’ talents; it is a sneak preview of the next knock-out Psygnosis game Aqua Venture. After you’ve viewed this disk a few times and you’re convinced your monitor isn't hooked to a VCR, a press of the joystick and mouse button will exit die introduction and begin to load Blood Money. Here’s the scenario. It seems you are young Spondulix and you want some excitement before going home from your vacation. Fora thrill you decide to risk your life destroying hostile alien creatures and animals. But to move on to
harder planets and greater excitement, you have to earn money. You can earn money by shooting creatures.
As they’re shot they turn into coins, which when caught are added to your bank account. You can then buy better guns and weapons with the money. These Top: Opening screen of BloodMoney Bottom.- Enemy bubbles in thegunshipphase.
Other planets find you in a submarine, a combination spacesuit and jetpack, or a rocket fighter. Each is appropriate to die terrain and the challenge that await. All the action is viewed from the tiiird person, as if you're watching a TV shot of your ship.
Actual game play is similar to Menace: you manuever through a scrolling path of
n. The quality or state of being productive, ie: 1. Producing
abundantly. 2. Marked by abundant production: as,
3. As in M2Sprint Development System.
Extra weapons and oilier equipment are a necessity: especially if you intend to survive your adventure, advance to other worlds, and finally return home to Mother.
Your adventure takes you to four planets; Gibbon, Grome, Shreek, and Snuff. You begin on Gibbon, here you're equipped with a helicopter gunship. On Amiga & U2Sprtnt Development System with Programmer's and Library Ref. Manuals and si* release disks The complete Modula-2 development environment for the Amiga that makes programming fast and easy!
¦ Fast, Single Pass Compiler • Source Level Debugger
- Powerful Text Editor • 170+ Libraries in source form in-
• Fast Single Pass Linker eluding ARP, Arexx, IFF and C Fax,
Call, or Write for FREE Demo Disk!
M2S, Inc. Box 550279 • Dallas, Texas 75355 Phone (214) 340-5256 . Fax (214) 341-9104 Demo also available on BIX (see M2Demo.zoo in M2S bstings section) and CompuServe (see M2Demo.zoo in Amigavendor lorum, section 12).
Amiga s the registered trademark ol Cdmmodore Business Machines Circle 1B1 on Reader Service card.
Destruction, lined with all manner of weapons and creatures, all of which are aimed at your destruction. Unlike Menace, you can navigate in any direction. While this ability to move about freely is an enhancement, it is also at times annoying and downright detrimental to your health.
If you’re near die edge of the screen and the play field scrolls you get pushed into a wall; this results in loss oflife. The game is tough enough without this added hazard. In fact, except for all but the most seasoned arcade veterans, Blood Money is almost impossible to complete, even at level one.
Pygnosis claimed diey wanted to make this game a real challenge I’d say they accomplished their objective!
You must use every weapon wisely and accurately while deftly piloting your craft. A litde help from an auto-fire joystick would not be considered an unfair advantage in this game. Actually, I think your only chance to see the end of any scenario is the two player cooperative mode of play. This mode allows a buddy to cover your tail while also increasing the overall firepower. It seems this mode gives you at least a fighting chance.
GRAPH ICS.. A CUT ABOVE Blood Money’s on-screen activities and graphics are superb. Two of the most dramatic alien creaaires, the giant jellyfish and the walkers, need 18 frames of animation to accomplish the effect. The diversity and detail of opponents and weapons seem almost limidess. Combine this with your choice of excellent sound effects or a simple background music track and die result is arcade quality action at home.
SUMMARY If you are looking for a challenging action game, Blood Money is definitely for you. Blood Money will run on any 512K Amiga using 1.2 Kickstart or later. A booklet describes loading instructions, game play and scenarios, author and program background, along with all suitable and appropriate warnings. 1 would add drat a good joystick, one capable friend, and a good stereo sound system will increase your enjoyment and appreciation of dais double-your-pleasure game.
• AC* Fsygnosis Ltd.
P. O. Box483 Addison. IL 60101
(312) 620-4444 Blood Money, $ 49.95 Inquiry 217 Bug Bytes The
Bugs and Upgrades Column by John Steiner The first report
this month involves DeluxePaint III, and a workaround for
its inability to impon Aegis VideoScape 3D anims. Whether
the problem lies with VideoScape or DeluxePaint III is
immaterial; there is an incompatibility between these
file formats. The problem does appear to be in
DeluxePaint though, as other programs will load VideoScape
anims "without problems. One possible solution is to load
the individual frames into a different paint program, and
resave them from that program. The FrameGrabber software is
one such program that could be used.
I have also heard that earlier versions of DeluxePaint III might have problems recognizing all of the available chip RAM on machines that have cite 1 MB Fatter Agnus. This problem does not appear to affect many people, bu t you can check it for yourself by loading the program. Open the Workbench, and a CLI, and then Choose About... from the Picture pulldown menu.
Then pull down tire DeluxePaint screen to get at the Workbench and CLI, and at the CLI prompt, type Avail. Avail will report on the availability of free and chip RAM currently at your disposal.
With my own copy of DeluxePaint, version 3-01, it reported 768K when the Avail function reported 798K. In any case, there seems to be 30K of chip RAM that my version of DeluxePaint doesn’t know about. Whether the problem is more severe than this with some versions, I don't know.
In any case, I’d be interested in hearing about any problems you may be having.
I have also been told that there is a fix for this problem, if you are having problems, you may contact Electronic Arts for details on how to get the upgraded version.
• ••••••••• As I reported in Bug Bytes volume
4. 10, there have been several reports regarding problems with
the use of third party hardware accessories in revision 6.0
and 6.1 Amiga 2000 motherboards. Revision 6.0 motherboards
were tire first boards to contain factory installed 1 MB
Fatter Agnus chips.
It has been reported that current motherboards being shipped are stamped revision 6.2, and that modifications to this board have corrected the problem. Commodore Amiga Authorized Sendee Centers have been notified of a modification to version 6.0 and 6.1 boards that will correct problems with the earlier boards. If you have purchased a third party expansion card that does not function properly, contact your authorized Amiga service center for correction of the problem. If they don’t know where to find the information, tell them to look in the September, 1989 issue of their technical
Details on the SimCity upgrade reported in Bug Bytes number 4.10 have been made available. Also, a workaround fora problem with single drive users in the earlier version was given to me. Single drive users who are having trouble saving your games should follow this procedure.
1. Remove the SimCity disk and replace it with your data disk.
2. Select SAVE from tire FILES menu.
3. When the file requester appears, look in the box below die
Click on the name of your data disk.
4. Change the name of die city, if you wish, then click on OK.
Three drive users, and users widi several hard disk
partitions, and users with only 512K of chip RAM may not have
enough chip RAM to allow SimCity version 1.0 to operate
properly. Remove one of die external floppy drives and boot
on die original SimCity disk to avoid problems. Both of these
problems have been fixed in version 1.1, which can be obtained
by sending your original disk and $ 3.50 to cover shipping and
handling to Maxis.
• ••••••••• 1 received a letter from J. S. Ridinger Jr.
Of South Orleans, MA with a workaround for the MaxiPlan Plus bug reported in Bug Bytes issue 4,9. In Preferences, select die printer Graphic 2 option and choose Absolute. Adjust the Width to 8.0 inches, and leave the height set to 0.00 inches. You should have a full width print with the vertical aspect adjusted accordingly. For more details on these options, check page 1-10 of the AmigaDOS 1.3 Enhancer manual, the paragraph headed ‘ Absolute." Mr. Ridinger uses an Amiga 2500 widi an Epson LQ-2250 printer.
Also in the mail bag this month was a letter from Jeffrey Grimmett of San Diego, CA. He has a problem with a copy of Rainbird’s Carrier Command. His disk is defective, and he requested repair or replacement of the disk only to be told that the company is out of business. He wants to know if anyone else might be distributing their tides and if technical support might be available elsewhere.
My guess is that if they did not provide that information in their letter, no future support would be forthcoming. Games have such a short marketing life that few companies woidd be walling to offer technical support for a game that has already gone through its most profitable marketing period. If you know otherwise, please let me know, I will pass die word along.
Jeffrey also found a problem with MindScape’s Balance of Power: 1990 Edition. A corrupt printer driver file caused the disk to fail to diskcopy to another floppy.
Format and Install a new disk and use a disk copy utility such as Click DOS or Diskmas- ter to copy all files except the DEVS Printers subdirectory.
Since the program doesn't use the printer and the Preferences program isn’t shipped with the disk anyway, your newly made copy should work fine. You can use this procedure to repair many faulty pro- c- AMIGA 'JUST RELEASED' AMIGA UPGRADE 1 New 1 MEGABYTE, "FATTER Asnus (BS372) Hi-Rcs chip allows users more ¦chip" memory for use in GRAPHICS. MUSIC OR VIDEO. This "plug in" upgrade is an absolute must for present Amiga owners. Price is $ 109.50 including insmuriotis.
AMIGA UPGRADE H2 ...... A50E X01, 5 l2KC-1oclt RAM Board upgrjdc far Amiga 500, (Plugs directly into trapdoor ! Super price of SI 14.95 including instructions.
AMIGA UPGRADE «J ... AMIGA UPGRADE M WE STOCK AI.I. UIKi IANDCOMMOIRIREi CHIPS AT SUPER I.IHV PRICES .
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L-IS0Q-292-7-145 Prices subject lu change gram disks as the
process should work on any disk that is not copy protected,
assuming die corrupted file isn’t necessary for proper
operation of the program.
, New 1.3 KICKSTART ROM upgradc-S27.95 including insmtctions.
. 6K020-RCI6 (16Mill), 574.95 ... 68831-RCJ2, $ 72.50 ... 68881RC16. $ 79.95 ... 6SSS2-RCI2. $ 105.00 ... AND 41256 Scries at unbeatable prices.
And other miscellaneous corrections. Registered users may receive die two-disk update for 520.00. THE GRAPEVINE GROUP, INC. 35 CHARLOTTE DRIVE WESLEY HILLS. NY 10977 Commodore is a rcgisicrcd uadcnurk Circle 147 on Reader Service card.
Also mentioned in the notification was the ability to import EPSF (Encapsulated PostScript File) files. Earlier versions could only export EPSF files. The upgrade notification was printed on an HP LaserJet, and its appearance is excellent. Previous versions of Professional Page had proof quality output on HP type printers.
The upgrade costs 540.00 for registered users. They have also announced the availability of an “upgrade” price of $ 150.00 for those who own anodier brand of desktop publishing program and want to switch to Professional Page. If you are a registered Professional Page user and did not receive the upgrade notice, you should contact Gold Disk direcdy.
¦AC* Products Mentioned Registered users of Lattice AmigaDOS C Compiler should have received a version 5-04 patch disk from Lattice, of Lombard, IL.
This information was provided from a notice released by Michael Napolitano, customer service manager for Lattice. According to the notice, version 5.04 of die Lattice C Compiler for AmigaDOS includes more than 50 enhancements to the compiler, libraries, CodePRobe debugger, and utilities. The upgraded version also adds new features including allowing equivalent structures to be passed siiendy with the “cq” switch; allowing more than 32K of code to be generated for a single source module; addidonal support for -pragma calls; overlapping register variables; and support for the UNIX form of
Offset of which casts NULL to the structure pointer and takes the address of the member.
All registered users of the compiler should have received the 5.04 Patch upgrade automatically. Anyone who has not received the upgrade due to address changes or failure to register should contact Lattice directly. The upgrade is free.
I received a press release from Intelligent Computer Music Systems regarding an upgrade to M for the Amiga. Version 1.1 boasts continuous Time Base Denominator values from 1 to 48; Preview timbres on a synth; a window-to-front option and other features.
Several bugs were also fixed in this version, including repair of the New command in die File menu; improved handling of the loading of a large number of instruments; improved Input Control System; The maintenance update to WordPerfect has been shipping since mid-October.
The update has many improvements and bug fixes over earlier versions. Among odier filings, WordPerfect now recognizes a hyphen as a searchable and replaceable character. Long documents diat used to give the spelling checker problems now spell check correcdy.
The file requester that Is brought up with the F5 or List Files option is much easier to use. For example, you can define a defaukdocument directory other dian the WP subdirectory. If you select a new directory, it becomes the current directory without having to make it permanent by choosing the Change Directory command required in previous versions. Registered users can upgrade for only SI2.50 by calling WordPerfect technical support, or by calling their order line and asking for details.
According to WordPerfect Corporation's policy, any registered user who reports a verifiable bug that is repaired in die latest update will receive the update at no charge. Professional Page version 1.3 is due to be released in just a few days according to a phone call I received from Gold Disk.
They missed dieir projected September release date, and as this is being written in mid-October, they are expecting to release the program before the end of the month.
A letter was sent to all registered Professional Page users with complete instructions on the procedure for upgrading to the new version. The latest edition supports AGFA Compugraphic Fonts, high resolution dot matrix output and full online support for Transcript, dieir in-house word processor.
Balance of Power MlndScape, Inc. 3444 Dundee Road Northbrook. IL 60062
9312) 480-7667' Inquiry 206 DeluxePaint III Electronic Arts
Customer Warranty Box 7578 Son Moteo. CA: 94403-7578 (415)
572-2787 Inquiry 200 Lattice AmigaDOS C Compiler lattice,
Inc. 2500 S Highland Ave Lombard. 1L60148
(708) 916-1600 FAX (70S) 916-1190 ; Inquiry 202 M for the Amiga
Intelligent Computer Music Systems, Inc. 116 North Lake Ave
Albany, NY 12206
(600) 344-2086 FAX (518) 434-0303 Inquiry 203 Professional Page
Gold Disk, Inc. Box 789 Streetsville Mississauga ON: Canada
(800) 387-8192 FAX (416) 828-7754 Inquiry 204 SimCity Maxis
Software 953 Mountain View Drive No. 113 Lafayette. CA
(415) 376-6434 FAX: (415) 376-1823 Inquiry 201 WordPerfect
WordPerfect Corp.: 1555 N, Technology Way Orem. UT 84057
(80!) 225-5000 Inquiry 207 Insight into the World of
Freely Redistributable Software for the Amiga by Mike
Morrison After considerable thought we have decided to
change the format of this column again. In the past each
Fred Fish disk was "lightly reviewed". This allowed each
disk to be mentioned and still be small enough to fit into
the space requirements of this article.
This usually created an article that looked like the Fred Fish listing that we include in the back of each issue (and some parts where). Therefore, we decided to expand on the "Expansion Drawer" idea (which readers liked), and cover several of the programs on new Fred Fish disks in more detail.
• ESCAPE FROM JOV1 III • (Fred Fish Disk *250) This game was
written by Oliver Wagner of West Germany. It is an update to
the version on Fred Fish disk -148. Ft is a shareware program,
and if you like it you should send the requested donation to
The object of the game is to escape from an underground cave system on the planet Jupiter. You are transporting a valuable bottle of beer. You start hovering at die bottom of die caves. Gravity immediatly takes over and starts forcing the ship downward. You must conteract it with the joystick. The joystick works as you would expect, with up being up and down being down, etc. Two other tilings are working against you.
One is ftiel and the odier is time. You are limited on both of these resources, and they force you to move quickly, but not too quickly. As you change levels the caves become thinner and thinner. They also become a bit trickier, in that not every' cave leads out. Some are dead ends which force you to go back and find another way out, eating into your valuable time.
The game has realistic inertia and gravity. It takes a fine touch to balance the thrust of die spaceship widi gravity', and the side-to- side motion as well. If you touch the cave or the edge of the screen, kaboom, your history.
There are several characteristics of diis game that are normally found in commercial products. There is a ‘Hail of Fame’ that contains the high scores of players diat is saved to disk. The up and down scrolling is very smooth. The digital stereo sound is also a nice touch, The documentation says that diere is a dieat mode, but it doesn’t explain how to use it. And I couldn’t figure it out. To make things real interesting, if you send die author the requested shareware donation, he will send you an editor so you can add your own levels!
There were a few things that I didn’t like about EFJ. Once I was in the game, I couldn’t get out. I tried every key combination I could think of. Oh, 1 did find one that worked, Ctrl-Amiga-Amiga. The other annoyance is that you should run the game from the CLI by typing ‘EFJ’. There is an icon included, but using it may, as die documentaionsays, ’lead to India’. In other words, a trip from the GURU.
As far as PD software goes, this game is very nice. It is definedy worth the requested shareware donation of $ 8. This will also get you die editor so you can create your own levels. This will also keep shareware authors writing new software. It is wonh including as a stocking stuffer for your favorite Aniigan. (continued) PIC-MAGIC ™ Professional Quality Clip Art Package One Over 250 Images OVER-SCREEN-Si7Ed BlT MapS Ten Disks 220 Paqe ManuaI Food Sports Cars and other Wonders Christmas People Plants Animals Misc. Objects Places Bordersets Eye Grabbers Call the PIC-MAGICT“ Hot Line
1-800-387-8967 length of no mouse movement, or when a key is pressed. This could be handy when you are in an editor, once you start to type, the mouse pointer is shut off. The sun- mouse feature will activate any window the mouse is over. This prevents people like
• MACH1I • (Fred Fish Disk 254) Mach n is a mouse accelerator
with hotkeys plus more. It is a shareware program, The Mach II
included on this disk has an opening screen that is displayed
for 10-15 seconds. If you send in the suggested shareware
donation ($ 15), you will receive a new version that displays
the opening screen for a few seconds.
This version of Mach II adds some features and now works with other countries key- maps. The list of features for Mach II is quite impressive. You can define 30 macro keys that are either: the function keys, the Amiga & function keys, Ctrl-Amiga-function keys, or the first letters of the macro. These can also include mouse buttons. This should be flexible enough for the needs of most people You can automatically execute macros at startup or at a specified preset time. The mouse speed can be adjusted from slow to mach speed. PopCLI gives you a new CLI.
The screen can be blanked or even dimmed after a user defined length of time.
The mouse can be shut off after a specified Or Send Cheque or Money Order To: Joe’s First Company Inc.
P. O. Box 579, Station Z Toronto, Ontario MSN 2Z6 Tel: (416)
322-6119 _Fax: (416) 489-1620J Circle 180 on Reader Service
Myself who have to look at the keyboard while typing from entering a long CLI command before realizing that the CLI I wanted the command to go into isn’t selected.
ClickToFront, Screen Shuffler, and Window Shuffler allow easy control over a busy Workbench. ClickToFront brings a window to the front. Screen and Window Shuffler rotates either tire screen or window. This way you can rotate between all screens windows that are open.
The clock in Mach II shows the current time and then some. It also displays the available memory, the date, and has a low memory warning. The clock has one alarm that can be set to go off whenever you want. The beeper feature causes the dock to beep every 15 minutes, or whatever time you specify, to remind you drat time is slipping away. To put icing on the cake there is a time meter. The meter will keep track of how long you have been on-line.
It gets your attention by displaying how much money you have spent so far. The rate is adjustable.
Mach II is a nice muld-funtional program.
You can run it when you turn your computer on by adding Tunback MachlF to your startup-sequence. Mach II would have been handy just as a macro player and mouse accelerator, but it goes way beyond that by adding a whole list of features. It has many handy features that anyone can use.
AC- Support Your Local Library WordPerfect Library, that is!
Revieiv by Marion Deland WordPerfect Library is a set of desktop utilities ported from die PC. It includes an appointment calendar, a tiiree- in-one calculator, a directory file manager, a mini-database, and a program text editor.
In tire PC world, pop-up desktops are a much needed substitute for multitasking.
WP Library is a useful aid for a PC user, as its utilities are nicely coordinated and come with lots of help to get you started.
For die Amiga owner, a desktop's value must rest on the quality of the individual programs a fact that WordPerfect seems to have recognized in their latest ad campaign for WP Library. Of die five WP Library programs listed above, The programs muldtask reasonably well, though they do slow down a great deal when used this way. Each program has a “switch" requester that lists all WP programs currendy running-a clumsy holdover from die PC version.
MANUAL AND HELP SCREENS WP Library' comes widi a huge ring- bound manual divided into sections, one for each of die individual programs. It provides precise, step-by-step instructions for most everything, widi the emphasis on the keyboard rather than on die mouse.
I have to say diat while diese detailed WP manuals are impressive, they can be The manual for WP Library explains the features of each program in alphabetical order. In the program editor, for example, “Append" is explained first, while "Open" is way down the line.
Although you can find what you need in the tables of contents, it can be confusing for die newcomer. There’s also some duplication between sections which does not help.
Besides the manual, there's a printing guide. The program comes with WordPerfect’s stand-alone print program and a printer driver generator. (It also has its own printer drivers.) There is on-line help available in each program. Tills works MH fu; _ rat MTTt* jCft ¦BBiBllI hbbbh b EkiiiSE ffHMS 5 HjRjMl Mr.inf*
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make good use of them, the package is probably wordi its price
of S I 29.00 reasonable by WordPerfect standards.
Straight from the package, WP Library is good for someone with a single drive, since everything but the separate print program has been packed onto one soot disk. However, you can split them up if you want to, since each program has its own icon on die disk and ius own section in the manual. The names of some of the individual programs are a litde confusing, as they are based on PC terminology.
Notebook is the database; it has nodiing to do with the Amiga Notepad. File Manager is a directory utility; it displays die current directory in the window in which you click on buttons to execute CLI commands.
Above left: The File Manager tvill search for and mark specific files in a directory.
Above right: The Calendar features a main Calendar unndow, an Appointments list, a To-do list, a Memo unndow and a related Alarm program.
Daundng. ! Tutor WordPerfect for both the Amiga and die PC, and many of my students are people who bought the program, took one look at the manual, and put the program away for months.
WordPerfect programs are not hard to learn, but their manuals do turn some people off.
The same way as WordPerfect's on-line help, listing all the features alphabetically.
You also get one of those great WordPerfect function-key templates; it covers Notebook and the Program Editor, but many of the function key commands also overlap into the other programs.
FILE MANAGER There are plenty of directory utilities around for the Amiga, bodi commercially and in die public domain. WP Library’s File Manager is a fairly simple one, designed for die average user, not for the experienced CLI maven. It is easy to use, and covers most of what you will need. It will copy ordelete one file orseveral. It will let you view and print text files, rename (continued) files and create directories. It tells you how much space you are using on the disk, how much is available, and how many directories you have. It checks to see which devices - both “physical” ones
(drives) and “logical” ones (directories and volume names)-are mounted. This feature is nice, given that most similar programs don't bother with logical devices.
There are many ways to juggle directories: buttons for “parent directory" and “root directory'," and another that lets you toggle between two directories the next best thing to displaying both at once.
If you used pattern-matching to select a subset of the files in one directory (all those beginning with “WP," for instance), File Manager remembers your selection when you return.
You can mark or unmark one, several or all files, simply by clicking on a button or pressing a function key. You can “look” at a text file, searching for a specific wrord, window, all reflecting tire date selected in tire calendar.
You can set appointments for any time, or lock tire program into evenly spaced increments. A nice touclr is tire Overlap Display, which tells you when twro appointments overlap and conflict. You can also merge files to find an open time slot for a meeting. You can have the program remind you of appointments with a screen requester, voice and or sound, through a separate Alarm program that works in conjunction with the Calendar.
Alarms can be set and unset for individual appointments or for all appointments.
Under the heading of “You don’t know you need it until you need it” is the Day Count feature. You can figure out, for instance, how many Tuesdays and Thursday's there are between today and the end of the year.
The “ToDo" list is well thought out.
You assign each item a priority number manual compares them to document files in a "word processor.) Any part of a Calendar file can be printed, and there are some page-formatting options. If you have WordPerfect, you can also save the output as a WordPerfect file and format it there.
Another useful feature is Auto- Archive, w'hich moves your data to an archive file after a specific number of days, reducing the size of your Calendar file and the time spent on disk access. You can see the information in die archive file as if it were any other Calendar file. One feature that would be useful in both this appointment calendar and the similar Nag Plus would be a way to add up expenses.
An appointment calendar is a natural place to record expenses, but unfortunately, while you can record them in a Calendar memo, there are no math functions.
NOTEBOOK Almost any desktop has a weak spot In the case of WP Library', the weak spot is JL ¦MmSLu OOG3E3G3 cannon ?QQOiBaaaoa QOOEJEDnonOO “D0GE)lnBOO but you can’t edit it directly from File Manager. I also liked the “sort” feature, which lets you sort a directory7 by name, size or date. This sort is only in memory, of course; the files on the disk stay in the order you created them.
A major flaw- is the lack of an IFF file viewer. No doubt this is due to the fact that a single graphics standard is still an impossible dream in die PC world.
Although this is supposed to be an Amiga program, WordPerfect doesn’t seem too sure at times.
APPOINTMENT CALENDAR The Appointment Calendar is the most complex - and for me the most useful
- program in WP Library7. There are four windows, each of which
can be opened or closed individually. The calendar for the
current month acts as the master window-.
There’s also a list of appointments, a numbered "To Do” list, and a memo Above left: Selecting a Notebook record in the "list display" brings up the complete record.
Above right: The Financial Calculator includes 100 memory registers and 8 specialized Financial registers.
(there can be more than one item per number). Items can be renumbered, and a Carry-Over mode automatically carries over any items not checked off to the next day7.
Your changes are saved when you exit the calendar. If you decide to exit without saving, the program asks you the same annoying questions diat WordPerfect does, making sure that you’re really sure of your decision. Irritadng, but certainly a failsafe.
You can maintain as many Calendar files as you want, and run the program by clicking on a Calendar tile icon, (The the mini-database of the Notebook. It is awkwrard to handle and limited in usefulness.
To create a new file, you build it in a “record display" window not in a “record template," which seems a more logical term. The manual suggests dial you first draw the boxes, then add the field labels, and lastly, create the fields. There are no field types; they are all essentially text fields. When you add a new7 field, die program just dumps it on the screen and you have to move and resize it -with die cursor keys! What happened to the mouse?
To see your records as a list or table, you have to create the list field by field, cycling tltrough them each time. It Is really a report feature, and it Is a lot of work for a simple function.
You can select records according to search criteria, much as you w'ould with a word processor's search function Hire _(continued) "AMIGA mtiGA Your Orriginal AjyiTGA Monthly Resource.
WordPerfect’s, in fact. All die data remains on the screen, and the program finds the next (or all) occurrence(s) of the word or phrase. Yon can only search for text, including wildcards; no date or math criteria (more than $ 4.00, for instance) are available. To search on two fields, you have the program mark (or highlight) die records in the first search, and then search those records for the second criterion.
There’s also a macro option. Itworks like WordPerfect's excellent macro feature: you define die macro, it remembers your keystrokes, you save it on disk, and invoke it when you need it. You can name a macro with a filename or an Amiga-key combination, or you can create a temporary macro that lasts only until you exit the Notebook, just like WordPerfect.
PROGRAM EDITOR The Program Editor looks a lot like WordPerfect’s dull but efficient.
(Couldn't die programmers have managed to give us all four Workbench colors?) I wasn't comfortable using it, though it has some interesting features.
You can't really use this as a text editor, since there Isnorightmargin. (After all, if you could, you might not buy WordPerfect!) While you can open more than one document at a dme, doing so slows down the program a lot.
The block function is unusual but useful. With most programs, including WP, you select a block by dragging the mouse over it and then releasing die burton. The next click clears the block highlight. With the Program Editor, however, die block stays highlighted, and you can highlight another, and another, then copy them all to the paste buffer. Now that Is useful!
There are two indenting opuons.
The regular indent works on a highlighted block of copy, inserting a tab at the beginning of every line. You can also unindent, removing the tab. Auto-Indent works differendy; it copies die space at the beginning of the current line to the beginning of the next line. This is useful for nested indents in programs: you just add or delete spaces, and the result is copied to die next line.
A Timed Backup feature saves your document, at intervals, to a temporary file that stays on your disk until you exit die program. A crash, power outage, or even a reboot while the program is running, leaves die temporary file on the disk where you can retrieve it. Original Backup keeps the last version of a file on the disk as well as the current one a useful feature for debugging.
You can edit documents (or programs) in hexadecimal mode. A second window opens, and you can click between them. This is nice. In addition to the normal Cut and Paste features, the program has Clone (a shortcut for Copy and Paste), Move (Cut plus Paste), Copy Delete Duplicate Line, and Delete Word. Another useful feature is a three-level Undelete.
As with WordPerfect, die Escape key repeats cursor movements, macros, etc., a specified number of times. I like this idea, diough I wish they’d chosen another key; I can’t tell you how many times I’ve tried to “escape" a function and received the repeat requester!
This program also has macros, set up the same wray as those in die Notebook (and WordPerfect). You can pause for keyboard input, repeat macros and chain diem together.
CALCULATOR Frankly, my uses for a calculator tend to be of the “What's 8% of $ 280.00?" Variety (New York City sales tax, in case you were wrondering). Nevertheless, I found Library’s Calculator surprisingly useful and well designed.
The Calculator is three in one: Financial, like a normal hand-held calculator, but with extra functions; Scientific, and Programmer. It Is a single unit (you cannot load them individually) and your figures are carried over from one calculator to anodier.
The diree calculators all have the basic mathematical operations (addition, multiplication, etc.) along with specialized features for each one: the Scientific Calculator has trigonometric and logaridimic functions; the Programmer Calculator lets you calculate in hex, octal, binary and decimal modes, and includes bit manipuladon and base conversion; and the Financial Calculator has functions for calculating percentages, simple compound interest, and per month year figures.
All diree offer a choice between “normal" algebraic mode (6 + 2 =) and Reverse Polish Notation (6 2 +). The manual suggests that you always use algebraic unless you’re familiar with RPN.
(Fine!) However, all examples are given in RPN, with algebraic equivalents listed as an aside. (Huh?) Equally confusing is the fact that the calendar defaults to “Scientific” surely die least likely choice of the three.
One advantage of a computer calculator over a hand-held is its ability to store default numbers on disk. WP Library’s calculators include 100 “memory registers" for this purpose. However, using diem is a painful experience. If you want to recall die number stored in register 5, for example, you click on the RCL button, dien on 0, and dien on 5. Why not simply click directly in the register window? We all knowr w'hy: it wasn't done that w'ay in the PC version!
The Financial Calculator also has eight specialized registers, including Interest Rate, Selling Price and Profit Margin. The manual has nicely detailed tutorials on using these in amortizing loans, calculating annuities, figuring out depreciation, etc. (Unfortunately, dieseare die only real tutorials in the manual.) This calculator goes a long way beyond figuring my sales tax!
One weakness is the lack of any way to keep a permanent record of your calculadons. There is no print function, and no “tape” display, as found in many similar programs. The nearest thing to it is the Stack display, a window' showing the registers used by the program to keep track of w'hat it Is doing. The explanation in the manual is confusing at best. On a diagram of the screen, for example, "E" marks “the Y register, which is the second register in die Stack window (number 1)."
In spite of these quibbles, I found the Calculator useful, complete and easy to use. Together widi the Calendar and the File Manager, it makes WP Library' a good investment.
[As I write this, the latest news is that WordPerfect will continue to provide their excellent customer support for Amiga products, with limited development of new programs, In other words, we can still hope to see ports of IBM programs in the future probably the distant future. Now if we could just get them to understand that Amiga owners are visual people and like a little color in their computing. ,.MD]
• AC* Word Perfect Library WordPerfect Corporation 1555 North
Technology Way Orem, UT 84057
(801) 225-5000 Price: $ 129.00 Inquiry 208 aBggw mm. ~~ By the
Batidito Roomers [The statements and projections presented
in “Roomers” are rumors in the purest sense. The bits of
information are gathered by a third- party sourcefrom
whispers inside the industry. At press time, they remain
unconfirmed and are printed for entertainment value only.
Accordingly, the staff and associates of Amazing Computing™
cannot be held responsible for the reports made in this
column. ] More on die great Epyx implosion, the hot minor
making the rounds is this: Epyx was having severe cash flow
problems and finally sold Lynx to Atari. The deal gave them
several hefty payments for various milestones, as advances
against royalties. The crunch came when Epyx failed to make
a milestone. Reportedly, they couldn’t quite make the
connecting cable (the com-link) work up to spec by the date
specified in die contract. Successful completion meant a $ 2
million advance, which Epyx was depending on to keep them
afloat. When diey missed die date and pleaded for mercy,
Atari said, "Forget it.
You missed the date, so we don't owe you diat payment not now or ever. Wait for your royaldes.” Remember, this is from the company owned by Jack Tramiel, who said, "Business is war." The Epyx downsizing has resulted in a flood of resumes among other software companies.
Seems like just about every' publisher picked up a few talented people. The Bandito’s heard that some Hollywood types are looking to make a movie out of the Epyx story. Working dde; "Honey, 1 Shrunk The Company”.
It looks like this Christmas is really make-it-or-break-it for the Amiga. If diey spend these megabucks on advertising and markedng and fail to sell a substantial numbers of Amigas, Commodore will probably look for some odier way to make money, Maybe they will try the calculator business again. In any event, the competition is looming on die horizon. In 1S 90, we should see the debut of Apple's Low-Cost Mac ($ 995 list), which may be expandable (allowing for the possibility of color as an upgrade) and IBM's Home PC, a 386SX-based wonder machine.
Commodore's main competitive edges against diose machines are price and software base. Hopefully, the A500 street price will be around S40O by die time the competition arrives. And the software base will be even bigger dian it is now.
Apple’s Low-Cost Macintosh (LCM) is set for an early 1990 release; figure on March or thereabouts to meet education- buying deadlines. The LCM is expected to use a 16 Mhz 68000 and no built-in monitor, listing for $ 995 retail (street price about $ 750). The Bandito hears whispers diat Apple is thinking about including NTSC compadbility so you can use a cheap monitor. Higher resolution might require an additional video card and possibly a multiscan monitor. Odier sources say there will be no built-in video at all, and die LCM will require a video card of some sort.
Apple has more than one prototype hanging around, so it is difficult to determine what the final configuration will be. One of the big questions, yet to be answered, is will it be expandable? The Bandito expects it to have at least one slot, and maybe as many as three. Of course, the real question is what will happen to the Mac Plus, SE, and SE 30 and their pricing?
Stay tuned for further developments.
Apple’s still trying hard to get people to believe that the Apple If line wili live forever. At AppleFest, Jean-Louis Gassee, Apple VP of Product Development, got in a screaming match with Bill Mensch, the head of Western Design, which supplies die CPU for die IIGS. Seems Gassee w'as claiming that Apple couldn’t make a faster IIGS than 2.8 Mhz, because they didn't have a reliable source of faster chips.
Mensch jumped and shouted that he had a bagful of 12 Mhz chips widi him, and challenged Gassee to try them out. A shouting match ensued, after which Mensch was escorted from the hall by Apple security troopers. By the way, this was die keynote speech.
Apple doesn’t really want a fast IIGS, because diat would hurt sales of their upcoming Low-Cost Macintosh, Someone asked Gassee if it was true that Apple would stop production of the IIGS in 1992, and Ills reply was that, if that happened, it w'ould make a lot of engineers at Apple unhappy. Sounds like a non-answer to die Bandito. Despite Apple’s assertions, they have almost no engineers or programmers assigned to work on IIGS stuff (would you believe one guy?). .And no software publisher is seriously developing any software for it; they aren’t even porting software to it.
Other hardware compedtlon is also on the horizon. IBM’s multimedia PC is getting closer, and more details have emerged. It’s a PS 2 with a 16 Mhz 386SX processor running an enhanced version of Windows 3.0. Release date is Fall 1990, at a price under $ 4,000 (but not much). It includes a CD-ROM drive, a digital signal processor for high-quality audio and video co-processing, MIDI ports, stereo audio, microphone input, two joystick ports, a synthesizer chip, and an internal modem.
Windows 3.0 and DOS 4.0 will be ready to run on the included hard disk. The Windows enhancements include sprites, special effects, and animation metafiles.
Sounds like a great game machine for millionaires. Gee, with all that extra hardware, the Bandito suspects it might even be nearly as fast as the Amiga in some cases for only four times the cost. Of course, you’ll also have to tvait for some software to appear. Sounds like a great deal.
Jim Kent, known for his work in animation software for the Amiga (Aegis Animator), is said to be the man behind AutoCad’s Animator software for the PC.
Interestingly, they advertise the software as being able to accept Amiga files, which the Bandito thinks is a first for PC software. Of course, to make the program work rvith any speed you need a fast 80386 and a VGA, adapter. So you’re looking at about four grand worth of hardware. The Bandito suggests that these folks just buy an Amiga and some software for less than half the price. You will probably get better animation in less time, as well.
While PC Animator accepts Amiga files, Adobe's Photoshop image-processing program, for the Macintosh can also import Amiga IFF files. A nod to the popularity of color imaging using the Amiga sez the Bandito. You know that you're doing something right when software on other computers supports your format.
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More action on the compact-disc front. A new format called CD+G (graphics) adds 288 x 192 pixel images in 16 colors out of 4096 to a standard audio
CD. Funny, dial’s the same dimensions as DVI images. Could it be
a coincidence? Not many know that when Sony and Philips
designed the CD spec, they reserved 5% of the space for
graphics. It may not sound like much, but that’s as much as
30 megabytes, which is a lot of text, or even a fair number
of pictures at the low resolution used. Anyway, that
resolution is OK for pictures, but lousy for text. Try it
yourself in DeluxePaint on your Amiga and see what kind of
pictures you generate.
Various music companies are taking a flyer on making CD+G discs: 33 tides are available, with 25 more slated before the end of the year. The graphics include things like liner notes, lyrics, and guitar chords.
The titles range from Donna Summer to Placido Domingo, since they have no idea what type of buyer will want these kind of discs. The first player designed to handle CD+G discs is now available from JVC.
Nintendo is getting serious about aiming those rinky-dink videogame boxes into real computers. They will offer a financial services computer network that connects Nintendos to the currently existing on-line financial network operated by Fidelity Investments of Boston.
Nintendo is developing a serial port and modem for the game machine, and Fidelity is creating telecommunications software for a plug-in cartridge. The financial services operation will be part of a proposed “Nintendo Entertainment System Network" to be launched in 1990. The NES Network will also offer interactive games, entertainment, information services you know, all those things the typical 10-year old Nintendo player wants to do: zapping stock trades, slaying pork belly futures, and pondering the rate of return on convertible debentures. What a great thing for banks and brokerage houses to
install in their offices! Can’t you just see those financial execs calling up stock quotes on their Nintendo? All their client has to do is target the stock he wants and press the fire button. Wall Street could be a lot more fun, especially if they keep the zippy sound effects. Look, die Bandito swears this Nintendo story is true. See, it’s not April 1, Besides, even the Bandito couldn't make up a story this surreal.
The computer market in Europe is becoming more interesting. The latest news is that Apple is cutting prices an average of 25% for the Mac PI us and 20% for the SE in an attempt to gain market share.
Why do they feel the need to do dtis? The following unit sales breakdowns for 1987 and 1988 should clarify things for you: Vendor 1987 1988 IBM 19-0% l6.L° 1 Amstrad
6. 8 Olivetti
7. 6 Commodore
8. 4 Atari
8. 2 Apple
5. 0 4,6 Other
43. 0 4S..3 Total - units
4. 8m Commodore ended up the *2 computer manufacturer in Europe
for 19SS, while IBM’s and Apple’s percentages actually
dropped. Atari is still hanging in there, and even closing die
gap. Good tiling too, because their U.S. sales were
Now if only Commodore could pull off those numbers in the U.S. The Amiga 3000 may be closer to die marketplace than many have speculated, but die price tag may be higher than some were hoping. Looks like the strategy will be to go after die high-end, power-user types.
Particular targets are video and desktop publishing. The new features of the A3000 mean revising software to take advantage of them, so Commodore's working hard to get major publishers to support the A3000.
What kind of price tag are we talking about?
The Bandito wouldn’t be surprised to see $ 4000 or even $ 5000. Think that’s steep?
Well, have you seen Apple's prices on their latest Macintosh? How does $ 8600 grab you? Yeah, a severe pain in the pocketbook. But that’s what you pay for the highest end power these days.
Personally, the Bandito thinks the good old 68000 is just fine for most things, especially when it’s in an Amiga instead of a Mac.
One of the big advantages of the 68030 over die 68020 is its built-in PMMU.
The Paged Memory Management Unit provides bulletproof multitasking; when one application visits die Guru, the rest can keep going. Expect the A3000 to include a 68882 math coprocessor as standard, too.
Think of it die A3000 will have 4 processors' How’s that for parallel computing? This baby should fly rings, speedwise, around anything Apple or IBM has to offer, especially when it comes to moving windows around the screen. This could be the breakthrough to make some of die big developers sit up and take notice.
Some software is painfully slow even on top-of-the-line hardware from IBM or Apple. If there’s anything that will convince a software publisher to develop for a machine, it’s a machine dial makes software look really good. That's why software is being developed for the NeXT machine. The A3000 will even beat up NeXT price performance in many ways, especially considering the colors available.
The A3000 may make the big leap to full 24-bit color available as an upgrade.
The Bandito hears whispers that die A3000 will offer 256 colors out of a 16.8-million color palette, with an option to go to full 24- bit (true-color) pictures. Whether this will be standard or an option is not yet known.
What you can he sure of is that taking advantage of the A3000’s powers will require major software packages to be thoroughly rewritten. Commodore is already working hard to convince developers to do just that.
While die hardware is pretty well nailed down, the .43000 pricing is still being hotly debated. What do you compare it to?
Well, Mac Ifs with 68030's, and maybe 80386 machines, both of which are in tire Are you intimidated by Databases?
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Mail-O-Dex is a full featured, easy to use mail merge manager. But it doesn’t stop there! It also combines the features of a RoloDex, a Phone Dialer, a Label Printer, AND directly supports most popular Word Processors. With easy to use VCR style controls, you probably won’t even need the easy to understand manual. You can search any or ALL fields, and define field titles.
Label sizes and spacing are adjustable.
Best of all, it’s only $ 49.95 11 Golden, Co. 80401
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software. Have you ever tried what passes for a word
processor under UNIX? You 're better off with a pencil.
Best bet is that dre base configuration of the A3000 will be about $ 4000, but you’ll need to spend another $ 1,500 or so to make it really usable with all the RAM, monitor, and so forth.
The Bandito has been hearing some interesting things about die appearance of the A3000. Of course. Commodore could just put it into an A2000 case and change the nameplate. But it seems likely that an entirely new case is being designed for the A3000, with a spiffy high-tech look. The Bandito hopes it will be somewhat easier to open, and that the disk drives fit more snugly in their enclosures. (It’s so distressing to see empty space between the case and the disk drive.) Some say that the case may even be used for A2000 models at some point.
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Who will want to run out and buy an A3000 right away? Well, software developers (of course), people working on video, animation, or presentation graphics.
Graphic artists who need the high-end capabilities like millions of colors and extra speed. Desktop publishers who do color work. The usual assortment of power users.
Commodore stock is back down in die lOrange, fallenfromdie lofty heights of almost 20. Cotild be a bargain, especially if the new ad campaign does its job. Of course, you never can tell what’s going to happen to a stock price. Just ask Adobe.
One of Commodore's many problems has been keeping its dealer network happy, and lately they have found a way to earn some brownie points with the dealers. If there’s anydiing a dealer hates, it's being undercut on their big-ticket items by a mail-order house. Montgomery Grant, purveyor of Amigas by mail at amazingly low costs, is being targeted by Commodore. Apparently MG is a so-called "gray market" dealer. In odier words, diey buy Amigas at cost from dealers who bought too many from Commodore in an attempt to make good sales numbers.
Commodore has been taking flack from dealers about low mail-order prices, (You’d diink those dealers complaining about MG are not the same ones that sell to MG, but don’t take anything for granted.)
So Big C has finally gathered enough evidence to Uy to stop MG from selling Amigas. Whether they succeed or not is another matter, as it’s a very difficult and tricky legal matter to control distribution.
Dealers are wishing Commodore the best of luck.
The great Font Wars are now raging between Apple and Microsoft on one side, and Adobe on die other. What does it mean for die Amiga? Outline fonts will not be in
1. 4, but Commodore promises them for die next rev of die system
software. (1.5 or is it time for a real 2.0?) With the current
Apple- Adobe-Microsoft battle over Postscript and the
Apple-Microsoft new font standard, things are getting very
interesting. We could see Postscript as part of the .Amiga, or
perhaps Commodore can license die Apple-Microsoft font
technology which will be used in both die Macintosh and OS
2. Then transferring files between all diree computers would be
easier, since the output would be consistent. The Bandito will
keep an ear to the ground for more information in diis
Commodore expects to sell over 100,000.Amigas in die U.K. over Christmas, a sizable number there. The Amiga’s ¦getting so hot over there that many former C64 developers are turning dieir hand to Amiga games. At the PCW computer show in September (die premiere U.K. show), the aisles were choked with run & jump, move & shoot games. While the games are technically very good (witness Psygnosis games with multi-layer, overscan extra- half-brite scrolling graphics and full stereo soundtrack), they tend to be variadons on die old shoot’em up. The interesting trend is diat die U.K. developers are
forming more alliances with U.S. companies, creating products for die U.S. market.
While managing programmers who are thousands of miles away is difficult, these guys are used to working relatively cheap.
And they can put out very high quality, if you keep a watchful eye on their work.
Look for more products coming under U.S. labels that were actually created overseas.
Geez, whatever happened to the invincibility of the U.S. software business?
Even before the expected Christmas rush, Amiga software sales are already on die rise while Commodore 64 software is dropping off (very rapidly for some publishers). The 8-bit machines are finally dying, in part because developers just really don't want to try and shoehorn a game into 64K anymore. Even the last bastion of S-bit software, the U.K., is going over to the Amiga. The Bandito has heard tills prediction before, but it seems as if this Christmas really will be the last significant one for the C64. Chrisunas 1990 should belong entirely to the Amiga 500 at least as far as personal
computers go. Of course, all the video games (“entertainment systems”) are trying to become computers, so there may be a bit of a battle. But the Bandito thinks the Amiga will come out the winner.
The new Amiga TV commercials will run in 17 markets from October l6 through December 24. The theory is that, between October and December, 92% of all U.S. adults should see Amiga commercials an average of 20 times. Commodore kicked off its national ad campaign with press screenings in NYC and LA on October 11.
An appropriate touch: the invitations came with a necktie made out of movie film, the frames being stills from the commercials.
While Commodore tries to make it sound like LucasFilms did the commercials because they think the Amiga is special, the Bandito has discovered that the truth is not so exciting. LucasFilms Commercials is a new division chartered specifically to produce commercials, and Commodore just happened to be their first client. But Commodore has gotten quite a bit a of PR mileage out of the fact, which is unusual since Commodore normally finds it hard to get PR unless they lose stunning amounts of money in only one quarter, a feat they haven’t accomplished in years.
NEW DIRECTIONS DEPT. Electronic Arts is using its in-house programming staff to work on cartridge- based games, mostly ports of computer software. This, after the president has railed for years against the videogame business.
Oh well, if you can’t beat 'em... The question is, what kind of cartridges will they do? Sure, Nintendo is the obvious choice. But will these be audiorized and duly licensed by Nintendo, or more like Tengen’s “independent” cartridges?
Perhaps the answer depends on the outcome ol Atari Games’ lawsuit with Nintendo. Supposedly, Electronic Arts is working on cartridges for some of the 16- bit game machines like the Sega. Other sources whisper that Electronic .Arts is giving cartridge development top priority, and will reduce its flow of computer software titles to a mere trickle in 1990.
Electronic Arts recently went public with their stock selling at 81 4, the low end of the range they were planning (8 to 10).
Why so low? As you may remember from last month, Epyx had the bad grace to implode and announce that they couldn t make any money in the software business.
Unfortunately, this happened just a few days before Electronic Arts made its public offering. No love lost between those two companies, the Bandito believes.
NOW FOR THE AMIGA!
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Cinemaware has become an affiliated label of Electronic Arts.
Distribution is getting to be a real tough job, and this frees Cinemaware up to concentrate on producing games.
Electronic Arts is getting more and more of its revenue from distribution. About two- thirds of its income now is from its Affiliated Label program, which is a euphemism for its software-distribution business. While oilier big software companies have tried the same tactic (notably Mediagenic and Broderbund), Electronic Arts has been the most successful, probably because they have the biggest and best sales force.
Unfortunately, neither Electronic Arts nor Mediagenic has good overseas distribution, so most smaller publishers must create the ir own distribution deals for Europe and the Far East. This can be difficult, especially for a publisher that doesn’t have a great deal of money to spend.
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How interesting! Do you suppose they got the idea from some odier computer? Nah, they’d never do a thing like that.
AMIGAS IN THE MEDIA DEPT On a recent “Saturday with Connie Chung”, an Amiga 1000 was shown digitizing in real time the area in front and in back of a car to demonstrate how a computer-controlled automobile might work. The Amiga was processing die images and, if there was an obstacle, die Amiga would hit the brakes. Connie then took a ride in a simulated car courtesy of Accolade’s Test Drive TL Say, maybe an Amiga could run the show along with Connie! Something to think about.
• AC- With so many languages appearing for the Amiga these days,
it can be quite difficult to Locate one that addresses personal
There are many tilings that must be considered before purchasing a development language, such as speed, level of programming difficulty, expandability, flexibility, and, of course price. For $ 89.95 plus shipping, etc., F- BASIC 2.0 delivers all of this in a complete package, including an unprotected, bootable system disk, a program samples disk, and full documentation of all die features. The documentation is arranged for placement in a looseleaf binder, which is relatively inexpensive. There are two sections of documentation: one covering the primary F-BASIC programming environment and
another covering the V Delphi Noetic's F-Basic 2.0 reviewed by Robert J. Tiess
2. 0 additional features. Each has a table of contents and more
impoitantly, an index.
The documentation is clear and coherent.
F-BASIC 2.0 is a complete language and development system. It is a compiler in the sense it compiles its own special programs. I can not compile any existing AmigaBASIC programs, as there are major differences between the two.
To create a program with F-BASIC 2.0 involves several steps. After booting, die Amiga’s CLI window will open, but Workbench is present. In order to create a program the editor must be loaded - tliis could be the CLI’s familiar ED command, or any editor of choice. I found it easier just to stick with ED, since a program can be loaded, edited, and saved very quickly, without having to leave die CLI or engage an editor through the Workbench. After the program has been edited, simply type at the CLI prompt “FB program name ." The compiler will then immediately do its job, compiling the source in
If there is an error in the program, die compiler will detect it and terminate immediately, reporting the error back to the user. There is an option that can be inserted in die program to cause die compiler to jump immediately into a designated editor upon error detection.
This is most helpful, as it allows the user to correct the problem as soon as possible, thus allowing for optimization of productivity time.
Another, more important addidon to die F-BASIC 2.0 system is the inclusion of a LINKER. With the LINKER, stand-alone programs can now be created (V 1.0 required an additional library file, thus not providing for true stand-alone programs).
The LINKER produces small, compact code, ranging from approximately 20k and up. The LINKER is equally fast, and as easy to engage as the compiler. Simply enter “LINK program name ” to perform die operation.
I am successfully running F-BASIC
2. 0 on an Amiga 500 with ONE MEGABYTE of memory and just the
internal disk drive.
For die second drive, I use the RAM: device.
And owners widi two drives may fmd it easier. To provide a quick and easy method of copying all the necessary files to RAM, I created the following executable BATCH FILE that may be useful for current or future owners of the software: COPY DF0:FB RAM: COPY DF0:C COPY RAM: COPY DF0:C LIST RAM: COPY DF0:C RENAME RAM: COPY DF0:C DELETE RAM: COPY DFQ:C TYPE RAM: COPY DF0:C ED RAM: COPY DF0:FastLib RAM: COPY DF0:FastError RAM: COPY DF0:LINK RAM: COPY DF0:FastLinkLib RAM: CD RAM: To create and save this file on your backup of the F-BASIC system disk, type: ED DfCLSetUpRam Then, enter the above file,
and press ESC andX. The file will then be recorded to the main directory for batch execution. Now, whenever the disk is booted and the CLI prompt appears, enter: EXECUTE SetUpRam After several minutes of copying, die system will default into RAM disk mode - typing LIST, ED, FB, and LINK will all pertain to die RAM disk. To LIST or COPY TO DFO’s directory, or perform any operation with DF0, attach the prefix DFO; to any filename. In order to effectively work in the F-BASIC environment, knowledge of the CLI is quite necessary. F- BASIC can also be engaged from Workbench, however it will lack the
flexibility and power of file manipulation possible only through die CLI. Now would be a good time to begin learning about the
The compiler accepts several commands or compiler options. These are specified during the actual compilation of a program. To implement diese options, attach diem to the FB prog.name command. The options include String Buffer sizing (used in string concatenation), executing a program immediately without saving it first (for testing purposes), adjusting the maximum size of an object file (for larger applications), and increasing die LITERAL character string buffer.
The linker has one important option
- to create an ICON for the stand alone application. With the
ICON option, the application may be engaged from the Workbench
environment! Using Public Domain ICON editors makes it possible
to edit the ICON, providing the application with an even truer
sense of professionality.
L would highly recommend F-BASIC 2.0 to anyone in need of a fast, expandable, efficient, flexible, thorough language, Important to note: there is a Si0.00 fee for developing a commercial application. A registration form is included. Applications distributed with no charge do not require the registration fee, but still require registration.
It is a challenge attempting to describe all the elements contained within F-BASIC, since diere is an astounding amount of commands and techniques to explore. High level animation, reading and writing IFF files, improved, faster arithmetic operations, Random Access File operations are just some of the additions to the already huge world of F-BASIC commands. I have managed to explore only a fraction of the available power.
There is simply too much to try at even several sittings.
Amiga WINDOWS and SCREENS are almost effortless to create. There is no need to know about Intuition Structures and Window Pointers - one command does it all. In a sense, it reminds one of AmigaBASIC's equivalent ease of such tasks. In addition, there are window commands that permit a window to be instructed to go active, go in front orin back of other windows, and to Close, Size, and Move a window. Information on a window can be ascertained through yet another WINDOW command.
Graphics are done in a high level fashion, as well. Definition of COLOR REGISTERS and PENS can be done with a single command. Drawing commands include POINT plotting and reading, line drawing, box, circle, ellipse rendering, and POLYGON support. Amiga specific drawing modes are supported (JAM1, JAM2, COMPLEMENT, INVERSID).
FLOODing and AREA fills have their own dedicated statements. Absolute and relative SCROLLING is available through specific commands. BLOCK graphical manipulations can be performed with several advanced commands, even permitting one to save BLOCKS to disk.
Menus are handled though a variety of dedicated commands and advanced EVENT TRAPPING.
While developing programs, different areas of input need to be monitored, such as mouse buttons, menu selections, window close requests, or key presses. F-BASIC permits this through an advanced technique, EVENT TRAPPING. This means whenever a mouse button is pressed, or an attempt to close a window is made, the EVENT is trapped. The program will then decide an appropriate action to take. The program will jump to the routine on any such event only if specified.
The way a program actually looks in F- BASIC is: PROGRAM your program’s name data and variable definitions main program and routines END The difference between this version of BASIC will be immediately noticed, as opposed to the more traditional BASICs.
Data and variables must be defined before any attempt is made to address or assign a value to a variable. This is reminiscent of PASCAL, MODI)LA 2, and C. With the Amiga, there are many types of data present (Integer, WORD.BYTE, and,TEXT.) F-BASIC allows implementation of them all within a program. Advanced DATA and CONSTANT declarations are also possible.
Modulus (MOD), Logical (XOR,AND,OR), BIT SHIFTING (ASL,ASR,LSL,LSR). String Concatenation, Unary (NOT), LARGEST SMALLEST values, POKING, PEEKING (LongWORD .WORD, BYTE), ADDRESS operators, Multiple VARIABLE ASSIGNMENTS (eg. A=B=C=D“E=F=G), and IMMEDLVTE operators are all elements of data manipulation possible through FB
2. 0. As in AmigaBASIC, there is no need for line numbers. Labels
are used instead.
Subprograms may be added to a program, as expected, however, they are different than the AmigaBASIC-type subprograms.
F-BASICs variable definition is divided into two sections: GLOBAL and LOCAL and these apply to die MAIN PROGRAM and SUB PROGRAMS. Variable definition becomes very rigid and is forceful in making the programmer strive for improved efficiency.
IF THEN operations are no longer the only means of dealing with conditional circumstances. ELSE and ELSE1F have been added, as well as WHEN and OTHERWISE (which function as CASE sequences).
These will qualitatively Increase the flexibility of programming, and decrease the unnatural, clumsy use of large sections of IF THENs.
LOOPing is done through the traditional FOR NEXT loops, plus WHILE ENDWHILE, and REPEAT UNTIL, providing another wide array of techniques to choose from.
Believe it or not, F-BASiC 2.0 does not stop here. It also has INCLUDE APPEND program file combining, speech synthesis handling, advanced sound editing (Wave pattern definition commands), RECORD structuring, special F-BASIC MACRO definitions, access to AmigaDOS and the external Amiga libraries, 68000 register operations, machine code insertion and execution, advanced variable PATTERN MATCHING (as done in SNOBAL4), and more, I would highly recommend F-BASIC
2. 0 to anyone in need of a fast, expandable, efficient,
flexible, thorough language. It covers all that is imaginable,
and for $ 89.95, it is certainly worth die investment.
Professionals and beginners will all find something of definite value in this software package.
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The CLI and diat I, apparently, was without a clue. He started whipping out diese long, glamorous-looking lines of CLI commands.
No errors here. Files where being moved, directories created, startup-sequences edited, disks formatted, and commands renamed Was it me? It wasn't. Even Doug had to pick his jaw off the floor. After a few questions (and a few small threats), Art confessed. He had some experience working on MS-DOS machines, as well as using UNIX. It turns out that these two operating systems have similar environments.
What does this mean to people like you and me who have never been exposed to diis type of computer environment? It can mean one of several things. The first is diat you can I earn about die CLI die way I did: error after error after frustration (after In this article I will try to answer some of the first questions that a new Amiga owner has about the CLI. (At least these are some of the questions that I had when I started. It has also been brought to my attention that some people who have had their Am igas for years rarely, if ever, use the
CLI. CLIphobia, I suppose!) I am not a CLI wizard (or guru for
that matter), but I have learned a bit about it in the past
Of course, just when I get a grasp on things, Commodore releases a new upgrade of AmigaDOS with fifty-trillion new features.
IN THE BEGINNING I remember the first time 1 ever saw someone use die CLI. I had owned my Amiga for a few days and my friend Art and I went down to our local Amiga Dealer. Art had bought an Amiga around the same time as me, so I figured we were on an equal level as far as our understanding of die Amiga went.
Once we arrived we started to talk to one of the employees named Doug. Doug WHA T IS THE CLI?
CLI stands for Command Line Interface.
The CLI is a way to access AmigaDOS directly. AmigaDOS is the Amiga’s Disk Operating System. It gives you control over file structures and files themselves as well as system configuration and defaults.
HOW DO I GET INTO THE CLI?
There are a few ways to get into die CLI.
One way is to press die control key and die D key at die same time when your computer is booting. This is commonly written as “Ctrl-D”. This will stop die computer from executing die startup-sequence on your WorkBench disk. (Please note: if you open the CLI this way, you have not loaded WorkBench. When you are done with the CLI you shouldreboot.) You will knowyou are in the CLI when you see the CLI prompt.
This will be the first CLI open so the prompt will look like this: “1 ". This will change depending on how many CU's are open (demonstrated below).
Opening several CU's with the NEWCU command.
Was having a problem showing a customer how to perforin certain operations using the CLI. Art and I volunteered to give it a shot.
It only took me a few minutes to realize diat Art had a serious gift for using broken diskettes against the wall). Second, you can buy one of the many books available that swear they'll make the CLI as easy as tying your shoes. The third option is to find a local users group and latch on to somebody who knows about the CLI like Anodier way to get into die CLI is to let your Amiga boot normally with WorkBench (WB). Once all the disk-turning is done you will be at die usual WB screen.
Double-click the WB disk icon to show Questions Answered Oft "teeeee Norn Ne ro feae PUT TEE CUITEELE111 what’s on the disk. You will see several drawer icons as well as a Shell icon (more on the Shell in another article). One of the drawers is labeled System. Double-click this drawer. This will open a window showing all the icons in this drawer. One of these is labeled CLI. As you may have already guessed, double-click on it.
You should see a window with “New CLI Window" in the title bar and a “1 ” prompt with an orange square next to it. Hit the return key ( return ) a couple of times.
Notice the prompt moves down with each return . As with most of the other Amiga windows, the CLI window has front, back, and sizing gadgets. These operate just like those on any other window. You can even drag the CLI window around by the title bar. Give this a try now. Get it just the way you like. (You should open the CLI window this way for the following examples.)
IF ONE IS GOOD, TWO IS BETTER Make sure that die CLI window is active (the tide bar should not be ghosted).
If it isn't, click the mouse anywhere in it and it wrill become active. Type in: l newcli return (Note: the “1 " is already there and the retum means hit die return key.)
What’s this? As implied by the command, you are honored with a new CLI. Notice the prompt in diis window is ‘2 ’. The number always changes to die number of die CLI’s you have open. Try this again. Keep doing it until you get the error: Too many processes NEWCLI failed How many did you get opened? Twenty is the maximum number of CLI’s that can be opened up at one dme. Now that you have twenty CLI's open, I guess you probably are wondering how to close them. It is quite simple. Type: 20 endcli return This will close the current CLI. This can be done until all CLI's are closed.
A FEW OBSERVATIONS In some aspects AmigaDOS isn’t very picky. It doesn't care about upper and lower case. This is known as “Case Insensitive". AmigaDOS treats eidier upper or lowrer case in the same way. In other words, ail of die versions below are the same to .AmigaDOS: newcli NEWCLI nEwCH NEWcli AmigaDOS does care about command syntax (spelling, parameters, spacing, etc.), While typing in die newcli or endcli command, you may have made a typing mistake and hit retum . And the computer replied widi an error similar to this: 17 newlci return Unknown command newlci 17 Whenever you
hit retum AmigaDOS takes what you have typed and tries to oblige you by executing whatever command(s) you’ve typed in. AmigaDOS looks at each command and does the following: "If" this word is an executable file in the current directory then execute it.
"Else" look in the C directory to see if word is a command and execute it.
"Else" tell the user that word is an unknown command.
How many times have you tried diis: You boot your machine and open a CLI.
Then you take out your WB disk and put in another disk that you want to get a directory of. You type ’dir' (directory command) at die CLI prompt and you get a system requester asking you to insert volume WorkBench in any drive. Since you only have a one-drive system you take out the disk you wanted to get a directory from and put in WB. Then you finally get a directory, but it’s a directory of the WB disk!!
WHAT IS THIS NONSENSE ANYWA Y?
If you look at die “thought process" AmigaDOS goes dirough (see above) when you ask it to execute a command you may see the answer. When you boot your Amiga, AmigaDOS assumes that all the commands are in die C directory of your WorkBench disk. This is true: AmigaDOS commands are disk-resident. This means they are not in memory, but on disk. When you typed ‘newcli1 above, you probably noticed that the WorkBench disk was accessed (the drive light comes on briefly).
This is AmigaDOS looking onto the WorkBench disk and into the C directory to get the command you want so it can execute it for you. In order to be neat, all die commands have been accumulated and stuffed into a directory named “C” (for Commands, no doubt). Don't get too hung up just yet on trying to understand volumes, directories, and such as I will discuss these in another article.
WHY INSERT VOLUME WORKBENCH IN ANY DRIVE'?
When you type ‘dir’ at the CLI prompt to get a directory of the disk you just inserted.
AmigaDOS looks in the current directory to see if it can find a command named ‘dir’.
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1300 Main St. Tewksbury, MA 01876 (508)851-4580 Since it can’t find ‘dir’, it next wants to look in the ‘C’ directory for it. As you and AmigaDOS both know', the ‘C directory is on the WB disk which you've removed. So it asks you to put it back in tiny drive so it can look in the ‘C’ directory to see if ‘dir’ is a command. You oblige by taking out tire disk you want a director}'of and putting the WB disk back in. AmigaDOS finds that ’dir’ is a command and executes it immediately, thereby giving you a directory of the WB disk.
There are many different ways to work around this problem. The way I am going to explain next may not be the best way, but it is viable and may be perfect for your needs.
THE WORKAROUND: RAM COMMANDS You may have read references made to a RAM disk. A RAM disk is created by taking part of your available RAM and using it as you would a disk drive. In some ways it acts just like a floppy drive: you can copy files to it, make directories on it, delete files from it, etc. In some ways it is different from a floppy drive. You can’t do a diskcopy to a RAM drive and a RAM disk doesn't make that irritating clicking noise! Another peculiar characteristic of a RAM drive is that it is always 100% full. It only takes up as much space as it needs. The only time a RAM disk
would really be 'full' is when you run out of RAM. And, most important, one of the nicest features of a RAM disk is that it is FAST!
When you booted to WB you should have noticed a disk icon named ‘RAM DISK’ (if you booted with a copy of your original Wbdisk). If you double-click the RAM disk icon, a window will open with no icons in it. Also notice that the fuel gauge (left side indicator) show's that the RAM disk is full.
Close the window by using the close gadget. Click inside the CLI window (to activate it) and type: l dir ram: return You should see something like: clipboards (dir) env (dir) t (dir) . Info What? When I opened the RAM disk icon the window was empty, so that means the RAM disk is empty!! Even though the RAM disk is not empty, nothing is displayed when you double-click tire RAM disk icon.
This is because only files with icons are displayed. A special .info file has icon information stored in it and is needed for each file in order for it to display an icon.
None of the above files have .info files, so no icons were displayed, (I will talk about icons in another article.)
Type the following at the CLI prompt (and hit return after each line): makedir ram:c copy c:dir ram:c copy c:cd ram:c copy cmewcli rarct:c copy ciendcli ram:c path ram:c add THE ACID TEST Take out your WB disk and put in another formatted disk (the Extras disk wiil do).
Once you have Inserted the new disk, type: dir return You should see a list of items scrolling by in the CLI window. Notice you didn’t have to put the WB disk back in! Our plan worked!
WHAT DID WE DO?
The first command ’makedir will make a directory with the name you tell it. We told it ‘ram:c’. The ram: part tells AmigaDOS that we w'ant the director}' made on the ram: disk. The ‘C is the name of the directory we want to make. Type die following from die CLI: dir ram: return You should see somediing like this: c (air) clipboards (dir) env (dir) t (dir) . Info As you can see, there is a new director}' named ‘C on the RAM disk. The next four commands tell AmigaDOS to copy die commands ’dir’, ’cd’, ‘newcli’, and ‘endcli’ from die WB ‘C’ directory and put copies of them into the new ‘C
directory we created on the RAM disk. The final command, ‘path rarmc add’, tells AmigaDOS to look in the ‘C’ directory, on the RAM disk, for commands. It does this in addition to the normal places it looks (i.e., current director}' and die ‘C’ director}' on the disk you booted with).
You can use the other commands we copied to die RAM disk also (cd, newcli, and endcli) without having to put the WB disk back in. In addition to these commands you can copy any other commands you wish into the RAM disk. If you have enough space on your RAM disk, (dial is, enough memory) you could copy the entire contents of the WorkBench disk's 'C' directory, GONE WITH THE W IND Once you reboot, the RAM disk is cleared out. All the commands we copied into it above will be gone. You could type diese commands in each time you turn your Amiga on, but this would be impractical.
And there is an easier way (of course). You can add diese commands to your startup- sequence, and each time you turn on your Amiga, diese commands will automatically be copied to the RAM disk. (Be careful: never work with your original WorkBench.
Always play with a copy.!f) This should give you a few ideas, and maybe with a little reading you can figure it out. But if you can't, I’ll explain it in my next article.
• AC- Notes IjMin the, G GfMap Conserving Space by Stephen Kemp
Sometimes die efficient use of space becomes an important issue
during program development. If a program becomes large, memory
can become scarce and, depending upon the output (or the
intermediate output) of a program, disk space can become a
concern. Whatever the case, it is a good idea to always be on
the lookout for mediods to conserve space should die need
Compressing more informadon into less space, however, usually involves a trade off. This trade off is between the amount of extra code necessary to compress and extract die information when necessary, versus how much memory you are actually saving.
Therefore, it is always a good idea to consider die simple diings first.
One method of conserving space comes to mind when multiple “flags” or switches are involved. For instance, suppose you are writing a program that is keeping track of the mail routing for the personnel in a company. The output from this program will contain each employee’s name and an indication of each “route" destination diat an employee belongs to. Routes might include categories like manager, R & D, sales, tech support, marketing, documentation, educadon, staff, etc. In diis company, some people might fit into several categories because of overlapping job duties.
An example list of employees might look like this: This example seems to have used the minimal amount of space required to store all die relevant information for each employee.
But let's take a closer look to see if there is more you can do. Since all you need to know for each category is “yes* or “no”, a further savings can be achieved by bit masking.
Bits, remember, are the smallest addressable unit that your program can reach. The "char” variable type actually contains 8 bits.
The significance of a bit is that it is either on (1) or off (0). You may be able to see where this is going now. A bit has mo states and we only need two. Therefore, if we design a record where we can address a single bit for each category, we can conserve much more space. Using our example with 8 categories, we can store all the flags in the space of 1 char variable. That means that our record definition might look like this: typedef struct char name ; * room for name * char flags; * bit holder * }RECORD; There are several ways to use diis mediod. First, we could build a “bit mask"
for each category. A bit mask is something that can be used to reference a specific bit (or bits) in a variable. The categories in this example might lead to diese bit mask definitions.
01 02 04 08 16 32 64 128 ?define MAN ?define RDEV ?define SALES ?define TECH ?define MKT ?define DOC ?define EDU ?define STAFF Sales Tech Mkt Doc Edu Staff Man R&D y Name Tom Anderson Bill Cantrel Andy Downey Carol Haynes Bob Jowosky Mark Wilson Since a person might belong to several categories, how can we store this information? We could build a record that contains the name of each department that a person belongs to. Or we could store multiple records for each employee that has more than one route. However, neither of these methods really save us very much work or memory. The solution diat
comes to mind might be to build a record that will contain an indicator (yes or no) for each category.
Something like this struchire definition might be die result: typedef struct char name; * room for name * char man; * manager ?
* char rd; * R£D ?
* char sales; * sales ?
* tech support?
* char mkt * marketing ?
• char doc; * docs ?
* char edu; * education?
* char staff; « staff ?
• )RECORD; Nodce diat each category definidon was given a
corresponding value diat is a power of 2. This is necessary
because to reach the next bit position of a variable requires
the next power of 2. A little arithmetic will demonstrate that
if we add all these values together, die result is 255 which is
die maximum value diat can be stored in a char.
Don’t confuse the maximum value that can be kept in a variable widi die number of bit mask items that can be stored. You see, if we had simply numbered die categories sequentially (manager=l, R& D=2, sales=3, etc.), it would become impossible for you to determine whether a person belongs to sales or happens to be bodi in management and R & D because in either case the result would be a value of 3 in the flag holder.
Bitwise operations will eliminate the ambiguity but also means die maximum number of “values" a variable contains is limited to die number of bits contained within the variable.
Referring back to the bit mask definidons above, you should be able to determine that a value of 3 in the byte could only mean the person is a manager and in R & D. You know this because the value of 3 requires that the one's bit is on (the first bit) and the two’s bit must be on: The Binary representation of a char data type 1281 64| 32j 161 8 | 4 I 2 I 1 I 3it mask values OlOlOIOIOIOJllll This is the value of 3.
Now, let's look at how you would write code to determine this information. The first step involved is making the bit masks which were shown earlier. After that, it is as simple as using C’s bitwise operation to read and set the variable. Code like this can be used to determine what indicators are on in a given value: * Assume this function receives the "flags" portion of a * * record read from the employee file and prints every dept.* * route that this employee belongs to * print_area( code ) unsigned char code; I if ( code & MAN ) printf("Manager "); if ( code & RDEV } printf("R & D
"); iff ( code (. SALES printf ("Sales if ( code & TECH printf("Tech Support "); if ( code i MKT ) printf("Marketing "); if ( code 4 DCC ) printf ("Documentation "); if ( code i. EDU ) printf ("Education "); if ( code 4 STAFF ) printf("Staff ") ; printf " r n"); • end line * 1 The AND (&) operator is used to test each mask against the variable.
When the variable has a bit turned on in the same location as the bit mask, the IF statement will evaluate true and the message is printed.
A similar technique, using tire OR (I) operator can be used to turn on the bits in a variable. The statement, code I = SALES; will cause the bit indicating a sales route to be turned on. If you want to turn off this bit you will have to use the unary operator (-) in conjunction with the AND operator. The unary operator tells the compiler to change the identified item to its “one’s complement",
- which in simple terms means that all the bits that are on get
turned off, and the ones that were off get turned on. Therefore
this statement, code&= -SALES; will turn off the sales
indicator without affecting the oilier bits that may have been
This method works well when you have limited number of categories that don’t change very often. But notice that if we add one more category, the storage for die flags will have to increase beyond 1 character. Additionally, this method is pretty much limited to binary (yes and no) type flags. Luckily, we do have anodier method of bit handling available that will help to address both of diese problems.
This next method involves die use of “bit fields". Bitfields are defined within a structure and offer two possible advantages over the first technique of bit manipulation. First, the compiler gets to decide liow much space is required for the bit fields, so maintenance becomes easier when more categories are required.
Additionally, it is possible to define bit fields that are larger than one bit, which means more than simple yes no information can be compressed.
Two side notes should be made here. First, although die compiler gets to decide how much space is required for the bit field definitions, space is usually allocated in two byte (an unsigned short) chunks. This means diat this mediod would have cost us more than the one discussed above, yet it offers the advantage of easy maintenance. And second, it also offers the advantage of not needing bit mask declarations or bit manipulation by the C code.
Both of these tasks are handled by die compiler when a reference to a bit field is made.
With all that said, look at how a sample structure definition might appear: typedef struct ( unsigned short varl ; i; * a one bit field » unsigned short var2 : 3; * a three bit field * unsigned short var3 : 1; * another one bit field * unsigned short var4 : 2; * a two bit field • }SAMPLE; This example uses the typedef identifier. Remember, this means that you will be able to use the name of this structure in definitions just as you do char, long, double, etc. If the typedef was not used then it would have defined an actual structure and subsequent variable definitions would have to
include the word “struct" to cause the compiler to understand the reference, I prefer typedefs because I consider them a shortcut.
Looking at the example, you should be able to understand how the bit field definitions work. Each field is given a type and a name followed by a colon and a constant indicating howmany bits to assign to this variable. Notice that each variable in this definition is an unsigned short. Although you might think this odd, remember that when you use bit fields the variable type is only useful to your statements. The actual amount of storage is controlled by the number of bits indicated. (Also, many implementation of C only support unsigned integer bit fields since it doesn't make a difference in
The first field assigns only one bit. This variable can naturally contain 1 and 0. However, the second field in the example -was given 3 bits. That variable can store any value between 0 and 7 since that is the maximum number held in 3 bits. Also note that the number of bits used by previous variables does not affect the values that can be kept in this variable. You reference bit fields just as you would any variable -within a structure: name.varl, name.var2, etc. Unlike normal structure variables, however, you cannot take the address (&) of a bit field and use it as a parameter or in pointer
arithmetic because bit fields have no variable address.
With bit fields you don’t have to worry about the “actual’’ bit value assignment because die compiler will work that out for you.
When assignments or references are made to bit fields, the compiler will first take the structure variable, perform the bit mask and then shift the result so that you can use it in an expression. An important point to remember here is that bit fields will work like other variables when you try to assign values that won't fit within them.
Just as you would get 0 if you tried to assign 256 into a char, you would get I if you tried to assign 9 into the 3-bit field defined above.
The compiler will ma sk off only as many bits as wil 1 fit into the field.
A binary' nine looks like this, 1001, and only the lowest 3 bits will be placed into a 3 bit field.
Examining the structure again, you will notice that only 7 bits have been allocated. However, as I mentioned, the compiler will assign a minimum of 1 word, or 16 bits. That means this example might not seem very efficient, but it has room to expand without requiring more space. Note drough, that two bit fields have multiple bits assigned. Using die usual definition mediod would then require at least one char for each and you are still left with the remaining single bit fields. Thus you can see, while this method uses two bytes inefficiendy, it would require 3 bytes to do it the previous way.
Study the two methods discussed here and try them out in a program or two. You may already know where you can use one or both of these mediods in something that you have already written.
Don’t assume that you have to use one versus the other...they are not mutually exclusive. Many large programs can make use of a combination of these compressing techniques to save memory and disk space. Try a few experiments now, so you will know how to use them when you really need them.
- AC- INTRODUCTION Most real-world information can be organized
into hierarchies. One example of this is a file system on a
disk, which can be organized into partitions, directories,
subdirectories and files. Another example is Intuition’s menu
structures, organized as menus at the top level, menu items at
the next level, and menu subitems at the bottom level. An
important data structure for mod- e 1 i n g TREES AND RECURSION
hierarchies in computer j ''X Pro" grams is the tree. Coupled
with recursion, trees can be used to implement complicated
program actions and manage complex data with a few simple
This is the first of two articles about tree-structured data. This first article describes what trees arc and how recursion can be used with them. The next article will describe two methods for searching trees, using the tree developed in this article as the structure to be searched. In this first article, recursion is the first topic discussed, since recursion is the simplest way to manipulate trees. This is followed by a discussion of trees, and how recursion is used with trees. Finally, to show how recursion and trees can be put to work, a demonstration program which recursively builds,
displays, and destroys a tree is presented.
RECURSION In my younger days, I was fascinated by the mirrors in barbershops (this was in ancient times, when men a nd boy s went to barbershops for haircuts). There were mirrors behind the barber chair and in front of the chair, and I could see an infinite number of smaller and smaller reflections inside each other. Each image was formed from another, identical image. 1 didn't know it in those days and wouldn’t have cared, but what I was seeing was an example of recursion (some people feel that recursion is done with mirrors anyway).
Most programmers, except those who program in Lisp, Prolog, and other ‘strange’ programming languages, avoid using recursion. The main reasons for this are that recursion is difficult to understand and hard to debug. It also requires more memory and time than alternative methods. Even so, recursion is an important control structure. A control structure is just a way of getting something done in a program. Another, more commonly-used control structure is iteration. Some programming problems which are tough to solve with iteration can be solved easily with recursion.
Some problems which can be solved with recursion can not be solved at all with iteration. Recursion is a valuable programming tool which every ‘C1 programmer should know how to use, and know when to use.
Anything which is defined at least partially in terms of itself is said to be recursive. C structures which contain pointers to instances of themselves are called recursive structures, although technically a pointer to a structure is not the same as the structure itself. Linked lists and lists of lists are recursive data structures. A procedure is recursive if the procedure calls itself or if it is called by some other procedure it has called, either directly or indirecdy through a sequence of calls. Recursive procedures and recursive data structures, like tire mirror images in the barber
shop, are by Forest W. Arnold defined using themselves as part of dieir definition.
Recursive procedures can be either singly recursive or muldply recursive. Singly recursive procedures contain only one call to themselves, and multiply recursive procedures contain more than one call to themselves. Multiply recursive procedures can be very tough to debug. Recursive procedures can also be classified as tail recursive or not tail recursive. Tail recursive procedures calculate & i values direcdy during f J the recursive call, or )usc return a value which was calculated recursively. If a recursive procedure modifies the value returned from the recursive call, or uses die return
value to do something else, it is not tail recursive. The distinction between die two types of recursion is important because tail recursion can be converted to iteration. 1 think some Lisp compilers can do this automatically.
When a procedure calls another procedure, the call argument values or the call argument addresses are pushed onto a stack. The called procedure ‘pops’ die values or addresses off the stack, uses or abuses them, then pushes its return value onto the stack and returns. Thus procedure calls incur a memory (stack) penalty and a time penalty for pushing and popping variables. Recursive calls are no exception. The calling procedure must also save the values of all its local variables before making a procedure call so that it can continue execution where it left off after the called procedure
returns. The local variables are saved in a ‘frame’. The frame is also generally the stack. This is why languages which support recursion need a lot of stack space.
If recursion is hard to understand and less efficient than iteration, why use it? As already mentioned, the main reason is that some problems are very easy to solve with recursion and very tough to solve in any other way. I've implemented graph search algorithms in FORTRAN using matrices, iteration, and home-brew stacks and it ain't easy or clean. The second reason is that some data structures are naturally recursive (trees, for example) and can be manipulated in a straightforward way with recursive algorithms.
The final reason is that unless the number of recursive calls is excessive, the overhead of using recursion does not have a significant impact on die overall efficiency of most real-world programs.
Listing 1 is a short program which demonstrates both tail recursion and non-tail recursion and shows the general 'form' of singiv-recursive procedures. Listing 2 is the output of the program which contains a trace of the recursive calls. The program contains two recursive procedures, recurselnclO and recurselnc20. Re- curselnclO is tail recursive. Both procedures simply add a value ‘count’ to an input number ‘baseVal’ using recursion. Each procedure contains both ‘trace’-type code and commented-out ‘actual’ code. Since the procedures recurse inside ‘return’ statements, additional code to get
a snapshot of the procedure’s states is needed to generate the trace. Notice how simple each procedure is without the ‘trace’ code included.
The general layout of recursive procedures is:
a. Check for some terminating condition.
B. Call self using a ‘simplified’ version of die input data.
Step ‘a.’ can be done either before the recursive call or after the return from the recursive call. The stopping condition for both recursive procedures in listing 1 is ‘count 1’. The simpler version of the input data in die recursive calls in both procedures is die value of ‘count’ reduced by one.
RecurselnclO does its job by incrementing ‘baseVal’ when it calls itself. Recurselnc20 increments ‘baseVal’ by recursing until die ending condition is met, returning ‘baseVal’, and incrementing the value returned by the recursive call after each return. Listing 2 clearly shows how diis works and also shows why recurselnclO is tail recursive and recurselnc20 is not. By the time the ending condition is met in recurselnclO, die final return value has been calculated and recurselnclO has finished its job. It could return the result direcdy to ‘mainO’- When the ending condition is met in
recurselnc20, the work is just beginning and the value from each ‘return’ is needed to to calculate die final return value.
Recursion is also used to calculate the number of spaces to indent the trace output for each recursive call. Each time a recursive call is made, ‘spaces' is incremented by 2. Calculating values as recursive calls are made is very common in recursive procedures.
The trace output contains a clue to understanding how recursion works. In each procedure, the value of ‘count’ is local to the procedure. This means each procedure, in every call, has its own copy of count which is not accessible outside the procedure. Note that die value of ‘count’ for each ‘Enter’ entry is exacdy the same as its value for each corresponding ‘Return’ entry. For example, the first time die procedures are called ‘count’ is 4, and on the last return, 'count' is also 4. The same is true for the value of 'spaces’.
This is exacdy what would happen if the procedure had called some procedure odier than itself. The values in the call argument list are not altered by die called procedure even though the calling and called procedures are exacdy the same! I didn't really understand recursion until diis simple fact dawned in my mind, despite the fact that I knew how ‘call by value’ worked It is as though the procedure makes a mirror image of itself, then calls itself to change die image but not the original copy.
Most examples of recursion in programming texts are fairly simple (the above program was even simpler!). The “Towers of Hanoi" puzzle, die Fibonacci sequence, and die factorial function are standard problems which are used as tutorial examples of recursion. These examples lead many programmers to believe recursion is a technique which has only limited application. To show how recursion can be put to practical use and applied to real- world problems, die demonstration program in listing 3, buildTree.c, uses recursion to build a natural binary tree, display it on the screen, and dien free the
memory allocated for the tree structures. But what is a natural binary tree?
TREES Figure 1 is a diagram of a tree. This type of diagram is called, surprisingly enough, a ‘tree diagram’. Tree diagrams are used to represent hierarchical data. The tree in Figure 1 has four hierarchical levels. The circles represent nodes and the arrows represent links between nodes. The top level in the tree consists of only a single node, numbered 0:0. Level 2 of the tree consists of the nodes numbered 1.0 and 1.1. Level 3 consists of 3 nodes, numbered 2.0 through 2.2, and finally, level 4 consists of the eight nodes numbered 3.0 through 3-7. The arrow's represent ‘child’ links. The
links are also called ‘edges’. Each node at the receiving end of an arrow is called a ‘descendent’ or ‘child’ of the node at tire other end of the arrow', which is called the ‘parent’ or ‘ancestor’ node.
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(continuedfrom page 88) Nodes on the same level of die hierarchy and which have the same parent node are called ‘sibling’ nodes. Thus nodes 1.0 and 1.1 are siblings and are children of node 0.0, and node 0.0 is the parent of nodes 1,0 and 1.1. Node 0.0 has no siblings. None of the nodes on level 4 (3.0 - 3.7) have any children and node 0.0 does not have a parent. The nodes in a tree which have no children, and die node which does not have a parent are special enough to have dreir own special names. The node without a parent is called tire root node, and nodes widrout children are called leaf
nodes. In tree diagrams, the root of the tree is always drawn at the top of the tree, and the leaves are always drawn at the bottom.
Figure 1 depicts an entire hierarchy in a single plane (the sheet of paper). Hierarchies drawn in this way are called ‘flattened’.
Another technique for represendng hierarchical data is to draw each level of the hierarchy on a separate plane. Figure 2 shows the first drree levels of the same tree as a ‘nested’, or ‘leveled’ structure.
This type of tree representation is common in systems with graphical user interfaces, such as Amiga’s Intuition. Each node is visually presented as an icon. ‘Opening’ the icon displays a window containing the child nodes or activates a program (a leaf node). In figure 2, node 0.0 could be a disk device, represented by a disk icon, and nodes 1.0 and 1.1 could be disk directories, represented by drawer icons. Nodes 2.0 and 2.1 would then be projects inside the node 1.0 drawer, and node 2.2 would be a project inside the node
1. 1 drawer. In tree structured graphical interfaces, the
hierarchy is traversed downward by ‘opening’ parents to
display their children in a window- and traversed upward by
‘closing’ the window containing the children.
Trees are actually specialized directed graphs, which consist of nodes connected by links pointing in only one direction. In a general directed graph, the links can go from any node to any other node, even back to the ‘from’ node. In a tree, there can only be links from a parent node to a child node, the entire tree can have only a single root node, and each node can have only a single parent node. Any node can have an unlimited number of child nodes.
These properties of trees are important in tree search algorithms.
Like linked lists, trees consist of nodes and edges, and the nodes usually contain data or pointers to data, and the edges connect tire nodes to each other. In singly-linked lists, each node has only a single link which connects it to a ‘next’ node. In doubly- linked lists, each node has two links, one connecting the node to a ‘next’ node and one connecting it to a ‘previous’ node. These kinds of lists can be used to sequentially organize data, with all of the linked nodes being on the same organizational ‘level’.
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mees. By adding a single parent link and multiple child links
to tire nodes in a simple linked list, the lists can be
converted to trees and used to model hierarchical structures.
LIST STRUCTURES FOR IMPLEMENTING TREES Recall that singly linked lists can be implemented with the following C structure: typedef struct node [ struct node "next; unsigned char ‘data; ) NODEJT; where tire ‘next’ field is the pointer to the next (sibling) node in the list and tire ‘data’ field is a generic pointer to tire node’s data. Adding a parent pointer to this structure is simple, but how- are the child links added? A node in a tree can have any number of children, so unless tire maximum number of children a node can have is known in advance, using a pointer for each child node is
Another alternative is to use an array of pointers, with each array element pointing to a child node. This solution also has the disadvantage of requ iring that tire maximum number of child nodes be known. Either solution also wastes space, since some nodes may have no children, or only a few- children, while others may have hundreds of children.
There is a very elegant node structure consisting of only two link pointers which solves the problem of having zero, one, or many child nodes, and also provides a consistent structure for representing any node in a tree. The structure is: cypedef struct cleverNode struct cleverNode *next; struct cleverNode *child; unsigned char *data; } C LEVER_NODE_T; Both the 'next' pointer and the ‘data’ pointer are the same as in any linked list. However, the ‘child’ node is a pointer to the first node in another linked list which contains all of the child nodes of the parent node. This structure
actually defines a node in a list of lists, with each node in one list having a pointer to die first node in another list.
Figure 3 depicts the tree in figure 1 constructed in this way.
The arrows pointing downward represent the child link pointers, and the arrows pointing to die right represent die sibling link pointers. There are actually seven singly linked lists constructed with ‘next’ link pointers. The lists are(O.O), (1.0,1.1), (2.0,2.1), (2.2),
(3. 0,3.1,3.2), (3-3,3.4,3.5), and (3.6,3.7). Each of these lists
is managed in exactly the same way as any other singly linked
There are also three singly linked lists constructed widi ‘child1 link pointers. These three lists are (0,0,1.0,2.0,3.0), (2.1,3.3), and
(l. l,2.2,3-6).Thesethree lists can also be managed using
standard list management techniques.
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Trees like the one in Figure 3 are called 'natural binary trees'.
They are ‘binary trees’ since each node has only two links. I diink diey are referred to as ‘natural’ because of the close analogy with ‘natural' parenc-child-sibling relationships.
Binary trees are recursive data structures since they can be defined endrely in terms of themselves, as follows: A binary tree is defined to be eidier
a. empty, or
b. a node whose left and right children are binary trees.
If dierc are many leaf nodes compared to non-leaf nodes, maintaining a NULL child pointer in each leaf node can waste memory space. This sort of situation can occur if the leaf nodes represent primitive data types (points, lines, etc) and the non-leaf nodes are only used to organize and partition the data. To avoid wasting memory and still benefit from using trees, the same tree structure can be implemented using list headers for the tree nodes and simple singly linked list nodes for the primitive data nodes. The data structure for the list header nodes is defined as follows: typedef struct
listHeader struct listHeader *nextr* struct listHeader *child; N0DE_T *listTop; } HEADER_NODE_T; This structure is almost identical to the CLEVER_NODE_T structure above. The only difference is that instead of a pointer to the node’s data, the list header node has a pointer to the first node in a simple linked list of node- data couples.
If this technique were applied to the tree of figure 3, the nodes numbered 0.0 through 2.2 would be list header nodes. Nodes 3.0 through 3,7 would be stored in the three simple singly linked lists
0. 0,3.13-2), 033.43.5)i and (3.63.7). The listTop entry of
header node 2.0 would point to node 3.0, die listTop entry of
2. 1 would point to node 3-3, and the listTop entry of header
2. 2 would point to node 3.6. The listTop entries of nodes 0.0,
1.0, and 1.1 would be NULL. This implementation technique
results in three unused pointers, whereas die 'pure' technique
(all nodes CLEVER_NODE_T structures) results in eight unused
In addition to saving memory space, die list-header node Let your Amiga give you the Advantage in making better investment decisions!
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Technique allows additional data to be stored in non-leaf nodes without wasting memory space in leaf nodes. The header nodes can then be used to store additional information about the node's child data (count, type, function pointers, etc). The disadvantage of using list-header nodes in combination widi simple list nodes to implement trees is tiiat two separate sets of procedures are required to manipulate die structures. One sec of procedures is used for list header nodes, and one set is used for the simple nodes. As usual in programming there are trade-offs to be made when deciding upon
any implementation technique. In the demonstration program I use the CLEVER_NODE_T type of node described above, except 1 actually store the data direcdy in die node. In actual programs I use the list header node technique.
Note that the 'parent' pointer is not actually stored in the nodes in either technique, although it can be if it is needed.
Algorithms which are used with structures of this type are generally recursive. Following the tree’s child links down the hierarchy is done with recursive procedure calls, and moving back up the hierarchy is done by ‘returning’ from the recursive calls. Using recursion to move from level to level in trees allows us to do away with the parent pointer and also reduce the amount of code. The demonstration program shows how this is done.
BUILDTKEE, THE DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM The demonstration program in Listing 3, buildTree.c. dynAMIGAlly constructs die natural binary tree of figure 3, displays it in a window on die Workbench screen, and waits until the 'close' gadget is picked. The program then frees die memory which was allocated for die tree, closes the window, and quits. Almost all of the Come see whats Hot for the AMIGA at The Memory Location ft *4 rw * Memory Location 396 Wnshlngtoii Street Wellesley. MA 02181
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Procedures in die program are recursive. Other dian displaying the tree and generating a recursion trace, the program doesn't do anything interesting.
To compile and run the program, use the Lattice command ‘lc -L buildTree.c', then execute it with die command ‘buildTree’, The trace output is placed in the file ‘buildTree.dta’. To end the program, simply click on the display window’s ‘close’ gadget.
Listing 4, buildTree.dta, is the trace output from the recursive procedures allocNodeO, placeNodeO, and freeNodeO- The procedure gpDisplayStructO is also recursive. I’ll describe the overall logic of die program and then try to explain how each recursive procedure works. By looking at die trace output from the program and mentally following die code in die procedures, you should be able to figure out what the recursion is doing.
The procedure mainO gets the tree started with a statically allocated root node. The rest of the tree is allocated by the single call to allocNodeO, which returns a pointer to node 1.0, the first child node of the root node. After all of the nodes are allocated and linked, procedure placeNodeO is called to position all of the nodes at the correct coordinates. The root node is positioned at coordinates (20,20) and a pointer to node 1.0 is sent to placeNodeO, along with the coordinates for locating node 1.0. Each node on the same level is placed a vertical distance, VDIST, below the preceding
level, and the first child node in each child list is placed at tire same x coordinate as its parent. Sibling nodes are placed a horizontal distance, HDIST, from each other. After all nodes have been placed, a window is opened and gpDisplayStructO is called to recursively display tire entire tree. The nodes are displayed as ellipses, and tire nodes contain the coordinates of the rectangles which inclose each ellipse. The macros HRAD and VRAD contain the horizontal and vertical radii of dre ellipses. The procedure gpDisplayLegendO displays a legend mapping colors to nodes, child links, and
sibling links. The procedure handlelnputO is called to monitor the IDGViP until dre window’s ‘close’ gadget is picked. After handlelnputO returns, cleanUpO is called to close the window, free die tree by- calling freeNodeO, and flush and close the output file.
The procedure allocNodeO recursively calls itself to allocate nodes for die entire tree. It requires three arguments, ‘number’, 'level' and 'indent'. ‘Number’ tells allocNode how many nodes to allocate for level number 'level'. ‘Indent’ is just used for tire trace output. In pseutlo-code. The basic algorithm for allocNodeO is: for i = 0 to the number of nodes requested if the required number of nodes for a level has been allocated, goto enafor else allocate the node link the node into the sibling list call allocNodeO to allocate the node's child list endfor return the pointer to die first node
in the sibling list The recursion occurs when allocNodeO calls itself to allocate a node’s child list. The condition for ending the recursion is when the requested number of child nodes has been allocated.
The actual code for allocNodeO is made more complicated because it needs to keep up with how many nodes to actually allocate and how many have been allocated. In the actual procedure call, the root node requests two level 1 children, each level 1 node requests two level 2 children, and each level 2 node requests three level 3 children. This scheme makes die procedure calls simple, but won’t generate a tree exactly like the tree in figure 3.
What is actually wanted is for level 1 to have two nodes, level 2 to have three nodes, and for level 3 to have eight nodes. Thus node
1. 1 will have one child instead of two, and node 2,2 will have
two children instead of three.
The constraint on the number of child nodes for node 1.1 and node 2.2 is implemented by keeping a count of the number of nodes allocated for each level in a static array called ‘seqll’. Since the array is static, its values will persist across procedure calls, This array also keeps up with the sequence numbers assigned to nodes for each level. The array is indexed by the level number. After each node is allocated, the sequence entry' for the level is assigned to the new node and the sequence number is incremented. Inside tire -for’ loop, the sequence number for the level is checked, and if all
required nodes have been allocated, tire ‘for’ loop ends and the procedure returns a pointer to the first node in the list of sibling nodes just created.
The trace output from allocNodeO is in listing 4 under tire heading "Recursively allocating tree...”. The next step is to place the nodes in tire window. This is done by placeNodeO- The arguments to placeNodeO are ‘top- Node’, which is a pointer to the first node in a sibling list: 'top’, the y coordinate for topNode; ‘left’, the x coordinate for topNode; and 'indent', which is again used for trace output. The procedure works as follows: set offset equal to left while the sibling list is not empty, set the node's left, top, right, and bottom coordinates if the node has a chiidlist, call
placeNodeO to locate the nodes in the chiidlist and return the new value for offset else increment offset get the node's sibling, endfor return offset A node’s coordinates are the upper left and lower right coordinates of the rectangle which incloses the node. Within tire while loop, the left coordinate is incremented to place the sibling node, and the top coordinate remains constant. The top coordinate is incremented in the recursive call to placeNodeO and the current value of offset is sent as ‘left’. When the recursion returns, the top coorclinate has its original value restored and the
return value for offset will be the left coordinate of the next sibling node. This is somewhat confusing, but is typical of how recursion is put to work to calculate and return values. The trace output under “Recursively placing nodes...” should help clarify what is happening with the coordinate values.
After the recursion in placeNodeO unwinds and returns to mainO, the entire tree has been allocated and all nodes have been placed. The tree is then displayed by calling gpDisplayStructO with a pointer to the root node and a pointer to the RastPort. The algorithm for gpDisplayStructO is: while the sibling list is not empty get the coordinates for the current node draw the node if the node has a child list draw the child link call gpDisplayStructO to display the node's child list if the node has a sibling node make node the sibling node draw the sibling link endwhile return The nodes are
displayed by calling gpDisplayNodeO, which simply draw's the node as an ellipse. The sibling and child links are drawn inside the ‘while’ loop by finding the center coordinates of the current node. If the node has a child list, a child link is drawn from tire bottom center of the current node downward. VDIST is used to determine the ending point of the child link. If the node has a sibling, the sibling link is drawn from the right center of the last node to the left center of the sibling node. The recursion is straightforward in this procedure.
The final recursive procedure is freeNodeO. This procedure DPAINT 111 ' (PLUS MOVIESETTER USERS) ANIMATED FONTS Bring your screens to life with 3D FONT--A full rotation 3D font For effects that will knock their socks off II Dissolve on of off screen - Rotate, Shrink, etc. POUR FONT-Pour in place WOW Animated paint can pours the font on screen I COMIC FONT-See to believe !
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Is called from mainO with a pointer to tire child list of the root node.
FreeNodeO is tire simplest of the recursive procedures and works as follows: while the sibling list is not empty If the current node has a child list, call freeNodeO to free the child list Get the next node Free the current node Make the next node the current node endwniie return When recursion is used to free dynAMIGAlly allocated data stored in trees (or odrer lists of lists), it is important to free the tree structures from the bottom up. In other words, the recursion should dive all the way to the leaf nodes before any pointers are released.
If a pointer is deallocated before the data it points to is freed, there will be no w'ay to free die pointed to data. By recursively calling itself before doing anything else, freeNodeO dives straight to the lists of leaf nodes. The trace output under “Recursively deallocating tree...” shows the order in which the nodes are freed.
Each of these recursive procedures does its job in a slighdy different way. The recursive calls occur at different locations, one procedure relies on static data for keeping up widi control information, and one procedure relies on recursion for performing
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modore Service Center Gerald E. Sobelman and David E.
Krekelberg. Advanced C: Techniques and Applications.
Indianapolis, Indiana: Que Corporation, 1985.
Advanced C not only covers recursive data structures, but also has an entire chapter about recursion.
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2 Locations to Serve You If you are interested in artificial intelligence techniques, Lisp, or Prolog, the following books have many, many examples of recursion, trees, and graphs-.
Patrick H. Winston and Berthold K, P. Horn. Lisp. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1984.
Ivan Bratko. Prolog Programming for Artificial Intelligence. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1986.
Incidentally, Xlisp, which is in the public domain anci available in the Fred Fish PD collection is a good implementation of a Lisp translator available for the Amiga. Stony Brook Prolog, also in the Fred Fish PD collection, is a good implementation of a Prolog compiler interpreter for the Amiga, although it requires about one and a half megabytes of memory. If you really want to learn about recursion and lists of lists, get either of these programs and play with them for a while!
Listing One: Recursion * Circle 139 on Reader Service card, calculations. What the procedures have in common (besides being confusing) is: Recursion is used to move up and down levels of the hierarchy.
Iteration is used to follow sibling links.
These two techniques used together provide a general control scheme for traversing trees. I'll discuss this control scheme in more detail in my next article.
Without the code that generates die recursion trace output, die recursive procedures look much simpler. A good exercise wouid be to eliminate the trace code and then take another look at the procedures. If you are skeptical as to whether recursion is simpler to use with trees than iteration, try writing a program to do the same thing buildTree.c does widi only iteration! I dunk any skepticism will vanish if you see die difference in die code for the two techniques.
FURTHER READING There are many good books and articles which discuss lists of lists, trees, and graph structures. Any material about Lisp or Prolog, and most introductory texts about artificial intelligence will have pretty good coverage of these topics. The following two books are very informative and practical: Christopher j, Van Wyk. Data Structures and Cprograms.
Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1988.
Listing 1, Recursion recurse.c - program to demo simple recursion outputs execution trace to 13tdoutr redirect output into a file by 'recurse filename' Lattice compile 6 link command: lc -L recurse.c * •==» finclude stdio.h • 'forward' procedure declarations int recurselncl( int baseVal,inc count,int spaces ); int recurselnc2 int baseVal, int count,int spaces ); void indent( int spaces ); void main int argc, char*»argv) int baseVal,count; count “ 4; ’ call tail recursive increment procedure printf "Calling recurselncl... n n*); baseVal - recurselncl 10,count,0 J; printf (" nHain:
baseVal ** %d, count = %d n", baseVal,count)j * call non-tail recursive increment procedure printf (" nCalling recurselnc2... n n"); baseVal ¦ recurselnc2( 10,count,0 }; printf(" nMain: baseVal - %d, count ¦ %d nw, baseVal,count); exit (0); } 1*
* recurselnclO - increment a number using tail
* recursion * int recurselncl( int baseVal,int count,int
spaces ) i int newVal; indent I spaces ); printf "Entering:
baseVal- %d, count- %d n", baseVal,count); * condition which
ends the recursion if ( count 1 ) return( baseVal );
* call self with simpler instance of 'count'.
* increment number by adding 1 to value sent to
* self * newVal - recurselncl( baseVal+i,count-1, spaces+2 );
indent( spaces ); printf("Returning: newVal- %d,baseVal-
%d,count- %d n~, newVal,baseVal,countJ; return( newVal ); *
* without the trace output statements, the procedure
* would look like this: if ( count 1 return( baseVal );
return( recurselncl (baseVal+1,count-1, spaces+2) );
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* recurselnc2() - increment a number using recursion, bun not
tail recursion int recurselnc2( int baseVal,int count,int
spaces ) indent( spaces ); printf("Entering: baseVal* %d,
count- %d n", baseVal,count); ¦ check for recursion ending
condition if ( count 1 ) return l baseVal I;
* call self and calculate increment by adding 1 to
* return value from call to self *1 baseVal = 1 + recurselnc2(
baseVal, count-i, spaces+2 ); indent( spaces );
printf("Returning: baseVal* Id,count- %d n", baseVal,count);
return ( baseVal ); »
* without the trace output statements, the procedure
* would look like this: if count 1 ) return( baseVal );
return (1 + recurselnc2(baseVal,-count, spaces+2));
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Listing Three: Build Tree indent 0 - just print some blank spaces void indent( int spaces ) * program to demonstrate recursive data structures and recursion by constructing, displaying, and freeing a natural binary tree.
Lattice compile & link command: lc -L buildTree.c
(c) copyright 1989 by Forest W. Arnold* Listing 2, Trace output
of 'recurse' program int i; for ( i ¦ 0; i spaces; 1+-F )
printf(" "); ====* Calling recurselncl... Entering: baseVal-
10, count= 4 Entering: baseVal- 11, count* 3 Entering:
baseVal- 12, count* 2 Entering: baseVal- 13, count- 1
Entering: baseVal- 14, count- 0 Returning: newVal-
14,baseVal- 13,count- 1 Returning: newVal* 14,baseVal*
12,count- 2 Returning: newVal* 14,baseVal* 11,count* 3
Returning: newVal- 14,baseVal* 10,count* 4 Main: baseVal =
14, count - 4 Calling recurselnc2... Entering: baseVal- 10,
count- 4 Entering: baseVal- 10, count* 3 Entering: baseVal-
10, count* 2 Entering; baseVal* 10, count* 1 Entering:
baseVal- 10, count- 0 Returning: baseVal- 11,count- 1
Returning: baseVal- 12,count- 2 Returning: baseVal- 13,count*
3 Returning: baseVal- 14,count- 4 Main: baseVal - 14, count =
4 ?include exec types.h ?include cintuition intuition,h
?include stdio.h * intuition stuff Listing Two: Trace
Output ?define INTUITION REV 34 ?define GRA?HICS_REV 34
struct IntuitionBase *IntuitionBase; struct GfxBase *GfxBase;
* my 'make-life-easy' stuff lifndef NOT ?define NOT !
?endif ?define NEW (x) ( (x *)malloc( sizeof(x) ) ) *
* Define the binary tree nodes * typedef struct node I struct
• next; * sibling link * struct node
• child; * child link • int xl,yl; * left, top coordinate *
int x2,y2; * right, bottom coordinate * int level; • level
in the tree * int NODE T; seqNo; • sequence within the level
* } * define the output files and the trace output buffer *
char *outFile * "buildTree»dta"; FILE * otp = NULL; char
* define node geometric dimensions 4 horiz and vert
* spacing between nodes (continued on page 97) Please use the
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37 ill Moonlight Development 21 190 (continued from page 95) ?define HRRD 15 ' ellipse horizontal radits * ?define VRAD 8 * ellipse vertical radius * We take out of the price ?define HDIST 20 * horiz dist between nodes * ?define VDIST 26 * vert dist between nodes * ?define HCONS (KRAD+HRAD+HDIST) * horiz & vert dist * ?define VCONS (RAD+VRAD+VDIST) * actual values * I* declare procedures * struct Window ’displayWindow( int l,int trint w, int h, char ’name ); NODE T ’allocNode( int number, int level,int indent ); int placeNode NODEJT ’topNade, int top,int left,int indent ); void
freeNode( NODEJT *topNode,int indent ); void gpDisplayStruct( N0DE_T ’topNode, struct RastPort *rp ); void gpDisplayNode NODEJT 'node,struct RastPort 'rp, int pn ); void gpDisplayLegend( struct RastPort 'ro, int 1, int t }; void cleanup( N0DE_T ’root,struct Window ’window ); void handlelnput( struct Window ’window ); void closeLibs( void ) ; void trace! Char *msg,int indent ); int openLibs( void ); void main (int argc,char "argvl * top-level node NODE_T root; ’window; struct Window ONE BYTE
P. O. Box 455 Quaker HU I, CT 06375
(800) 441-BYTE, in CT (203) 443-4623 ’ open files and libraries
if ( outFile !“ ' Q' ) if ( NOT (otp =
fopen(outFile,"w")) ) I printf(" nCan't open trace output
file... n"); exit (1); ) if ( NOT openLibs () ) !
Cleanup( NULL,NULL); printfPVnCan't open system libraries... n"); exit (1); 1 * set up the top-level node of the tree V root.level - 0; root.seqNo = 0; root.xl = root.yl = 20; root.x2 = root.xl + HRAD t HRAD; root.y2 *¦ root.yl + VRAD + VRAD; root.next ° NULL; ’ recursively allocate tree & position nodes * if ( otp ) fprintf(otp," nRecursively allocating tree... n"); root.child = allocNode 2,1,0); if ( otp ) fprintf(otp,"XnRecursively placing nodes... n*); (void) placeNode(root.child,root.y2+VDIST,root.xl,0); * allocate display window * if ( NOT (window = displayWindow(0, 0, 640,200,
"BINARY TREE")) ) i printf("Can't allocate display window n"); cleanup( &root,NULL ); exit(1); 1 * recursively display the tree, then the legend *7 gpDisplayStruct( Sroot,window- RPort ); gpDisplayLegend! Window- RPort,450,20 ); ’ Wait for 'close' gadget to be picked * handlelnput( window ); cleanUp( ircot,window ) ,* exit (0); 1 *ss™=ss=a!™===!5™=s=«™Si*s=i== ==========™M=======.E *
* cleanup()- free structures, close window, & close files * void
cleanup( NODE_T ’root,struct Window ’window ) if ( window )
CloseWindow( window ); * recursively free the structures * if
( otp ) fprintftotp,"XnRecursively deallocating tree... n")?
If ( root ) freeNode( root- child,0 ); if ( otp ) Authorized dealer for Commodore-Amiga Computers, Great Valley Products (GVP), Memory & Storage Technology (M.A.S.T.). Authorized Commodore-Amiga Service and Repair.
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Fprintf(otp," nDone.. n"); fflush(otp); fclose(otp); ) closeLibs();
* allocNode - recursively allocate i initialize
* nodes. After each node at a level is allocated,
* this routine calls itself to allocate the child
* nodes for the next level.
* the input arguments determine how many nodes to
* allocate for each level, and how many spaces to
* indent in the trace output.
* the procedure returns a pointer to the first node
* in a list of child nodes.
* The static array 'seqU' is used to count the
* number of nodes allocated for the indexed level.
* Since the array is 'static', its values persist across
* *==== NODE T ’allocNode(int number,int level,int indent) (
static int seq ** (0,0,0,0); * level, sequence count *
NODEJT ’node,’prevNode,’topNode; sprintf(msg,"At level
%d",level); trace(rnsg,indent); topNode D prevNode ** NULL; *
iterate on number of requested nodes for the level ’ for( i *»
0; i number; i++ ) I * make tree non-symmetric if ( level ==
3 ££ seq[level) 7 ) break; if ( level "= 2 ll seqllevel) 2
) break; * allocate s init the node if ( NOT (node «
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I printf("allocNode: out of memory * n"); return NULL); } node- seqNo = seq[level]++; * sequence number - node- level « level; I* tree level * node- child - NULL?
I* child link • node- next = NULL; * sibling link * if ( NOT prevNode ) * is it first one?
• topNode » node; * yes, set 1st node else prevNode- next e
node; t* put node at end * prevNcde * node; * make 'node'
prev • sprintf(msg,"allocated node Id.Id",
node- levei,node- seqNo); trace(nsg, indent) ; * int
placeNode(NODE ? 'topNode,int top,int left,int indent) NODS_T
*node; * the current node * int level; * current level *
int offset; I* current left coordinate ¦ level ¦
topNcde- level; sprintf(msg, "At level Id",level);
trace(msg,indent); offset = left; node ¦ topNode; while node )
¦ iterate until list is empty * * set node bounding box
corner coordinates * sprintf(msg,"placing node Id.ld at (Id,
Id)", node- level,node- seqNo,offset,top); trace(msg,indent);
node- xi * offset; node- yl ° top; node- x2 - offset + HRAD +
HRAD; node- y2 - top + VRAD + VRAD; *
* if the node is not a leaf, increment the top
* coordinate and recursively place its children
* starting at same x coordinate.
* If it is a leaf node, just increment left
* coordinate and place its sibling node.
* if ( node- child ) offset * placeNode(node- chiId,top+VCONS,
offset, indent+3); else offset KCOKS; * just increment left
coord ' node ¦ node- next; * get next node in the list * )
sprintf(nsg, "Returning from level Id",level);
trace(msg,indent); sprintf(msg,"Return value of offset is
Id",offset); trace(msg,indent); return( offset ); f* return the
left coordinate* } * =
Ba«e=saasas=BBBBHD5!;sss=s==s===3BBO«»*Bass = air======B=B m f
• displayWindow() - open an intuition window * struct Window
‘displayWindow( int 1,int t,int w,int h, char *name ) struct
NewWindow new; new. Left Edge ¦* 1; new.TopEdge = t; new.Width
¦ w; new.Height ¦ h; new.DetailPen - -1; new.BlockPen = -1;
new.Title = name; new.Flags - WINDOWCLOSE J SMAR7_REFR£SH I
WINDOWDRAG; rtew.IDCKPFlags ¦ CLOSEWXNDOW; new.FirstGadget »
NULL; new.CheckKark - NULL; new.Type = WBENCHSCREEN; return!
(struct Window *)QpenWindow(tnew) ); • *
* recursively allocate the child list V if ( level « 1 ) t
node- child - allocNode(2,level+1,indent+3); continue; I if I
level == 2 ) node- child = allocNode(3,level+1,indent+3); )
sprintf(msg,"Returning from level Id",level);
trace(msg,indent); return topN’ode ); }
- ------ *
* placeNode - recursively set node-data coordinates
* and return next x coordinate. Y coordinate
* is incremented in recursive call and
* restored on return from recursion. X ¦ coordinated is
calculated and changed by
* recursive call if the node has child
* 'topNode* is the first node in a list, " and ’top' and 'left'
are the specified
* coordinates for the first node.
GpDisplayStruct - recursively display entire structure Procedure iterates on a list of nodes, displaying each node in the list.
Iteration is used to draw sibling nodes, and recursion is used to traverse the child links. If a node has a child list, the child link is drawn, then the procedure call3 itself to display the child node list.
If the node has siblings, the sibling link is drawn and iteration continues with the node's siblinc.
Void gpDisplayStructt NODE T 'topNode,struct RastPort *rp ) ( NQDE_T ’current; .. * local current node • int cx,cy; ¦ geometric node center ' int oldX,oldY; ¦ previous node's edge * current = topNode; * set current node pointer * while! Current ) * iterate until end of list ¦ ( *
* find node center coordinates and save right, ¦ center
coordinates for drawing sibling link ’ then draw the node - cx
= (current- x2 + current'* xl) 2; cy = (current- y2 +
current- yi) 2; oldX = current- x2; oldY = cy; gpDisplayNode(
current,rp,l ); * If the node has a child list, draw a child
link from the bottom center of this node, then recursively
display the list of children * if current- child )
SetAPen(rp, 2); Move rp, cx,current- y2 ); Draw
rp,cx,current- y2+VDIST ); Kovel rp,cx-4,current- y2+VDIST-4 I;
Draw( rp,cx,current- y2+VDIST ); Drawl
rp,ex+4,current- y2+VDIST-4 |; gpDisplayStruct(
current~ child,rp ); get the next sibling node in the list and
draw a sibling link from the right center of the last node to
the left center of this node.
If I current B current- next ) SetAPen(rp, 3); Move( rp,oldX,oldY ); Drawl rp,current- xl,oldY); Move( rp,current- xl-4, oldY-4 ); Draw rp,current- xl,oldY ); Draw( rp,current- xl-4,oldY+4 ); =* Lons Fonts Vol. 1 A collection of seven 3D font sets in the Interchange format. Each set has complete upper lower case letters, punctuation, and numbers! If you're into video or do animations, you need these fonts! $ 29.95 Momentum Check A full featured checkbook management package that makes checkbook management easy. Class codes allow you to track any expense you wish. Use standard reports or
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4 ft. Extension cable. Blow your game scores away! S34.95 gpDisplayNode(J - display a single node as an ellipse.
Pi j m Dealer fnquiriesN Invited y tvarrar.tv, void gpDisplayNode( N0DE_T 'node,struct RastPort 'rp, int pn ) Micro Momentum, Inc.
P. O. Box 372 Washington Depot, Cl' 06794
(800) 448 7421 Available at fine dealers, or order direct. Make
check or money order payable to; Please add $ 1.50 for S&H.
C.Q.D.s add additional S2.50- All products 90 da1 * node
level display string ' ¦ node center coordinates * char
levstr(10); int cx,cy; If Nou*vtf pot a prnHurt. WpVp
intrrreted. Give us a call. Amiga is n registered
tratifttitirk of CUM. Circle 188 on Reader Service card.
Draw(rp,1+165,t+15); ¦ get node center, draw an ellipse, then get the node
* level and display it cx = (node- x2 + node- xl) 2; cy =
(node- y2 + node- yl) 2; SetAPen|rp,pn); DrawEllip3e|
rp,cx,cy,HRAE, VRAD); sprintf llevstr,
"%d.%d',node- level,node- seqNo); Move! Rp,cx-12,cy+3 ); "ext
Irp,levstr,3); freeNode - recursively deallocate node-data
This procedure iterates on a list of nodes. If the node has child nodes, the procedure calls itself to free the child list before freeing the current node.
The nodes are thus free'd from the leaf nodes up.
Void freeNode( N0DE_T *topNode,int indent ) ( gpDisplayLegendl) - display legend in the window.
The legend maps colors tc graphical object types.
The colors are displayed in a filled rectangle.
Void gpDisplayLegendl struct RastPort 'rp,int l,int t ) i * draw the legend text Move rp, l+5,t+10 ); SetAPen( rp, 1 ) ; Text I rp, 'LEGEND7 j; RectFill (rp, 1+5,t+20,1+25,t+30) ; Move( rp,i+35,t+28 ); Text(rp,Nodes',7); SetAPen Irp, 2); RectFill (rp, 1+5,t+34,1+25,t+44); Move|rp,1+35,t+42J; Text(rp,Child Link',12); SetAPen(rp,3); RectFill(rp,1+5,t+4B,1*25,t+58); Move(rp,1+35,t+56); Text(rp,Sibling Link', 14); * draw a box around the legend SetAPen (rp, 1) ; Move(rp,1,t); Draw(rp,1,t+63); Draw(rp,1+165,t+63); Draw(rp,1+165,t); Draw(rp,1,t); Move(rp,1,t+15); NODE_T 'next; level; int level =
topNode- level; sprintf(msg,"At level %d",level); trace (msg,indent); while( topNode ) * stop when 'NULL' i * if a node has children, recursively free all * child nodes before freeing self if ( tcpNode- child ) freeNode( topNode- child,indent+3 ); next - topNode- next; ¦ save link to sibling sprintf(msg,"Freeing node %d.%d", topNode- level,topNode- seqNo); trace (msg, indent) ; freet topNode ); * free the node topNode * next; * set 'top' to saved sibling sprintf(msg,'Returning from level Id",level); trace(nsg,indent);
* handlelnput() - monitor user input until end actic * ¦B =
a«i3== = B a =b = = = = = ¦ void handlelnput( struct Window
'window ) ( struct IntuiKessage 'msg; unsigned long class; for
(;;) STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT AND CIRCULATION 1A.
Title of Publication; Amazing Computing for the Commodore
Amiga, IB. Publication No.:0886-9480, Dale of Filing; 10 3 89.
Frequency of Issue: Monthly. 3A. No. Of Issues Published Annually: 12.
3B. Annual Subscription Price: S28.Q0. 4. Complete Mailing Address of Known Office of Publication: PM Publications ,Inc. P.O. Box 869 Fall River, MA. 02722. 5. Complete iMaiiing Address of the Headquarters of General Business Offices of the Publisher: One Currant Place, Currant Road..P.O.Box 869, Fall River, MA. 02722.6. Full Names and Complete Mailing Address of Publisher, Editor, and Managing Editor: Publisher, Joyce A. Hicks P.O. Box 869 Fall River, MA. 02722; Editor, Donald D. Hicks P.O.Box 869 Fall River, MA. 02722; Managing Editor, Donald D. Hicks P.O. Box 869 Fall River. MA. 02722. 7.
Owner: PIM Publications, Inc., P.O. Box 869 Fall River, MA. 02722; Joyce A. Hicks P.O. Box 869 Fall River, MA. 02722; Donald D. Hicks P.O. Box 869 Fall River, MA, 02722.8. Known Bondholders, Mortgagees, and Other Security Holders Owning or Holding 1 Percent or More of Total Amount of Bonds, Mortgages or Other Securities: None. 9. For Completion by Nonprofit Organizations Authorized To Mail at Special Rates; Not Applicable. 10.
Extent and Nature of Circulation: (X) Average No. Copies Each Issue During Preceding 12 Months; 00 Actual No. Of Single Issue Published Nearest to Filing Date; 10A. Total No. Of Copies CO 44,059 (Y) 42,144.
10B. Paid and or Requested Circulation: 1. Sales through dealers and carriers, street vendors and counter sales: 00 19,238 (AO 25,635 2. Mail Subscriptions: (X) 11,994 (Y) 12,033- 10C. Total Paid and or Requested Circulation: (X) 31,232 (YJ 37,66810D. Free Distribution by Mail, Carrier or Other Means Samples, Complimentary, and Other Free Copies; (X)
480. (Y) 227.10E. Total Distribution: 00 31,712. (Y) 37,895.10F.
Copies Not Distributed: I. Office Use, left over',
unaccounted for, spoiled after printing: (X) 4,803 CY)
4,249.2. Return from News Agents: CO 7,544 (Y)
0. Total: (X) 44,059 00 42,144. ’Issues held for back issue
( Wait 1 « window- UserPort- mp_SigBit )?
While( msg = (struct IntuiMessage *) GetMsg(window- UserPort) ) class - msg- Class; * save message class * ReplyMsg msg ); * Reply right away. * if I class == CLQSEWINDQW } » close gadget * goto clearQueue,- } } clearQueue: * clear all messages *7 while( msg = (struct IntuiMessage *) GetMsg(window- UserPort) ) ReplyMsg( msg ); I " openLibsO - open libraries *7 int oper.LibsO I IntuitionBase = (struct IntuitionBase *}OpenLibrary( "intuition.library1', INTUIT10N_REV); GfxBase = (struct GfxBase *)OpenLibrary( "graphics.1ibrary",GRAPHICS_REV); return ( Gfx3ase IntuitionBase ); I *
* closeLibsO - close libraries
* void closeLibsO if ( IntuitionBase )
CloseLibrary(IntuitionBase); if ( GfxBase ) CloseLibrary
(GfxBase) ,* traced - output indented trace messages for
recursion void trace ( char *msg,int indent } I int i;
• AC* if ( NOT otp ) return; __ fprintf(otp, " ");
fprintf(otp,"%s n",msg); Lisring Four: Build Tree Trace
*ss£c = EaDBSsasasssssssssssDQaaiibsBsesSssssris:t
* Listing 4 - buildTree.dta
* Trace of recursive procedure calls in the
* buildTree demonstration program Recursively allocating tree. .
At level 1 allocated node 1.0 At level 2 allocated node 2.0 At level 3 allocated node 3.0 allocated node 3.1 allocated node 3.2 Returning from level 3 allocated node 2.1 At level 3 allocated node 3.3 allocated node 3.4 allocated node 3.5 Returning from level 3 Returning from level 2 allocated node 1.1 At level 2 allocated node 2.2 At level 3 allocated node 3.6 allocated node 3.7 Returning from level 3 Returning from level 2 Returning from level 1 Recursively placing nodes. . .
At level 1 placing node 1.0 at (20,62) At level 2 placing node 2.0 at (20,104) At level 3 placing node 3.0 at (20,146) placing node 3.1 at (70,146) placing node 3.2 at 1120,146) Returning from level 3 Return value of offset is 170 placing node 2.1 at (170,104) At level 3 placing node 3.3 at (170,146) placing node 3.4 at (220,146) placing node 3.5 at (270,146) Returning from level 3 Return value of offset is 320 Returning from level 2 Return value of offset is 320 placing node 1.1 at (320,62) At level 2 placing node 2.2 at (320,104) At level 3 placing node 3.6 at (320,146) placing node 3.7 at
(370,146) Returning from level 3 Return value of offset is 420 Returning from level 2 Return value of offset is 420 Returning from level 1 Return value of offset is 420 Recursively deallocating tree. . .
At level 1 At level 2 At level 3 Freeing node 3.0 Freeing node 3.1 Freeing node 3.2 Returning from level 3 Freeing node 2.0 At level 3 Freeing node 3.3 Freeing node 3.4 Freeing node 3.5 Returning from level 3 Freeing node 2.1 Returning from level 2 Freeing node 1.0 At level 2 At level 3 Freeing node 3.6 Freeing node 3.7 Returning from level 3 Freeing node 2.2 Returning from level 2 Freeing node 1,1 Returning from level 1 The Command Line by Rich Falcoitburg There have been a few changes made to a number of the existing commands. Among the most significant of diese is the addition of new
options and better pattern-matching support. In this issue I'll look at a few of these for the most commonly used commands.
AN INTERA CTIVE EXERCISE The DIR command now allows you to enter options without having to include die OPT modifier. The following are all equivalent: DIR opt A or DIR ALL DIR opt D or DIR DIRS DIR opt I or DIR INTER A new option that does not have an OPT equivalent is die FILES modifier, which will cause only existing files to be listed. It is used thus: I DIR FILES Additionally, a new function has been added to the INTERactive option. This is the COMMAND option, or simply C at the question mark prompt. This option allows vou to execute virtually any AmignDOS command without having to leave
the INTERactive directory' mode. This freedom proves very helpful if you are looking for files in several directories, and you wish to copy them or send diem to a printer. This option can be used in two different ways, botli of which are shown here: 1 DIR INTER S: ENV (dir) ?
Startup-sequence ? C Command ? COPY startup-sequence ?RT: StartupII ? C "COPY StartupII ?RT:" Startup-Shell ? Q 1 If you forget the quotation marks shown in the second example, you may receive the error message, “Invalid response - try again As with most Amiga- DOS commands, the quotation marks are needed because of the spaces in the command tine. If you use a command such as INFO or DATE in its singular form, die quotation marks are unnecessary. As the example demonstrates, use of the COMMAND option will cause the INTERactive mode to step to the next file or directory'.
The DIR command now supports wildcard usage. You may recall that if you attempt to use wildcards with die old DIR command you get something like 1 dir 6?.info Can't examine object not found The new DIR command works properly by listing ail of the “.inio" files as requested. However, there is one small hitch. If the characters of die pattern happen to match a directory' name, the contents of the directory will be shown as well, To avoid this you must use the LIST command. (No, the DIRS option will not solve the problem sorry.)
A CARBON COPY One of the most significant changes to the AmigaDOS command structure is full support of the protection bits. Most of the new commands will nowhonor the Read, Vrite, and Execute Hits as they are set (I will cover this in detail later). As a result, some changes have been made to other commands to allow for some flexibility in working with files on which you may have set certain protection bits. The COPY command implements this in a couple of ways. For example, with the CLONE option you can now copy a file and retain ail of the date-stnmp and comment-field information. As
in 1 COPY CLONE Myfile Dft): The protection bits will be retained by default. To write the files with default protection bits (rwed) use the NOPRO option: 1 COPY NOPRO Myfile DrG: Unfortunately, there is no way to force a copy operation on a file that has its Read protection removed. Don't panic this just happens to be what you need to do; diere are methods to simplify changing that bit which allowsyou to copy it, and then set it back. I will cover diat when I get to the LIST command.
You can retain only specific fields of the original file using the following syntax: 1 COPY COM Myfile DF0: Retains only die Comment field.
1 COPY DATE Myfile DFO: Retains only the Date field.
There's a new option called BUFFER which is supposed to allow you to set the number of 512-byte buffers used during a copy operation. The minimum number of buffers that can be set is 8 and the maximum is 400. Values outside of this range will cause the default value of 200 to be used. One might assume that this works in a fashion similar to the ADDBUFFERS command, but for my configuration at least, diis is not the case. Like other A2000 owners, I have single floppy and hard disk drives, Usingthe COPYcommand to make a floppy-to-floppy copy on a single drive is a real pain, and the BUFFER
option doesn't help one bit (sorry, bad pun). 1 would be interested in hearing from other users about their experiences with both the aforementioned procedure and copies made with more than one floppy disk drive.
YOUR ASSIGNMENT FOR TO DA Y Two useful options have been added to the ASSIGN command. It's now possible to determine if a volume exists by using the following syntax: 1 ASSIGN EXISTS GRAPHICS: Interactively this will return the message GRAPHICS: not assigned if the volume is not mounted or assigned.
Otherwise, it will return the information normally displayed when the ASSIGN command is entered by itself. The difference here is that it will only show the line for the logical name given. If the volume is mounted and available, die message generated will then be: GRAPHICS [Mountedl This option has only limited utility in determining whether or not a given volume is mounted. It simply checks the assignment list for the logical name specified, meaning that if the disk was mounted, a process was opened against it and then the disk was removed. The message returned would be: GRAPHICS The
same message would appear in the assignment list. We can still use this to determine the disposition of a given volume; however, you have to do a little more footwork and use a command script file and die SEARCH command. SEARCH will now return a condition code upon completion, making it far more useful.
With other new options, you can also dictate the type of information to be returned. The following script can be used to determine whether a specified volume is mounted and available.
? KEY Devname a . BRA ( .KET } ASSIGN RAM: MOUNT. TMP EXISTS Devname) IF NOT WARN ECHO "(Devname) is currently assigned - " SKIP AVAIL ELSE ECHO " Oevname} is not assigned or mounted."
ENDIF QUIT LAB AVAIL SEARCH QUIET RAM:MOUNT.TMPKounted IF NOT WARN ECHO " and Mounted" ELSE ECHO ” but not Mounted" END IF To use this script in its present condition, simply enter 1 EXECUTE TEST GRAPHICS: where TEST is the file name of tire script and GRAPHICS: is the volume name that you wish to check. I have provided interactive response strings, but you could easily substitute other commands or operations to be performed.
The ASSIGN command also now allows you to REMOVE a logical name from the assignment Est for a volume stiil present but not mounted, Watch out for this one Guru potential is high. If you attempt to REMOVE an assignment for a volume dtat is mounted, you may get a Software Error or, upon removing the disk from its drive, a locked-up system. Be careful! This option has been provided primarily for software developers. Don’t use it unless you know what you're doing.
Other options for the SEARCH command include NONUM, QUICK, and FILE, which eliminate the line numbers, list more on each line, and look for file names, respectively. If you use the QUIET option interactively, you'll defeat the purpose of tire command, because nothing will be printed. It is provided to suppress the output during script execution. Also, FILE can't be used to find directories, only files.
FOR YOUR OWN PROTECTION ANOTHER TIP rmnn From dr. chip The Krueger Company can provide a wide variety of MEMORY, MICROPROCESSOR, and SUPPORT CHIPS.
While I'm on tire subject of script files, I should mention the new protection bit that allows you to make a script file EXECUTE- able. Just set the script bit with all KRUEGER PARTS carry an unconditional 30 day guarantee. Thc m inimum purchase is $ 50.00. Call Myron Lieberman at
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__I 1 PROTECT fS TEST or l PROTECT SR TEST The first form adds the Script bit to die existing protection bits. You can also use the option keywords ADD (+) and SUB(-) to add or subtract that permission.
The second form shown will cause only die Script and Read bits to be set. Excluding die letter for the associated bit causes that operation to be denied. Any one of the following letters may be used: 8 MHZ 68010 S 1.00 16 MHZ 68020 $ 35.00 OR 16MHZ 68881 41256 -150 PLCC S 1.00 64Kx4 VIDEO ZIP $ 1.50 256Kx4 - 120 ZIP S 3.60 2764-300 EPROM $ .75 R - Read permission W - Write permission E - Execute permission D - Delete permission ? - Pure code permission [used by RESIDENT) S - Script execution permission A - Archive status Why the Read bit? Well, if Ami cannot read die file, it will not be able
to execute the commands contained in the file. You need both. O.K., then why not the EXECUTE bit; aren’t we executing the file? Yes, but that is a different sort of execudon. The same word is used to describe two different processes. You see, that bit must be set for binary files to be able to RUN. With the Amiga, that setting is implied when the name of the file is entered. Try it. Enter the following commands and see what happens: The Krueger Company uuaiJff (800)245-2235.
Circle 118 on Reader Service card.
1 PROTECT -E C:INFO 1 INFO Be sure to set it back with 1 PROTECT +E C:INFO So what good is all of this? As a form of security it leaves a lot to be desired. I use die EXECUTE bit to remind me of potentially hazardous commands. I have to change die bit to use the command, and doing so jogs my memory7 as to why it was set in die first place. If you deny Read permission, the system usually returns widiout doing anything handy for files you don’t want just anybody looking at.
Until your litde brother or sister learns about diose bits (Betterhide diis article!), it will keep inquisitive fingers from doing any damage.
1 would like to see an additional set of, let's call diem permission bits, for something of a Super-User mode (a la the UNIX environment). This would provide a better means of security by requiring some kind of a passworded system administration mode. Yeah, yeah, I know. It is only a game machine. No one would want to use the Amiga in a business environment where such system control might be required. Hmph. With the advent of multiple port serial boards and environments like Tshell, it is not unrealistic to see the Amiga as a multi-user platform, THE FORK IN THE ROAD 'AVE HARD CASH ) ON
SOFTWARE... There are fabulous savings on all these goodies The PATH command may be used to add command search trees to the list that AmigaDOS uses. To see what this list is, enter the following: 1 PATH The minimum listing will contain the C: directory. If you have a path set to a volume that's not mounted, you normally get a requester asking you to insen that volume in any drive. To avoid this use the QUIET option.
However, the full paths for that volume will not be displayed only the volume name will. You may add up to ten directories with each invocation of the PATH command. Examine the delivered S:Startup-Sequence file and you will find the command line that was used to add tire paths in the above command line's list. To remove the current path definitions enter Don't see it here? We've probably got it. Cait us JD Your Amiga Source PO Box 575719 ’VJMHr Murray, Utah 84157-5719 Circle 110 on Reader Service card.
1 FATH RESET This will remove all but the command directory (you need it!) And the current default directory (implied but not listed) from the path list.
MORE REMOLDEIING The TYPE command allows tire use of HEX and NUMBER option keywords as substitutes for OPT H and OPT N. TYPE may be used in a fashion similar to COPY. The output will be sent to the file with the destination name you provide. The new version of the 1YPE command will not allow you to overwrite a file with the same name unless you use the TO parameter.
The DATE command no longer forces you to provide tire leading zero in setting the date or time.
The STATUS command now properly displays negative priorities. A new option for the STATUS command is the COMMAND keyword. With it, you provide the name of a command, and STATUS will search tire process list for a program executing by that name. If it finds one, it returns the number of the CLI process where it was found, A return code of. (WARN) is set if the search is unsuccessful a useful feature in script files.
The CHANGTASKPRI command now supports the ability to change the AudioMasterll Aunt Arctic Adventure Battle Cness Battle Tech Baud Bandit Blood Money Deluxe Music 2.0 Deluxe Paint III Demon's Winter DigiPaint III Double Dragon Dragon’s Lair Dungeon Master FA 18 Interceptor Falcon Kind Words License To Kill Lords ot the Hising Sun OutRun Phasar Pioneer Plague S69.95
49. 95 Publisher Plus RoboCop Rocket Ranger Smbad & Throne of
Falcon SimCity So mx COMPUTER 1 800 347 8004 priority of
another process. To do so requires tire following syntax:
1 CHANGETASKPRI PRI -5 PROCESS 4 Here again the
documentation is misleading. The command parameters PRI and
PROCESS must be entered as shown; otherwise tire error
message “Bad args” is returned. The keywords are not
position- dependent, but you must supply the name as shown.
For example, I could just as easily have entered it as: 1
CHANGETASKPRI PROCESS 4 PRI -5 The MOUNT command has been
updated to understand the Mount list values necessary for the
Fast File System. I will take a closer look at the FFS in a
The DEIAY option was added to the
I. OADWB command to allow all the disk- thrashing that happens
while tire icons are popping up to run its course before the
start-up script continues. This helps to eliminate the slowing
down of other commands that are vy n§ or disk access time.
The RUN command has been changed to allow the directing of output and error messages to tire bit bucket. The Spellbound 28.95 Super Scramble 29.95 Sword of Sodan 32.95 Tesl Drive II 29.95 The Three Stooges 32.95 Total Eclipse 29.95 Triad (3 Games in One) 29.95 TV Sporls Football 34.95 Where in World is Carmen 32.95 Who Framed Roger Rabbit 32.95 Who! What! When! Where! 65.95 WordPerfect 159.95 AND HARDWARE TOO!
Epyx Joystick 14.95 ErgoStick Joystick 19.95 Internal 3W Ftoppy Drive 99.95 My-T-Mouse 39.95 California 3.5" drive 139.95 Supra 2400 Baud Modem 129.95 A-501 Card with 512K of RAM. Full one year warranty 99.95 plus shipping and handling following will allow tire program to run properly in the background: 1 RUN NIL: MyProgram The INSTALL command now allows you to check for a valid AmigaDOS boot block with: 1 INSTALL CHECK DFQ: Tire messages returned could be any one of the following: No bootblack installed Appears to be normal V1.2 V1.3 bootblack May not be standard V1.2 V1.3 bootblock The
NOBOOT option allows you to write an AmigaDOS header without tire bootblock to a disk. This option is handy for making a disk non-bootable.
In die next issue I will look at improvements made to dre script commands and ways to incorporate them into script files. I will also take a close look at the new capabilities of die LIST command.
• AO by Mike Morrison £ef fO p a, lopo The Logo language was
designed to introduce childeren to computers. It is widely used
to teach children some of the basic concepts behind using a
The fact that all of Logo's graphics commands are carried out by a small graphics turtle, makes it an ideal language to relate to children with. In other implementations of Logo the turtle was represented as a small U'iangle (yukQ. Not on the Amiga though. The turtle looks like a turtle, because it is a small sprite.
THE MANUAL When I first read through the manual I got the impression that Amiga Logo was designed to be compatible with Logos on other computers. Throughout the manual there are descriptions like: “WordP is the old way of spelling Word?
We include itforcompatihilty. The “P" stands for the word ‘‘predicate” which indicates that a TRUE or FALSE will be output. ” In the introduction portion of the manual it is stated that “Amiga Logo was designed to be very similar to tire original Logo.” It seems that some care has been taken to insure that Amiga Logo maintains a high degree of compatabilty with existing Logos.
LOGO LAYOUT When you first start Logo you are presented with two windows. One is the graphics window. This is the window that Logo uses for input and output when you run a program. The other window is called die command window (also called the text screen). The text screen can be used to execute Logo commands directly (command mode), or can be used to edit Logo programs to be run later (edit mode).
The text screen has a nice feature that I find very7 handy. When the text screen is in command mode you can type in a Logo command to executed immediatiy. Such as: ? Forward 10 return This command is simple in that it moves the turtle forward 10 units in what ever direction it happens to be facing. The Logo text screen allows me to use the arrow keys (or mouse) to move back over the command and change the 10 to a 20 for instance. When you hit return , the command is executed again! If you have ever owned a C64,you will find this feature very handy.
Tire text screen supports a multitude of commands to help you while editing your programs (see Table 1). To enter the editor, simply type ‘edit’ from the text screen (while in command mode). The editor always keeps the last edited piece of code, so you can switch between command and edit mode quickly.
When you are done editing you can save your program. Amiga Logo has a custom file requestor that comes up showing the current disk, drawer, and filename. You can include or exclude the files you want displayed in the file requestor by wild cards. For example: You don't want tire .info files shown (you can't do any thing with these anyways, so why show them?), In the Exclude string area you type “.info’. This wall exclude all files ending with '.info' from being shown. The same requestor is used for loading programs and deleting files.
Amiga Logo supports all Amiga graphics resolutions (except HAM). The coordinate system is layed out with the origin (this is also the ‘home’ position for the turtle) in the center of the screen. There is a palette that you can use to alter the current colors. This allows you to pick colors that you like when using Logo.
A picture of a Christmas Tree created with the yge jQg0 ec window is where you type Logo program in Listing one. Jn ancj edit your programs.
PrOtO-40k THE FUST FULL! FEATUBtD AMIGA DATA AcaULSltlOl Ami W0CES3 CwiMA. WWCO f f i 1 ff" f ¦
• t 1t ¦ V- ’ _ ¦ i I mmm : * 1 t I 16a.aoi 12-bit A0C clwrrwl*
40OIZ mi throughput 2 Frotrriwblf Cain (PC) options 2 12 bit
Multiplying DAC oat pul* 3 16 tilt pruyrauiblc User* 32 TH
coapatible Digital 10 bit* D«l*-Acquisition-System Software C
ifeaa* for all functions Digital Dynamics* SHIP compatible
tlffi i 1189S uith PC AaigaUMB I* a Gencial PurpOVC )nt cr I
ace Bus (Ittt '.M) card Io the A2000 that leaturn alt of the
TaUer listener I Controller functions of the IEEE 4M
Cine A*iga can connect and control up to 14 other CPIS instrument* or Amiga*. C tource driver and dcncs applications included. *4% AaigaView 2.0 I ¦ Proto-Sk is a single tharcl 3,6 Khz A D dataacquisl(ion system uith *1, i j and *100 if put I gain ranges, real-time LED signal level histogram, and test-calibration switch. Ihis parallel-port device tits all Amiga* and has its own daisy-chain parallel port. Come* uith C source driver and many sarple application progrars. Works uith Digi&copc- 12 9.93 AmigaFFT A cunplete package of Fast Fourier Transform Routines and wi nooning functions, includes
I1S2 ry Mitsubishi and Shinko Color Printer* 4 Driver* SX I25~j ACQA HARbUARt AMD SQFTUARt DEH0 01 ProtO-LOk, Proto-3k, AaigaGPlB, AaugaView, DigiScope, and AmigaFFl are registered tiaderruFks of AC3A Corpcratlon. ACOA is frequently lariating it* products and reserves to right to change specifications and price* at any time without notice.
(C) Copy right 1989 ALDA Corp. Circle 104 on Reader Service card.
There is also a command called ‘SeiRGB’ that allows you to change the colors from within a Logo program.
CLEANING UP THE EDITOR The Logo language supports a structured programming style based on procedures and packages. Procedures are much like GOSUBs in BASIC, or subroutines in many other languages. Logo allows you to do many things with procedures diat you can't easily do with subroutines in other languages. Procedures can be grouped together into what Logo calls a package. Then packages can be saved to disk, edited as a whole, or buried.
When you bury a package, Logo takes all the procedures in the package out of the work area. This can help clean things tip once you have a procedure working.
A FEW EXAMPLES IN LOGO Please see the Christmas tree listing at the end of this article to get a lew ideas on what Logo looks like. To create the Christmas tree I used several different procedures (i.e. main, tree, bulbs, box, and tri). Notice how one procedure can call another procedure. The 'main’ procedure calls the 'tree' procedure, which calls the ‘tri1 procedure etc. When the 'tree' procedure calls the ‘tri’ procedure it passes it a variable. This variable is used to calculate the length of each side of die triangle.
PROS AND CONS Amiga Logo is a good implementation of Logo. The program never crashed on me. This doesn’t surprise me because Amiga Logo was written by Carl Sassenrath.
Carl was the designer of die Exec part of die Amigas operating system.
Logo is a fun language to play around widi and a good way for children to learn how computers operate. But that is about all that Logo is good for. .Maintaining a high-level of compatibility with other Logos was a necessity, but I expected more of die Amiga specific features to be implemented into this version of Logo.
It seems that the language goes halfway. There are commands for changing the palette, waiting for the screen to refresh, for reading die mouse, and speech.
But on the other hand, there are no commands for sprites, bobs, requesters, or menus. There is no way to call system routines so you could add diese if you wanted.
THE FINAL ANAL YSIS I probably shouldn't want all of these opdons in Logo, but I am spoiled. Overall, I think die packaging is well done, the manual is well written, and the language is solid. If you want to learn Logo then Amiga Logo will work for you. If you want to write a program that can access all of the Amiga then you should look elsewhere.
TO MAIN cs HT PU SNOW SETPOS [-64 170] SETPC 9 PD GRTYPE [MERRY CHRISTMAS] PU SETPOS [-63 169] SETPC 5 PD GRTYPE [MERRY CHRISTMAS] BULBS END LISTING ONE TO CIRCLE :LEN LOCAL “RADIUS MAKE “RADIUS :LEN (2 * 3.1416) PU FD :RAD IUS RT 90 PD RARC :LEN 360 PU LT 90 BK :RADIUS PD END TO TREE PU SETPC 2 SETPOS [0 160] PD TRI 20 SETPOS [0 150] TRI 40 SETPOS [0 130] TRI 60 SETPOS [0 110] TRI SO SETPOS [0 90] TRI 100 SETPOS [0 60] TRI 130 PU SETPC 13 SETPOS [-10 -55] PD BOX 20 END DigiScope is a digital storage oscilloscope emjtator that uork* uith II of our data acquisition products nd all
parallet-port digitizer*. It operates 16 independent user-defined buffers, has eslmslw DSP and graphics capabilities and a couplet* spectral analysis package. DigiScope is coapletely Aatgatired and will keep the competition At a distance lor some
1139. 95 Introductory Price Finally, a standaidlrcd OUJIt-l
ivUaitD imuiTlOH C interface that includes all GA0GI.I
types (with auiusutic ¦ajtual exclusion), UINDCUS, ltau3.
H£0UESTE*S, Cumple* Multiple uindow IWEatS, SCRtteS.
LatEtS. Ill HAPS, Alt INACE TTPES, LOW LEVEL GRAPHICS, K«d
IFF. Karu *ti Lattice compatible libraries.
Over 100 routines and macros.
Extensive doc and large eiaplr directory. Reduces prog r am code size significantly. AmigaWorld's C programming library of choice (Sept Oct 1987, p26).
* 9.« i ACOA Corporation • I 220 Belle Meade Avr I Sriauket. *T
(516) 689 7722 DigiScope Tell them you saw them in Whenever you
contact an Amiga vendor, let them know which Amiga
publication you prefer.
10 TRI :LEN SETH 0 RIGHT 135 FORWARD :LEN RIGHT 135 FORWARD SORT ((:LEM * :LEN) + (:LEN :LEN)) RIGHT 135 FORWARD : LEN SETH 1 BO FORWARD (:LEN 2) FILL END TO BULBS PU SEIPOS [10 105] SETPC 5 CIRCLE 15 PU SEIPOS [-10 130) SETPC 8 CIRCLE 15 PU SETPOS 1-15 90] SETPC 7 CIRCLE 20 PU SETPOS [15 70] SETPC 12 CIRCLE 20 PU SETPOS [0 50] SETPC 10 CIRCLE 20 PU SETPOS [40 30] Logo Editor Commands Key Description Backspace: Moves the cursor back and deletes the previous character, Delete Deletes the character under the cursor Return In the command window, Logo will evaluate the line and attempt to
execute it. In the edit window, anew line is inserted.
Tab Moves to the nest tab stop (every four characters).
Arrow KeysMoves the cursor up, down, left, and right one character or line.
Shift-Up-Arrow Move back half a page Shift-Down-Arrow Move forward half a page Shift-Left-Arrow Move to tbe beginning of a line Ctr!-B Ctri-C Ctrl-D the costiand windpw;this will cancel the current coinmand Ctrl-H Delete the previous character and move the cursor back Ctrl-i Tab the cursor to the next tab stop (every four characters) Ctrl-J Start a new line Ctrl-M Enter a line and start a new one Ctri-N Move the cursor to the next line Ctrl-O Inserts a new line at the position of the cursor Ctrl-P Move the cursor to the previous line Ctrl-Q Move the cursor back one word Ctrl-H Moves the cursor
back half a page Ctrl-T This will toggle between the edit window and the command window Gtrl-V Moves the cursor forward half a page Ctrl-W Move the cursor forward one word Ctrl-Y Inserts the text deleted with Ctrl-K SETPOS [320 -501 SETPC B FILL CIRCLE 20 END ?U SETPOS [-30 10] TO RARC :DIST :ANGLE SETPC 7 (LOCAL "N "STEP "TURN) CIRCLE 20 RAKE "H GCD :DIST rANGLE ?U RAKE "STEP :DIST ;N SETPOS [60 - 10] MAKE "TURN : ANGLE :N SETPC 4 REPEAT :N [FD :STEP RT tTURN CIRCLE 20 END ?U SETPOS [10 - 15] TO GCD :N :R SETPC 12 IF :R = 0 [OP :N] CIRCLE 20 GCD :R (REMAINDER :N :R) END END TO SNOW TO BOX
:LEN PU SETH 0 SETPC 1 REPEAT 4 (FORWARD :LEN RIGHT SETPOS [-320
- 50] RIGHT 45 FORWARD :LEN 2 ?D FILL END
• AC- Amiga Circuits Hardware Access To Your Amiga By John Iovine
Last month we built and experimented with a simple parallel
interface. We examined programming the interface using the Data
Direction Register and the Data Register on the 8520 P1A chip.
With this information we were able to configure the parallel
port to output, and using our simple interface project, control
the LEDs connected to it. We will continue this month w'idi die
technique required to input information via the parallel port
and some logic instructions.
We now have some experience outputting binary l's.
Now let’s reconfigure the port for input. First turn off die computer.
(If you have a data transfer switch as I recommended last mondt you can switch the control to the other channel and save yourself die hassle of turning the computer off and on and reloading AmigaBASIC). Remove die four LEDs connected to PB4 thru PB7 and replace them widi a four position dip switch (available at Radio Shack - see photo and schematic). Power up the computer, reload AmigaBASIC then enter: ddr - 125754B94 dr = 12574977& 'DDR setup configures P30 thru P33 as poke ddr, 15 'outputs, PB4 thru PB7 as inputs.
Turn all the switches on. Enter: PRINT PEEK(dr) And a 0 will be returned. Turn off the switch’connected to PB4 and reenter: PRINT PEEK (dr) 'and now the number 16 has been ' returned.
You should know that the number l6 represents the bit weight for that pin. But die quesdon remains as to why it is that when you turn the switch off the computer reads a binary 1 at the bit location? If you remember from last month, it’s the same reason that the LEDs are dimly lit upon power up. When our switch is turned on, it is connected to and pulled to ground (0 volts). When the switch is turned off, die line is pulled up to + 5 volts (binary 1) by die 8520 chip through a pull up resistor. To become more comfortable with inputting, enter die following: ddr 125754B9s.
Dr = 12574977s POKE(DDR),15 start: PLEASE NOTE: This Project may void your warranty and is offered for the enjoyment of the technically inclined. PiM Publications, Inc. is jiot responsible for any damages incurred while attempting this hardware project CLS PRINT "This is the bit weight of your interface."
PRINT: PRINT PEEK(DR) FOR t = 1 TO 100: NEXT t GOTO start By turning die various switches on and off, die bit weights are displayed on the screen. Lets try something else. Stop die program and enter: POKE (DR), 5 The LEDs connected to PB0 and PB2 are now lit. Restart the program, nodce that the bit weight of 5 is added to the display.
MASKING Now lets tiy somediing a little more interesting. Enter the program below. When bit 7 (dip switch connected to PB7) is turned on, the LEDs connected to PB0 thru PB3 will start counting. No other bit has any effect. This is accomplished by masking ail bits except bit 7 and reading its bit weight. Depending on the result the computer makes die decision to count or not to count.
DDR = 125754894 DR = 125749774 POKE (DDR) , 15 start: FOR x = 0 1015 D = PEEK (dr) AND 12B IF D = 0 THEN Start POKE (dr) ,x FOR t = 1 TO 200: NEXT t NEXT x RESTORE: GOTO start To fully understand this program we must look at a few logic instructions. You may skip this section if you feel it’s too ddifficult, butthislogicsectionw-ill enrich your ability to design and configure die parallel port to your needs with the minimum amount of instrucdon.
LOGIC There are a few logic instructions available to us from AmigaBASIC. These can be used to read, set (binary 1) or clear (binary 0) specific bits on the port widiout affecting the other bits.
When using logic instructions, we are comparing the number in the data register to the number we PEEKing and POKEing in the register. The results can be used to make useful decisions and perform control functions AND To begin lets examine each possible bit combination For this New Year make resolutions!
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Between two bits, we have four possible combinations.
0 o 0 1 1 0 1 1 The following table is called a truth table, and is used to show the effects of various logic instructions. Here are the results of the AND instruction: Atil! Result.
0 0 = 0 0 1-0 10 = 0 11 = 1 By studying the results, we can draw the following conclusion: the results of an AND instructions is 1 only if both bits are 1, otherwise the results are 0.
Since we ate correctly using an 8 bit register, examine the following example. Here we use 8 bit binary numbers.
11010011 '*211 held in register 100001 01 'And with 135 10000Q01 'Results = 129 If you like, you can actually do the above example and die following examples with your interface. For the one above, replace the LEDs you removed and enter: POKE dr,211 'this enters 211 in register POKE dr,PEEK(dr) AND 133 ’this command first peeks the ’in the register then performs a 'logical AND with * 133. Then 'pokes the results in the 'register.
The results are displayed on your interface, the LEDs should be lit where there are binary l's present, You can also check the results with this simple peek command: PRINT PEEK (cirl In program 2 we used the AND instruction to test a bit.
Then we made a decision based upon die results. Let's analyze how the program accomplishes dais.
D = POSE(DR) and 12s OXXXXXXX 'DataRegister(X=anyvalueGorl) looonriuo ' and 12 b 00000000 'Result of POKE(DR) AND 128 = 0 This instruction compares doe AND 128 with the number in die register. The only bit that can have an impact on the result is bit 7. Because all odoer bits are AND with 0, dieir results are 0.
By setting bit 7, we have doe following scenario: 1XXXXXXX DataRegister(X=any value 0 orl) 10000000 AND 123 10000000 Result of POKE(DR) AND 128 = 128 With these two possible results, we can use a simple basic decision to determine whether doe switch is on or off.
Ir D 0 THEN start OR The OR command is our next logic instruction. The table below demonstrates the results of doe OR instruction upon any two bits.
O o = o 0 1 = 1 10 = 1 ii = : The results of the OR instruction is 0 only if bodi bits are 0, otherwise the results are 1. Again lets look 8 bit binary numbers using the OK instruction.
11010011 ' 211 held in register 10000101 'OR *133 11010111 'Result 215 We can use the OR instruction to set various bits. This becomes very useful when we wish to set specific bits without disturbing die status of the other bits on die port. Any bit that is OR’ed with a 0 remains unchanged. Therefore if we wish to set bit 4, we can OR bit 4 with a binary 1 as our example illustrates: 10100010 Register noom mo OR 8 (Command = POKE (DR) , PEEK (DR) OR 8) 10101010 Result Try entering the following commands to get a better understanding.
POKE(DDR),15 'DDR setup POKE (DR) ,3 'Lights LEDs to PEG and PB1 POKE(DR),PEEK(DR) OR ffSets bit on without 'disturbing 'the status of the other 'bits.
"When we enter our last command, the status on the interface has the two LEDs lit. This status remains unchanged as we set bit 4 on, as indicated by die lit LEDs.
As practice, see if you can work on the following logic instructions available from AmigaBASIC on your own, AND NOT 10100010 register oillllll and NOT 128 00100010 Result EOF Exclusive OR XOR - Result 0 0 = 0 0 1 = 1 10 = 1 11 = 0 DATA TRANSFER SWITCH As I promised last month, we’ll run dirough the data transfer switch. As 1 stated, the transfer switch will allow you to easily switch the parallel port from the printer to your interface without the hassle of cable switching. See the block diagram and picture of die transfer switch. Suitable transfer switches are available from numerous
manufacturers. In addition you may also need a DB-25 male to male cable to connect the computer to the switch (depending on tire configuration of the switch). The printer and interface go to the A and B (see drawing).
AMIGA BUGS In working with the parallel port 1 noticed a couple of bugs you should be aware of. One is that when saving a program to disk the port will lock up until a program is run. If you are SUBSCRIPTION PROBLEMS?
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If you are having a problem with your subscription or if you are planning to move, please write to: Amazing Computing Subscription Questions PiM Publications, Inc.
P. O. Box 869 Fall River, MA 02722 Please remember, we cannot
mail your magazine to you if we do not know where you are._
Please allow four to six weeks for processing.
Accessing the port through a program you’ll have no problem, in fact you won't even know it lias happened. The only time you'll see this bug is when attempting to control the port with direct corm mands. Other disk accesses don't appear to cause this problem, Secondly, if a program you’re running stops because of an error, the port is again locked up. Correcting the error and running the program again will unlock die poit.
• AC* DB25 25 Pin Male Connector To Amiga Parallel Port The Fred
Fish Public Domain Software Library The Fred Fish disks are
collected by Mr. Fred Fish, a good and active friend of the
Eted Fish Dish aso CrossOOS A Iryware' version ol a mountable MS-DOS Me system lor the Amiga. This is a software prodict That allows you to read and write M.S-DOSPC- DOS and Atari ST formatted risks (Version 2.0 or higher) drectly from AmigaDOS. Ths trywa-e verson is a "read oniy' version, which does no: allow any writes tc tie disk. A fjy functional version is available lor a very reasonable cnee Irom CQNSULTRQN, Version 3.02. binary only.
Author: CONSULTRON, Leonard Foma Dis An AmigaDOS shareable library which implements a symbolic singJe-instrucson disassembler ter the MC5SOOQ family and a program wtvch uses the library to disassemble: ftjnp AmgaDQS object files, making fufl use ol synbok and relocation information. Includes source code in Draco. Author Chris Gray DM Maps IFF maps to the Di geon Master game. AJ 14 levels are induded. Author: Unknown Mem Lib A link library of routines to aid in debugging memory problems. Works with Lattice C S.O and possibly wth earlier versons. Ifs features include trashing aEl allocated
memory, trashing all freed memory, keeping track ol freed memory with notification d it ts written to, notification of memory freed twice or not at al, notification of Overrunning or underrunning allocated memory, generation ol tow memory conditions ter testing purposes, and identificationof violations of memory use by filename and line number of ne allocating room Incudes source. Autoor; John Toebes and Doug Wafter RunBack Alows ycu to start a new CLI program and run it in the background, then closes the new CLI. This is version 6, an update to the version on disk 152 (the version on disk 214
appears to be on a different evolutionary path). This version cpmptos under Laffice with many optimizations enabled, and can be made resident, bcludes source. Autocx: Rob Peck. Daniel Bane:, Greg Searie, Doug Keuer Xprtub External fife transfer protocol library. Document and code example for implementing external file transfer protocols using Amiga shared libraries This is an update to the version inducted with the vlt program on disk 226. Author: WSIy Langevete Fred Eisfi Disk 241 ASDG-md Extremely useful shareware recoverable ram risk. This AmigaDOS dewce driver implements a completely DOS
compatde risk device m memory that survives resets, guru's, and crashes. An absoute must lor those with tots of ram. This is an update to the verson reteased on disk 58 llnow works with up to Smbol memory. X was rewrften in assembly and is now faster and much smaller. Binary only.
Author: Perry Krvotowilz. ASDG Inc. CBBS The WORLI BBS system lor use in amaleur rado. Originally written lor I9M-PC compatibles, it was ponod to the Amiga by Pete Hardie. The is version 6! C with source code. Author: Bar* Oredscn, the CBBS group. Pets Karde Fa630t0 A program which patches executebfes that tail to run on machines epupped with an M58Q10. So that they no longer use the prohibited pr ifedged instructions. Binary only. Author: Gregor Brandt Man A program similartothe UNIX "m£h‘program.
Displays information abort a topic from manual pages. Does not indude any database cl topics, you have to supply your own. Version 12, inductes source. Author: Garry Glendcwn NoCfick A program which silences ihecOckir of empty dnveson the B2000 under AmigaDOS U. It should also work on an A501 This is verson
3. 4, an update to the verson cn risk £31.
Includes assembly source code. Author Ncmian Iscove Tiles A basic Bio game like Shanghai or GunShy. A board is covered with a wtof 144 tiles, 36 different sets of 4 identical ties, each with a picture on a. The object is to remove all the tiles, 2 at a time, by matchhg identical tiles. Version
2. 1. includes source in Modula II Author. Todd Lews zsHBitmm
BoetEtocks Derated documentation on what a bootolock is and
how it works, atong wth some sample bootbfocfcs and a program
to install a custom bootWock. Includes source lev the sample
bootbioeks and the install program. Author.
Jonathan Potter Check4Mem A lows you to check for a specified amount ol memory, with certain attributes, from a batch file.
If the requrem eats are net met, a WARN retumcode is generated- Version 2. Includes source. Author: Jonathan Potter CuKReq A gfontied ASK command tor your startup- sequence it generates a requester with the specified title, text, positive and negative gadgets (ether ol wtnch can be the detail), and an optonal timeout value. Version 2, indudes source. Author: Jonathan Potter For PDS orders, please use form on page CIII Visa and MasterCard is available on orders of 320.00 or more.
FieReq This is Jonathan's second version of a Me requester, and is much more powerful Pan the one included cn disk 204. Shareware, includes source. Autoo". Jonathan Potter FJTView A text viewer mat uses gadgets at the bottom of the screer (thus can display ten 60 columns wide), opens up to tho full height of the workbench screen, has fast scrolling, and can work with compressed files (Mo compression program included). Shareware, binary only, source availaWehom author. Author Jonathan Potter knage-Ed An toon editor that allows you to draw and edit ¦mages upto 150 by 90. In up to 16 colors-
Allows freehand drawing, empty or filled rectangles, sUpses, and triangles, lines arres. And polygons, ccpy. Flip about x or y axis, stretching and condensing, flood fill and complement, text with selection and loading of lent style, undo, magnified and norm al sized images, and two active drawng screens at once. This is version 2.2, an update to version 1.9 on disk 211, Binary onl , source available from author. Author Jonathan Potter JAR A shareware game (Jump And Run) using 3-D graphics. Your task is to ccfied the blue pins lying cn the floors and steps, not to Sal down or df the steps, and
to avoid several monsters wandanng abort. You can cofiec various sons of weapons to use against the monsters. Version 1.0, binary only, source arateble from author. Author: Andreas Ehrentraut jPCtock A short clock program that is just packed with features. This is version 1.2. an update to version cn disk 204. Irdudes source, by: Jonathan Potter Pprefs Preferable Pm ferences is a program designed to replace The steward preferences, that is shorter, more efferent and easier to use. Binary only.
Author Jonatnan Potter PateceReq An easy way to set the palette of any screen from your program, incudes source, by: JonathanPoner Pop Wo A small usltywfxch “pops open* to give you ¦ntermator about the status of your devices and memory. This is version 3.1, an update to version
3. 0 cn d sk 223. Includes source. Author; Jonathan Poller Zero
Virus A fully integrated virus checker and kiOer, with
Doctblock save and restore features. Finds bcto bootbiock and
fife based viruses. This is version 1,3. Binary only. Author:
Jonathan Potter Fred Fish Disk 243 Fragtt Adynamic memory
thrasher for the Amiga. Fraglt randomly allocates and
deallocates psuedo- random sae values ol mem;cry, ranging from
16 bytes to 50000 bytes by default. The result is an
allocation nightmare, thousands of memory fragments are being
created and destroyed continuously- This puts stress on the
memory aliocatcn routines of an application undergoing testing
by simulating a very busy, highly fragmented memory
environment. This is version
2. 0, featuring many bug fixes, a M intuition
interlace,configuration settings via the icon, and more.
Indudes source. Autoor Justin V. McCormick imagelat A program
whch perfcrms image processing cn IFF pictures. Includes
standard image processing functions such as convolution,
averaging, smoothing, enhancement, histograms, FFT s. etc. Aso
includes file conversion functions, a clipboard, and other
useful functions. Version 2.2, txrury only. Author: Gary
Million LPE LaTeX Picture Ed-tor is a graphical edrtcr tor
producing dixes' te' the LaTeX system, which may be imported
by LaTeX. You can draw boxes, dashed boxes, fines, vectors,
rircfes. Bcxes with centered text, and plain text. Ths is
verson 1.0, binary erty. Author: Joerg Gessfer NoCfick A
program wtich silences the cBcking of empty drivesoo tho B2P00
under AmigaDOS 1JJ, It shorid also work on an A50Q. This is
version 3.5, a Iasi minute update to version 3.4 on disk 241.
Includes assembly source code. Author: Norman iscove Password A program wftieh enhances your computer's secvrty by makng rt complicated enough rat users without your password wS get discouraged trying to boo? And use your system. This should keep out most casual or nontechnical users.
Verson 1.21 p. binary only. Author: George Keroer Pcopy An intuition based disk copier similar to the restoent ‘DtskCopy*. This is version 2.0, a highly upgraded rewrite of the verson on disk 151. It features high Speed disk copy With write-veri fy and data recovery Ircm damaged tracks. A lot of effort has gone into making dis copier friendly to is usage, as well to its mu&saifeng properties Biray oriy. Author: Dirk Resg SimGen Ths program wll add a 2 or 4 co’or ptotura to your WorkBench screen «toe picture is rigteed.rtwii look much like a genlock, beixe trie name S-mGen (Simulated Gonl-ock).
Binary only, Autoor: Gregg Tavares SuperLineS A new tines demo with a realtime consol panel that you can use to change various aspects cl the asion. Ras 10 txift in color paieces, support for things file cctor 'smudge*, cotor cyding, coior ¦bounce*. MiApfe resolutions, and can dispiay eiltef lires or bcxes. This is verson 14), binary only. Author: Chris Batey WarpUtil Warp (version 1.11), UnWarp (version 1.0), and WarpSfXit (version 1.1). Warp reads raw filesystems and archives them into a compressed version in a normal Re. UnWarp turns them back into filesystems. WarpSpiil spirts them up into
smaller pieces on a track by track basis. Binary oriy. AuJior: SDS Software El£lEstLQisii244 BBChampion Thi$ i$ BootBlockChampionl",averyrtceiy done program that allows you to load. Save, and analyze any bootWock. This is version 31, binary only, Author: Roger Ftscriin Boctlntro This program creates a small intro or. The bociblock ol any disk, which will appear after you insert the disk for booting. The headlne can be up to 44 characters, The sooting text portion can be up to 303 characters. This is version 1.2, an update to version 1.0 on qsk 133. Binary oriy.
Author Roger FschEn FMC An atternabve to the Nor sstMem program. Uses a cuts ktde Switch gadget to turn fast memory on or oft, Verson 1 2. Includes sourcs in assembly code. Author Roger RscMin SizeChecker Size checker uses a list ol possible sizes cl a file to check lor unexpected changes in toe size of those files. For example, it can be used to spot a link virus or to print out changes in the cor,figuration of your system. Wffli the appropriate comments added to your size fist, you can check to see what version cl toe files you are using (1.2.
1. 3.1.4, ARP. Etc). Version 1.0. binary only.
Authcr Roger FischSn Text Dis play A text display program, fike ’more' or less*, bui about hail the size and handles ail screen formats (paVntsc, mtertacencn-interlace. Etc), Tnisis version 1,52. An update to version 1.1 on disk 188.
Binary only, Author: Roger Fischlin Xcolor A program designed to change the colors of any screen You can also add and subtract biplanes in toe screen, or convert the screen to black arto white (grayscale). Handles HAM and EHB screens Verson 1,2. Uxludes so cs r. assembly code. Author Roger Fschin Ffrtfla.DJa3L245 ATOF A small utility that alcws you to use tie lores ofi another disk without using toe CU. Version 1.0, binary only. Authcr: Roger Ftschiin Bootlrrtro This program creates a small intro cr ths boctblock of any risk, which will appear alter you insert Ihe disk lor booting. This is toe
'next generation' Boot Intro, a more colorful version than the one on disk 244, but the taxi must be shorter. The test fine can be up io 24 characters. The s&cnd and tnird Ires can be up to 22 characters. The seroi.rg text can be up to 96 characters. This is'next generation version 1.1*. Binary only. Author Roger FischSn Ferster A program which can cperate cn windows owned by another program, to dose them, orange toer size, refresh gadgets, move the wndow to toe background, etc Version t .0, incites source.
Author Roger Fischlin PatoMasler A file requester wiir tots ol features. Can be easJy configured by toe crogramner to surf a vane of appscacons. Todudes source. Author: Justin McCormick Reversi Prays trie ciassrcal revwsi game cn an 6 x 6 square field. Version 1.2, induries source in assembly code. Author: MarcRschiin Vji This is a brary update to ihe vtt program on disk 226, rand fixes a prcriem with external prctocol support. You sbM r eed toe rest of toe files from disk
226. Version 4.065. binary only. Autocr; W.Hy Largevefe Dmake
Ftefease version t .0 of Waffs versicr of the UN IX make
utility. Update to beta version released on tf.sk 175.
Features m itipte dependancfes, wddcarc support, arto mere.
Binaryonftf.Author: Mas Ehfion LabriFrir*. A program that
afews you to easily print labels for ycur risks, Ths is
verson 2.5b, an update to version 2.5 from disk 23B,
Shareware, txnary orjy (source available from autoor).
Autocr Andreas Krebs Ncomm A terminal program lorLrie Amiga
based cn comm version 1.34, Has hot keys for most program
lutotions (including dialing up to 10 plwe numbers), PAL ana
NTSC support to normal or interlaced screens, screen 10
grea:er than 2430 baud. ANSLVTl 09 termina! Em.ufaticn with
fiJ 8 color ten support, iBMgraohcs, cptcrral translaton
styles. TpM screen mode, full user control of color pafette,
M support to al Eurcoean languages. W serial port conpoi
with baud rales up 101920), scr'pt language, phonebock,
keytoard macros, and more. Version 1.8. binary only.
Author: DJ James, Daniel B:cch, et. Al.
NoCfick A program whch fences tne ckking ol empty dnves cn toe B2COO under AmigaDOS 1J. Ft Should also work cn an A9D0. This ts verson 3 5.
An update s version to vers on 3 5 cn risk £43.
Includes assemoy source :coe Autocr: Norman Iscove ScreenShara A fibray and support programs that enable applicat.crts to open up windows;cn otoer applications' custom screens. For example, your editor may want to open a wi ndow on your terminal emulator's screen so you can compose a message write sill bring ab e to see toe contents of tne terminal's screen. BothappScatiens must cooperate to the screen shanrq x work. Version
1. 2, includes souxe to interface portions Autoor: WsyLangevrid
Ty A text risp&y prcgram based on Amiga less’ version 1.0. Has
both keyboard and mouse centre!
Of al functions, an mtuticn interface, and uses toe Amiga specific keys (such as toe Help key) cofrecffy. Verson t ,3. Includes spjree, Author: Mark Nudriman. Bob Leivian, Tony Wills EiatMJMaZ AnalogJoystck Software su xrt to use ol analog joysticks on the Amiga. Includes a driver, a header Ee to code toa: calls toe driver, and an example program toa: uses toe ir-ver. Hpjdes source.
Author: DaveKrzer AssemToris A crifecticn ol files which shcrid be cl great interest to Amiga assembly language programmers. The cri'ecfcot includes 140 macro routines which make assembly la-.guage programming a lot easier. There is also a fctrary of routines containing buffered C-like Me handling functions (fcgen, fcfese, Igets, fpuls, etc) and a file name requester. AI routines are re-entrant Includes source tor example programs usmg toe macros and library, and a 65c02 cross macro assembler. Author: Jukka Marin RemoteLogm A coupe ol p'ogram s which make possible remote access to your Amiga.
One program checks toe serai port to an nconrig can. And starts a program wnen r, is detected. Ire other is a password protection program wfwto allows starting various programs based upon login id thus providing sore minimal security to your computer, includes source. Author: Dave Kmzer XprUb External f ie transfer protocol!brary. Doameat and code example to implementing external fife transfer protocols using Amiga shared libaries.
Tfesis version 2.0. an update to toe version on risk 240, with many extensions and enhancements findudessaTipfeXPRLbary and source. Author: Wjy langeirid FfCdR5?)giik243 ArrxGana A project definition and management too designed to create a s mple, .nteractive metood a!
Outiini.'ig toe task requ red to complete a particular project, using the GANTT chad as the input lormat. Ar.iGantt displays ttie project in a mub- window mode with separate windows for the GANTT chan, task intomatfen input, resource histogram display, and Pert chart display. Up to 500 tasks may be defined to any project, and a project may contain otoer projects as tasks Ver&cr 3.0.0, iriareware. Bhary only. Authcr: Donald Toison CU-CriorsA smpfe i:s!a program to crange toe criers of toe border around a CU window, includes source in assembly cods Authcr: Michael Sira Ffioper Sma0, last, Otoeto
program. Does rci use any lookahead methods. & nary only. By Michael Sriz Maze An example of a ‘u ly r e-entrant maze generator!
Program written m assemby language using Ma- ,sas5emtH:•, includes source. Autoor: Michari Sin: NetHantfer Tne Sotware Oistilery's network fife system riancter (NET), usrfg Man Dson s DNET to rrojc: one Amiga's devces on arctoer Amga- ita'so serves as an eiampfe fife system written entirely in Lattice C. Version 1 3. Indudes source. Autor: Software Distillery Regex An Amiga shared library version a! Toe GNU regular expression package from tne Free Software Foundation, A regular expression is a concise method ol describing a pattern of characters in a string. By use ol special vitoa-ds.
Almost any pattern can be described. A r u-’s1' expression patten can be used to searenng stongs in such programs as editors crcto string handfrrsg programs. Verson 1 ,C. Ixfijdes spurae.
Autocr: Edwn Hoogerbeets. FSF. Jm Mack'zz Fred saaums Automata Four criiu'ar automate p’ograms AutcmaTronisa one rimens onal celmto automation. Cad Is a automation based on a sum index rule. Demon is acyclic space automaton descnced in toe Aig £9 Scientific American, and Life is one of the oldest and best known ol alt cellular automate, irdudes source. Autoor: Gary Teachout Sl cer Slioer computes ard displays images o! Toe Mandetoct and Jute sets. Jr.ika many Manoribrri programs trat generate ricfues rifKty, Sicer corr-pux-s and sic es an array o!
Raw date whch ri may toen render into bctoes in anumberefways Vers-pni.o. narycniy. Author: Gary Teatoout TurM.te A two rimers ora I luring machine simutator.
Imagine a small sug crawling a-'cund on your compuer display moving ore p el at a time, At each step it uses Us interna! State number and toe color cl foe puel it's on as indexes into a set of tables to dedde what color to change the pixel to, wha! Taction to move, and what its new internal state should be. Sour*. By: GaryTeachcut Fred Fish Disfc&Q Asircptex An feiptemertatton of the Simplex algorithm for solving tnear programs, it uses the Standardized MPSX-lontial for input data fifes, Ths is version
1. 5, an update to verson 12 cn disk 199- Changes incfode bug
Ibtes, the ainfiry torun (ram CU, ifs owi window lor 10. And
some new and improved commands. Indudes source. Aufoor: Stefan
Forster GravTty-Vr’efl A celestial moton smUator that simdales
the motion o( up to twenty bodes in a Newttnian urverse. The
view of the shnulakn nay be scaled, rotated In three
dimensions v repositioned Indudes scwce. Author Gary Teachx-t
Paranoids An asylum escape game. Paranoids is a traditional
board game payed by drawing cards, rating dee.
And moving pieces around the board. Each player has six pieces, lour patents and two doctors. The object of the game is to get aS of your patients out of the asylum. This is version 1.0, binary only.
Author: Richard Anderson and Gary Teachcut RP$ C A reverse polish sdertifie cafcu&or. RPSC is a programmable RPN calculator in the Hewlett- Packard tradition. It supports operations with real numbers, complex numbers, matrices, and 3-0 vectors, as well as storage and recall ol labeled variables. Data and programs may be saved, loaded, or written as ASCII text, to AmigaDOS files.
V 1.1 .binaryonly. By: GaryTeachout FiedEs!iOJsk2iL Debug A symbolic debugger for the Amiga. Features irxdude symbolic disassembly, simple expression parsing, multiple breakpoints, memory fill, memory dump, single step in trace mode, skip over subroutines, etc. V2.1 D. binary only. Author: Jim Thibodeau and Larry LaPlume DiskSalv A disk recovery program (or all Am iga file system devices that use either the Amiga Standard Fse System crthe Amiga Fast File System. Disksalv creates a new filesystem structure on another derice, with as much data salvaged from the original de-ice as possible. This
is version 1.42, an update to the version released on disk 212. Binary only. Author Dave Haynte QskSpeecf A disk speed losing progam spedfealy designed to give the most accurate results of the true disk performance of the dsk under test. Automatically updates and maintains an ASCII database of disk results for tested disks. This is version 1.0, indudes souce mC. Author: Michael Sin2 Linsron Some miscellaneous small programs Iron the Unstrom temify. Includes some base games, some progams based on algorithms Son the Computer Recreations column in Scientific American (demon, tunntes, mountain),
and a fish tank Emulator.
Induoes source. Aufoon Ucyd Unstrom and tamiy Moropofy A simulation of the Parker Brother's board game MONOPOLY. Binary only, source available from author. Author EdMusgrove RcadRoute A trip planner foal takes a Gsf of dties and a fist cf known routes between cities, and generates the cSstsna and time required to reach your destination. V1j0, Source. Author: Am Butterfield Fr£lEsm&252 CrassDOS A Tryware' version of a mountable MS-DOS file system lor the Amiga This is a software product that allows you to read and write MS-DOSPC-DOS and Atari ST formatted disks (Version 2.0 or higher) directly
from AmigaDOS. This tryware version is a ‘readonly' version, which does nol allow any writes to the dsk. A ful ly functional version is available lor a very reasonable price from CONSULTRON. This is version 3.05b, an update to version 3.02 on disk
240. Bina only. Author CONSULTRON.
Leonard Poma TrekTrivia Very nice mouse-driven trivia typo program lor Star Trek fans. Contains 100 questions with addtonal trivia disks available from the author. This is version 2.0, an update to the version on disk i so.
And includes selectable skill levels, a cheat mode, and 250K of digitized music. Binary only, shareware. Author George Broussard Zerg An Ultima cfone that takes your character through a simple but deadly fantasy world where you get to slaughter monsters, talk with the inhabitants of fully populated towns, embark on royal quests, purchase a plethora d weapons, cast speEs, and otherwise occupy yourself while your computer is engaged in more important business. Version 1.0, binary orsty. Author: Mike Shapiro Fred Flsti Dish DurpQ.fi A small ut&ty that pnrts the hexdunps of 2 files, with all
differences between these two files highlighted. Version 10, includes source in MotWaTl Aufoor Fridtjof Siebert Elements Very nice interactive display of the the Periodic Table of Elements. Can cSspfoy a large amount & pertinent data about a setesed etement along wsh a good deal of general and misceLanMus info.
This is versfeni .2a, an update to foe version on dsk 175. It loads tester, takes up less disk space, fires a mror bug, and adds a couple of enhancements. Inciutes soiree in C. Author Paul Thomas MIBer KeyUac A keyboard mKro processor foat allows you to record keystrokes and then play them back.
V0.1 .Source mModuta-ll. Author: Fridtjof Srebert MegaWB A program dial makes 4 possible to make you WorkBench screen as large as you Kto. Version
1. 2, Source in UodUa-U By: Frirtjol Siebert MuchMora Another
program like ‘more', less', *pg‘, etc. This cna uses its own
screen to show the text using a slow 5aoH. Indudes butlt-n
help, commands to search for ton. And commands to prim the
text Works with PAL or NTSC, in normal or overscan modes.
Supports 4 color text in bold, italic, underfired, cr inverse
fonts. S'ersion 2.5, this'« an update to version 1 .3 from dsk
234. Indudes source in Mcdula-ll and assembly code, Author
Fridtjof Siebert MiASefoctA small program that makes it possWe
to select several icons cn De workbench without having io
press foe $ fxIt key. This is verson 1.0, indudes source in
Modub-lt. Author: Fridtjof Stebea PowerPacker A shareware comm
and and date cxuxcter, with a ftf teuton user interface.
Executable files whch are crunched are automaficafy
deerartfoed upon execution, thus saving preoous ctsk space on
systems without hard ttsks, Verson 2J3b.
Binary only. Author: Neo Francois WBShadow A small program that creales a shadow for everything that’s displayed on you WorkBench (Wndows, icons, Gadgets. Menus. Texts, etc). V Where can you find all the Fred Fish Collection, as well as the Amicus Disks and The AC Disks, cross referenced and fully listed?
AO GUDE amga AC's Guide lists the descriptions and contents of over 280 Freely Distributable Software disks as well as over 2200 Amiga products.
On Sale Now at an your local Amazing Dealer
1. 0, Source in Modute-IL Author. Fridtjof Siebert With CU
command that allows you to start any other CU command several
times and grve it alt the ffies that match a fife pattern as
an a-gument, one at a time. V 1.0. Modia-ll Source. By:
Fridtjof Siebert Effid Fish Disk254 Etalo Another ffnore* or
less' type file reader, which differs Irom the others in that
it supports superscripts and subscripts at very low memory
cosl, and supports a complete Greek alphabet.
Indudes source. Author: William Hammond Machll A frnouse accelerator- program that also includes hotkeys, the features ol sun mouse, clcktofront, popcli, title bar cfock with a bbs online charge accumulator, and mere. This is version
2. 6, an update to version 24c cn disk 163. Binary onfy. Author:
Brian Moats PatiemLib A sharabfe library which implements
AmigaDOS pattern matching, and a program that compiles 'Id'
lies into library headers and interlace stubs.
Indites source in Draco. Author: Chris Gray (?}, posted on BIX by Jeff White SfotCars A last atton one or two player game of‘dueling’ stotcars. Shoot rackets at your opponent and avoid his. Binary only. Author: Brian Moats Uedi Version 2.5b of this nee shareware editor. Has team mode, a command language, menu customization, hyper taxi and ether user configurabiiiy and customixatxfity features. Bnary only, shareware, replaces verson 2.4g on disk
139. Author: Rd Safes Fred Fish Disk 255 CydcSpace A Gnfleanan
eyefo space generator program. Ltptemertsacelufaxautomatcnas
described in the August 89 rssus of Sderttfic American- V l
.42, includes source in assembly code. Aufoor: A J. Brouwer
Make con This program will make an ton (into file) using
mage date from either another con, or an IFF picture fife.
The image date is dawn on foe screen so you can see exactly
what your icon wfl took Ike. You can also go the other way,
and make IFF fines from icons, which can then be leaded into
a standard IFF graphics editor. Version 1.1, binary orty.
Source available Irom author. Author: Pauf Blum MED A music
edtor much like SoundTracker. A song consists ol up lo 50
blocks of music, which can be played in any order. E [filing
features include cut pastecopy tracks or blocks, changing
the vibrato, tempo, crescendo, and note voUme. Other
features indude switching ol the low pass-fitter 00 or off
on a per song basis, and a cute Me animated pointer of a guy
doing ¦Jumping jacks' in time to foe music! This is version
t .12, binary only.
Source for a player program included. Author: TetjoKiwunen RoiandDHQ A program to transfer sound samples between the Amiga and a Roland D-110. Version
1. 0, binary only. Author Dieter Bruns RoiandS220 A program io
transfer scund samples between the Amiga and a Roland S-220.
This is version 2.0, an update to MIDlsoft version 1.0 on risk
199. Includes several enhancements Binary only. Author: Dieter
Brans SunMaze The 3d maze demo Irom disk 171, now expanded
* nn shadows in tne corridors to give more sense of direction.
Includes source. Ajfoor: Werner Gi tther, Shadows by Dirk
Reisig Fred Fish DiiKffi Blr‘Demons This program impfements the
Demons caJiiar automaton as describee in foe August 1939, issue
ol Scientific American, Usfog extremely simple rales it exhbits
rather complex behaviour. Uses foe Witter to perform over
350. MO cell-generations per second. Version 1.0, indudes source.
Author Waller Stockier NameGame A game based cn a popular
type ol word ski I puzzle contest general sponsored by
newspapers. Binary Orty. Aufox: Mike Saw.
Gladstone Productions Stevie A pub'»c domain dene of foe UN IX ‘vf edtor.
Suopcrts window s zing, arrow keys, and foe help key. This is V3.7a, an update to FF217. Changes incfude foe addition ol ARP vtocart expansion for fie names, support lor foe *tem T feature of vi, other small erfoanaments. And some bug fixes.
Indudes source. Author Vanous. Amiga work by
G. R. (Fred) Water FredFiatifiiiliffZ CoforReq A color palete
library callable from any program.
Used io adjust foe cobra of any screen.
Automatically adjusts to screen size, number of colors. Has many feai'jres incfodng SPREAD.
COPY, UNDO, RGB, HSV. As well as cusam,izabfe gadgets. Binary only, Author; Jeff Gian and Jim Fiore FieiO An update to the fie requester literary that appeared on disk S203. Thisonehasnew feafores, indude files, docs, and examples in C, assembly, and Base, Binary only Author: Jed Gian and Jim Fiore based on original C by RJ.
VS VLTistxShaVTlOOemulatfirandaTekiranix 4014 plus subset of 4105) emulator, currerdy in use at SLAG (Stanford Unear Acoeierator Center).
Affocugh foe Vtl 00 part was originally based on Dave Wecksret aL’s VT100, many enhancements were made. The program requires ARP. And d has an Arexx pom XMODEM 1K CHC and Kermit protocol support a'so incfocfed. Ofoer features irdude support for additional serial pons, external fls tansfer protocols, and “chat* mode. The Tektronix emiiaticn allows saving IFF fifes, PostScrpt fifes, aid panting bimaos to tie printer.
This is version 4.226, an update to version 4.055 on disk 245 and verson 4.036 on disk 226. It comes in two versions, one with Tektronx emulation, and one without. Other changes include ful XPR verson 2D support, and a seralbaefe review hstcry buffer. Binary only. Author: Willy Langevefd Fred Fish Disk258 Backup Backup and Restore allow you to backup any directory tree with optional compression, and later extract all or part of the tree. The protection, dale, and file comment are saved wifo each fife. This is V2.04, an update to FF168. Binary only. Author; Matt Dillon Dmouse A versatile screen
8 mouse blanker, auto window acUvalor, mouse acceterator, popcli, pop window to front, push window to back, etc, widget.
IndudesCLineArt, a screen bfanker replacement program for use with Dmouse. This is Dmouse version l ,23, an update to foe verson on disk 238 also cased vers-on 1.20). includes source.
Author: Matt Dion STReplay A shared ifcrary which allows loading and playing of SoundTracker modUes. Even from Ngh level languages Ike Basic or C. without any specaJ effort Includes source. Author: Olivw Wagner Suplfo The support library needed to rebuM various programs of Matfs from foe source, induing Dme, Dmouse, etc. Update to FF169. Source, By: Mas Mon FredR£flPifik25S EFJ A last action machine-code game (Escape from Jow) featurfog hi-tes scrahng. Large piayffeld. Dsk based hgh sore list stereo sourfo. Muiiifle levels, a cheat mode, reaiistc ineraa and gravtitonal etects, an animated
sprite, and more. Use a joystick in port 2 to control the ship. Ths is verson III, an update to foe verafon cm disk 148 hctodes source in assembly code. Author Oirver Wagner zsiEsnmM AccorSon Demo version ol a solitaire type card game. The object d foe game is to condense aS foe carts into one pife. The carts are deal faceup from left to right, one a: a time. Piles are built by moving a card or pile from foe left onto a card or pie to the right. V 1.0.1 .binary only-Author: Steve Francis Calculator! Demo version ol a solitaire type card game. The object of foe game is to steck the cards into
four ordered stacks, one that counts by ore, another that courts by two, another foat courts by three and another foat counts by four. Version 1.0.2, binary only.
Author Steve Francs CCLto An impfemertation of foe standard C library, foat ts done as an Amiga snared library, containing over 14) funetens. Version 13, binary only. Aufoar: Robert Asxocfort SeaHaven Der. O verson of a sdtere type dart game. The object o! Foe game is to separate foe deck into its leur suits, each in sr. Ordered slack from ace to king.
Version! .1. binary art . Alt for: Stere Fra.ncis To Be Cont med.. .. in ggnclualap To foe best of our knowledge, foe rrrateria's in ths tbrary are freely iSstributabfe, This means they were either pubfidy posted anc placed in foe pubic domain by their authors, or they have restrictions punished in foeir Wes to which we have adhered. If you become aware of any violation of the authors* wishes, please ccntectusbymail.
This list is compiled and published as a service to foe Commodore Amiga community tor inlormatonal purposes only. Its usee restricted lo non-commercial groups only! Any dupacaiion for commercial purposes is strictly !crbidden. As a part of Amazing Computing”1, this fist is inherently ccpynghled. Any infringement on this proprietary copyright wifocut expressed written permissor.
Of foo publishers will incur foe full force ol legal actions, Any ncn-commercial Amiga user group wishing to duplicate this list shcufid contact: Pi M Publications, Inc.
P. O. Box 869 Fall River. MA 02722 PjM Piib'icattons toe, is
extremely interested in helping any Amiga user groups in
ncn-commercial support fcr the Amiga.
Remember Amazing Computing program listings are also available on special AC Disks Please see page 61 for details For PDS orders, please use form on page Cm Amazing Computing V4.12 © 1989 111 Visa and MasterCard is available on orders of $ 20.00 or more.
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You may also buy unlimited off- peak access via Tymnet for just S2Q per month, or S3 per off-peak 4096 Colors in High Resolution Digi-View Gold, (he best video digitizer for the Amiga, just got one hell of a lot better. With the all new Digi-View
4. 0 software you can do the one thing most people thought was
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Digi-View Gold the hottest Amiga graphics product ever.
It’s still just as easy to use as before. Simply focus your video camera on any object or picture, and in seconds Digi-View Gold turns it into Amiga graphics that glow with vibrant color and stunning clarity. Whether you are creating graphics for desktop publishing, presentations, video, or just for fun, Digi-View Gold gives you dazzling images with amazing simplicity.
Digi-View Gold is designed specifically for the Amiga 500, 2000, and 2500, and plugs directly into the parallel port. With complete software control of color saturation, brightness, sharpness, hue, resolution, and palette, advanced image processing is as easy as adjusting the ’Requires standard gender changer tor use with Amiga 1000. Digi-View Gold. Digi-Paint 3 and Video Toaster are trademarks ot NewTek, Inc. Give a man a VCR and he can watch reruns, give him a Video Toaster and he can make his own!
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• Can digitize in all Amiga resolution modes from 320x200 up to
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• Uses 2 to 4096 colors (including extra halfbrite)
• Uses exclusive Dynamic modes for 4096 colors in HiRes
• Is 100% IFF compatible and works with any graphics software
• Can digitize in 21 bits per pixel (2.1 million colors) for the
highest quality images possible
• Has advanced dithering routines that give an apparent
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• Has powerful image processing controls for complete IFF picture
manipulation Digi-View and Digi-View Gold owners easy upgrade:
Upgrade to the incredible new Digi-View 4.0 software just by
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1 abort 8 display 3 ptarsiits -1,-1 center llclfar Sfttont ilnoue 9,12(:text 'titl«lin»* fads l,3,6:piuse 23:fads 8,3,5 clear display 1 abort 1 2rl nips 1,28,18,48,48,-1,-1,488,1 josub 288 psn 1,14 t:43;:m434 28 novs t,2S5:dra* u,2B5:noue u,286:jri« 1,288 UmllOOl if t 328:sotO 28:mdif