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 It appears the large projection of AMIGA ( WoDK AMIGA ) sales by the Commodore Business Machine marketing staff may come true. Early reports show a great demand for AMIGA ( WoDK AMIGA ) 500and AMIGA ( WoDK AMIGA ) 2000. For several weeks, Commodore has been out of stock on AMIGA ( WoDK AMIGA ) 2000and is hurriedly producing more. This shortage occured in October, months before the official Christmas panic should have started. AMIGA ( WoDK AMIGA ) SOOs, apparently in good supply, are also producing record sales. I visited a small store with limited traffic potential, only to see a stack of over 30 AMIGA ( WoDK AMIGA ) SOO's. When I asked the clerk if they were stocking up for a projected shortage, he said, "No, that's just a weeks supply." If you are waiting for an order from your dealer, be kind and patient. Commodore assures us they are doing all they can to produce the material we need. Good News! AmiExpoin New York City was well attended and appreciated by new and old AMIGA ( WoDK AMIGA ) enthusiasts alike. It was a particular pleasure to be able to meet subscribers, dealers and AMIGA ( WoDK AMIGA ) developers face-to-face for the first time. The seminars were well-attended and the exhibitors enjoyed wall-to-wall attendance at their booth demonstrations. For a deeper look at the show, please see John Faust's "Amicus" column. AMIGA ( WoDK AMIGA )

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Document sans nom Your Original AMIGAmMonthly Resource us°$ 3.s) 2canad $ 4.so AMIGA An Amazing 1 Mini-Series Inside WordPerfect “Open the pod bay doors, HAL...” Programmers cast their vote!
Right now, leading software developers are hard at work on the next generation of Amiga® products. To add the spectacular sound effects we’ve all come to expect from Amiga software, they are overwhelmingly choosing one sound recording package... FutureSound. As one developer put it, "FutureSound should be standard equipment for the Amiga."
FutureSound the clear winner... Why has FutureSound become the clear choice for digital sound sampling on the Amiga? The reason is obvious: a hardware design that has left nothing out. FutureSound includes two input sources, each with its own amplifier, one for a microphone and one for direct recording; input volume control; high speed 8-bit parallel interface, complete with an additional printer port; extra filters that take care of everything from background hiss to interference from the monitor; and of course, a microphone so that you can begin recording immediately.
What about software?
FutureSound transforms your Amiga into a powerful, multi-track recording studio. Of course, this innovative software package provides you with all the basic recording features you expect.
But with FutureSound, this is just the beginning. A forty-page manual will guide you through such features as variable sampling rates, visual editing, mixing, special effects generation, and more. A major software publisher is soon to release a simulation with an engine roar that will rattle your teeth.
This incredible reverberation effect was designed with FutureSound's software.
XPAPPUED VISIONS Question: What can a 300 pound space creature do with these sounds?
Answer: Anything he wants.
Since FutureSound is IFF compatible (actually three separate formats are supported) your sounds can be used by most Amiga sound applications. With FutureSound and Deluxe Video Construction Set from Electronic Arts, your video creations can use the voice of Mr. Spock, your mother-in-law, or a disturbed super computer.
Programming support is also provided.
Whether you're a "C" programming wiz or a Sunday afternoon BASIC hacker, all the routines you need are on the non-copy protected diskette.
Your Amiga dealer should have FutureSound in stock. If not, just give us a call and for $ 175 (VISA, MasterCard or COD) we'll send one right out to you. Ahead warp factor one!
Applied Visions, Inc., Suite 2200, One Kendall Square Cambridge, MA 02139 617)494-5417 Amiga is a registered trademark of Commodore-Amiga. Inc. Deluxe Video Construction SbI is a trademark of Electronic Arts, Inc. CAN DO ALL THIS Get the maximum graphics power from your Amiga. Create stunning, lifelike computer artwork with Digi-Paint, the first full-featured 4096 color (Hold and Modify) paint program. Break the "32 color barrier” and finally realize the potential of your Amiga with Digi-Paint's advanced features: Computer ol‘ the Year OcowCnloi1 Oclear Fill
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ONLY $ 59.95 NewTek INCORPORATED Volume 2, Number 12 CONTENTS r r Amazing Reviews Amazing Features The Ultimate Video Accessory by Larry White 23 Amazing mini-scrics begins Amiga Desktop Video!
The Sony Connection by Stewart Cobb 27 Mate a Sony 20-inch monitor with your Amiga.
15-Puzzle in AinigaBASIC by Zoltan Szepsi 50 Program the classic mind-bender on your Amiga.
Life, Part I: The Beginning by Gerald Hull 81 The ultra-complex nine blit solution to the "Game of Life." Amiga Virus! By John Foust 93 A "fix” for a rapidly spreading hazard.
CLI Arguments in C by Paul Castonguay 100 Passing command line arguments an example.
MIDI Interface Adapter by Bariy Massoni 109 Amiga 1000-style MIDI interfaces can fit A2000s or 500s Karate Kid Review by Stephen R. Pietrowicz 8 Kick your way to victory in this big screen clone.
GO! 64 review by John Foust, James O'Keane, and Rick Wirch 11 C-64 experts investigate a new Amiga 64 emulator.
A-Talk-Plus Review by Brendan Larson 16 "Full-fledged terminal program" & Tektronics capability!
Calligrapher Review by John Foust 33 A font editor that "goes far beyond FontEd" in color!
Animator: Apprentice Review by John Foust Create "Disney-like" animations on your Amiga.
39 Playing Dynamic Drums on the Amiga by David N. Blank 47 "Capabilities that most professional drum machines lack.'
WordPerfect Review by Steve Hull 54 An in depth look at an impressive word processor Amazing Columns Bug Bytes by John Steiner 45 More product updates and nasty bugs!
Forth! By Jon Bryan 73 DumpRPort utility for your Multi-Forth toolbox.
Modula-2 by Steve Faiwiszewski 76 A command line calculator in Modula-2: Part I. AmigaNotes by Richard Rae 85 The audio changes made in the Amiga 500 and 2000, Animation for C Rookies: Pari III by M. Swinger 90 The scries winds up by tackling double-buffering.
Insider Kwikstart Review by Ernest P. Viveiros Sr. 68 RAM & ROM expansion: Comments and installation tips.
The Big Picture by Warren Ring 94 Amiga assembly language programming for the brave!
Roomers by TheBandito 97 Trade-up update, hi-rcs 2000 graphics board., and more!
As I See It by Eddie Churchill 98 An offbeat view: Digi-Paint, Portal, and Videoscape 3D.
The Amicus Network by John Foust 113 The Commodore Show and AmiExpo: New York!
F " Amazing Departments Amazing Mail 6 Index of Advertisers 126 Public Domain Software Catalog 121 35mm SLIDES FROM YOUR ARTWORK!
Announcing The Complete Solution from Schematic to PCB fVolific Inc iomVmT*1 :: - ¦ ¦ For AMIGA™ only ,,V* V»V4*Y» $ 475.00 $ 475.00 Professional 3Smm Slides 5 Now you can have reproduction and presentation quality slides of your work Distortion-free Ms in raster Sines crisp bright colors, converts all IFF files Now- CustoM graphic ai»t and itlustr'ation.
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Amazing Computing™ (ISSN 0686-9480) Is published by PIM Publications. Inc..
P. O. Box 869. Fall River. MA 02722.
Subscriptions: In the U.S. 12 issues for $ 24.00: in Canada & Mexico, $ 30.00; Overseas; $ 35.00. Printed h the U.S.A. Copyright© 1987 by PIM Publications. Inc. AS tights reserved.
First Class or Air Mail rates available upon request.
PIM Publications. Inc. maintains the right to refuse any advertising.
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Motorola Hex, Intel Hex. And Tek Hex AMIGA TM trade mark of Commodore inc. From The Editor: Money Mentor “ has a New Engine Climb Aboard the new “C" version of Money Mentor'" for the ride of your life.
Speed is your ticket to faster data input and dazzling graphics output, ff your destination is better control of your personal finances, there’s no faster way to get there than with Money Mentor1".
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SEDONA SOFTWARE 11844 Rancho Benardo Rd; Ste. 2Q San Diego, CA 92128 To order, call (619) 451-0151 Great News!
It appears the large projection of Amiga™ sales by the Commodore Business Machine marketing staff may come true. Early reports show a great demand for Amiga 500™ and Amiga 2000™. For several weeks, Commodore has been out of stock on Amiga 2000™ and is hurriedly producing more. This shortage occured in October, months before the official Christmas panic should have started.
Amiga 500s, apparently in good supply, are also producing record sales.
I visited a small store with limited traffic potential, only to see a stack of over 30 Amiga 500's. When I asked the clerk if they were stocking up for a projected shortage, he said, "No, that's just a weeks supply."
If you are waiting for an order from your dealer, be kind and patient.
Commodore assures us they are doing all they can to produce the material we need.
Good News!
AmiExpo™ in New York City was well attended and appreciated by new and old Amiga enthusiasts alike. It was a particular pleasure to be able to meet subscribers, dealers and Amiga developers face-to-face for the first time.
The seminars were well-attended and the exhibitors enjoyed wall-to-wall attendance at their booth demonstrations.
For a deeper look at the show, please see John Foust's "Amicus" column.
Amiga Enthusiasts' Generosity As is often the case at such shows, we wanted to distribute magazines. As is the custom, the magazines should be given away free. However, we were concerned with the cost of shipping and handling, as well as the ability to control the number of issues distributed.
The eventual decision was to give a magazine away free for a contribution to the American Cancer Society. We expected nickles, dimes, and quarters.
All the attendees were generous, with some giving five and ten dollars. The end result was a collection of S1215.77. PiM Publications Inc. is extremely grateful to ail who gave. Let us hope this style of marketing charity will spread. A great deal of good could come from this approach.
Some Bad News- A Second Amiga Virus Has Been Reported!
A Eurpcan organization called SCA claims responsibility for incorporating a now virus into the Amiga community.
This software virus is transmitted from Amiga to Amiga by infected disks.
Although this prank was designed to be humorous, the results have been disastrous for Amiga 2000™ software.
One developer reportedly lost eight months of research and development when the virus found its way into the source code and all backups of a very costly project.
SCA claims responsibility-but is this the correct phrase? Their actions have created a situation where every Amiga disk is a potential "time bomb." These actions, however innocently conceived, have an effect similar to saying "I didn't know the gun was loaded." The Amiga community is more mature and of better nature than to accept a blatant attack on their systems.
In this issue, we have included a small article and a "fix" to be applied before the virus has had time to seriously infect your software. However, this is a fix and not a cure. As we go to press, there is a rumor of a public domain software program to inspect suspected disks for the virus. As soon as such a program is available, it will be included in the Amicus Disk collection.
Best Wishes Last, but first in the minds of the staff and management at Amazing Computing™, are our Best Wishes to our readers, dealers, writers, developers and their families for a very Happy Holiday.
Best Wishes Don Hicks Managing Editor Dear AC, Amazing Mail The article "Taking the Perfect Screen Shot" by Keith Conforti (in Voi 2 10 of Amazing Computing) was informative for the most part. However, I would like to clarify a few details and possibly help readers to shoot even better pictures from the Amiga screen.
While using a zoom lens may be better than using the "normal" lens that comes with most cameras, zoom lenses have their own problems with distortion. These problems are minimized by using a smaller aperture than the f 4 setting recommended by Mr. Conforti. Usually setting your aperture for trvo stops smaller than the lens' largest aperture will give the best resolution for that lens. 1 use a 55mm macro lens. This is a lens corrected for close working distances and gives a fairly flat image. I would recommend a lOOmm macro lens, but that is out of most peoples' price range. A zoom or
telephoto lens at a medium aperture (f 8 or f 11 will fit most needs.
Taking a meter reading off the screen to determine exposure is also not a good idea. Without getting too deeply into the subject, most camera meters are designed to average all the light and dark areas of a scene and come up with an exposure that is the equivalent of what is called a "middle gray." That means if you have a generally light screen, the camera meter will underexpose the film to make it "middle gray"; if the screen is very dark, the meter will overexpose the film to get that gray. This is not good.
I can sec why Mr. Conforti recommends as many as 19 different exposures to get one good screen shot!
In reality, all you need do is find the one correct exposure for your Amiga's monitor screen. Once you have found that ideal exposure, you never need to change it again!
In the course of doing a set of title slides for my company, 1 made a set of test exposures using Kodak Ektachrome 200 slide film. As a test picture, I drew a gray scale from white to black and a set of color bars in red, green, blue, cyan, magenta and yellow.
My initial exposure was based on Kodak's recommendation of 1 2 second at f 8 for El 200 film. Exposure for slide film is more critical than for print film. A half-stop of exposure either w'ay can make a big difference.
Therefore, I exposed a set of slides at 1 2 stop differences over a two stop range. This first set gave me a good exposure setting but also revealed two problems.
First, the pictures were far too blue.
The gray scale 1 used in my test picture was very bluish, I checked with my Kodak Photoguide and found that they recommend a Wrattcn CC40 Red filter when photographing color TV screens. Mistakenly, I bought a CC20 Red filter, but re-shot my test picture anyway. This time the grays were a very neutral gray and the other test colors came out better. This is because the excess blue from the monitor wras not contaminating the other colors, too. I ordered a CC40 Red filter and will test it when I get it.
The second problem wras that with proper exposure the film would not record all 16 steps of gray in the gray scale. The black and darkest gray bars were indistinguishable. This is understandable, since no slide film could record that exposure range. 1 have not explored yet whether this also happens with pure colors. When I do, I will report my findings to you.
In the meantime, I would recommend not using the darkest gray near blacks in pictures you want slides of.
I also tested the effect of the monitor's Contrast Control on a picture shot off the screen. ! Set all controls at their mid-point settings and varied the Contrast Control setting while shooting my test picture. With the slides 1 shot, I could see no difference wherever the contrast control was set.
Anyway, my exposure for Ektachrome 200 film and the standard Amiga monitor (with all controls at their midpoint setting) is 1 2 second at f 8-U
(i. e. the half-stop between f 8 and f
11) using a CC20 Red filter. Kodak recommends a 1 8 second or
longer exposure with focal-plane shutter cameras. As was
stated in your article, this is to prevent the appearance
of tv scan lines in the photograph.
This exposure should not change no matter what is on the screen. In my experience, i find this to be true. Of course, all my work has been done with slide film; however, print film should be easier because it is less sensitive to exposure variations. You can over- or under-expose print film by one or two stops and still get a decent picture.
In any case, this may not be the proper exposure for everyone's film monitor combination. It will, however, be a good starting point. You can run your own tests starting with this exposure setting.
I hope I have helped out some of your readers who wish to take good quality shots off their monitors. I realize most of your readers are into programming rather than photography, so ! Hope 1 haven't gotten too technical. Thanks for your excellent magazine.
Sincerely Yours, Marc D. St, Ongc Woronoco, MA Thanks for some excellent suggestions!
Our readers especially interested in slides will appreciate your tips. However, if the room is completely black and all luminescence is dependent upon screen light, different exposures will most likely be required. At least that is my experience when using through-the-lens metering.
Keith Conforti Art Director Amazing Computing™ _»AC- C who’s winning the race Lattice C for Amiga.
M: Lattice JI C Compiler Lattice C has long been recognized as the best C compiler. And now our new version ¦*.() for Amiga™ increases our lead past the competition even further.
Ready, set, go. The new Lattice AmigaDOS C Compiler gives you faster, more efficient code generation and support for 16 or 32-bit integers. There's direct, in-line interface to all Amiga ROM functions with parameters passed in registers. What’s more, the assembler is fully compatible with Amiga assembler syntax.
IVIore great strides. The linker. Blink, has been significantly enhanced and provides true overlay support and interactive recovery from undefined symbols. And you'll have a faster compile and link cycle with support for pre-linking.
Lattice* Version 4.0 Manx* Version J.40 Dhrystone Float Savage (IEEE) 1294 Dhrvstones second
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Standard benchmark studies show Lattice to be the superior C language development environment.
With stats like these, it's no wonder that Commodore- Amiga has selected Lattice C as the official Amiga development language.
Going the distance. You’ll experience unsurpassed power and flexibility when you choose from several cost-effective development packages. There is even a full range of supporting products, including a symbolic debugger, resource editor, utilities and specialized libraries.
You'll discover that your software purchase is backed by an excellent warranty and skilled technical support staff. You'll appreciate having access to LBBS one of the world’s first 9600 baud, 24-hour bulletin board services. And you’ll be able to conference with other Lattice users through the Byte Information Exchange (BIX) network.
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Lattice, Incorporated 2500 S. Highland Avenue Inmbard, IL60148 Phone: 8(X) 533-3577 In Illinois: 312 916-1600 Lattice Lattice IS a registered trademark of Lattice Incorporated Amiga is a trademark of C ommodore Amiga, Inc Manx is a registered trademark of Manx Software System*. Inc Subsidiary of SAS Institute Inc. AMAZING REVIEWS Karate Kid II is a fast action game based on the same- named movie. The game pits you against computer- controlled opponents in a series of Karate battles (Two- player mode is also available.). You are Daniel, and to win the game, you must battle 11 opponents,
each more skillful than the last.
You control your character with a joystick plugged into the second mouse port (In the two-player game, you must remove the mouse from the first mouse port and plug the second joystick there.). Daniel moves, throws punches, and kicks depending on which direction the joystick is pointed. For example, to do a flying kick, you must press down the joystick button and point forward.
Game movement is made in accordance to the direction the character is facing. This perspective can be a bit confusing at first. A joystick command that works one way when Daniel faces towards the right side of the screen is translated to the opposite direction when he faces the left. To make Daniel throw a high punch when he faces right, you must point the joystick diagonally to the upper right. If he faces left, you must point the joystick towards the upper left. It's a bit awkward at first, but, after a few games, you become accustomed to the controls.
After every two screens of play, you got a chance to earn bonus points.
The bonus screens are randomized, so they do not come up in any particular order.
Reviewed by Stephen R. Pietrowicz One bonus screen depicts Daniel's mentor, Miyagi, holding chopsticks poised to catch a fly. The fly moves around the screen, and you must use the joystick to catch the fly with the chopsticks. The animation on this screen is amusing. Miyagi's eyes follow the fly, and the hand moves and closes the chopsticks when the joystick button is pressed.
I don't really like the screen. It's too randomized, and there is little skill involved. The area in which you can move Miyagi's hand is very small.
Sometimes the fly stays in the "catch- The other bonus screen depicts Daniel facing six sheets of ice, with a small drum in the upper corner.
You must toggle the joystick handle left and right rapidly to simulate twisting the drum handle. The more quickly you toggle, the faster the beads hit the drum.
Once you have the drum going as quickly as you can, you press the joystick button to start Daniel's swing, and then release the button for the follow-through. This skill requires some practice, but it's fairly easy to master smashing all 6 sheets of ice.
The problem with this screen is the tremendous flicker when Daniel hits the ice. Ft appears the animation wasn't double-buffered.
Double-buffering draws objects in a separate area while another frame is displayed. Once the drawing is complete on that screen, it is displayed, and an object is drawn onto the screen. Double-buffering eliminates the flicker that occurs when all pictures are drawn on a single screen.
At the end of the game, a drum is displayed In the upper right hand corner of the screen.
You must discover the secret of the drum. To tell you the truth, even though I've won all the battles in the game. I'm not quite sure about the secret of the drum. The game doesn't give you any hints to help you find out the secret cither!
(continued on page 99) GOOD THINGS COME IN SMALLER PACKAGES
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2) wm Envision a creative freedom you've only dreamed about...
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the full power of the Amiga. Imagine page flipping, color
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all combined at the same time on the same screen. Until now
this has been just a dream. Now the dream comes true with the
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Combine pictures in any resolution from any paint program or digitizer you use with your Amiga. With the Director you write a script to display them in unlimited ways. You can page flip full or partial screens, use drawing commands, create special effects, generate multiple font text, execute AmigaDOS commands, and much more. This is only the beginning of the freedom you give yourself with the Director.
From the simplest slideshow to the most sophisticated desktop video, the Director will help turn your dreams into reality.
Professional display and animation software for the Amiga™ Other features include:
• Effects: Fades, Dissolves, Wipes, Blits, Stencils
• Digitized soundtrack module
• Preload images, fonts, and sounds up to your memory limit
• Supports HAM and overscan
• Keyboard and mouse interaction
• Random number generator
• Text string and file input and output
• No copy protection And more... $ 69.95 Check or money order
payable to: Right Answers Plus $ 3 shipping and handling Calif,
residents add 6% sales tax The Right Answers Group Department C
Box 3699 Torrance, CA 90510
(213) 325-1311 Amwa is a trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc.
Videoscape 3D is a trademark of Aegis Development, Inc.
AMAZING REVIEWS GO-64!
Commodore 64 Emulator by John Foust, Rick Wirch, and James O'Keane After the dismal performance of the Transformer IBM PC software emulator, Amiga owners should be wary of software emulators. The GO-64!
Commodore 64 emulator from Software Insight Systems (SIS) is no exception. The intent of CO-64! Is admirable. After all, if the hordes that now own Commodore 64s can be drawn to the Amiga product line, the Amiga will be a very popular computer.
When people started using the Transformer, they were disappointed. It worked slowly, and only a minimal subset of the IBM PC computer was emulated. Too many people believed the marketing hype of 100 percent emulation at 80 to 100 percent speed.
Too many people thought less of Commodore because of the misleading statements.
Unfortunately, the same things can be said of this incarnation of the Commodore 64 emulator. First, emulated Commodore 64 programs run slowly.
The Commodore 64 was no speed demon to start with, and GO-64! Is certainly no faster, A simple program written with a compiled BASIC appeared to run at about 30 to 50 percent of normal speed. An arcade game, written in pure assembly language, was tremendously slow, ft ran at about 10 percent of its regular speed, even with the recommended settings from SIS.
The emulation seems inaccurate in spots, too. Updates of the screen take place at a much slower rate than the program is running, so things that should be happening simultaneously instead happen in sequence. For instance, a scries of sprites on the screen in one program should have danced and changed color in synch, but did not do so.
The GO-64! Package includes a small interface that connects to the parallel port. This interface provides a link to the DIN connector of Commodore peripherals, such as the 1541 disk drive. The GO-64! Parallel port interface is the proper sex for the Amiga 500 and 2000, but not for the Amiga 1000. If you have an Amiga 1000, you must buy their special adapter. An ordinary gcndor-changing adapter will not work because of changes made in the pin assignment on the Amiga 500 and 2000 parallel ports.
ROM Images An important part of a Commodore 64 is the operating system memory, or ROM. This memory is stored in circuit chips inside the Commodore 64, similar to the way the Kickstart is stored in an Amiga 500 or 2000.
GO-64! Cannot supply a copy of the Commodore 64 ROMs on disk because Commodore owns the programs in the ROM chip. They negotiated unsuccessfully with Commodore in an attempt to supply a copy with the product.
A nine-line BASIC program is supplied in a NotePad file. You must enter this program on the Commodore
64. When run, the program creates two files on the Commodore 64
disk.
These files contain a copy of the system ROMs. These files must be moved from the Commodore 64 disk to an Amiga disk.
How can you do this? You could use a program such as Central Coast Software's Disk-2-Disk to transfer the Commodore 64 files to an Amiga disk, if you have a model 1020 5 1 4 inch disk drive. You could use a terminal program and modem to call another computer system and send the files there. You could then retrieve them with an Amiga and save them to Amiga format. You also could connect the two computers with a null modem cable and use telecommunications software to move the files.
The nine-line Commodore 64 program should have been supplied on a Commodore 64 disk, instead of the Amiga disk. A public domain or (continued) custom terminal program of some kind should have been provided on disk.
Better still, SIS could have supplied automated, custom programs for both computers to ease the ROM image transfer process. They could then sell the null modem cable needed for the transfer, too.
A NotePad file contains several tips and corrections to the manual. It also contains the short B ASIC program mentioned above. Something is wrong with the file on the disk, however the NotePad program will not display the entire file. It stops at a certain page, Using the "type" command docs not work because of the strange characters in the file. The final characters in the file erase the screen. Instead, this file must be sent to a printer or cautiously read using the "type" command and some other key to pause the listing.
Known Bugs Many times, the GO-64!
Program would Guru as it was booting.
According to SIS, this is a known bug the program does not work with expansion memory, on any Amiga model. You can run the NoFastMem program that comes with the Amiga 500 to remove the expansion memory from the system; then the program will work. The GO-64! Disk includes a GO- 64! Preferences program. Like the GO-64! Program, it doesn't work with expansion memory.
The imagery on the gadgets is gar- baged unless the NoFastMem program is run, v Check out our new price and features for Multi-Forth™ The La.4 £ua.fa€ f'K'KCva.tx'C'K Version 1.2 Multi-Forth increases the power, speed and flexibility of this already successful programming language and development tool. Some of the new features include:
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There is another known bug in the first version of the program. The German version of the Amiga 2000, as well as some of the early units from West Chester, have slightly different keyboard controllers. While this does not affect most software, it does trip up programs that access the keyboard controller directly. GO-64! Is one of these programs that accesses the hardware directly.
Copy-protection The GO-64! Disk is heavily copyprotected. The manual warns that your floppy drive may be damaged if you try to copy the disk. This situation is hardly possible, so why do they make the threat?
The immediate need for copy protection is not apparent. The company's fear of Commodore 64 pirates using their product to continue pirating on the Amiga is justified. At this time, though, the GO-64! Hardware is necessary for using the emulator without it, there is no way to access mass storage. Sure, you could program in BASIC all day, but you wouldn't be able to save your work.
There is a chance that the GO-64!
Hardware may be easy to duplicate, but that idea is somewhat far-fetched and probably would not occur on a large scale.
Mouse Troubles The mouse must be removed from the first joystick port after the emulator starts. The Commodore 64 acted somewhat strangely if the joystick was in the game port, strange characters appeared on the screen as it was moved. However, this reaction goes against the advice of a small sticker on the Amiga 500 that warns, "To prevent damage turn power off before connecting or removing cables."
The second mouse port is directly connected to one of the custom chips.
There is potential for damage here.
The hood of the Amiga 500 mouse is metal, so there is a possibility that careless insertion could short and damage the computer (not that this potential deters many Amiga owners from plugging things anytime).
Turbo Disks To paraphrase the words of a former Amiga Los Gatos employee, "The 1541 disk drive was one of the best computers made by Commodore." It is (continued on page 14) AVAILABLE NOW!
StaiEoand2 If you've owned your Amiga® for a while now, you know you definitely need more than 512k of memory.
You probably need at least double that amount...but you might need as much as an additional two megabytes.
We want to urge you to use StarBoard2 as the solution to your memory expansion problem -and to some of your other Amiga-expansion needs as well!
It's small, but it's BIG- Since most of you want to expand your Amiga's memory without having to also expand your computer table, we designed StarBoard2 and its two optional "daughterboards" to fit into a sleek, unobtrusive Amiga-styled case that snugly fastens to your computer with two precision- machined jackscrews.
The sculpted steel case of StarBoard2 measures only 1,6" wide by 4.3"high by
10. 2"long. You can access the inside of the case by removing
just two small screws on the bottom and pulling it apart. We
make StarBoard2 easy to get into so that you or your dealer
can expand it by installing up to one megabyte of RAM on the
standard StarHoard2 or up to two megabytes by adding in an
Upper Deck.
This card has decks!
The basic StarBoard2 starts out as a one megabyte memory space with Ok, 512k, or one megabyte installed, if you add in an optional Upper Deck (which plugs onto the Main Board inside the case) you bring StarBoard2 up to its full two megabyte potential. You can buy your StarBoard2 with the Upper Deck (populated or unpopulated) or buy the Upper Deck later as your need for memory grows.
And you can add other functions to StarBoard2 by plugging in its second optional deck -the Multifunction Module!
St arBoa rd2: lunct ions five!
If we count Fast Memory as one function, the addition of the MultiFunction Module brings the total up to five!
THE CLOCK FUNCTION: Whenever you boot your Amiga you have to tell it what lime it is! Add a MultiFunction Module to your StarBoard2 and you can hand that tedious task to the battery-backed, IVI iCrOBOtlCS Inc AMIGA is 3 registered trademark of Commodore-Amiga 811 Alpha Drive, Suite 335, Richardson, Texas 75081 (214) 437-5330 Auto-Configuring Fast RAM Zero Wait States User Expandable from 512k to 2 Megabytes Bus Pass- Through MultiF unction Option: battery clock, FPU, parity, Sticky-Disk real-time clock calendar. A small piece of MicroBotics software in your WorkBench Startup-Sequence reads
the clock and automatically sets the time and date in your Amiga. And the battery is included (we designed it to use an inexpensive, standard AAA battery which will last at least two years before needing replacement).
THE FLOATING POINT FUNCTION: If any one aspect most characterizes the Amiga it’s fast graphics! Most graphic routines make heavy use of the Amiga Floating Point Library. Replacing this library with the one we give you with your MultiFunction Module and installing a separately purchased Motorola 68881 FPU chip in the socket provided by the Module will speed up these math operations from 5 to 40 times! And if you write your own software, you can directly address this chip for increased speed in integer arithmetic operations in addition to floating point math.
THE PARITY CHECKING FUNCTION: If you install an additional ninth RAM chip for every eight in your StarBoard2, then you can enable parity checking. Parity checking will alert you (with a bus-error message) in the event of any data corruption in StarBoard2's memory space. So what good is it to know that your data's messed up if the hardware can’l fix it for you? It will warn you against saving that data to disk and possibly destroying your database or your massive spreadsheet. The more memory you have in your system the more likely it is, statistically, that random errors will occur.
Parity checking gives you some protection from this threat to your data residing in Fast RAM. Note that the Amiga's "chip" RAM cannot be parity checked.
THE IMMORTAL MEMORY DISK FUNCTION (STICKY-DISK): When you've got a lot of RAM, you can make nice big RAM-Disks and speed up your Amiga's operations a lot! But there's one bad thing about RAM-Disks: they go away when you re-boot your machine. Sticky-Disk solves that problem for you. It turns all of the memory space inside a single StarBoard2 into a Memory Disk that will survive a warm-reboot! When your Amiga attempts to grab a StarBoard2 in Sticky-Disk mode, a hardware signal prevents the system from acquiring the StarBoard2 as FastRAM (and thereby erasing your files) -instead it is re
recognized as a Memory Disk and its contents are preserved intact. If you want to work rapidly with large files of data that are being constantly updated (such as when developing software) you can appreciate the Sticky-Disk!
Fast RAM -no waiting!
StarBoard2 is a totally engineered product. It is a ZERO WAIT-STATE design, auto-configuring under AmigaDOS 1.2 as Fast RAM. Since AmigaDOS 1.1 doesn’t support autoconfiguration, we also give you the software to configure memory in 1.1. Any applications software which "looks" for Fast RAM will "find" StarBoard2. And you'll find that your applications run more efficiently due to StarBoard2 on the bus.
A passing bus? Indeed!
What good is an Expansion Bus if it hits a dead end. As with some memory cards? Not much, we think -that's why we carefully and compatibly passed through the bus so you could attach other devices onto your Amiga (including another StarBoard2, of course!).
The sum of the parts... A really nice feature of the StarBoard2 system is that you can buy exactly what you need now without closing off your options for future exapansion. You can even buy a Ok StarBoard2 (with a one megabyte capacity) and populate it with your own RAM (commonly available 256k by 1 by 150ns memory chips). When you add StarBoard2 to your Amiga you have a powerful hardware combination, superior to any single-user micro on the market. See your Authorized Amiga Dealer today and ask for StarIloard2 SUGGESTED RETAIL PRICING: StarBoard2, Ok (1 meg space): $ 349 StarBoard2. Ok (2 meg
space): S395 StarBoard2, 512k (1 meg space): $ 495 StarBoard2, 1 meg (1 meg Space) $ 595 SlarBoard2, 2 megs installed: S879 StarBoard2, 2 megs & MultiFunction: $ 959 Upper Deck, Ok (1 meg space): $ 99 MultiFunction Module: $ 99 also available: Standard 256k memory card: $ 129 MAS-Drive2Q, 20 meg harddisk: $ 1495 MouseTime, mouseport clock: S 50 MENU CONTROL :k Complete menu attribute control
* Submenu definition jfc Assignment of command key functions
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Buffalo NY. 14213 716 805-5670 tremendously slow, however. How
slow? Its speed is comparable to a 2400 baud modem, about 200
characters per second.
After several years, experienced Commodore 64 programmers developed methods of increasing the transfer speed of the 1541 drive to almost acceptable levels. These methods were called "turbo loaders."
Most of these techniques involved massive replacement of the Commodore 64 operating system software.
Some of the turbo load implementations were in loadable software; others used ROM cartridges.
In the Commodore 64, these turbo load programs are very fragile. They contain many time-critical sections of code. If the interaction between hardware and software is not perfect, it will not work. In the case of the CO- 64! Emulator, the hardware (such as the 1541 disk drive) is still working at full speed, but the software is not keeping up.
Software Insight Systems has developed a method called Hyper-Code to get around these incompatibilities.
SIS claims they will have free Hyper-Code modules to replace the turbo load code for popular Commodore 64 programs, similar to the way the "brain" files work with the Marauder II copy program.
EXTEND is a portable Library of 30 new AmigaBASIC commands that bring the Pizzaz of INTUITION into your AmigaBASIC programs_ »nd gadgets "" | TRUE INTUITION REQUESTERS + Point & click on directory requester gadgets for ease in loading and saving files jfc String and boolean gadget implementation with polling support 5fc Custom string requesters ________ ?
$ 59.95 SPECIAL INTRODUCTORY OFFER EXTEND ? Any oilm ONLY $ 79.00 Other strange things happen on the 64.
SATISFACTION GUARANTEED Compatible with all Amiga models Some programs actually send program code to the 1541 drive to be executed there by the microprocessor that controls the drive.
Hyper-Code According to SIS, the Hyper-Code files improve the performance of any Commodore 64 program. They are working with companies such as Activision, Electronic Arts, and Epyx in order to work more reliably with those companies' products. They say these companies have been very helpful so far.
The C.O-64! Disk contains a Hyper- Code file for Berkeley Software's GEOS operating system, version 1.2. This file is a windowed operating system for the Commodore 64. An update to GO-64! Will have the Hyper- Code for GEOS version 1.3. The Hypcr-Code files are freely distributable. They will be available on the SIS tcch support bulletin board, as well as on the commercial networks.
At this time, there is no support for Amiga file storage; you must use a 1541 disk drive. SIS reports that they are currently working on a file transfer program for moving files from Commodore 64 format to Amiga format.
They also hope to support the 1581 disk format on regular Amiga 3 1 2 drives. The 1581 is a new 3 1 2 drive for the Commodore 64 that holds 720K per disk.
Amazing Software As programmers, we must praise the programmers at Software Insight Systems for what they have created so far, even if it is slow and inaccurate.
A software emulator of a computer as complex as the Commodore 64 is a tremendous programming feat. We understand the magnitude of the program. The Amiga Transformer is a similarly astounding feat. While a program may be admirable from a programming standpoint, it may still be useless from a user standpoint.
Summary At this time, wc cannot recommend the GO-64! Emulator. Although it is an amazing piece of programming, it is far too slow and cantankerous to use on a regular basis. It may be improved in the future, but without an increase in speed, it is little more than a curiosity. We get the strong impression that the first version of GO-64!
Was rushed to market. The foul-up in the NotcPad file is evidence.
• AC* Software Insight Systems 16 East International Drive East
Granby, CT 06026
(203) 653-4589 S69.95 About the Authors John Foust, Rick Wirch,
and James O'Keane were once programming wizards on the
Commodore 64, but now wfork on the Amiga. They were
programmers at Sight k Sound Music Software, the makers of
popular Commodore 64 software including Music Video Kit,
Kawasaki Synthesizer and Rhythm Rocker, and the Incredible
Music Keyboard.
SOURCE LEVEL DEBUGGER Announcing the Manx Aztec C Source Level Debugger for the Amiga!
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Outstanding Features That’s why our new windowed SDB is so spectacular because it's tull of exciting features that make debugging a breeze.
Of course, SDB has all ol the features you expect from a debugger like line-by-line tracing. Conditional breakpoints on lines, functions, or variables. Examination, modification, and display of global, local, and static variables, structures or expressions by name.
But SDB is also full of unexpected, incredibly sophisticated features. There's reusable command macros and procedures. Back tracing. Active frame context switching just to name a few Wait till you see SDB in action it will blow you away!
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Manx Software Systems • One Industrial Way • Eatontown. NJ 07724 AM A Z I N G REVIEWS A-Talk-Plus Chatting with Mainframes!
By Brendan Larson Several quality public domain terminal packages are available for the Amiga.
Many such programs do credible jobs of providing the Amiga community with necessary telecommunication functions, such as Xmodem, ASCII Text, and Binary transfers. All of these can be used for transferring a menagerie of public domain programs over the phone lines.
What about the Amiga user who needs to communicate with a mainframe? Several terminal programs available for the Amiga can't handle this task (since the average Amiga user doesn't need this feature). If you're looking for a full- fledged terminal program, packed with many features including those that access mainframes, you have an alternative A-Talk-Plus from Felsina Software!
Marco Papa is the author of A- Talk-Plus (ATP). I have tested ATP extensively on-line with a variety of computers in different emulation modes, ranging from Amiga BBSs like Aliens and Casa Mi Amiga, to mainframes like Vax 11 750s and Vax 8200s at a large meteorological data base called Accu-Wcather (See Amazing Computing V2.7 for more on Amiga Weather Craphics systems.). 1 have also successfully downloaded and uploaded text and binary files to an IBM 3081 (using the Conversational Monitor System (CMS) and an IBM 7171 communications field which converts Amiga ASCII to IBM EBCIDIC via A-
Talk-Plus's Kermit and VT-100 emulation mode).
The main difference between ATP and its predecessor, A-Talk, is the Tektronix 4010 4014 graphics emulator. Tektronix emulation, usually run on mainframes or minis, quickly Figure One Courtesy of Accu-Weather, Inc transfers high resolution CAD CAM images (in the form of controlled ASCII characters) to the end user. 1 used the Tektronix graphics emulator to dial the Accu-Weather data base, connect to their Vax mainframe, and obtain high resolution pictures of meteorological weather data (see Figure 1) to help me prepare for a weather forecast.
What's really incredible about the Tektronix graphics emulator is that it to operates in the Amiga's full-video (overscan) mode. On my Sony KV- 1311CR monitor, I was able to get an approximate total screen resolution of 704 X 460, although you can set the parameters to 704 X 480. Working in overscan is useful when you are using the Tektronix graphics emulator because much more data can be displayed.
Another powerful feature of ATP is its ability to Zoom in the hi-res image. Unlike the zooming done in De- luxcPaint 2, where pixels arc exploded. Papa has written a special zoom feature that creates a supcrbitmap of 1024 X 1008 (a large virtual screen) which can be panned for a detailed look at various locations using scroll bars on the Zoom window. This zooming capability is great; during my experiments, I analyzed weather data (such as Figure 1) on a much smaller scale, with better resolution. The image in the Zoom Window is similar to viewing a Quadrant of the whole image on a grid
(similar to the Quadrants in the Cartesian Coordinate System).
(continued on page IS) Realtime video and music.
SunRize introduces PERFECT VISION and STUDIO MAGIC to enhance the look and the sound of your Amiga.
STUDIO MAGIC is the ultimate music and sound workshop with features superior to editors selling for thousands more. Compatible with model 1000, 500 and 2000 Amigas. Input sounds from stereo, VCR or microphone (with PERFECT SOUND interface) or a keyboard (with MIDI interface).
Create flanges, delays, echoes, compression and expansion to speed up (or slow down) without pitch change, do backward masking, etc. Other features include comb Filter, DC bias, AM, Fast Fourier Transforms and visual representation of the sounds in the buffer.
A dozen menu driven tools allow you to make a child's voice sound like a titan or turn a TV pitchman into an alien from another galaxy. Record MIDI input in real time. Mix voices and instruments and control their playback using a MIDI keyboard. Overdub from 16 digitized “sections'' and play back four of them at a time. Supports advanced MIDI features such as tempo adjust and external sync. Store sounds in IFF “instrument" or "one-shot" (8SVX) Files for use with other compatible programs.
SUGGESTED RETAIL PRICE: $ 99.95 PERFECT VISION is the state of the art, real time video digitizer for use with model 1000, 500 and 2000 Amigas. Input from a color (or black and white) video camera or a VCR. Perfect Vision will digitize the image, display it in 4096 colors (camera input only), then store it as IFF for later use in compatible programs. Captures an image in 1 60 of a second • 600 times faster than the competition. Supports 320x200 and 320x400 HAM and 16-color modes.
SUGGESTED RETAIL PRICE: $ 219.95 Available from Amiga dealers across America. For product information and support call: SunRize Industries 3801 Old College Road Bryan, TX 77801
(409) 846-1311.
AMIGA is the registered trademark of Commodore Amiga, Inc. Studio Magic and Perfect Vision are registered trademarks of SunRize Industries.
(continued from page (6) Because of the way the Tektronix Emulator works, all hi-rcs data plotted on the screen comes into the Amiga as ASCII control characters. ATP gives you the option of "capturing" these control codes in a capture buffer while on-line with the mainframe. After the captured text is stored, the image can be "Replayed" later. This saves the time and money spent on the system host, along with disk space (since an ASCII file requires less storage space than an IFF bitmap).
The Replay option puts the image on screen at an incredible rate of 19.2K baud from RAM: or 9600 baud from floppy disk. From there, the picture can be saved in either an Aegis Draw "layer" format or an IFF bitmap. The saved images can range from 1 to 4 bitplanes, depending on the number of colors you select (A mini "Tektronix Preferences" is provided, allowing for color selection.). On a 512K Amiga, only one bit plane is allowed. However, such an apparent color "shortage" is usually not a problem since most Tektronix 4014 images are monochromatic.
All images can be dumped to a printer as well. Finally, A- Talk-Plus makes it possible to use a large cross-hair (cursor) while interacting with the mainframe (required by certain Tektronix applications).
As for the rest of A-Talk-Plus, there arc many more added features that should make the serious Amiga user smile! It is possible to emulate the following: VT-100, VTM4, VT-52, HI9, Kerinit, VT-640, ANSI, TTY, and Talk mode. In VT-100 emulation mode, extra fonts can be displayed, and the VTM4 mode (via VT-100) allows you to obtain colored text. According to the manual, A-Talk-Plus is also capable of accessing UNIX-based systems, but I did not have the opportunity to test ATP in such an environment.
One of the key features of ATPs Kermit emulator is its capability to Send and Receive to and from mainframes at both 8 data bits no parity and 7 data bits even parity! According to reliable sources, ATP is the only Amiga communications package at the time of this writing that can perform Kermit transfers in both 7 and 8 bit prefixes.
If you need to download or upload programs from a BBS, ATP supports ASCII Text Transfers, ARC files, and Xmodem-CRC binary file checking, as well as the all familiar Checksum routines. ATP's best feature which I have not seen available in any other terminal package for the Amiga is that it keeps track of the number of "retries," or attempts to send or receive data blocks. For instance, if the phone lines are noisy and a bad block of data is transmitted, ATP will try again (several times if necessary) to get a clean block of data! ATP also calculates the estimated upload time for files sent
from the Amiga to another computer by taking into account the file size and the baud rate.
If you frequently log onto the same system in the same day, you can prepare an auto "Login Script" which actually waits for the other computer to send messages. Here is a scenario of an On-Line Login using an auto Login Script: Connect 1200 Welcome to the Bunky BBS!
Your Name: Brendan Larson Enter Password: Doodad With the proper Login script, ATP waits for the phrase or prompt stating 'Tour Name:" and automatically replies with the necessary information, like "Brendan Larson." Login Script is programmed with ATPs very unique command code, explained thoroughly in the manual.
All ten Function keys on the Amiga, as well as ten extra Function or "macro" keys (a combination of the Shift and Function keys), may be defined, totaling 20 predefined functions. This feature may not be new to Amiga telecommunications specialists.
ATP can hold a large phone directory of the most commonly accessed BBSs or data bases, and will store all the function keys and settings for each. Another dement that makes ATP a worthwhile investment is that it works with almost any Amiga compatible modem, even if it is not Hayes compatible!
Finally, another cute feature of A-Talk- Plus (probably where its name is derived from) is its ability to turn on the Amiga's built-in speech synthesis.
ATP can read all incoming text data, or just the system commands. Of course, all ASCII control codes are filtered out, so only "real" words are heard.
(continued on page 20) Other Products From The Other Guys Reason $ 395.00 Omega File $ 79.99 Promise $ 49.99 KEEP-Trak GL $ 49.99 AMT (Amortization Program) $ 39.99 Match-It $ 39.99 Math-A-Magician $ 39.99 Talking Story Book (Christmas Stories) $ 39.99 Musicial Slide Show Demo $ 5.00 Call or write for more information.
_i SYNTHIA High Performance Digital Synthesizer A slate of the art music tool which will: Create digital IFF Instruments for use with nearly all music programs!
Modifying existing IFF Instruments. Use SYNTHIA on digitized samples to add rcvcih, wow, and other enhancements SOMETHING FOR EVERWNEi Additive Synthesis - a traditional method which can create almost any type of instrument.
Plucked String Synthesis - simulates plucked strings . . . Right down to the 'pluck'.
Interpolative Synthesis - a method which introduces the natural imperfections found in instruments instruments such as brass, woodwinds, pianos, etc.) Percussion - build your own drum set . . . Create any drum you desire.
Subtractive Synthesis - a simple method of creating instruments.
Special Effects - includes filtering, amplification, phasing, waveshaping, amplitude modulation, real reverb, and .
IFF Music Player - powerful and compact. Now you can enjoy those songs that needed a memory expansion before!
Up to 32 tracks and 32 IFF Instruments! Supports chords, lies, etc. IS IT LIVE ... OR IS IT SYNTIIIA?
Synthia uses the latest technology to generate realistic sounding instruments and even the new families of instruments sound real. A real synthesizer on a real computer!
Why buy digitized instruments when you can SYNTHIAsize them? C QQ QQ Requires AMIGA 512K Copyright© 1987, THE OTHF.R GUYS Software * AMIGA is a registered trademark of Commodore Amiga THE OTHER GUYS Street 55 North Suite 301 PO Box H Logan Utah Main ?
84321 [BOD 753-7620 (BOO) 942-9402 E3 ¦ NEW: ANSI C extensions (cnum, prototypes, void, defined, pragma) and many additional checks.
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MUCH MUCH MORE
- User-modifiable library-descriptjon files for the Aztec and
Lattice C compilers.
- All warning and informational messages maybe turned off
individually.
- Indirect files automate testing.
- Use it to check existing programs, novice programs, programs
about to be exported or imported, as a preliminary to
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- All one pass with an integrated pre-processor so it’s very
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- Has numerous options and informational messages.
- It will use all the memory available.
- PRICE: 598.00 MC, VISA, COD (Includes shipping and handling
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- Trademarks: Amiga(Commodore) overscan (704 X 480) satellite
cloud picture of the U.S. At 1200 baud, it takes approximately
13 minutes to obtain one of these maps. If, for instance, you
want only a close-up shot of the Southwestern quadrant of the
U.S., you could opt to download that as well, in a lo-res
overscan mode (352 X 240). The latter, of course, saves time
and money.
The good news for amateur meteorologists is that Digi Weather will be relatively inexpensive, and Accu- Weathcr, Inc. has special dial-up rates for the hobbyist (At this time, prices are not available.). Digi Weather is the first and only telecommunications software that allows the Amiga to receive satellite cloud pictures of this type (see Figure 2).
Do you know where your bugs are ?
This C programmer is finding his bugs the hard way.. .one at a time, That's why it's taking so long. But there's an easier way. Use Lint for the Amiga 2.00 Lint for the Amiga analyzes your C programs (one or many modules) and uncovers glitches, bugs, quirks, and inconsistencies. It will catch subtle errors before they catch you. By examining multiple modules, Lint enjoys a perspective your compiler does not have.
In conclusion, if you need a communications package that "does it all," or if you require access to a mainframe, 1 highly recommend A-Talk. If you need Tektronix 4010 4014 capabilities, A- Talk-Plus has a head start in the Amiga community. If you're a weather enthusiast like myself, Digi Weather combines all the features of A-Talk and A-Talk-Plus.
A-Taik-Plus $ 99.95 A-Talk $ 49.95 Marco Papa Felsina Software 3175 S. Hoover Street, 275 Los Angeles, California 90007
(213) 747-8498 (continued from page 18) Papa has written an
extended version of A-Talk-Plus called Digi Weather that
allows you to access a real time meteorological data base,
Accu- Weather. Digi Weather makes use of the same features
as A-Talk-Plus, with the added capability of downloading
COES Satellite cloud pictures, as well as a collection of
many other types of weather art designed by Accu-Weathcr
artists and meteorologists.
While on-line with Accu-Wcather, a meteorologist can take advantage of Digi Weather's Tektronix 4014 emulator by receiving hi-res "behind-the- scenes" weather data in the form of maps displaying isobars, etc. A meteorologist can also obtain a hi-res For more information about the Accu- Weather data base, call Accu-Weathcr, Inc. at (814) 237-0309 or write them at: 1207 Hogarth Lane • Collegeville, PA 19426 215)584-4261 619 West College Avenue State College, PA 16801 If you have any further questions, contact me at: Brendan Larson Channel 41 News Weather Department 7921 -D Knottingham Circle
Darien, Illinois 60559
(312) 810-0304 or (312) 257-2818
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For titling you can’t beat Aegis VideoTitler. It supports all of the Amiga fonts as well as its own polytext fonts, works in four different resolutions and uses overscan. It has 20 different styles, works with IFF, uses halfbrite if available, and supports the ANIM format. Included in the amazing S99-95 price is a slideshow generator that can mix ANIM animations with slides.
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By Larry White Every time you turn on your TV, you sec computer-generated graphics.
These range from simple scrolling credits to spinning, twisting, shining, three-dimensional station logos, to the computerized Max Headroom himself.
You've probably seen demonstrations of the Amiga's advanced graphics and animation capabilities, and wondered if you could use your computer to add sophisticated special effects to your own videos. You can!
Have you ever wanted to make your own cartoons?
Maybe you've daydreamed about turning yourself into a superhero who flies off to save the universe.
Perhaps you've been looking for a more effective way to use computer-generated pie charts and bar graphs in your next business presentation. Did you know that the Amiga can bring life to your presentations?
These and similar applications have spawned a new sub-industry: desktop video. Over the next few months, we'll examine desktop video.
I'll try to answer most of the basic questions: What is desktop video?
Why would anyone want to try it?
What arc the hardware and software requirements? Are there moneymaking opportunities? What is the role of the Amiga in desktop video?
I'll take you on a step by step tour through the video making process, using fairly common computer hardware, software, and widely available consumer grade video equipment.
In this article we'll take a general look at desktop video. I'll explain the elements of video production, the various types of video and computer hardware, and some video theory.
Desktop Video: A Definition For the purpose of these articles. I'll use the widest possible definition of desktop video. Video is defined as the representation of an image in an electronic form. While the original definition was specifically related to television (the transmission of still or moving images via radiowaves for viewing at a distance from the origination point), recent technological advances have broadened the use of the term to include most forms of electronic imaging that is ultimately displayed on a television or monitor.
Thus the cuxrrcnt crop of video devices would include still electronic photographic cameras, and computers which electronically display text or graphic images.
While the term "video" technically refers only to the picture portion of the end result, many video applications would be far less effective or even useless without an accompanying sound (audio) track to provide narration, dialogue, sound effects, and music when appropriate. For our purposes, I'll include audio effects under the desktop video banner.
There are several other processes used in the preparation of a video, besides generating and recording the picture and sound. Depending on the desired length and complexity of the finished product, scripting, cataloguing images, and creating storyboards might all be part of the video creation process. Since the Amiga can be helpful in each of these areas, we'll include these under our "desktop video" banner also.
The final form of a desktop video is usually a video tape. Since almost any video signal can be recorded on tape (although some intermediate electronic conversion may be needed for compatibility), we'll also include presentations and animations produced directly on the monitor (since we can always play them back and tape them later), (continued) The last area of desktop video is production. Video production includes control of video cassette recorders (VCRs) for taping, playback, and editing. Additionally synchronizing audio effects and music are part of the production process.
In the past, coordinating the various components I've described might have taken a roomful of expensive video equipment, and often included a fully equipped, sound-proof recording studio and a large, expensive computer system (typically costing anywhere from $ 25,000 to $ 1,0000,000).
Now many of these functions can be handled by a few thousand dollars' worth of video and computer equipment, especially when that computer is an Amiga. This is desktop video.
Applications If I were describing desktop publishing, this section would be easy.
Almost anyone can see the practical side of using a small machine for creating and printing newsletters, books, and brochures. While video plays a major role in all our modern lives, it's still somewhat difficult to recognize many of the practical uses for desktop video.
Many of you use computers to access bulletin boards. If you've ever flipped through the channels on a cable TV system, you've probably noticed something similar. Most cable stations have at least one channel which constantly displays local news, ads, and announcements. If you've watched television news programs, you've seen screens listing the daily sports scores or a five-day weather forecast. The simplest form of desktop video is a screen filled with type.
The networks and larger stations may create these displays using expensive electronic "paint boxes," which are considered state-of-the-art. Smaller stations, however, have been turning toward lower-cost solutions, using a computer as simple as the Commodore 64 as a character generator. With a more sophisticated computer, such as the Amiga, character generator software can create scrolling and page cycling, using various fonts, colors, and shading. Some can even produce simple animations, providing a professional effect at an extremely low cost.
A character generator can also be used as a video titlcr. Give your home videos a professional touch by inserting a title segment which identifies the subject, time, and date of the video.
Using a genlock accessory (which I'll describe in detail later), you can superimpose the characters directly over your existing live action.
Desktop video can also become a major part of business presentations.
Whether the presentation is displayed from a computer monitor, shown on a large screen by a video projector, or taped and replayed on a VCR, computer graphics can be mixed with sound effects, appropriate music, and narration to hold viewers' attention and emphasize your point. Either in-house departments or outside sendees can prepare a desktop video presentation.
With a blending of titling, live video, and computer generated lists and graphs, can video corporate reports be far behind?
Education and entertainment applications also exist for desktop video.
The vast base of installed VCRs creates a potential market for many video products.
Many schools have already produced video yearbooks; these can be greatly enhanced by adding computer graphics generated by a desktop video setup. We'll get into many of these later, but let's take a look at the basic hardware and software requirements.
Hardware Your basic hardware requirements will vary to some degree according to your specific application goals and software choices. I am currently using an Amiga 500 with 1 megabyte of RAM, an external 3 1 2 inch drive, and an Amiga 1080 monitor.
All three Amigas have National TV System Committee (NTSC) compatible output jacks; NTSC is the standard for television signal in the U.S. and several other countries. The Amiga 500 and 2000, however, output the luminance signal only, producing a black and w'hite picture. You can record this signal, but you'll want to use a peripheral device to pull the luminance and chroma (color) signal from the analog RCB port w'hich connects your computer to the monitor.
Any format VCR with NTSC inputs can be used. If you intend to mix video with Amiga graphics, you'll need a second VCR or a camcorder (a video camera with a built-in recorder) that has playback capability (most do).
To produce professional desktop videos, you'll need a professional VCR with a flying erase head (also common on 8mm video systems), a single frame jog mode (usually controlled by a large knob on the front of the VCR), and compatibility with an edit controller. Such units are available from Panasonic (VHS) and Sony (BETA), If you're really serious, you may want to invest in the new Super VHS or soon to be released ED (extended definition) BETA units, which offer higher resolution, which is particularly valuable if you intend to distribute copies of your finished video.
At this writing, several such devices have been demonstrated and arc expected to be available by the time you read this, but I still haven't received one for my own use. These include Creative Microsystems' V-l Video interface (S54.95), and Mimetics Imagen (with gcnlock-ability to synchronize several video signals, SI79). Several high-end units arc expected shortly with even more special features, such as video fade control, but we'll get to these a little later.
Record genlocked images on a second VCR. A second monitor is useful, but not essential. Some genlock devices (such as Mimetics's Imagen) won't genlock to an RCB monitor. Tosce a gcnlocked image on an Amiga Monitor, switch to composite video input.
Not need to purchase a printer unless you want to produce scripts for your live video portions.
Additional RAM and a hard disk are desirable options, especially if you intend to do 3D animation, but you can accomplish most tasks with a basic system like mine. If desktop video is your only Amiga application, you may If you use genlock, an extra monitor or TV can be useful for previewing the tape or live video signal. There are many other gadgets that you might want to add at this end of the system, such as signal enhancers, editor switchers, and even additional VCRs.
I'll discuss this equipment in another article.
(continued) Software There's quite a variety of software available for Amiga desktop video applications. In upcoming articles, I'll describe a variety of programs and their various desktop video applications. These will range from character generators to Deluxe Video (Electronic Arts) to 3D animations programs such as Vidcoscapc 3D (Aegis), Animator Apprentice (Hash Enterprises), and the soon to be released Animate 3D (Byte by Byte).
• AC* About the Author Larrv White is Technical Director of
Popular Photography magazine. He has designed and constructed
various test procedures and apparatus for testing photographic
and video equipment. I le is currently experimenting and
investigating applications for desktop video. If you have a
unique or interesting desktop video application, please write
him via this magazine.
Software Suppliers: Aegis Development, Inc. 2115 Pico Blvd.
Santa Monica, CA. 94043 Brown-Wagh Publishing 100 Verona Court Los Gatos. CA. 95030 Byte by Byte Aboretum Plaza II 9442 Capital of Texas Highway North Suite 150 Austin, TX 78759 Digital Solutions Inc. 30 Wertheim Court, Unit 2 Richmond Hill, Ont. L4B189 Discovery Software Inlernational 903 East Willow Grove Ave.
Wyndmoor, PA. 1918 Electronic Arts 1820 Gateway Drive San Mateo, CA. 94404 Hash Enterprises .14201 SE 16th Circle Vancouver, WA. 98684 Software Visions, Inc. 26 Forest Rd. Framingham, MA. 01701 Hardware Suppliers: Creative Microsystems, Inc. 10110 SW Nimbus B1 Portland, OR JVC Company of America 41 Slater Drive Elmwood Park, NJ 07407 Mimetics Corporation
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TO ORDER OR FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION reacocm svsTEms, nc CALL (703) 356-7029 or (703} 847-1743 OR WRITE Peacock Systems, Inc., 2108-C Gallows Road, Vienna, VA 22180 The Sony Connection Mate a Sony KV-20XBR 20-inch TV monitor with your Amiga.
Some of us don't like small monitors.
When I start programming, I kick back in my easy chair, put the keyboard on my lap, and stare down past my feet at the screen. Unless you have the eyes of a hawk, you can't sec a thing from this vantage point with a standard twrelve-inch monitor.
Perhaps you program the way 1 do.
Or perhaps you need to teach a class or make a presentation with your Amiga. Perhaps you just want to show off the Amiga's stunning graphics on as large a screen as possible. In any case, if you're interested in a large, high-quality monitor for your Amiga, this article is for you.
What Kind of Monitor?
It was not too long ago that TV had no video inputs at ail. Back then, a VCR or video game had to contain an "RF modulator" (a sort of miniature broadcasting station) in order to show up on your home TV. Most of these devices worked on channels 2, 3, or 4.
They tended to produce fuzzy pictures because it takes much expensive equipment to produce a clean broadcast TV signal.
With the explosion of VCRs, videodisks, and other consumer video gear, the makers of high-end Tvs started to offer direct video inputs. These inputs bypassed the TV tuner and fed directly into the video circuits. By connecting your video signal to this input, you could avoid two stages of by Stewart Cobb signal processing (modulating and tuning) and in turn, get a better picture.
The video input wants to sec a standard color TV signal. The standard color TV signal has a bandwidth of about 3 megahertz. A monochrome (black-and-white) TV signal can have a much higher bandwidth, but the manner in which the color is added to the signal drastically chops the bandwidth. The video inputs on an upscale TV are designed to accept this in combination, the three "analog RGB" signals give the Amiga 4096 colors a vast improvement over the PC.
3 Mhz color signal, but that's all they can handle. Unfortunately, that's just not good enough for a computer.
Ordinary computer text requires a bandwidth of more than 20 megahertz.
You need a true "video monitor" to display a computer signal. The first video monitors were monochrome because a monochrome TV signal has no bandwidth limits. Recently, we have started to send color pictures with a set of three parallel monochrome signals, one for each of the primary color (red, green, and blue).
This process is called "RGB video."
The IBM PC and its clones use a "digital RGB" system. In such a system, each pixel in each video signal can only be on or off. "Digital RGB" gives the PC clones a total of eight possible colors (actually sixteen they can also send a separate "intensity" channel in addition to red, green, and blue). The Amiga is more sophisticated: each pixel in each signal can be chosen from sixteen shades of grey. In combination, the three "analog RGB" signals give the Amiga 4096 colors a vast improvement over the PC.
To use the full capabilities of the Amiga, we must pair it with an analog RGB monitor. The monitor sold with the Amiga is such a monitor, but otherwise, they are scarce. Nearly all color monitors sold for computers and Tvs with "RGB monitor" capability are designed to work with digital RGB signals. Why? Because that's what IBM uses and IBM is the standard.
But all is not lost ... Enter Sonv!
Sony Tvs contain the only Analog RGB monitors 1 have found in the consumer market. Some of them are small (9 or 42 inches) and are sold in computer stores. More interesting arc the 20 and 25 inch models, generally sold in television stores. The Sony family's distinguishing trait is a 34-pin connector on the back or side panel.
This connector is the key. It contains inputs for analog RGB, digital RGB, left and right audio, and a few other goodies. Everything you need to hook up your Amiga is right there. All you have to do now is figure out how to use it. That's what this article is about.
(continued) o 0 0 0 o 0 o 0 o 0 0 o 0 o 0 0 0 ie 10 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 0 0 0 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o 0 0 0 i I 3 £ : a 7 5 9 10 1i 12 13 14 15 16 17
16. EXT INT MODE SYNC SWITCH (NC) Figure One: Pinout of the Sony
video connector. The "hump" on the left side of the connector
is the keying ridge.
Pins labeled "(NO"are not connected inside the KV-20XBR.
I *5 VOLT POWER SUPPLY
2. *5 VCIT POWER SUPPLY
3. AUDIO GROUND
4. GROUND
5. GROUND 6 GROUIND 7, AUDIO GROUND
6. GROUND
9. GROUND 10 GROUND
11. GROUND
12. GROUND
13. GROUND
14. GROUND (NC)
15. GROUND
15. GROUND
17. 525 425 MODE SELECT
19. NOT IN USE (NC)
20. RIGHT AUDIO INPUT
21. ANALOG DIGITAL MODE SELECT
22. REMOTE CONTROL OUTPUT (NC)
23. COMPOSITE VIDEO OUTPUT
24. LEG AUDIO INPUT
25. RED VIDEO INPUT
25. GREEN VIDEO INPUT
27. BLUE VIDEO INPUT
26. RGB LEVEL SHIFT(NC)
29. BLANKING INPUT
30. HORIZONTAL SYNC or COMPOSITE SYNC INPUT
31. VERTICAL SYNC INPUT
32. HALF BLANKING INPUT
33. RGB NORMAL MODE SELECT
34. AUDIO SELECT The Magic Plug I like large monitors. I came
home last spring with a Sony KV-20XBR 20- inch TV monitor,
destined to become a mate for my Amiga. 1 thought I'd spend
an hour or so hooking it up and then I'd start large-scale
computing.
Boy, was I wrong.
The problem wasn't the TV and it wasn't the Amiga. That 34-pin connector has everything you need to hook the two together. The problem is, they never tell you how to use it!
The manual shipped with the TV lists the pins on the connector, but doesn't say anything about voltage, polarity, or impedance. The manual mentions the "official" PX-34 plug but the instruction sheet shipped with that plug just gives more of the same. Even the service manual is vague. Nowhere does it say exactly how one is supposed to use the connector.
The service manual does contain a schematic for the TV. With that schematic and a few hours of experimentation, I learned how to make the Sony connection. The remainder of this article gives detailed instructions for hooking an Amiga to a Sony monitor (plus a few hints on related matters).
What Signals?
In order to get the Amiga's picture to the Sony's screen, we must connect the red, green, and blue analog video signals and the "composite sync" signal from the Amiga outputs, to the corresponding Sony inputs. That's the minimum required to get a picture.
Standard analog video input and output ports are designed to present a 75-ohm impedance. If they are linked by 75-ohm coaxial cable, they are happy. If the cable or one of the ports does not show a 75-ohm impedance, the video signals will reflect and ring on the cable. You'll see this problem as a blurred, ghost-like picture. You don't have to measure these 75-ohm impedances, just follow the specs.
(For those of you who want to know, the standard video signal level is one volt, peak-to-pcak, in a 75-ohm system.
The positive peaks are white and the negative peaks are sync pulses.)
The analog video outputs of the Amiga are designed to the 75-ohm specification. If you obtain 75-ohm coax, as I explain below, then the only thing left to consider is the Sony input.
The Amiga has separate pins for analog and digital RGB video outputs.
The Sony gives you the option of analog or digital inputs, but it uses the same set of pins for both (pins 25, 26, and 27). You choose either analog or digital by setting the state of a separate switching pin.
Pin 21 on the Sony 34-pin connector is labeled "Analog Digital Mode Select."
When this pin is left unconnected, it puts the video and sync input pins into analog (75-ohm) input mode.
This is exactly what we want to do to hook up an Amiga.
When pin 21 is connected to ground, the video and sync inputs go to digital mode. In digital mode, the pins react to TTL-level (+5 volts) inputs. The sync function must be provided by separate horizontal and vertical sync inputs. The digital mode matches an IBM PC-compatible color video output, with one exception: The Sony has no intensity input.
There are a few other switching pins on the connector whose functions may be of interest.
Pin 33 is labeled "RGB Normal mode select." A monitor, which is also a TV (such as my KV- 20XBR), uses Pin 33 as an override for the front- panel and remote controls. When this pin is left unconnected, the controls work as usual.
When this pin is connected to +5 volts, it puts the Sony into RGB monitor mode, regardless of what the controls say. The effect is the same as pressing the RGB button on the front panel, except that now the process happens automatically. The Sony will remain in RGB mode as long as pin 33 is connected to +5 volts. I generally leave this pin unconnected because 1 prefer to use the remote control to switch modes.
Pin 34 is labeled "Audio Select." This pin controls the external audio inputs on the 34-pin connector. When this pin is connected to +5 volts and the Sony is in RGB mode, the external left and right audio inputs (pins 24 and
20) are connected to the speakers.
Otherwise, the audio inputs on the 34- pin connector are ignored and the Figure Two: The Amiga '$ video connector, as seen from the back of the Amiga. The dotted lines on the right show the piece to be cut off a DB-25 female connector to make it fit the Amiga's video port.
Speakers play the audio from whatever TV channel or video audio input is selected (This is done "upstream" of the RGB switch,).
Again, I leave this pin unconnected so I can choose what to listen to (with the remote control) while I program.
I've connected the Amiga's composite (continued) r : 1
v. _ BACK OF SONY CONNECTOR Figure Three: The Amiga-to-Sony
connection. The connectors are shown as seen from the back of
the Amiga and the Sony. Make the indicated connections with
75-ohm coaxial cable.
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and audio outputs to the "Video 3" inputs on the Sony. By
doing this, J can listen to the Amiga's synthesizer whenever I
wish.
1 can also listen to my stereo on "Video 2," my VCR on "Video 1," or a broadcast TV channel. Isn't tcchnol- ogy wonderful?
A few of the switching pins are not connected on my Sony. Because of this, 1 cannot confirm what they do or how to use them. Pin 17 is labeled "575 625 mode select." Presumably, this pin switches between the American 525-line broadcast television standard and the European 625-linc standard. Very few Americans should have to worry about this feature. Pin 18 is labeled "EXT INT mode sync switch." The Amiga sends composite sync as a separate signal, but some analog RGB systems mix the sync into one of the video signals (usually green). Presumably, this switch allows the Sony to interpret that
"internal" The ones for the Dt9 CABLE The ones for the RGB MOWTOR CAELE The ones for the FWSAWfl. (FRSVTER) CABLE CENTRONICS MALE FEMALE The ores for the S03AL MOCe CABLE CONNECTOR COATS end SHELLS V& cteo have the 34 PIN EDGE CONNECTOR fa 1Toee nrakhg the 5 '¦ Ffcpcv Disk Interface Ready to Use 2 DRIVE CABLE w POV ER SUPM Cades fa PRINTERS and MONITORS 6ft. 1311 Sony RGB Cdde sync format.
Pin 28 is labeled "RGB level shift." 1 have no idea what this pin docs.
Conveniently, Sony also provides two pins connected inside the set to +5 volts (pins 1 and 2) for use in activating the switching pins.
Also included is a "Composite Video Output" (pin 23) which indicates the video signal (TV or Video 1, 2, or
3) currently selected for output to the screen. This option could
be useful for genlocking. On the KV-20XBR, this signal is also
available on the "Monitor Out" jacks on the back of the set.
Making the Connection Now that you know which signals are available, you're ready to build the cable you need to hook an Amiga to a Sony monitor. You'll need connectors for each end of the cable and some wire for the middle. The first order of business is to round up these connectors which may take some doing.
The monitor end of the cable has a 34- pin plug, to fit the 34-pin "header" on the back of the Sony. You have two options: You can buy the "official" connector from your local Sony repair outfit (The part number is PX-34, and they'll charge you about S30.), or you can use a 34-pin flat cable connector, which is a fairly standard part in the electronics world. (One source is Radio Shack they'll charge you about S3 for catalog number 276-1525.)
For the other end of the cable, you'll need a female 23-pin "subminiature D connector." This piece is extremely hard to find. Its 25-pin relative, however, sometimes called the "DB- 25," is very common it's the standard RS-232 serial interface connector. You can buy the DB-25 at Radio Shack (catalog number 276-1548). In a few minutes' work with a hacksaw, you can convert a 25-pin connector into one which will work just like the female 23. Remove pins 13 and 25 and the quarter-inch or so of plug which holds them. This may seem like a crude solution, but the only true 23-pin connectors I've seen
in the Amiga world arc the ones Commodore ships with its monitors.
Now that you have the connectors, you need the cable to join them. You need coaxial cable, commonly called "coax," with a characteristic impedance of 75 ohms. The standard 75-ohm coax is designated RG-59 U; that's what everyone uses for video work. If you walk into Radio Shack and ask for 75-ohm coax, that's what you'll get.
Unfortunately, RG-59 just won't work for this application it's too big and stiff. We need to solder four or five pieces of coax to one tiny connector.
For that wc need smaller coax.
One solution is to order your coax from a local electronics supply house which stocks cables made by Bcldcn.
Belden 9221 is their smallest 75-ohm coax, while Belden 8218 may be more readily available. You don't have to use Belden cable; any 75-ohm miniature coax will do.
Another solution perhaps less expensive is to try your local surplus electronics dealers.
Now that you've got all the parts together, it's time to figure out how to connect them. 1 assume you know how to solder electronic parts and you have a low-wattage iron and fine- gaugc rosin-core solder.
If you decided to use a flat cable connector, you can make your job a lot easier through the following steps.
Take the connector apart there should be two or three plastic pieces.
With a pair of long-nose pliers, extract all the little metal clips from the connector body. You may need to use some force. Don't worry if you destroy one or two clips; you won't need them all. Then, as you get ready to connect a wire, push the clip(s) for that wire into the appropriate positions on the connector. Insert the clips with the tabs along the outside of the connector and insert only the clips you're going to use. This adjustment will give you more room to work and will also reduce the possibility of shorts.
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You'll see a bump in the middle of one side of the plug. This bump is a keying ridge, which makes it near- impossible to insert the plug backwards. If you used a flat-cable plug, you'll also see a molded or painted marker (often a triangle) to the left of the keying ridge. This marker indicates pin 1 of the connector.
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different.
If we were using flat cable for our connection, this would be a real problem. Since we're soldering our wires directly to the connectors, though, we can forget the numbers altogether and work from pictures.
Figure 1 should match the connector you see on the back of your Sony monitor. Notice the alignment notch and the 34 pins. I've numbered the pins in this diagram according to Sony's numbering scheme. I've also included a little triangle marker which points to the pin that everyone else calls pin 1. Note that most of the pins on the right side are connected to ground. The braided shield wires of your video coax cables should be soldered to these pins. Pins 3 and 7 arc special "audio grounds" for the shields of the audio cables (if you use them).
Keeping the video and audio grounds separate reduces the noise in your speakers.
Figure 2 shows the 23-pin Amiga video connector, as seen from the back of the Amiga. This figure is labeled with the Amiga pin connections.
Wc want to connect to the analog video outputs on pins 3, 4, and 5 and the composite sync output on pin 10. You'll solder the coax shield braids to ground on pins 16 through 20.
17404 Figure 3 shows a pictorial diagram of the connections we want to make. On the left is the Amiga connector; on the right, the Sony. The two are linked by the coaxial cables. You don't need to solder the coax shields to the particular ground pins I've shown any grounds will do.
To prepare a piece of coax, cut the outer jacket back about a half inch. Be careful cutting through the outer insulator, so you don't nick the braid underneath. If you bend the cable sharply, the outer jacket stretches and is easier to cut. Peel the jacket off and brush the braid out straight. Next, twist the wire together to form one wire this is the shield wire, which you will solder to ground. Cut through the inner insulator about a quarter inch back from the tip, again, without nicking the wire inside. Slide the bit of insulator off the center wire.
This is the signal wire, which vou'll solder to a video signal pin.
VT - V ASV m. T Measure four pieces of coax to the length you want. Remember, it's easier to shorten a wire than lengthen one. Prepare the ends of the coax as described above and solder them to the connectors as shown in Figure 3, When you've got those four wires done, plug the connectors into the Amiga and the Sony and make sure that the cable works. If not, check your connections against the figures in this article and the manuals which came with your equipment.
Once you've got the cable working, add any other wires you wish, such as sound or switching. Then fit the Amiga connector into a metallized shielded hood to reduce interference.
Install the cable once more, check it out, and you're finished!
If you have any questions or comments, you can contact me care of this magazine.
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Softworks by John Foust If the Amiga Workbench comes with the
FontEd program, why would anyone buy another font editor?
Well, you just might want Calligrapher, a color font editor
from InterActive Softworks, because it goes far beyond FontEd,
and adds color, too.
Standard Amiga fonts are made up of dots of only two colors. One color is essentially "no color," or clear pixels.
The other color, for solid pixels, is determined by your Workbench colors or a color chosen from a palette, as done in Deluxe Paint.
The creators of Calligrapher extended the programming definition of Amiga fonts to include color (For more information, see Amazing Computing Volume 2, Number 8, 'The ColorFont Standard."). The ColorFonts standard allows the dots that make up a character to be colored from a palette of up to sixteen colors.
Because of a wonderfully flexible programming feature of the Amiga operating system, you can use ColorFonts in existing programs, such as Deluxe Paint. By starting a patch program (included with your purchase of Calligrapher), any Amiga program that supports color and fonts can now access fonts created with Calligrapher.
InterActive has created a freely- distributable demo program, available in public domain disk collections and on bulletin board systems. The demo is crippled, though it won't type vowels. All other characters work.
Two demo disks, available from InterActive for ten dollars, demonstrate Calligrapher.
Calligrapher was first shown at the Commodore Show in San Francisco in February 1987 and was shipped later that summer.
User Interface Calligrapher's user interface seemed imposing to me at first. 1 saw Jeff Braun of InterActive Softworks demonstrate it at several Amiga shows, and he made it seem very easy to use then again, all programs look easy in the hands of their producer.
As with most programs, an hour or two of experimentation made it much clearer to me.
The program is separated into different screens that work together: Font, Select, Edit, Effects, Style, and Pattern.
You can jump between areas with function keys, as well as menu choices.
Font and Select Screens The Font screen selects between the current fonts on disk and in memory.
A simple editor window is provided for testing fonts in any screen resolution. Statistics about the current font arc also shown in this window. In the Select screen, simple clicks and drags are used to select ranges of the present character set. This selection is used in other parts of the program.
Edit Screen The Edit screen provides a mini-Deluxe Paint-type interface for modifying the pixels in font characters.
IFF brushes can be loaded, stamped, and rotated within the space of a character.
The commands are similar to Dctuxe Paint, making Edit fairly easy to use. Along with Box and Circle tools, an arc tool unlike any other I've seen is included. You specify only one endpoint, then move to the other (instead of selecting two points), and then make the third in the middle. Unlike the Undo in Deluxe Paint, the Undo button here works only once. Once you've undone some- (conlinued) thing, you can't get it back by pressing it again. A Magnify gadget lets you zoom in on the character. The greatcr- than and less-than keys magnify the image when Magnify is selected.
In the Edit screen, the spacing between letters can be adjusted. Two inter- character spacings, the amount to backspace before drawing the character, and the amount to space after drawing the character, can all be adjusted. Normally, both amounts are near zero. Setting those values to anything else causes characters to overlap, making overstrike characters.
Effects Screen FontEd includes controls for scrolling a character within the bounds of its shape. The Effects screen performs this same action on groups of characters. Kerning and spacing can be set for individual characters or groups of characters. The Effects screen also allows you to slant characters.
Style Screen The Style screen adds layers and patterns to fonts. A layer is the outline of the font, in the same shape of each character. It can be a different color than the font. Outlines and shadows are forms of layers. If the layer is slightly larger than the current font, and placed below the current font at an offset, it forms a shadow, if the outline is directly below the current characters, it forms an outline.
Embossed effects can easily be created in this way (People have been doing this by hand in Deluxe Paint since the beginning, by entering text, clipping it as a brush, then stamping offset and enlarged versions of the brush.). The outline size and offset position settings define a style. Styles can be saved to disk and recalled. A style can have as many as sixteen layers. Layers can be merged, just like fonts or parts of fonts can be merged. By specifying the layering order of the merge, stunning effects can be created.
Pattern Screen Patterns allow you to color layers automatically, like Fill patterns in Deluxe Paint. Patterns can be created from IFF brushes. For example, a brush that looks like bricks can be repeated to look like a wall of bricks.
Calligrapher can stamp this pattern onto layers in several ways: in a regular fashion (as if they were cut out of a single bolt of cloth), in a random fashion, or from the center of the pattern.
Something called Transformations allows the changes made on a single character to affect the entire font. For example, you can resize the entire character set at once. On the Select screen, highlight all the characters in the set. Then access the Effects screen, resize one character, call up the transformation window with a function key, and press the Resize button. All the characters are now the new size.
Some example transformations include the addition of new colors, layered shadows and outlines, italicization, and underlining.
As you can tell from this short description of the features of Calligrapher, making new versions of fonts is quick and easy. After learning the basics of one or two screens, I was able to load an existing Amiga font, color it, resize it, touch up the jaggy edges resulting from the resizing, and save it for use.
Large Fonts Large type sizes, especially those with several colors, present several problems. A 37-point font of 96 characters in sixteen colors takes up 33,632 bytes on disk, and just as much in CHIP memory. Fonts must reside in CHIP memory, so a large font uses up much of the precious CHIP memory space needed by a paint program.
To guard against this space problem, the Calligrapher recommends creating a minimal number of characters in large sizes. It may be perfectly reasonable to create a large font with only five or ten characters. There is no need for any correlation between the letter on the keyboard and the shape of the character on the screen, so the letter A on the keyboard could make a capita! R, if the font is drawn that way.
Font Problems In my opinion, one of the serious deficiencies of the Amiga Workbench is the absence of icons for important files, such as fonts and printer drivers.
Without icons for these files, or a utility for manipulating them, users are forced to the CLI. Try a "DIR FONTS: OPT A" sometime in the CLI, and sec if you can guess how font files are arranged. The system of storing fonts on the Workbench is not documented for the novice user. Moving fonts and all their files is a complicated process which should be auto- ’ (continued on page 36) Don’t miss the boat... with Amiga expansion products that limit expansion NEW! A1000 A500 Subsystem" A500 A1000 A1000 •f I i Cage
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S149 Fremont, CA 94539 You can use the Calligrapher program to load a font from one disk and save it to another, but this may not be obvious to the novice. It took me a while to realize that this option was possible. Deleting fonts is another matter entirely, and must be done from the CLI. Deleting patterns and styles must be done by hand, too.
With the comprehensive methods of creating fonts in Calligrapher, you may think they could have made a utility for manipulating and organizing sets of fonts. Pointing users to the CLI to move and delete fonts is not a pleasant alternative. Serious users of Calligrapher must understand the CLI, and I think that limits the program.
A program called FontFixer is provided with Calligrapher. Unfortunately, it is driven from the CLI instead of by icon. If you don't know how to do a DIR, you might never find it without an icon. FontFixer is fairly simple to use, if you understand command-line oriented programs ... but 1 don't think most users have this understanding. FontFixer checks the integrity of a given font directory. It does not move or copy fonts. It can remove unwanted font sizes and then remove empty font directories. The manual recommends using the CLI to manipulate font directories and files, A utility called
FontAssign is also available and is the equivalent of using the CLI "assign" command to redirect the system's notion of where font files are stored. On a freshly booted Workbench, the logical name FONTS: looks in the "fonts" directory on the system disk. With FontAssign, you can assign the FONTS: directory to somewhere else, such as a disk that contains your favorite fonts.
Another easy way of using other disks of fonts involves renaming these disks as "Fonts." This works with any Amiga program. If a disk named "Fonts" is in a drive, it will override the current FONTS: assignment (The same thing goes for disks named "C.
If you insert a disk named "C," the system will look there for any command you type at the CLI prompt.). Legal Questions Calligrapher's ease of font creation introduces a legal question. What makes one font different from another?
There are artists out there who create fonts for the Amiga and then sell disks of fonts. These fonts were created before the advent of easy-to-use font editors like Calligrapher. In some cases, they were created with custom font creation software or a font conversion program that ported fonts from another computer, such as the Macintosh.
The conflict is clear. The artist wants to protect his original product and investment in time and effort. Many "...a necessity for anyone doing titling on the Amiga.
FontEd is not enough."
Users want to assemble large libraries of fonts. A font becomes "different" by changing the color or by adding a fill pattern. Both changes are trivial in Calligrapher.
According to one legal interpretation, the names of fonts can be copyrighted, but not the font itself. Many fonts may look like Helvetica, but have a different name. This same rationale is behind the gemstone names of the fonts on the Amiga. On the Macintosh, they used the names of major cities as font names, even though the fonts resembled popular commercial type faces such as Helvetica.
InterActive Softworks also sells disks of fonts. They contracted with several artists to make font sets for particular applications. One set is available for video titlers and graphic designers, another for newsletters, etc. The newsletter fonts are specially designed for use in bitmap font programs, such as PageSettcr.
Several companies currently sell font disks. An early creator of color font disks was Lion Kuntz, who sells his "Lion's Amiga Art Studio" disks for S29.95 a pair. You get more than just disks of fonts. Kuntz has also written an excellent manual that outlines the best ways to use fonts in Amiga programs. 1 recommend these disks to anyone who wants to work with color fonts.
Summary Calligrapher is a one-of-a-kind program. Because of its extensive features, 1 doubt it will sec much competition in the future. Its $ 99.95 price tag will deter the casual weekend font designer, but a program like this is a necessity for anyone doing titling on the Amiga. FontEd is not enough.
• AC- Calligrapher List price: $ 99.95 Requires 512K, at least 1
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Central Coast Software 286 Bowie Drive, Los Osos, California 93402 • (805) 528-4906 AMAZING REVIEWS Animator: Apprentice A full-fledged cartoon-style animation system by John Foust Animator: Apprentice from Hash Enterprises is a full-fledged cartoon- style animation system. In the Animator: Apprentice advertisements, the animation style is described as "Disney-like." In some sense, this is true.
Other animation programs, such as VideoScape 3D and Forms in Flight, use polygon-based objects; the animated objects look as if they were machined from steel because they are smooth and have sharp edges.
Animator: Apprentice characters have a decidedly organic look because the program uses a method of creating objects very different than polygons. An object is built of slices, like a loaf of bread, and the crusts take on color.
You define the outline shape of each slice of bread, color its edges, stack the slices, and create part of an object.
The program is split into several modules: Character, Action, Director, Rehearsal, Record, Display, and Sculpt.
Character The body of an Animator: Apprentice character is developed with the interaction between the Character and Sculpt modules. The Character module defines an armature. An armature is a bendable model of a skeleton often used by animators and artists. (The Animator: Apprentice manual doesn't use this term; it calls them bones.) With the Sculpt module, you design colored padding for the armature, defining the shape of the character. More on the Sculpt module later.
With the Character module, you define the interdependencies of the bones in the skeleton of the creature you want to create. The example given in the manual is good. If you are designing a human-like creature, the pelvis bone is the most primary bone. Move it, and the other bones follow. The torso and thighs are connected to the pelvis.
If you move the leg, then the lower leg and foot move with it.
Bones are defined in tree fashion this way. You sec a flowchart-like depiction of the bone family tree as well as the skeleton itself, drawn with straight lines. Each bone is given a possible range of motion in this module, too.
Action The possible actions of an armature arc defined with the Action module.
You can select a bone and define a motion for it over time. By setting up motions for all the bones in a character, a larger sense of motion is defined.
The program comes with an example _ motion called "Walking." It uses a human biped armature. Even in the preview mode of the Action module, it is clear that Actions can be very life-like. In "Walking," the feet move up and down to touch the ground, the whole character moves up and down slightly as it walks, and the arms swing back and forth in a very natural way.
You can grab bones with the mouse and move them into position. With a motion sequencer screen, you can adjust the time and range of motion described for each bone. The program will also calculate "case" for you, which is a way of making animated motions look more natural.
(continued) Motion is hierarchical, too. If you move the upper arm of a character, the hands and fingers move along with it. Swivels and turns of the arm produce similar rotations in the subparts of the body.
After learning to use the Action module, I could respect the amount of effort expended to create the "Walking" motion. One beauty of this program is that prc-defined motions can be used with any character whose bone structure resembles the bones in the action. The motion is not particular to one character; it can be used on many characters.
The system of generalized armatures and motions is very powerful. This class-like structure is a generation ahead of every other Amiga animation program. Other programs rely on very specific motions and object descriptions that only apply to one object.
This flexibility demands a lot of detail from the user, too. A lot of thought and planning must go into each character and motion.
Director After you have defined armatures and motions, you can place them on a set with the Director. First you teach a character to walk, then you tell it where to walk using Director. You place the character on a stage and point it in a direction, and decide where and when it should be in a certain position.
When it reaches that position, you can adjust its orientation (make it look another direction) or tilt it. Camera motions are available right down to trucks. Move-in and pull-out are also possible with Director.
Rehearsal The Rehearsal module plays back a scene in a wire-frame mode. You can sec characters moving on and off the stage with respect to the current camera viewpoint. The Director module can do this to a certain extent, too, so you don't have to switch between modules to sec your scene.
Sculpt After the armatures are created, the motions defined, and the motions linked together in a scene, you draw the body parts for the armatures with the Sculpt module. These body parts are called Segments. A Character has Segments that fit onto the bones created in the Character module.
Segments might include forearms, thighs, a head.
Each Segment is created separately and made up of slices. 1 found it convenient to think of the slices as being made up of little blocks. The blocks are each given a color. Each slice of a Segment must be defined separately. This can be done in an intuitive and automatic way, but it soon bogs down in a lot of detail for complex characters.
Segments can be created scmi-auto- matically by drawing IFF pictures that present views of the Segment, using a feature called AutoSculpt. The shape of the Segment is defined by two pictures called Visage and Profile that give the front and side outlines of the segment, if the Segment was a head, then Profile is a silhouette of the side of the face, showing the nose and chin, for instance, while the Visage shows a front view including the outlines of the cars.
The AutoSculpt feature interpolates a round or rectangular shape from the front and side views. This shell is then colored by hand or scmi-auto- maticnlly.
To color the shell automatically, you draw IFF pictures of the front and back of the Segment in a paint program. If this was for a head, you paint eyes, facial features, and hair on the previously used visage outline.
The Texture feature superimposes the Front and Back mattes on the new Segment shape. You are free to touch up the shell colors with a built-in editor in the Sculpt module. This technique is very powerful, considering that the IFF pictures could be digitized images from Digi- Vicw, touched up in Deluxe Paint. This technique produces very realistic looking characters.
The profile pictures must be drawn very carefully in a paint program. AutoSculpt is smart, but it can't create perfect shells.
If the character is complex, you must do a lot of editing of the individual slices.
The user interface in the Sculpt module leaves a lot to be desired. 1 worked with the Sculpt module for several hours. A lot of the time, I could not figure out what was going on. It took a lot of mental energy to understand the manual. 1 shuffled between the videotape, the manual, and the program until I got it all right, yet I thought I still hadn't mastered the Sculpt module.
Currently, there is a limit of 32 colors per Segment. The final animation can (continued on page 42) Picture the most exciting text-only Adventure in your software collection-WITH PICTURES!
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Be rendered in HAM 4096 color mode so characters with different color schemes can exist on the stage at once.
Assign Problems I set up the Animator: Apprentice program on my hard disk. I set up ASSIGNs to point to the data directories needed by the program. Currently, the program uses disks with names such as "matte," "data," and "frames" to store things, but I set up logical names using ASSIGNs to other directories instead. 1 discovered that the Sculpt module had specific references to "DF1:" instead of following its own logical names. I noticed this when I tried to save my Segment. This means the program would fail if 1 put the "data" disk in the internal drive.
The same is true of the Record module. It accesses "DFU:" regardless of the current ASSIGNs. I used the public domain "strings" program to determine that the program did indeed reference the drive explicitly. I had a preliminary master of an AMICUS disk in the internal drive when the Record module wrote to the disk. I got very nervous when the drive light went on. I hot-patched the executables to change the "DFO:" to be something like "FOO:," then used ASSICN to point "FOO:" at the correct directory.
Recording After the animation is defined, the Record module makes the frames of the animation using the predefined motions and characters. It has two modes, shaded and unshaded. You can also select the number of colors used, including HAM. The unshaded mode makes animations that look like Saturday morning cartoons, with solid- filled two-dimensional looking shapes.
Each Segment gets a black border.
The shaded mode makes more realistic characters, creating the "Disney-like" look, with no lines between Segments.
The frames can be saved to disk in a packed format for fast playback or in the IFF format for use in other programs, A view mode is another choice. With it, you can watch each frame of the animation as it is created, but it is not saved to disk. Depending on the complexity of the scene, it takes from several seconds to several minutes to create each frame of the animation.
Mainframe quality, full feature ANSI FORTRAN 77 compiler includes: Debugger, Linker, Library Manager, Runtime Library, IEEE math, and C interface. Supports Complex numbers, Virtual arrays, Overlays and Linking.
Not copy protected. $ 295.
Version for CSA 68020 68881 Turbo board also available $ 495.
From the authors of Microsoft BASIC compiler for Macintosh, comes AC BASIC for the Amiga.
Computable with the Amiga BASIC interpreter: has more features and includes BLOCK IF, CASE statement, and STATIC keyword extensions and executes up to 50x faster. AC BASIC is the new BASIC reference for MC68000 based personal computers. Not copy protected. $ 195.
Abss-jft !iSE Scientific Engineering Software Tel'phone orllers ",'l“n,c 2781 Bond Street, Auburn Hills, MI 48057 (313)853-0050 Amiga trademark of Commodore Amiga. Microsoft (rademark of Microsoft Corp. 1 have noticed some glitches in HAM animations. Horizontal bands of color crop up in spaces on the character.
This is distracting in a final animation.
(This problem is endemic to the Amiga HAM mode in any program. I suspect all HAM animation programs will have trouble with this.)
The Record program uses a custom video mode that prevents you from accessing the Workbench while the frames of the animation arc being produced. Amiga M and N did not bring back my Workbench screen.
Your Amiga is effectively tied up while rendering frames. Also, programs such as Grabbit can't find the Record or the Display screens. It is an overscan display, and perhaps this is the reason.
Playback The Display module plays back animations. It can single-step the animation or play it at different speeds. Hash Enterprises has made this program freely distributable so you can give away copies of your animations to people who do not own Animator: Apprentice.
Manual In a previous AMICUS Network column, I said the Animator: Apprentice manual was "refreshing," in regard to Hash's perspectives on Amiga animation that accompany the manual.
(continued on page 44) Three of the BEST utilities for your AMIGA ZING!® is a collection of AMIGA® utilities which combine the powerful CLI commands with the friendly Workbench environment. Files can be displayed and manipulated (e.g. copying, moving, deleting) with the mouse. All of the basic system commands (available in CLI) have been carefully redesigned into mouse, menu, and function key operations. You can selectively copy files and directories from entire disks in a single step! In addition to enhancing and simplifying the normal capabilities, ZING! Provides an integrated collection of
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ZING!Keys®is a sophisticated reprogrammable MACRO and Hot Key program. A program which can be used with any programs in the multitasking environment. You can train ZINGIKeys to accomplish the most annoyingly repetitive tasks in a much easier fashion. You can program any key stroke to type out any series of commands or text. You can even record mouse movements and play them back as a single key stroke! All MACROs and Hot Keys can be used from within any multi-tasking program on the AMIGA. Save time NOW by ordering ZINGIKeys!
How many times have you demonstrated your AMIGA to your friends or potential buyers? The Demonstrator is the answer to your dreams! This new product will record your demonstrations and allow you to play them back automatically! You can add text windows, subsections, and speech to produce sophisticated tutorials. You can control the speed or STOP the playback, or lock out the keyboard so no one can interfere with the demonstration. You can cause the demonstration to repeat itself automatically! Buy The Demonstrator today! Only $ 39.95!
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Unfortunately, my comment was premature. While the extra essays that came with my review copy of the program were thought-provoking, the rest of the manual is woefully inadequate for learning the program. Its error is common in computer manuals: It describes the options available in the program, but docs not give enough examples to illustrate those options clearly.
The manual has been through several revisions, and the update (in the form of a complete manual replacement) was sent to all owners. The changes to the manual involve added paragraphs and additions to describe new options. Unfortunately, no further examples were added. The manual remains very discontinuous.
Support The price of Animator: Apprentice is high (S299), but for good reason: The support level is high. The author of the program is available for telephone support. Also, this past summer, Hash sent a two-hour videotape tutorial to all owners. This tape is now part of the product. So, along with the manual, you get a tape of the author himself describing the program and walking through the creation of a simple character. This was a great boon to my learning curve. It did take about six to eight hours for me to get up to speed with the program. Some of those hours were before the videotape
arrived, and things went much faster after that.
Memory Requirements Animator: Apprentice requires 512K of CHIP memory plus one megabyte of FAST expansion memory. It also eats disk space. Animations take a lot of space; a disk holds about ten to thirty seconds of animation, depending on the complexity of the scene. Segments can get large, too. 1 made a head that took up 160K on disk. Most were much smaller, though, about five hundred bytes to 15K.
Summary I've studied all the Amiga animation programs, and I believe Animator: Apprentice is the most advanced in terms of object creation, motion control, and direction. I have seen some tremendous animations from Animator Apprentice. Its style of animation is unlike any other.
This program is not for novices. It takes a lot of time to understand, and oven more time to master. The price is high: You must invest both time and money to use this program well.
• AC- Animalor: Apprentice $ 299 Hash Enterprises 14201 S.E. 16th
Circle Vancouver. Wash 98684
(206) 256-8567 Early Amiga 2000 units have a video problem. Only
about 800 units are affected, and Commodore has quickly
provided authorized Amiga service centers with the
correction. The video problem involves a lack of clarity
and resolution on the display. The defective video display
is visibly inferior when compared to a properly working
2000.
By John Ste i n e r Bug Bytes The Bugs & Upgrades Column If you suspect that your Amiga 2000 is defective, write down your unit serial number and call an authorized Amiga service agency. Each agency has a list of serial numbers of units that may require modification. The correction is a minor modification to the video output circuitry that should take a dealer only a few minutes to complete.
Commodore is paying the service agency to make these repairs, which arc completely under warranty to the end-user.
Last month, I reported on the upgrade to PageSetter from Cold Disk. I did not find out until after the column went to press that, unlike the original program, the upgraded PageSetter uses "look up a password in the manual" copy-protection. To access the new version's features, you must keep your manual close by. A couple of users in my area had trouble starting the program because the password is case sensitive. If the word is capitalized in the manual, you must capitalize it when you type it in. "Caps lock" must also be off when you enter the password.
1 contacted Cold Disk about the newly-added copy-protection. Arno Krautter, one of the program developers, gave me the following reply (edited to save space): "... We really had very little choice in the matter. The reality of the Amiga market is that there are more users in Europe than in the US. Almost all of our European distributors refused to sell the program without a form of copy-protection. The "look up the word in the manual" scheme seemed to us to be the least obnoxious scheme that was feasible. It allows a hard disk user to use it, land it] allows you to make as many backups as
you need, but unless someone goes to the trouble to copy the entire manual, [it] is useless to someone who copies it without buying it.
"...Piracy in Europe is so rampant that our distributors demanded something.
We do not intend [copy-protection] to be a general policy and Professional Page will definitely not be protected as any professional product should be. I hope this at least lets you see the situation from our point of view, even if it doesn't change the situation much."
Micro-Systems Software's Online! 2.00 terminal program has a problem in file transfer mode. XMODEM transfers will not work if you set the AUTOCHOP option of the FILE menu to OFF; it must be set ON. Micro- Systems Software has a fix available if you send your master disk. They are currently shipping version 2.01. If you bought Online! Version 1 before 1987, the upgrade to 2.01 is $ 19.95; if you bought it after January 1, 1987, the upgrade is S9.95. Verification of purchase date with a copy of a purchase invoice or cancelled check is required.
(continued) Micro-Systems Software is also currently shipping: Scribble! Version 2.01 and Analyze! Version 2.03. Current users of version 2.0 of either of these packages can upgrade for free by returning the master disk. If you are using version l.X of Scribble!, an upgrade from 1.0 to 2.01 is free; again, just send the master disk.
The upgrade from Analyze l.X to 2.03 is $ 49.95. Version 2.X of Analyze!
Contains powerful Macro and Graphics functions not available in version 1.
All upgrades listed above also have a shipping and handling charge of $ 3.50. If you have any questions, call or write to the address below: Microsystems Software Technical Support 1279 W. Forest Hill Blvd Suite 202 West Palm Beach, FL 33414
(305) 790-0772 Byte by Byte has announced that their 3D
ray-tracing program, Sculpt 3D, has been upgraded to
version 1,101. The new version has a new algorithm which
speeds up ray-tracing by at least 3 times, and even faster
in the CLASS and MIRROR object modes.
GET THE BIG PICTURE Looking for a way to get your computer images on paper?
Now you can, simply and inexpensively.
The Big Picture print program will allow you to unleash the potential of your Amiga or Targa. With The Big Picture you can produce pictures in 4096 colors, in any size you choose from postage stamp to bill board.
Get the picture at the touch of a button. Get The Big Picture.
AMIGA TARGA Okidata 20 color $ 29.95 $ 49.95 Cannon PJ108QA $ 29.95 $ 49.95 Radio Shack CGP 220 £49.95 £99.95 Fujitsu 2300 2400 $ 59.95 $ 119.95 XEROX 4020 $ 99.95 $ 199.95 Nec Pinwriter CP7 $ 99,95 $ 199.95 Big Picture is a trademark ol Lightning Publish ng Amiga ts a registered trademark of Commodore Ltd Targa is a registered trademark of AT A T Lightning Publishing 1821 N. Ohio St., Arlington VA 22205
(703) 534-8030 Name Address City Slate Zip Amount Printer Amiga
Targa As of this writing, registered owners who send their
warranty cards automatically receive an upgrade disk from
Byte by Byte, Users are asked to send S5 or fill out a
survey form and return it with $ 3 to cover the postage cost
of the upgrade. If you did not receive the upgrade, return
your registration card and you will receive notification of
all future upgrades.
Byte by Byte is working on even faster algorithms and will be updating the software regularly.
For those of you with 68020 68881 combination boards, such as CSA's Turbo Amiga, a specially optimized upgrade is available that uses those coprocessors for maximum speed and efficiency. To order that version, send your registration number and a check for S30.00 to the address below: Byte by Byte Software Arboretum Plaza II 9442 Capital of Texas Highway North Suite 150 Austin. TX 78759
(512) 343-4357 Textcraft Plus is finally available and original
Textcraft owners can now upgrade. Textcraft Plus has been
significantly improved over Textcraft.
Major improvements include: the new version works under Kickstart VI,2; it supports multi-tasking (It runs in a window that can be sized, rather than a screen like the original.); it can access multiple drives, directories, and hard drives; and it supports international keymapping. All registered owners of Textcraft will be sent a postcard noting the upgrade policy, which is as follows: To upgrade to Textcraft Plus, send your original Textcraft diskette and S35 to: Commodore Promotion Textcraft Plus
P. O. BOX 695 Holmes, PA 19043 You will be sent a new Textcraft
Plus package.
Readers have turned up a few more bugs in Word Perfect. These bugs occur in the updated version of Word Perfect, released August TO, 1987. All are minor and can be easily avoided until a bug fix becomes available.
WordPerfect Corporation has confirmed that the double word feature of the spelling checker fails to find double words across hard returns.
Double words are properly found across soft returns.
The print program of Word Perfect should delete the WP ? Files on T;. T: is usually written to RAM disk, and these temporary files disappear upon power down. If you have rearranged T: to appear on a floppy or hard disk, WP ? Files will not be properly deleted. WP Corporation is working on this bug.
Jacques Chatenay, a reader from Fargo, ND, has reported that there seems to be a bug in the Word Perfect Okimate 20 print driver. It seems to ignore the first set of tabs in a tabbed document during the first few print jobs. Printing the same file with another printer, using another printer driver, seems to correct the problem.
If you have had similar problems, let me know, and wc will see if we can document the problem more thoroughly.
There seems to be a problem with "Stop Current Job" in the Print Control menu. Choosing "Stop Current Job" locks up the printer. Use "Cancel Job" instead. Word Perfect Corporation is aware of this problem as well.
That's all for this month.
• AC- AMAZING REVIEWS Playing DYNAMIC DRUMS on the Amiga™ by
David N. Blank BLANK@BRANDE1S.bitnet OGION@BRANDEIS.CSnet When
I first saw New Wave Software's advertisement for Dynamic
Drums, 1 had serious doubts that this new product could offer
even a fraction of the performance of the S700 drum machine I
was planning to buy. After working with the program for many
enjoyable hours, I must say that it has far exceeded my highest
hopes. The program has capabilities that most professional drum
machines lack, for less than ten percent of the price of these
other machines.
Let's begin our tour of this package with a look at its contents. Dynamic Drums includes a two disk set (disk one contains the program; disk two contains the drum samples), a short, but informative manual, and an introductory instruction cassette tape. The cassette tape is a nice touch you would expect to find only in the stellar priced business software packages. The tape provides a good, hands-on tutorial concerning the composing process.
Now, it is time to tum your favorite computer chair into a drum throne (Yes, that is the real name for a drummer's seat. If you don't believe me, ask another drummer.). A double click on the snare drum icon boots the program. The main screen fades in like a good movie, and after a short, but dramatic pause, a requester appears, The requester asks you to select the "drumkit" you would like to play. In Dynamic Drums, the term drumkit refers to a user-definable set of ten drum samples. Each sample is assigned to digits 0 through 9 on the numeric keypad. The custom keypad configuration can be
saved for later use.
Dynamic Drums comes with approximately ten prc-defined drumkits, tailored to different music styles.
Drumkits can also be created to suite different tastes. The program then loads the set of samples and displays the keypad bindings in a window.
Once this work is done, playing the drum samples in real-time is as easy as pressing keys on the keypad! Since the Amiga has only four sound channels, only four of the sampled sounds can be heard at once. This limitation is not as bad as it sounds because, during normal play, a drummer very rarely hits more than three drums simultaneously.
(continued) Time-out for a brief discussion of the included drum samples, First of all, they are superb. I was particularly impressed with the bass drum and snare samples. The tom samples are great, and New Wave also did a good job of capturing the cymbal sound, an instrument with an extremely complex waveform.
New Wave Software has chosen not only to supply quality samples, but to provide quantity as well. The program comes with over one hundred samples! In addition to the standard drumkit which includes bass drum, snare, tom, high-hat, and cymbal samples, other percussion sounds like bongos, woodblocks, hand claps, and cowbells are also included. To spice up your riffs, non-percussion instruments are included, like bass and electric guitar, electric piano, and a horn blast. Finally, a set of novelty sounds (such as breaking glass) can add some fun to your playing.
Al the time of this review, New Wave Software was putting together another disk of approximately 75-100 more sampled sounds for release in the near future. 1 was also delighted to learn that the program reads samples recorded in the FutureSound format.
This flexibility means that not only arc the samples smaller than the standard IFF disk hogs, but the user can record his own samples with the FutureSound digitizer for use with Dynamic Drums.
The program has very limited success in reading IFF format samples this is one of my few qualms about Dynamic Drums. I would love to be able to load Instant Music and other EA samples. New Wave software is aware of this problem, and they are working on it.
The next step on the journey to percussion paradise is the construction of a "pattern."
The term pattern, common to most drum machines, is used to describe which drum is played at which time during a measure. This representation is similar to the five staff method of writing melodies.
In Dynamic Drums, there are basically two different methods of writing patterns.
The first method involves manually editing a graphic display of the pattern. This display represents a graph with the number of the drum sample on the y-axis and the sub-division of a measure on the x- axis. The mouse is used to select the drum beat by clicking on the appropriate spot on the "grid." For the beginning user, however, finding the right place to click can be difficult.
The standard mouse arrow pointer does not give a clear indication of where the "hot-spot" is in relation to the small area that needs to be clicked.
After a bit of practice, this nuisance virtually disappears. As the manual suggests, this method is much better for editing an existing pattern.
The second pattern recording method is a bit easier. Selecting a box marked "record" sets the program's real power in motion. When the numeric keys are pressed, the played sequence is recorded. If the bass drum key is pressed four times, evenly spaced in a measure (once every quarter note), the program will continue to play a steady bass drum beat. Pressing more keys will layer the various sounds over the existing pattern. If you add two or three more drum sounds, a very funky drum pattern comes into being.
Various editing keys, like "repeat" and "delete all occurrences of drum," help speed up the creation process. A visual and aural metronome can be invoked to help with timing. For even more assistance, Dynamic Drums offers a unique feature called "quantizing" which automatically corrects errors. The user can set the program to round out the timing of recorded beats, so that no matter how off-beat the keypad is pressed, the program will record the beats in perfect sync.
Quantizing allows users with no prior percussion experience to create professional sounding patterns. The finished pattern can then be heard by selecting the "play" box.
I he tempo of recording and playback can be adjusted with a sliding gadget.
Dynamic Drums also offers the ability to sync the tempo with an external MIDI source. The speed is measured in beats per minute musicians will appreciate this touch. The ability to play the keypad oven while a pattern is playing is one of my favorite features of this program. This feature allows the user to "jam" with the pattern. You can save the pattern to disk if you wish. Several good demo patterns are also included with the package.
Dynamic Drums can store ten patterns in memory, in pattern banks A through }. These ten patterns can be strung together to create a "song."
Songs are specified using the letter of the pattern bank, together with the number of repetitions of that pattern. For instance, "3ab2c" would play pattern "a" three times, then pattern "b", and then pattern "c" twice. This uncomplicated approach makes it very easy to write a extended song, complete with drum fills.
Features abound in this program. For example, Dynamics Drums allows you to change the volume and tone of each drum sample in memory. An alternate tuning volume can be assigned to each sample. This alternate sound can be accessed by using the "accent" key like a shift key. This feature makes twenty sounds available to the user at any time. Alternate tunings are especially effective on tuned percussion, like toms and bongos.
Another unique feature of this program is called "randomizing."
Randomizing makes a pattern sound more realistic by simulating the slight change in pitch a drum makes as the TOUR AMIGA CAN NOW GRADUATE TO A PHD!
Make the educated decision on a hard drive. The Phoenix PHD hard drives are here. Available in 20 MB and 40 MB models (higher capacities can be special ordered). The PHD hard drives come completely formatted and ready to use: simply plug into the expansion port on your Amiga and go! True SCSI interface with pass-through expansion capabilities of course. Phoenix Engineering hard drives are available for both the Amiga 500 and 1000 series computers. (1000 series is fan cooled) PHD hard drives are bundled with assorted public domian software. Full one-year parts and labor warranty, and our
technical support team is always ready to assist with questions you may have. Get Smart, Get a PHD hard drive.
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P. O. Box 156, 314 Court St., Clay Center, KS 67432 stick hits it
in different places on the head. When this feature is
selected, the program randomly picks a pitch between the pitch
of the current setting and its accented setting. This revision
makes the pattern sound less mechanical than the usual sound
from a drum machine.
Though not implemented in the standard package, Dynamic Drums allows your Amiga to be connected to the Casio DP-1 drum pads (retail approx. S60). The drummer can then play the pads in live mode, playing any four samples like real drums, Contact New Wave software for more details on this.
My final comment concerning Dynamic Drums revolves not around the program itself, but the people behind it. With all programs, good customer support is essential. The people at New Wave Software must require chiropractors because they bend over backwards to guarantee customer satisfaction. During the course of this review, they were most courteous in responding to my questions and suggestions, even going as far as having the actual programmer return my call. A few suggestions I made will be implemented in an upcoming update. This type of response from a company to customers delights me.
It is probably apparent by now that I really like this program. I am absolutely tickled by the fact that one program, at less than onc-tenth of the price of others, outperforms the professional drum machine 1 nearly purchased, The program worked flawlessly not a single crash in all the hours 1 spent with it.
New Wave Software really impressed me with their first Amiga product (Their second, a professional sixteen track sequencer program with drum machine built in, is due out soon.). If you are an Amiga user with any percussion background, or if you would like to build such a background, I recommend you run to your friendly neighborhood software dealer and get a set of Dynamic Drums.
¦AC- Dynamic Drums List Price: $ 79.95 New Wave Software
P. O. Box 438 St. Clair Shores, Ml 48040 15-Puzzle in AmigaBASIC™
The Classic Puzzle Comes to the Amiga by Zoltan Szepcsi
16'=16x15x14x13x12x11 xl Ux9xox7x6x5x4x3x2xl). Mathemati
cians have proven that half these distributions cannot be
solved There is a simple, fast calculation for checking
whether a set can be solved or not. We will describe it later.
The Program After setting up a low resolution screen and choosing four colors, a large window is opened, asking if you want instructions. The Start routine follows, which directs the different steps of the game.
15-puzzle 3EG] The I nit routine defines the "times" function and contains the Selection and Verify subroutines. Selection creates a randomly distributed array, a(v), of the first 16 numbers.
Since half these distributions are unsolvable, the Verify subroutine checks if the chosen setup is good or not. If the problem cannot be solved, the program returns to the Selection routine and creates another distribution of numbers.
I, 3 1 H n 13 5 110!
4 6 14 1-f 7I 2 8 15 8 i 12 57 t i tie : ti i es til n 6 sec 3* The 15-Puzzle was invented in 1878 by an Englishman named Sam Lloyd. This new invention caused much excitement, from the general population and mathematicians alike. The reaction was similar to the fury RUBIK's Cube created some years ago.
15-Puzzle begins by showing a 4x4 square board filled with the numbers 1 to 15 randomly scrambled and one empty square. The object is to put the numbers in numerical order using the following method: Any number adjacent to the empty square can be moved into the empty square, thus leaving its former place empty for another number to move into.
This program was made for the Amiga in AmigaBASIC.
Other similar programs can be found for the AMIGA that use alphabetic letters, instead of numbers. One such program was created by Bill Boegelin and listed in COMPUTE! Magazine (p.79-81, May 1986).
We use numbers in the program presented here, thus making the game easier to follow. We also use randomized distribution of numbers to set up the board, instead of scrambling the original, ordered distribution.
Randomly selecting the numbers, however, can result in a distribution which cannot be solved. There are nearly 21 trillion For Europeans, this is 21 billion.) Possible starting distributions of 16 numbers (more precisely, According to D.D. Spencer's Came Playing with Computers, a simple rule is derived for the checking done above. This rule is as follows: From the first to the fifteenth position, count how many numbers are of lower value than the number in the starting position (count the empty space as 16) and add them together. Add 1 to the sum, if the empty square is in one of these
positions: 2,4.5,7,10.12.13 or 15, (continued on page 52) We are a Dallas Distributor exporting to customers in over 20 Nations around the globe.
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Music Mouse One of the most advanced combinations of artificial intelligence and randomized sound generation available for the Amiga today ! Very good and incredible fast Software.
Shakespeare ~ r Mi The first color Desktop Publishing wfijpp.
Program for the Amiga. Works in any resolution. Powerful features for Textformating and page layout.
True multitasking software.
Not copy protected.
Belter Master Flicker Master Reduces Interlace Flicker dramatically.
For the price conscious customer who doesn't want to buy a high persistence monitor.
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R a Q Micrcbolics Very powerful conversion & processing utility for digitized graphics !
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The graphics are simply fantastic... miGROFIGHE f 'Mr- Unique Database System for Text and IFF Pictures. Very intuitive and easy to use !
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Three simple subprograms (Talk(aS), Position(x,y,aS) and Beethoven) are used in different parts of the program.
Conclusions The difficulty in solving the 15-Puzzle depends on the particular order of the numbers. If you are new at the game, you will probably need more than five minutes and 100+ steps to finish. After some practice, you should get down to less than 100 steps.
With the Amiga mouse, play is more than twice as fast as keying in the numbers, as in a similar program for the C-64 computer. The C-64 version can be downloaded from the Quantumlink BBS, where it was placed in a 10 most popular programs list last September.
REM Change no SO column screen, please, if it is not set, CLEAR,10000,6000 '15-puzzle_v3.8 (8-22-B7) 'By Z.Szepesi,2611 Saybroofc Dr.,Pittsburgh,PA 15235-5131 REM Should have an 80 column screen!
SCREEN 1,300,200, 2,1 DEFINT a-z:DIM a (16) ,c(3,3),c$ (3,31,conf (3,3,1) DEF Fnmin=((TIMER-startt ime!} 60 DEF Fnsec=((TIMER-starttime! MOD 60} WINDOW 1,"15-puzzle",,,1 PALETTE 0,0,1,.6:PALETTE 1,0,0,0 PALETTE 2,0,1,1:PALETTE 3,0,0,1 COLOR 1,0 INPUT"*Do you want Instructions (y n)";q$ IF q$ ="y" THEN GOSUB instructions If the sum is even, the puzzle can be solved. If the result is odd, it cannot be solved.
Once a solvable setup is found, the Drawboard subroutine forms the board. The Drawscreen routine then places the numbers in the 16 squares, after the one dimensional a(v) array is transformed to a two dimensional cS(x,y) array.
This change is necessary to enable the mouse for changing, the positions of the numbers.
After the numbers are drawn, the Amiga says, "ready," and the Play subroutine takes over. The timer starts, and the number of clicks that follow are counted. Both these numbers arc displayed below the board. When the mouse clicks a number, the Chcckcrror routine checks if the chosen number is adjacent to the empty block (If it is not, you are told to "Try again."). If it is adjacent, then the two blocks are interchanged and the numbers are checked to see if they are in the final order.
To make this checking simple, the two dimensional cS(x,y) array is rctransformed to the equivalent one dimensional a(v) array. If the numbers are in order, the starting four notes of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony resound and AMIGA declares, "You are a winner." With the More routine, a new game can be initiated by clicking on the + sign below the board.
Start: CLSrPRINT " PLEASE WAIT," GOSUB Init CLS:GOSUB Drawboard GOSUB Drawscreen Talk “ready."
Startt ime!=TIMER WHILE WINDOW(7) 0 GOSUB Play WEND Done: BEEP:WINDOW CLOSE 1 END Init: Talk " “ tries=0:ok-0:RANDOMIZE TIMER Selection:' **»»*»*»*»***»*»*»tin*****.***.**...**..** FOR V=1 TO 16:a(v)=0:NEXT FOR i=l TO 16 10 V=INT (16*RND) +1) :IF a(v) THEN 10 a(v)=i:NEXT Verify: su=0 FOR 1=1 TO 15:FOR j=l+l TO 16 IF a(i} a (j) THEN su=su+l NEXT j:N£XT i RESTORE:FOR i-1 TO 8:READ vl:IF a(vl)=16 THEN su=su+l NEXT 1 DATA 2,4,5,7,10,12,13,15 IF su MOD 2 THEN Selection RETURN Drawboard: LINE 46, 5)-(210, 162) ,3, b LINE 45, 4) - (211, 163) ,3, b FOR y=0 TO 3:FOR x=0 TO 3 xl=64+32*x:yl=16+24*y
LINE |xl,yl)-(xU32,yl+24) ,3,b LINE (xl-2,yl-2)-(3 2+2+xl,24 + 2+yl) ,1, b LINE (60,12)-(64 +4+4*32,16+4+4*24), l,b morex-167:morey-150 LINE (morex.morey)-(morex+10,marey+10) ,l,bf conf(x, y,0)“xl:conf(x,y,1)=yl NEXT x:NEXT y:RETURN Drawscreen: '**+********+**++*+*++»***+*+****«*«»*****+***• V"1 FOR y-0 TO 3:FOR x-0 TO 3 c (x,y) -a (V) :c5(x,y) -RIGHTS (STR$ (a (v)), 2) IF a(v)=16 THEN blankx=x:blanky=y:cS(blankx,blanky)=" “ Position (x+1}*4 + 6, ly+1)*3+1,cS (x,y) V-V+l NEXT x:NEXT y Position 7,16,"time: Position 7,19,"tries: 0 Position 22,20,'' + '" new game gadget RETURN Play: LOCATE
18,12:PRINT Fnmin;"min";FNsec;"sec ’ WHILE MOUSE (0) mousex=MOUSS(3) :mousey=M0USE (4) FOR y-0 TO 3:FOR x-0 TO 3 IF (mousex conf(x,y,0) AND mousexcconf(x,y,0)+32} AND (mousey conf (x,y,1) AND mousey conf(x,y,1)+25) THEN GOSUH Checkerror:RETURN NEXT x:NEXT y GOSU3 More WEND:RETURN Checkerror: IF (A3S (x-blankx) 1 OH ABS (y-bianky! 1) OR ((xoblankx AND yoblanky) ) THEN Talk "try again." ’error ELSE ’no error SWAP cS(x,y), cS (blankx, blanky) :c (x,y)-VAL(cS (x, y)) Position (x+1)+4 + 6, (y+1)*3+1,cS(x,y) SWAP x,blankx:SWAP y,blanky Position (x+1)*4+6,(y+1)*3+1,cS(x,y) END IF tries=trles+l
Position 16,19,STRS (tries) WHILE MOUSE(0);WEND ’Check for a win****************‘*************************** FOR y=0 TO 3:FOR x-0 TO 3 i-x+4*y+l:a (1) -VAL(c5 (x,y)) IF c$ (x, y) “ THEN a(i)-16 IF a(l)Oi THEN RETURN NEXT x:NEXT y ok*l:CALL Beethoven:FOR z=l TO 1500C:NEXT z Talk “Congratulations, You are a winner," More: WHILE MOUSE (0) OR ok ’Another game?
Mousex-MOUSE(31:mousey»MOUS£(4) IF MOUSE(0)-0 AND (mousox morex AND mousex morex+10) AND (mousey morey AND mouseykmorey+10) THEN GOTO start IF WINDOW(7)-0 THEN Done WEND:RETURN instructions: PRINT PRINT ”**Tho object of the game is" PRINT “to move the numbers around so that" PRINT “they are in order from 1 to IS.” PRINT PRINT “ A move is made by clicking the" PRINT “left mouse button on the number you" PRINT "want to move. The number to be" PRINT “moved must be adjacent to the empty" PRINT “square. The clicked number then" PRINT “moves to the empty square."
PRINT PRINT ” You win, when the board looks" PRINT “like the figure that follows."
PRINT PRINT “"Press any key to continue" WHILE INKEYS - :WEND:CL3 TS7 Robot Readers a powerful new way for your child to learn to read Even if your child isn’t a reader yet he can read these classic stones at his own speed through interactive speech, with little or no adult supervision. The beautiful illustrations and built-in word games hold the young reader's attention while promoting early reading skills, vocabulary, and word recognition.
‘CHICKEN LITTLE ‘AESOP'S FABLES ‘LITTLE RED HEN ‘THREE LITTLE PIGS $ 29.95 each for the Amiga 512k Coming soon: ‘ THE UGLY DUCKLING HILTON ANDROID PO Box 7437 + Huntington Beach, CA 92615-7437
(714) 960-3984 FOR 1 - 1 TO 16:a(i)=i:NEXT i GOSUB Drawbsard
GOSUB Drawscreen PRINT:PRINT “"Press any key to continue"
WHILE INKEYS = “":WSND CLS:RETURN SUB Talk (aS) STATIC SAY
TRANSLATES(aS) END SUB SUB Positions,y,aS) STATIC LOCATE
y,x:PRINT aS END SUB SUB Beethoven STATIC t-4:RESTORE 100
FOR 1=1 TO 10 READ d,v FOR s-0 TO 3 SOUND 400,1,0,s READ f
SOUND f,d*t,v,s SOUND 400,1,0,s NEXT s:NEXT i 100 DATA
1,0,400,400,400,400 DATA
1,ISO,195.998,391.995,783.991,1567,982 DATA
1,150,195.998,391.995,783.991,1567.982 DATA
1,150,195.998,391.995,783.991,1567.982 DATA
4,150,155.563,311.127,622.254,1244.508 DATA 1, 0,400, 400,
400,400 DATA 1,150,174.614,349.228,698.456,1396.913 DATA
1,150,174.614,349.228,698.456,1396.913 DATA
1,150,174.614,349.228,698.456,1396.913 DATA
8,150,146.832,293.665,587.330,1174.659 END SUB
• AC* AMAZING REVIEWS WordPerfect by Steve Hull Genie:
LightRaider People Link: St.Ephen A year ago last spring, it
had the sound of just one more of the many wild rumors
circulating about the Amiga: "Hey, didja hear? AshtonTate's
porting Dbase II] to the Amiga."
"I just heard Lotus is working on 1-2-3 for the Amiga." "Did you hear there's going to be an Amiga version of WordPerfect?"
To mo, WordPerfect for the Amiga had a distinct too- good-to-be-true ring to it. I had been using the MS-DOS version of WordPerfect as a word processor, directory utility, and program text editor for over a year, and it was one of the few things having to do with the IBM that impressed me. Here was a program that consistently earned superlatives in the toughest product reviews. In power, case of use, customer support, and documentation, WordPerfect had everyone else playing follow-the-leader. In short, a class act. The kind of class act 1 didn't expect to see translated to a machine that, at
the time, had an installed user base of a little over 100,000.
Yet "WordPerfect for the Amiga" was a rumor with unusual staying power, and in September of 1986, WordPerfect Corporation made it official: An Amiga version was in the works. At the Las Vegas COMDEX that fall.
WordPerfect fielded a booth staffed by public relations personnel and key members of the software design team plus a working beta copy.
As is often said seeing is believing.
But even as I type this review, with WordPerfect virtually under mv fingers, it's one of those most fortuitous circumstances that takes a while to fully sink in.
What's The Big Deal?
Perhaps you have been sitting off by the sidelines the past year, while us excitable writcr-types eagerly (and vocally) anticipated WordPerfect's release, finding it all a little hard to understand. How is it that a word processor, of all things, got to be the most anxiously-awaited title on a graphics-and-sound magic-box like the Amiga? And how could anyone ask S395 for a word processor?
For someone who doesn't do a lot of word processing, there may be no way to answer that question. Yet you don't have to be John Updike to understand and even appreciate why WordPerfect is on the verge of becoming the widest cross-system standard the software industry has ever produced.
A Summary of Strengths Historically, WordPerfect's greatest strength has been its usefulness across a vast range of word processing applications. To the casual user, WordPerfect presents a clean, uncluttered screen and a logical user interface. The jump from typewriter to word processor is an easy one, even for the amateur just sit down and type.
There is no WordStar-like need to memorize a plethora of thoroughly illogical control-key combinations to effect even the simplest functions. Need to back up, or go back a line? The arrow keys move the cursor just as you would expect. To save a document, press the function key marked SAVE. To print, press PRINT. It doesn't get much easier than that.
1b this docunenl. Each word associated uith a feature is printed vith the attributes of that feature. Or instance, bold appears Wlded, uidttluu is Mpderlined. Fell is imfalijfil and tatded, and liihti is ihliciim. He can superscript or subscript.
Over is sonetines used to build new characters like * *.
Text can be flushed to the right or centered.
Ihere are several styles of underline: Pi 1 in 4 fos 4b 2 St Codes in this document, each word associated with a feature is printedlsltl with the attributes of that feature, for instance. [IJboldtbl appearstSttt liiholdedlbl, TllunderIinelaT is lliunderlinedla), Ililllbothtbltu] is illunde rl media) and tllboldedtbl.ISttt and iliitalicsiii is IllitalicizedIil. He can [IwrScrptisfSunrStrptMSuprSc tl liprScrptletSwrSffptlrscript nr !S*IerptlsllukStrpt]ufMikrptlbscript werslOtrsttl ltOwrsttl rlOwrsttl iffrorsttl klOursttl elOirstbl is sonetines used to build new characters file -[OtrstH
ilOvrsttP -[Owrsttr.
"On the left, WordPerfect's Printer.TST file as it appears on the edit screen. Many of the effects, such as super subscripts, justification and overstrike, do not appear on screen. On the right, the same screen examined with Reveal Codes. Special WordPerfect formatting codes appear boldfaced in brackets."
WordPerfect does not sacrifice power for ease of use. It offers advanced formatting features, such as footnotes and endnotes, decimal tab alignment, and multiple columns on screen. Online facilities allow you to create tables of contents, indexes, and outlines.
One of the smartest spell-checkers in the business is at your fingertips, along with a thesaurus. WordPerfect performs math functions on tables of numbers in a document, and its mail merge works better than many databases. Its macro functions are so powerful that, in my office, I have reduced a half hour of tedious manual formatting to thirty seconds and two keystrokes. Best of all, each feature is easy to learn, so you can learn as little or as much as you need WordPerfect's usefulness grows as you grow.
Compatibility Plus One of the most exciting things about WordPerfect for the Amiga is WordPerfect Corporation's commitment to keystroke- and file-compatibil- ity as far as is possible across different machine systems (This can also be a two-edged sword; more on that later.). If you learned WordPerfect on an MS- DOS system, keystroke compatibility means you'll be right at home with the Amiga version. With a few exceptions, the two versions operate identically. Pressing F5 brings up a list of available files on both versions (though the displays themselves are markedly different); likewise,
Shift-F7 calls the PRINT menu, ALT-right arrow moves the cursor to the end of the current line, and so on. The transition between "home" and "work" machines is nearly effortless.
Transition between machine systems is also facilitated by close attention to file compatibility. This means that while you can't, for instance, directly access an MS-DOS format floppy disk using the Amiga version of WordPerfect, the codes used to represent the various functions underlining, margins, and so on are identical. Once you transfer the MS-DOS file to an Amiga disk (over phone lines or using the PCTools utilities included on the Amiga Extras disk), you can load the file created by the MS-DOS WordPerfect into Amiga WordPerfect and pick up writing where you left off. When you consider
that WordPerfect is now available for the Amiga, Atari ST, IBM-PC, VAX, Data General, and (continued) Apple II (with UNIX and Macintosh versions currently in development), it becomes clear that WordPerfect is fast becoming a member of one of the rarest breeds: a true cross-system standard.
WordPerfect With Intuition One of the fears I had when I First heard of WordPerfect Corporation's assurance of kcystroke-compatibility was that Amiga users would lose the use of the Intuition features. I needn't have worried. The Amiga version of WordPerfect supports the full Intuition interface, including multiple windows and multi-tasking. Pull-down menu options duplicate those functions accessed through the standard WordPerfect key combinations. The mouse is an especially welcome addition; you can use it to instantly place the cursor at any point in the screen, or "paint" portions of the
document for special formatting.
Out Of The Box WordPerfect is packaged in a sturdy cloth-covered cardboard slipcase. Two function-key templates are included: one for the Amiga 500 and 1000, and one for the Amiga 2000. Don't lose 'em; in spite of WordPerfect's excellent on-line help facility, you will find yourself referring to the template often until you become familiar with the program. A color-coded quick reference card is also included.
The program covers four disks, though only one is needed for most routine operations. A set of transparent pressure-sensitive decals is also included. These decals relabel the numeric keypad on the Amiga 1000 with the standard 1BM-PC functions of PgUp, PgDn, Ins, Home, End, plus arrows. If you have already applied the decals that come with the Transformer package, you won't need to relabel for WordPerfect.
The WordPerfect manual is outstanding. It was rewritten top-to-bottom for the Amiga, and like the program, well serves the needs of novice and professional alike. It features a comprehensive "Getting Started" section, a 200-page, 29-lesson tutorial, an exhaustive reference section, several technical appendices, a glossary of terms, and a full index.
Disk Drive Requirements I must address WordPerfect Corporation's statement that Amiga WordPerfect may bo adequately operated with only one disk drive. I suppose whether or not this is true is a highly subjective matter however, one-drive operation is addressed nowhere in the documentation. Step- by-step installation instructions are included for hard drive systems and dual-floppy configurations, but the single-drive user is left out.
Because of the way the Amiga's operating system was designed, it is technically possible to run almost any program with only one disk drive Intuition simply prompts a disk-swap when required. The problem with WordPerfect is, between its timed backups if desired), stand-alone printing program, and many overlay files in the LIBS directory, you pretty much need to keep the WordPerfect system disk in the internal drive at all times. Operations requiring an additional disk such as the thesaurus and spelling checker require additional swapping. The most extreme case I encountered was initial
printer selection. With two disks, the process was simple. With one disk, the process required 44 disk swaps! Admittedly, this is not something the average user will have to do often but when he docs, it will be a memorable experience.
Don't misunderstand my point; this is not a criticism of the program. It is not unreasonable for a program of WordPerfect's power to require an enhanced configuration. You can also run the program with one floppy drive (and some patience). I only wish WordPerfect Corporation had been more straightforward in their pack- aging.
Fully Featured 1 don't want to spend a lot of time in this review with the more mundane aspects of word processing, such as hanging indents, right-justification, insert or typeover mode, et cetera. If you're wondering if WordPerfect supports a specific standard word processing function, I can assure you that it probably does. This is not as flippant a remark as it appears in a recent comparison chart that pitted WordPerfect against six other MS-DOS heavyweights, the program missed only eight out of a possible 132 listed word processing features (By comparison, Wordstar 2000 Plus missed
29. ). Some of the features WordPerfect got dinged for missing
were esoteric indeed, such as a telecomm module. I won't take
up any more space assuring you of WordPerfect's ability to do
centering, boldface, or cut-and-paste. Trust me. It can.
Rather than concentrate on the basics (that even Notepad can handle, after a fashion), let's explore the features that separate WordPerfect from its competition. If you're wondering whether I am a publicist getting paid on the sly by WordPerfect Corporation, I'll spend some time on those imperfect areas of WordPerfect. As a matter of fact, that's not a bad place to start.
Initial Success One of the biggest factors behind WordPerfect's initial success on the IBM was the incomprehensibility of the word processing programs that preceded it. The most widely-used were, for the most part, ports of popular CP M programs, and carried much of the awkward user interface early microcomputer users had to accept to get power out of such limited architecture. For instance, if you wanted to boldface a word, previous programs required you to bracket the word with control codes actually imbedded within the text on screen. Likewise, on-screen codes were needed to underline, set
line spacing and set margins. People became accustomed to it, but I never met anyone who loved it.
Enter WordPerfect, with as close to WYSIWYG (What You Sec Is What You Get) as anyone had ever seen on a microcomputer. WordPerfect used those same codes, but most of them were tied to simple function-key operations. Rather than having to remember cryptic control codes to initiate boldfacing, WordPerfect users, for example, merely pressed the F6 key (marked BOLD on the template) where they wanted boldfacing to begin, typed the boldfaced word, then F6 again to end boldfacing. The boldfaced portion appeared in a different color than the normal text, and, best of all, the codes that made it all
happen were tucked away "under" the document (more on that in a minute) on screen were only the typed words. Margins appeared as they would print (within screen constraints), and double-spaced text appeared double-spaced on screen. It was quite a revolution at the time.
Amiga users started from a radically different "baseline." The very first word processing software written for the Amiga supported true on-screen boldface plus italics, underlining, and, in some cases, multiple fonts.
The fact that Amiga WordPerfect supports these attributes isn't news; it's business as usual.
So even though Amiga WordPerfect's WYSIWYG is far superior to its record- breaking MS-DOS cousin, the term becomes quite relative when compared to features that are quickly becoming standard fare for Amiga word processing programs. Amiga WordPerfect accurately displays bold, underline, italics, margins, line spacing, tabs, and centering on line. Its display docs not reflect right-justification, super- or subscripts, centering on page, red-lined text, overstrikes, or differences between pica, elite, condensed or expanded text. Font selection is limited to your printer's stock fonts, and if
you have a color printer, you'd better be a whiz at control codes to use color in your documents. Graphics, of course, arc out of the question.
This, then, is the dark side of compatibility. While it's great to be able to use files composed on the MS-DOS version, it also means future revisions of WordPerfect will tend to stay within the limits of the lowest common hardware denominator. For the MS-DOS crowd, that's hardly a limitation. For Amiga users, WordPerfect's screen display is already a generation behind.
Secret Codes I've already mentioned that WordPerfect hid its formatting codes "under" the document. To be more precise, the program imbeds the codes within the document at the point where they are to take effect. While the codes are not normally visible, they can be "revealed" and examined.
Pressing A!t-F3 activates a function known as Reveal Codes. This action opens a separate window below the document display, showing a mnemonic representation of each attribute where it occurs in the document. The simplest document will have the code ISRtj soft return at most line-brcaks; IHRtI denotes a hard, or "forced," carriage return. An underlined phrase appears bracketed by the codes [U] for underlining on and [u] for underlining off. Most codes are easy to understand: CJ designates a centered line; [HI signifies boldface; and I'll leave it up to you to figure out what ITAB] means.
Other codes are less obvious: an [A] indicates a flush-right (continued) lino. Super- or sub-scripting really looks strange under Reveal Codes.
Apparently, WordPerfect formats each letter separately. The word "super," marked for superscripts, appears as IsuprScrpt}s[SuprScrptlu[SuprScrpt]p [SuprScrpt JelSuprScrpt jr.
¦1111 1 li III H Ml
1. Sit 11 Pitch 1t)(37 P
3. Id 13 Pitch (11X27)8
3. Set 15 Pitch 27 P 15
4. Forwrd Print ins On
5. Imrsi Printing On (. Ait* Prwwtinnil Spuing On
(27) x(»X27 p 1
7. Anti Prtftrtinul Spuing Off (27 i l)
1. Shift liti Alternate Chiruttr Sit (Used with A» (27XKMI}
1. Shift luk to Herrul Chirutir Sit (Used Uith A»
A. Hiximn Width if Sput Chiruter (In MI »r Kicrnspui Units) 2
1. Kiiinun Width if Sput Chuutir (In Ml or Hicrtspui Units) 5
iHtxl Scinl [Pm* Scm! | Exit | "On the left, 32 of the 250
printers directly supported by WordPerfect.
Each printer's definition may be examined and edited using WP's PrintDef program (right)."
Once in Reveal Codes, you can navigate through the document using most of the standard methods (cursor keys, PgUp or PgDn). A proportional slider is available as well, but it doesn't work in Reveal Codes mode.
The advantage to Reveal Codes is that you can move the cursor through the formatting codes one at a time, deleting as necessary.
WordPerfect's handing of formatting codes is a strength, but it does require some getting used to. It takes a while for the typical beginner to realize, for instance, that even though he deleted an italicized word, the codes for italics may still be there, "under" the document. In practice, this problem would be minor; should a word be inadvertently inserted between the hidden codes, the italics on screen would make the mistake immediately evident. If, on the other hand, the forgotten code happened to be Strikeout, the first indication that something was amiss would show up when the printer
began pumping out a whole document with dashes overprinting the text. For this reason, one disgruntled user gave WordPerfect the thumbs-down for failing a test he termed WYCINS (What You Get Is No Surprise).
Word Processing Powerhouse WordPerfect has its idiosyncrasies, but, by and large, these are products of the normal learning curve. The fact remains that most users who opt for WordPerfect do so not because of its screen display, but because the program is quite simply a word processing powerhouse. It not only covers the common word processing functions, but it does so exceptionally well. Let me give you some examples.
The Editor’s Desk Composing a document using WordPerfect is simple. Word wrap to the next line is automatic, and margins and line spacing appear as they will print. You may toggle freely between insert and ovcrstrike modes.
WordPerfect redefines the Amiga numeric keypad to act like an IBM keypad, though you may revert back to numeric entry if you choose. With the keypad redefined, you can move the cursor through a document a letter, line, or page at a time. A proportional scroll gadget allows you to do nearly the same thing with the mouse.
The most common word processing tasks (forward search, italics, left- indcnt. List Files, bold, exit, underline, and save documents) may bo accessed directly from the function keys.
Pressing FI alone cancels or undoes many operations.
Pressing shift keys in conjunction with function keys is less routine, but still relatively common: super subscripts, backwards search, opening or switching between multiple document windows, left right indent, insert date, center on line, print, access line formatting options, and retrieve documents.
Pressing the ALT key and function keys together summons more advanced features the thesaurus, replace, Reveal Codes, Block, Mark Text, flush right, summon math multiple columns options, page format options, and macros.
Pressing the CTRL key along with the function keys opens a new CLI window, activates the spelling checker, offers screen options, text import export lock, tab align, footnotes or endnotes, printing formats, and Macro Define.
Function key F9 is reserved for use with WordPerfect's mail merge functions.
Invites you to. . .
Put Your images on Disks!
Color or blacK and white images (photographs, pictures', 35mm slides) can he digitized in IFF format (or use in any IFF program in any of the Amiga's'” screen resolutions. Low resolution (320x200) and interlace (320x400) also available in HAM format (4096 colors). Use disk images to build databases for real estate, personnel Titcs or use for artwork, creative effects, custom icons, with DehixeVidco1” and more, Minimum order Is 6 images for S I 5,00 and includes disk. Add $ 2,00 for postage and handling. California residents add 6% state sales tax. Additionai images $ 2.00 each When ordering
state FORMAT (IFF or MAM) and RF.SOI.UTIOIT. Unless otherwise requested all images will be digitized at the maximum number of colors for that resolution in full dimension, Images may be cropped to fill screen unless full frame is specified. All Images will be returned with your order.
Besides the function keys, WordPerfect also combines the Amiga's standard keys and the redefined keypad to effect different functions: CTRL- RETURN forces a page break; CTRL- right or -left arrow moves the cursor to the right or left one word at a time; HOME-HOME-down arrow moves to the end of the document. In case you forget any of this, pressing the HELP key brings up an on-line help facility cross-referenced to functions and keystroke combinations!
Now that I've given you a quick overview of WordPerfect's capabilities, let's take a look at some of the more interesting ones in depth.
Arntya ts a trademark of Commodm mnrk of Electronic Arts. Inc. * Pie Search ... WordPerfect's Search function offers much flexibility. Searches may be conducted either forward or backward through the text, case-sensitive or not.
Lowercase search criteria will yield upper- or lowercase matches; uppercase letters specified in a search will match only uppercase. Therefore, a search for the string "test" will find "test," "Test," and "TEST." Searching on "Test" will find 'Test" and "TEST."
Searching on "TEST" will produce only the case-for-case match, "TEST."
To limit searches to wrholc words (Find "test" and ignore "attest" and "testify."), you must delimit the search criteria with a blank space at each end.
In addition to words and phrases, you may also include hidden formatting codes in search criteria.
Amiga WordPerfect omits one very useful search facility implemented in the MS-DOS version: the ability to substitute wildcard characters in search criteria.
... And Replace When combined with WordPerfect's search abilities, Replace becomes doubly powerful. The Replace criteria follow the same guidelines as search criteria and may be executed globally by document, within the limits of a defined block of text, or with verification.
Theoretically, WordPerfect's ability to include bidden formatting codes in search and replace strings is a real plus. In operation, the function suffers from an occasional glitch.
As an experiment, I changed all occurrences of the name, "WordPerfect" in this review from normal text to boldface. The operation worked like a charm. Intrigued, I decided to try something a little trickier changing my now-boldfaced "WordPerfect's" to underlined and italicized. Voita! It worked again!
P. O. Box 7119 Lomo Linda. CA 92354 Amiga Inc DcluxeVicleo ts a
traciest* - 1 0 Clitics Delighted with my own cleverness, I
then set to return the '‘WordPerfect" strings back to normal
text and that's where I hit the snag. After one completely
unsuccessful search operation (I mistakenly reversed the
underline and italics codes.), I carefully matched my search
criteria against what I saw in the Reveal Codes window and
tried again.
This time 1 got "WordPerfect" in my document from top-to-bottom. That's not a typo the underlining begins under the "o." Strangest of all, nothing I tried using Search and Replace would restore the odd strings to normal text. Search would locate the criteria, but Replace wouldn't replace. I finally had to go back and remove the spurious underlining manually.
(continued)
* ‘ivi Fuller Computer Systems (nr An easy to use, friendly and
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A powerful and fast disk backup tool that lets you make backups of your copy-protected Amiga software.
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This product is not copy-prolccted in any way.
File Handling File storage and retrieval aren't usually operations that make the heart beat more quickly, but WordPerfect's options are something special. Aside from handling its own custom format, WordPerfect also allows you to save and recall files as unformatted ASCII text, making WordPerfect an ideal text editor for programmers.
If you attempt to load a non-WordPerfect document using the standard Retrieve function, the program informs you of the discrepancy and allows you to either cancel or continue, i was very pleased to see, at least in the case of my old Scribblel-formatted documents, that WordPerfect simply stripped out the formatting characters it didn't recognize, leaving straight text requiring minimum corrective reformatting.
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WordPerfect allows you to "lock" documents using a sophisticated encryption technique. Each locked file may have its own password, up to 75 letters long.
WordPerfect takes several precautions to safeguard your files. You may configure the program to automatically backup the document you're editing at specified time intervals; you may also set the program to save an unedited backup version of your document each time you perform a "save."
DIRUTIL-WP While we're on the subject of file handling, WordPerfect's List Files function deserves special mention. F5 calls up a special List Files submenu with many features you'll wonder how you ever did without. Besides the standard options of retrieve (WordPcr- TO ORDER Send check or money order to: Fuller Computer Systems, Inc.
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An especially intriguing feature included under List Files is Word Search, whereby you may instruct the program to search a directory for specific words or phrases. This is not a simple title search (though WordPerfect has a way of doing that too), but a search of each file's contents. It's pretty fast, even when searching a floppy disk.
Word Search allows any combination of words up to 20 letters, and can link words usirg logical operators representing AMD and OR. Entering "Commodore;Amiga" yields a list of all files containing both "Commodore" and "Amiga." Entering "Commodore,Amiga" yields a list of all files containing either word.
Pattern matching is allowed, using standard MS-DOS wildcards of and "?." Entering "s?t" finds the words set, sit and sat. Entering "s*t" locates all files containing set, sit, and sat, as well as sunset, spirit, and sweet.
Multiple Documents This is one area where Amiga WordPerfect leaves its befuddled MS- DOS cousin in the dust. While the MS-DOS version of WordPerfect allows users to switch between two documents in memory at a given time, Amiga users are not so constrained in fact, the WordPerfect manual says you may have up to 32 windows open at once if system memory allows! (I sincerely hope I never need to put that claim to the test.) WordPerfect also allows easy cut-and-paste between multiple documents.
HOW DO YOU SPELL RELIEF?
WordPerfect's spelling checker features a dictionary of over 115,000 words, and allows you to create customized supplemental dictionary files. If you mistakenly add a misspelled word, you can go back and remove it from the dictionary. In addition, the WordPerfect spelling checker performs word counts.
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Ml, FL, & CA add sales tax When you call the spelling checker,
you are given several options: to check one word, a page, a
predefined block of text, or a whole document; to change
dictionaries; to look up a spelling; or to perform a word
count.
The WordPerfect spelling checker is smart; unlike some other programs, it is not easily tripped by punctuation and plurals. Besides checking for misspellings, it also detects two occurrences of the same word in a row.
When the spell checker encounters a word not found in its dictionary, it stops, flags the word, and displays a list of the most likely correct words, C31 33 771 -4465 To select one of these words, simply point and click, or select its letter. If the spelling checker can't find a likely match, you may manually edit the word, query the dictionary phonetically or using pattern matching, or if the word is correctly spelled you may add the word to the supplementary dictionary or skip over the word entirely.
One feature 1 particularly like is WordPerfect's handling of words containing numbers. Upon the first occurrence of a word containing a number, the spelling checker offers you the option of ignoring nil words containing numbers, This is a big help in technical writing.
One possible drawback to WordPerfect's spelling checker is its speed. On floppy-based systems, the spelling checker takes time nearly 17 minutes to check a 4,600 word file. In fairness, this is AmigaDOS's rap as much as the program's AmigaDOS has never been renowned for its floppy disk speed. Vvhen tested on a SupraDrive 20 megabyte hard drive, the same file took considerably less time-approximately six minutes. The best speed is achieved by loading the spelling checker's dictionary into the ramdisk; under this configuration, the spelling checker whipped through the file in one minute, twenty
seconds.
This option is not for everyone the dictionary takes up over 260K but even at that size, an expanded Amiga 500 could handle it with ease.
What’s The Word?
Perhaps your problem is not spelling, but trying to decide which word to use. WordPerfect's got that covered too, with an impressive thesaurus utility.
Let's say you need another word for "run." To call up WordPerfect's thesaurus, place the cursor on the word "run" and press ALT-F1. Within seconds, a window opens up listing a series of headwords broken into subgroups.
A headword is a word that may be immediately substituted into the text or further explored within the thesaurus. A subgroup is a collection of headwords sharing the same connotation. This is important with a word like "run," which has several meanings. In the first subgroup, WordPerfect's thesaurus lists bolt, dart, dash, race, and sprint. Entirely different meanings for "run" are found in the second subgroup, which includes function and operate. Another subgroup lists administer, govern, and manage; yet another, drive, maneuver, and propel. (There are three more subgroups, but I'll be
merciful.)
(continued) If you see a headword that appeals to you, you can insert it into your document at this time. If one looks close, but isn't exactly what you're looking for, you can break it down further a double-click on "race," for instance, yields nouns as diverse as competition, chase, and species, and verbs such as hurry and speed, and (my favorite) an antonym, mosey.
By and large, the thesaurus works well. It has a generous vocabulary and locates word lists quickly, even from a floppy disk. One warning: the version 1 tested, dated September 27, 1987, has a particularly virulent bug infecting its View Doc option. View Doc is supposed to allow you to examine your document for context while in the Thesaurus. However, by repeated testing, I found that clicking the mouse pointer in the document window and pressing the cursor keys a few times caused a full system crash.
By the time this article is printed, a fix should be available registered owners arc advised to call WordPerfect's Customer Support hotline for more information.
Hard Copy WordPerfect handles document printing as a separate "task" it even has a separate "Print" icon on the main system disk, which may be used apart from the main WordPerfect program.
The biggest advantage to this approach is, once you tell WordPerfect to print a document, you can resume writing without waiting for it to finish; you can return to your document immediately. That's nice. WordPerfect automatically spools multiple print jobs into a queue and allows you to temporarily suspend, cancel, or "rush" jobs within the queue.
WordPerfect allows you to print an entire document, a selected page, or any range of text identified within a block.
WordPerfect takes a radical departure from previous Amiga programs in its printer handling. While Amiga WordPerfect uses the Preferences printer driver definitions if you insist, its full power is realized by selecting one of the 250 custom drivers contained on the Print disk. You may select up to six different printers, configuring each to suit specialized needs: number of copies, print to a DOS text file or other device, binding width offset, continuous-form or cut- sheet paper. WordPerfect also supports sheet-feeders.
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In the unlikely event that your printer is not among those listed on the Print disk, the disk contains a PrintDef program, whereby you may define new printer drivers or modify old ones.
The Print disk also contains a 30-page WordPerfect-format document explaining use of the PrintDef program in detail. It's a rather strange Catch-22 that this document is not provided in hard copy form, considering a good portion of those who will need it the most are those having trouble getting WordPerfect to work with their printers!
Most people will not have problems with WordPerfect's printer drivers.
One phenomena printers offering multiple emulations has given the customer support specialists a real workout. The Star SG-10, for instance, supports either IBM printer codes or its own quasi-Epson "Star" mode.
None of the drivers included with WordPerfect adequately support "Star" mode the printer's out-of-the-box default! Star SG-10 owners arc advised to flip their printers' dip switches to the IBM position.
Unlike the MS-DOS WordPerfect, the Amiga version docs not support the PostScript printer language that has become popular with many laser printers. Postscript support is planned for a future update.
Advanced Features ATTENTION!
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_ If WordPerfect offered only the functions described so
far, it would still be a strong contender but those arc just
the warm-up. Advanced features help WordPerfect really
outdistance the pack. There isn't room to do much more than
touch lightly in each of the advanced areas, but even that
should give you an idea of the program's capability.
Tables Of Contents And Indices If you have ever been through the painful experience of manually assembling a table of contents or an index (extra credit if you did it on a typewriter), you will probably walk away muttering the first time you sec how easy WordPerfect makes these two most hated and feared wrord processing tasks. The process is nearly identical for tables of contents and indices. In addition, WordPerfect allows you to define up to five lists which may be used to show directories of figures or graphs.
ONLY S4995 The first step in creating a table of contents, index, or list involves marking each occurrence of the word or phrase you want to include. This may be done as the document is written, or on the final draft. Automating the process with a well-constructed macro saves a lot of time. Tables of contents and indices may be designed on multiple levels; for instance, under the contents subheading "GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS," you could include separate subheadings for Safety, Health, and so forth.
Next, you must tell WordPerfect where to put the table of contents, index or list, and which of several formatting options you want to use.
The iast step is the easiest: GENERATE. When you select the Generate option from the Mark Text menu, WordPerfect scans the document for marked words, sorts as necessary, formats the tables, and inserts them in the document. It's pretty impressive the first time I saw the process I could only shake my head in disbelief.
If the changes affect page numbering or table headings, selecting Generate again reformats a fresh, updated table of contents and index.
Automatic Outlining WordPerfect's outlining ability is so intuitive, it borders on artificial intelligence. All you need to do is decide at what level each outline item appears by pressing the Tab or Indent keys; WordPerfect numbers each item appropriately Roman numeral capitals (L,
II. , III.) For the first level, capital letters (A., B., C.) for
the second level, numbers (1., 2., 3.) For the third level
and so on. Should you get part of the way through an outline
and realize you left out an item half a page back, no
problem- WordPerfect renumbers your outline to accommodate
the new entry.
You are not limited to the "standard" outlining format described in the previous paragraph. WordPerfect also outlines in "paragraph" notation (1., a.,
i. ) and legal notation (1.1, 2.1.1), If its built-in outline
formats don't suit your needs, WordPerfect allows you to
create your own customized notation format for up to seven
levels. Best of all, you can change notation on a completed
outline from one style to another with just a couple of key
strokes.
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S$ 382 0£ II 5S “o (continued from page 63) Multiple Columns
Multiple column format is another area where WordPerfect
simplifies what has typically been an exercise in frustration.
You may define up to five columns across a page. Depending on
how many columns you select, WordPerfect suggests the
individual column margins, or you may supply your own.
Two types of columns arc available.
"Newspaper" format is commonly used in newsletters where text continues from the bottom of one column to the top of the next. The "parallel" format is used for information that must be aligned across columns. The WordPerfect tutorial uses an example of an address list containing names in column 1, associated addresses in column 2, and phone numbers in column 3 to illustrate this format.
The best thing 1 can say about WordPerfect's handling of multiple columns is that it frees you from concentrating on the how's of formatting, allowing you to concentrate on writing, instead of keeping two sets of margins straight.
The Miracle Of Automation WordPerfect's Macro abilities offer unprecedented flexibility and power, allowing you to automate frequently used functions. WordPerfect's Macro Define allows you to you easily (yes, easily) create macros to format documents, insert text, save and print documents, and even call other macros. In fact, WordPerfect macros can automate any scries of tasks that can be executed sequentially. My personal favorite macro, designed by Rhyder McClure, a columnist for PC Magazine, uses WordPerfect's math functions to calculate and print invoices to a laser printer! We're
talking serious power here.
We're also talking accessible power here. WordPerfect's Macro Define function can be compared to a "keystroke recorder"; once activated, it remembers every keystroke entered (commands as well as text) until you tell it you're through. Running the macro simply plays the keystrokes back.
You may name a macro using any valid filename, though one-letter macro names allow you to execute the macro by simply pressing an Amiga key and the letter for instance, executing a PRINT macro with Amiga-
P. You may define as many macros as you like WordPerfect saves
them as permanent files. Once defined, you may use a macro in
subsequent sessions.
Lessons 16 through 20 in the documentation's tutorial section offer step-by-step examples of the power of WordPerfect macros, guiding new users through the creation of both simple and complex macros. The examples are practical as well by the time you get through the four lessons, you will have created a two-keystroke macro to save and print files, another macro to add a closing salutation to correspondence, and a third macro to further automate the creation of indices.
WordPerfect macros may repeat, chain to other macros, and even branch based on what they encounter at run time. Once a macro has been created, though, there is no way to return to cither examine the macro for its function (short of executing it) or edit it. This a drawback. A Macro Editor was such a popular feature of the MS- DOS WordPerfect Library (a collection of add-on utilities), that WordPerfect Corporation recently began marketing it separately. WordPerfect Corporation plans to demonstrate an Amiga version of the WordPerfect Library at this fall's COMDEX unfortunately, they are not
currently planning to include the Macro Editor in the Amiga version. Unlike document files, macro files are not compatible across machine systems.
Some standard Amiga key conventions forced the programmers of Amiga WordPerfect to make a departure from the standard WordPerfect method of using the ALT key to call one-letter macros. Standard Amiga key conventions reserve the ALT key for overstruck characters needed for some foreign alphabets. Considering that approximately half of Amiga WordPerfect's sales to date have been in European markets, leaving that function intact was probably wise.
Fixing one problem created another, though the Amiga has key conventions for its "Amiga" keys, too!
Amiga-N and Amiga-M, for instance, may be used to toggle between screens. The designers fixed this problem by assigning certain Amiga- key combinations as Amiga-keys, and others as keys as WordPerfect macros.
I found this out when my copy of WordPerfect stubbornly refused to let me name a macro "Amiga-S." I thought I had a major bug on my hands, but that was not the case.
Keys may be assigned as standard Amiga keys or as macros through Screen (CTRL-F3) option 2, Ctrl Amiga Keys. To change an Amiga key from "Amiga" to "Macro," click on the window next to the letter you want to change, enter the number "1," and press return. You read it here first it's not in the manual.
Mail Merge WordPerfect's mail merge facility allows you to generate hordes of "personalized" form letters just like the big boys. To perform a mail merge, WordPerfect requires you create a primary file, containing the document which will have the information inserted at set points, and a secondary file containing the information to be merged with the document.
Like many database programs, WordPerfect inserts fields in the secondary file into predefined points in the primary file. Unlike most database programs, WordPerfect maintains the document's format through diverse field lengths, and wrapping words when necessary, just as if the document had been typed by hand. In one merge example included in the documentation, one field ranges in length from two lines in one record, to six lines in another.
The finished merge may be sent to the editing screen for review, or directly to the printer. Besides the codes entered from the secondary file, you may also configure WordPerfect to accept keyboard input during the merge process. You may even execute macros during the merge.
Overall Impressions WordPerfect Corporation did what it set out to do redefine the standard of Amiga word processing. Love it or hate it, WordPerfect will be the standard against which all others will be measured for years to comc.
This compatibility isn't one hundred percent; Amiga WordPerfect does not support sorts, and its "border draw" function is anemic compared to the MS-DOS version's Line Draw, Amiga WordPerfect's requesters are also a bit more sluggish than you might expect from a product written totally in 68000 assembly language. Finally, if you require options specific to WordPerfect
4. 2, you should know that the Amiga version is written at level
4.1. Even with these shortcomings, the Amiga version
essentially retains all the power of other machines' versions,
while adding extra measures of capability and ease of use.
Overall, I think the Amiga version comes out on top.
The fastest Is WordPerfect for everyone? Probably not. If you are contemplating a word processor strictly for home use, you will be happy with WordPerfect though it'll be a little like driving a Mascrati to the corner store, And there's that Maserati price tag, too even with WordPerfect’s suggested list price of S395 discounted as heavily as 50% in some areas, most people will have to think twice before making such an investment.
Software development system AMIGA $ 199 Extremely last single-pass compiler, integrated into the Amiga Wfarkbench, tut! Support tor documented functions (Intuition, Exec, Graphics, etc.). double-precision numeric types, including FFR produces optimised machine code, links in just a few seconds! The comprehensive development system contains an editor, compiler, linker, Iibrary modules (Standard & Amiga libraries), manual and introductory Modula-2 book.
Minimum configuration: 512K. 1 drive.
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$ 249 $ 79 Then again, when you buy WordPerfect, you aren't just investing in the product you're investing in the company. Their customer support is the best in the business: a toll-free 800 number is available Monday through Friday on an unlimited basis to all registered users. If you find a bug, you won't have to wait for a major upgrade WordPerfect Corporation is ruthless about bugs, and not shy about upgrading software. You can expect a fast replacement, free of charge, with no hassles.
For serious word processing on the Amiga, WordPerfect is the 1 choice.
And when compared feature-for- feature against its competition, there is no 2.
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Hardware Editor The Insider™ is a state-of-the-art RAM expansion board for the Amiga. The unit is mounted inside the main Amiga™ console hence the name "Insider." There are both pros and cons to any interfacing scheme, and every system designer is certain of only one fact: You can never please everyone.
There are only three options available when it comes to expanding the available RAM in the Amiga 1000.
You can expand the original 256K system to 512K using the Commodore™ 256K RAM expansion unit or a similar expansion unit from an independent developer. This stage of expansion is relatively easy to accomplish since RAM expansion boards simply plug into the RAM expansion port on the front of the Amiga system console a simple, five-minute installation.
However, this is the maximum memory (256K) that can be added by the expansion port. 512K is very respectable by early 1980s standards, but, with today's relatively low-cost RAM chips and the sophistication of existing memory-intensive software, it simply does not cut the icing on the cake not for me anyhow.
Your second option involves the expansion bus located on the right side of the Amiga console. Although Commodore docs not currently use the Amiga expansion bus, several independents offer RAM expansion units which can take the Amiga to its current maximum address space of 8 megabytes. There is only one disadvantage that comes along with these super megabyte RAM expansion units.
Simply put, they are substantially more expensive than the Insider. The difference in cost is justifiable, however, simply because a 2, 4, or 8 megabyte RAM expansion is vastly more complicated (and costly) to produce.
Your final option is to hack the RAM expansion yourself. A simple 512K RAM expansion was presented in Amazing Computing V2.1. Michigan Software has put together a combination of hardware and software sure to please most Amiga users. The specifications of the Insider RAM expansion board are as follows:
1. One megabyte of expansion RAM.
2. No forced wait states.
3. Transparent refresh.
A. Only 600 ma draw from power supply.
5. Real-time clock with 10-year lithium battery back-up.
6. Auto-configuration under 1.2.
7. Software which includes:
a. Addmem program.
B. Memory test program.
C. Real-time clock program.
D. Rdm on off program.
A comprehensive installation manual and a one-year warranty arc also included with the Insider RAM expansion unit. The warranty does not include damage incurred during installation. The Commodore warranty does not cover any damage you cause either. You're on your own, but, if you follow the instructions closely, little con go wrong.
The insider docs not fall into any of the original RAM expansion options described earlier. It falls somewhere between the hack and expansion bus options. 1 use the term hack simply because the Amiga must be disassembled to install the Insider. The Insider is a professionally designed, high quality product that uses state-of- the-art components and technology.
This advanced technology, including the LSI RAM controller, clock module, and PALs, allows the Insider to exist in its current configuration and fit easily into an area where no system expansion was planned.
The Insider is well thought-out and designed for installation by anyone, even those without electronic knowledge. Three screw drivers are required a Phillips head, a small flat blade, and a medium flat blade. A pair of long needle nose pliers will also save you a lot of aggravation.
The installation manual takes you stcp-by-stcp through the entire installation procedure. The manual is excellent; nothing seems to be missing.
The folks at Michigan Software have even provided a small box at the beginning of each instruction, so you can check off the steps as you complete them. This may seem trivial, but it shows that much thought went into easy installation.
The following is a general description of how to install the Insider. (You should know the steps involved before you spend your hard-earned money on a project you may not want to complete.)
1. Remove all cables that arc externally attached to the Amiga.
2. Remove 256K RAM expansion card (if used).
3. Remove all hardware holding the Amiga case closed.
4. Open the Amiga case.
5. Remove all hardware and bend alt tabs securing the RF shield
to the Amiga mother board. Remove shield.
6. Remove mounting hardware for the disk drive and remove the
cables attached to the drive. Remove the drive from the Amiga,
(The Insider can be installed without removing the disk drive
unit; it just takes a little more time and patience.)
7. The MC68000 microprocessor must now be removed from its
socket. Be very careful here because you're dead in the water
if you break it. It doesn't cost much, but you can't get one
at Radio Shack™.
8. Plug the MC68000 microprocessor into the socket provided on
the Insider expansion board.
Dip switch settings Range (notes) 1 2 3 4 oft off off off do not use on off off off do not use off on off off 200000 2FFFFF on on off off 300000 3FFFFF off off on off 400000 4FFFFF on off on off 500000 5FFFFF off on on off 600000 6FFFFF on on on off 700000 7FFFFF off off off on 800000 8FFFFF on off off on 900000 9FFFFF off on off on do not use on on off on do not use off off on on cOOOOO cFFFFF on off on on do not use off on on on do not use on on on on do not use
9. Plug the provided MC68000 extension socket into the Amiga
mother board.
10. Plug the Insider into the extension socket.
11. Attach four jumper wires to the Amiga using test clips. (No
soldering is required, but you can solder if you have the
required expertise.)
CAUTION: It takes considerable force to insert the MC68000 extension socket into the Amiga microprocessor socket. This pressure must be exerted again to insert the insider into the extension socket.
Commodore did not design the mechanical supports for the mother board for any internal system expansion, so there are no support posts beneath the microprocessor socket. Excessive flexing of the printed wiring board can break the circuitry.
Kickstart, you must use the ADDMEM utility to inform the system of the added memory. Run the program Well, that's all there is to the installation. It seems complicated, but it's a piece of cake, and the results are just as sweet. Before you close your system, test the RAM expansion after all, we've all heard of Murphy's law.
The exact steps for testing the system depend on the version of Kickstart™ you use. Kickstart version 1.2 causes the Insider to auto-configurc if the default switch settings are used. The Insider has a four-position dip switch used to set the address range of the expansion RAM. The corresponding address ranges for the possible switch settings are: Although the Insider RAM can be installed at any usable address range, it will most often be installed at the auto-configuration default setting of cOOOOO cFFFFF (since most users are currently running the latest version of Kickstart).
If the Insider is configured at any address other than cOOOOO cFFFFF, or if the Amiga is running version 1.1 of from the CLI each time you boot the Amiga or modify the start-up sequence. This way it's done automatically.
Several other utility programs are provided on the disk. Insider's realtime clock is running when you receive it, but there must be a way of setting the clock and transferring the time and date information to the Amiga system software. This function is provided by the Rtclock program which can be run from the CLI, or, preferably, by modifying the system start-up sequence. The program provides a basic instruction set which can both set and query the Insider clock. Once the clock is set, you'll never have to type the time or date again.
The software also includes a memory test program, Memtest, and the RAM on off software which allows the user to turn the extra RAM on off from the Workbench. Not all software is created equal. Many early programs were not designed to run outside the Amiga's original 512K of RAM. If you have such a program, a simple click on the RAM on off icon in the Workbench™ allows you to run the program without problem.
With the Insider, 256K systems increase system RAM to approximately 1.2 meg., and 512K systems peak at 1.44 meg. These figures will vary somewhat, according to variations in start-up sequences.
(continued) I have had my Insider for over a month, and I have not experienced any hardware or software problems.
Is it worth it? In my opinion, it's worth every penny.
KWIKSTART 1 had just closed my Amiga after installing the Insider RAM expansion board when, lo and behold, the UPS™ truck delivered Michigan Software's new, exciting Kwikstart.
Kwikstart is a ROM add-on board for the Amiga 1000. Since some readers may not be familiar with the term ROM, a brief explanation is in order.
ROM is read only memory. ROM, just like RAM (random access memory), can be programmed. The big difference is, once programmed, the information stored on ROM cannot be changed by the user. Additionally, unlike RAM, ROM does not require any power to maintain the stored information.
Information stored on ROM also executes (runs) at a much higher speed, because ROM memory is directly connected to the microprocessor bus. Intervention is not required by hardware (disk access) or software conversion routines. ROM memory appears to be the ideal form of information storage with one possible exception: It is permanent, and no alterations are possible.
When Commodore released the 1000 and its system operating software, certain bugs existed; other problems were uncovered during initial use.
Therefore, they decided against committing the operating system software to ROM upon the release of the Amiga 1000. As with everything else, change is inevitable. Version 1.2 of the system software has been released by Commodore as the de facto standard.
The ROM installed on the Kwikstart expansion board contains version 1.2 of the Commodore Amiga system operating software.
Installation of Kwikstart is similar to installation of Insider (although Kwikstart does require more hands-on ability). The main difference is the removal of one component (PAL) from the Amiga Kickstart board. Otherwise, the installations are nearly identical.
The steps required to install the Kwikstart ROM board into the Amiga main console are:
1. Remove all cables connected to the Amiga's main console.
2. Remove the 256K RAM expansion board installed at the front of
the Amiga main console (if used).
3. Remove all hardware holding the Amiga case together.
4. Remove the RF shield.
5. Remove the daughter (Kickstart) board from the Amiga mother
board.
6. Remove (unsolder) the PAL at location 6J on the Amiga daughter
board.
7. Solder the provided socket into place at location 6J on the
daughter board.
8. Assemble the new PAL into the socket on the daughter board.
9. Re-install the daughter board onto the Amiga mother board.
10. Remove the disk drive. (Note; The Kzuikstart board can be
installed without removing the disk drive; it just takes more
time.)
11. Remove the MC68000 microprocessor from its socket.
12. Install the MC68000 microprocessor into the socket on the
Kwikstart board.
13. Press the Kwikstart board into the microprocessor socket.
14. Re-mount the disk drive.
15. Solder the two wires attached to the Kwikstart board to the
Amiga mother board.
Before closing up the Amiga, test the installation.
Kwikstart is shipped from the factory configured to power-up under the Kickstart™ 1.2 ROM version. In that case, you are almost immediately greeted by the INSERT WORKBENCH screen. If you want the Amiga to power up normally under the disk- based version of Kickstart, you must switch a jumper on the Kwikstart board. The jumper is a simple press- on type device no soldering required.
Why would anyone want the Amiga to request the disk-based version? The answer is complicated, but simple.
When a system manufacturer comes out with a new product, he issues guidelines to hardware and software developers. These guidelines provide a path for both hardware and software to be upwardly compatible with future versions of the system software.
Compatibility becomes an issue because these guidelines may not always be followed.
Many Amiga software packages do not run, or are hampered by bugs when run under Kickstart 1.2. Most current Amiga users are likely to own at least one of these packages, so Michigan Software had the forethought to offer the ROM DISK Kickstart option. The goodies do not end here.
To make the Kwikstart board as flexible as possible, Michigan Software also offers a way to switch, midstream, between the disk-based and ROM-based Kickstart. A brief example is the simplest way to explain this option. Let's assume the Kwikstart ROM board is configured so the Amiga powers up under the ROM version of Kickstart.
Approximately two seconds after the power has been turned on, you see the INSERT WORKBENCH screen; that's pretty fast when compared to the disk-based version. If you reboot the system by pressing the Control Amiga Amiga keys for less than three seconds, you again see the INSERT WORKBENCH screen.
However, if you do a system reboot by pressing Control Amiga Amiga for more than three seconds, you see the Insert Kickstart greeting. This same sequence of events also holds true for a Kwikstart board configured to bring the Amiga up under the normal Kickstart environment. In effect, you can toggle between the ROM and disk- based Kickstart.
To install Kwikstart, you must remove a PAL device from a printed wiring board and solder a socket onto the board. Removing the old PAL is quite difficult, but soldering the socket is relatively easy. Be careful, though.
Removing anything from a printed wiring board involves a certain amount of risk, even for someone with experience. Michigan Software's concern is evident in the installation manual several pages are devoted to removing the required PAL device.
It took me ten minutes to unsolder the PAL and solder in the socket, but 1 have pretty good equipment and more years of experience than I care to admit. If you are a complete novice, i have only four words of advice for you: Do not do it. Instead, get help from a friend who has experience removing components from printed wiring boards or pay a professional to do it for you. I'm not trying to scare FIGURE 2 you off; it's really a simple job, but why take a chance? The Kwikstart board is worth what you may have to pay to have the PAL removed.
You have one other option available, although 1 am somewhat hesitant to recommend it because it will probably void Michigan Software's warranty.
Using a fine-pointed pair of diagonal wire cutters, cut through all leads of the PAL at location 6j on the Kwikstart board. Trim the leads as close as possible to the Kickstart board, but be careful not to cut into the traces or pads on the Kickstart board (sec Figure 1).
Next, prepare the new PAL for mounting, using the following alternate method. The leads on all integrated circuits are shipped from the manufacturer bent at a slight angle from the body of the IC. These leads must be made parallel to the iC's body prior to installation onto the board (see Figure 2). That relatively easy task can be accomplished by using either the instructions provided in the installation manual or by individually forming each lead. Next, the leads must be formed at a 90-degree angle to the main IC body (see Figure 3).
The leads must also be trimmed to the approximate dimensions shown.
This alternate assembly method requires that the leads on the new PAL and the termination points to which it is to be soldered both bo prc- tinned prior to soldering. Tinning is simply the application of a fine coating of solder to a terminating lead or wire.
When you tin the pads at location 6j, try to produce solder joints which arc smooth, flat, and approximately the same height above the printed wiring board surface.
The new PAL can now be directly soldered into place. Orient the PAL to the proper position and place it directly onto the solder pads at location 6J. Visually verify that all the component leads arc making full contact with their terminating points.
(continued) You may have to reform some of the leads to get proper alignment. Once you arc sure of the alignment, solder the four comer leads of the PAL to the board to hold the device in position.
If you have tinned both the PAL and the board properly, no additional solder is required; simply reheat the existing solder so it melts and flows together. Solder the remaining leads to the board.
What do you get for your money by installing Kwikstart?
1. Increased system performance an almost instantaneous
Workbench Screen.
Tin lecds
2. System flexibility the disk-based versions of Kick- start
can be called up. This could be an invaluable commodity if a
higher revision Kickstart or other system operating software
becomes available in the future.
3. Approximately 256K of additional memory is available when the
ROM based Kickstart is used.
4. The satisfaction of knowing that you have not spent your
hard-earned dollars fruitlessly on an antiquated system (The
Amiga 500 and 2000 both have Kickstart installed in ROM.),
Dual Installation The Insider RAM expansion board and
Kwikstart ROM board by Michigan Software arc completely
compatible and can be simultaneously installed into the Amiga
system console.
The combined installation is approved by Michigan Software. In fact, it was originally part of the design concept for the two units. Michigan Software has added the necessary instructions for dual installation to the manuals shipped with current Insider and Kwikstart. If you have already purchased the Insider or Kwikstart, your manual may not include the new instructions. In that case, note the following steps: Tin leods PAL WWW FIGURE 3 The combined installation should begin with installation of Kwikstart.
The Kwikstart board should be installed directly into the MC68000 socket on the Amiga mother board per Michigan Software's instructions as outlined in this article. Do not use the extension socket provided with the Insider installation kit to install the Kwikstart ROM board. The extension socket can cause mechanical fit problems with the RF shield after the combined installation is complete and the Amiga is reassembled. Why, you ask? Early Insider expansion boards had the clock module mounted in a socket. When this extra height is added, only a marginal fit exists (by my calculations
anyway since my Insider has the clock module mounted directly onto the board, I cannot be sure).
After installing the Kwikstart ROM board, test it thoroughly before installing the Insider. Unfortunately, testing Kwikstart requires partial reassembly of the Amiga, but it's essential for troubleshooting the installation. The installation manual describes the testing procedure.
Once you are sure the Kwikstart board is functioning properly, you can install the Insider expansion board. Bogin by following the instructions for disassembling the Amiga to the point where it is safe to work on be sure the power cord is removed.
Remove the MC68000 microprocessor installed on the Kwikstart ROM expansion board; again, follow all prescribed precautions. The remainder of the installation is relatively easy.
Press the Insider into the socket on the Kwikstart ROM board by alternately applying pressure to each end of the microprocessor socket mounted on the Insider until the pins are fully seated into the Kwikstart board. If you have not already done so, mount the microprocessor into the socket on the Insider and attach the required wires to both the Kickstart and Amiga mother boards. Don't forget to install the jumper which tics together the Kickstart and the mother boards.
The installation is complete! Test the combined expansion boards before closing up the Amiga ... and wipe the perspiration from your brow.
The old adage you can't have your cake and eat it too doesn't apply when it comes the Insider and Kwikstart expansion boards. You don't have to choose between them you can have both.
• AC* by Jon Bryan Translate the RKM DumpRPort example from C
into Multi-Forth This month, I have several useful additions to
your Multi- Forth toolbox. A member of the Forth forum on
CompuServe was having difficulty with the DumpRPort example
that begins on page 423 of the ROM Kernel Manual: Libraries and
Devices. This problem struck me as an excellent exercise, so
I translated the C source into Multi-Forth.
Aside from providing a good example of a straight C-to- Forth translation, the program also includes the definition of the IntuitionBase structure and examples of the procedures for opening libraries and using the printer device.
DumpRPort is essentially equivalent to the GraphicDump utility in the Workbench System drawer. After a delay of a few seconds to allow you to arrange the display to your liking, DumpRPort dumps the screen to the printer.
The first thing you'll see in the example is the phrase "SYMTABLE DEFINITIONS." Creative Solutions' conventionally places structure definitions (symbols) in the Symtable vocabulary. If you are unfamiliar with the concept, a vocabulary in Forth is a mechanism for structuring the dictionary similarly to the subdirectories on a floppy or hard disk. The vocab mechanism allows words with the same spellings to have different meanings, depending on the context. It also subdivides the words in the dictionary into groups according to their function, as this case indicates.
SYMTABLE DEFINITIONS links new words into the Symtable vocabulary, The data structures needed to dump the screen are then defined, Structures located in other files are compiled if they aren't yet in the dictionary. Each C include file has a counterpart in Multi-Forth (translated by yours truly). Each file begins with a null definition which is used as a flag.
For instance, the word EXEC_TYPES_F indicates that the typcs.f file in the Exec subdirectory has already been compiled. After the exec types.f, intuition intuition.f, and devices printer,f files are compiled, we arrive at the definition of the IntuitionBase structure.
IntuitionBase provides access to certain information which is not available anywhere else. In this case, it is used to retrieve the address of the frontmost screen. It also contains pointers to the currently active Window and Screen, the X and Y coordinates of the mouse, and other pieces of information which can be extremely useful.
The IntuitionBase structure defined in this example program is actually a subset of the complete IntuitionBase area. If you want to extend the structure, you are directed to the intuitionbase.h file in the C includes. Be warned, however, that the structure will change from one release of the operating system to the next. This structure contains much potentially useful information (including the pointer to the Preferences structure), but the information may not be in the same location when AmigaDOS 1.3 is released. Polite ways to use or change those sorts of things are available to make your
operating system much happier.
The "printerlO" structure is a multiform (called a union in
C) which is as large as its largest member. After it is defined,
you'll notice that we switch back to the Forth vocabulary and
make DECIMAL our current base. You will also note definitions
for the Exec calls OpenLibrary and CloseLibrary, and
translations of the C procedures "CreatcExtIO" and
"DelcteExtlO."
The source for the C functions is included in Appendix B of RKM: Exec. A number of other C "macros" are included in the Exec manual might be worth translating. You should read through at least Appendix B to familiarize yourself with these others.
Three string constants for the calls are available to open the intuition library, printer port, and printer device. For instance, the "OpenLibrary" call gets the pointer to the base of Intuition. The zero-terminated string "intuition.library" then must be passed to the pointer. The string is compiled into the dictionary with the required null at the end using (continued) the Forth word "0." This action parses the string (delimited by a closing quote symbol), lays it down in memory, and returns a pointer to the first character in the string. That pointer has simply been turned into a constant.
The latest revision of Multi-Forth includes several enhancements and bug fixes. Notable additions include the "global" variables. Globals have quite a bit in common with "local" variables. For example, they arc self-fetching, values are stored in them using the word TO, and ADDR.OF is used to get a pointer to them. The hybrid behavior of the globals puts them somewhere between standard Forth variables and constants. That behavior can come in handy at times, as in this example, where I use the globals to hold the pointers to IntuitionBase, the printer message port, and the printer lORequest.
The behavior is appropriate with this type of pointer, since, once established, they won't change. You might think of them as run-time constants.
The definition of DumpRPort is unusual (for Forth) because it expects eleven items on the stack. Don't misunderstand.
There's nothing wrong with passing so many parameters on the stack; it's more a matter personal style. I usually try to avoid passing more than three or four parameters to a word because it is much less confusing. The stack manipulations for more items can become very convoluted. Since we're doing a translation of a C program, though, we're stuck with someone else's decisions.
Translating the C version of DumpRPort to Forth using the same order for the arguments presents a problem. We must use the lORequest pointer, and it's deeply buried under ten other items. I hated the idea of doing an "11 ROLL" to get the lORequest pointer up to the top of the stack where it could be manipulated, so 1 changed the definition to expect the lORequest pointer on top. This alteration seemed appropriate in this case. If we preserve the temporal order of the C example, the lORequest is the last argument retrieved before the calf is made to DumpRPort. If you prefer to keep the order
consistent with the C function, you'll also want to change the order of "SctupDRP" and "OpenPrinter" in the DumpScreen word.
"GetintuiBase" obtains the pointer to IntuitionBase. The OpenLibrary call returns the address of the Intuition library if possible. If the library can't be opened, an error is generated. Once the library is open, the IntuitionBase structure provides the offsets to the necessary information.
The IntuitionBase structure is never actually used to create a data structure. Its only real function is to provide the offsets into the Intuition library after the library has been opened, since the IntuitionBase structure already exists. It is interesting to note that calls to Intuition functions jump through 68000 jump instructions, located at negative offsets from IntuitionBase.
Ten of the eleven parameters expected by DumpRPort are placed on the stack by the word SctupDRP. The address of the Screen structure, associated with the screen currently in front, obtains the address of that screen's ViewPort. The two pointers then get all the parameters needed by DumpRPort and place them on the stack.
"CleanUp" returns the "printerRcquest" and "printerPort" memory to the system and closes the Intuition library once wc have finished. Well-behaved applications should not drain any free memory from the system (a rule often violated by early Amiga software).
The printer device must be opened before the screen dump can be sent to it. Likewise, the device must be closed after the dump is complete. In the definition for "OpenPrinter," you may notice that the address of the printer message port is saved in the global variable printerPort, and the printer 1 O request pointer is saved in the global printcrRequcst. If Open Device is unsuccessful, the screen cannot be dumped and an error is generated. The e:-ror informs the user that the attempt to open the printer device failed.
CleanUp returns the unused printerRequest and printerPort structures to the heap and closes the Intuition library.
ClosePrinter simply passes the printer I O request pointer to the CloseDevicc system function.
Finally, "DumpScreen" puts everything together. A delay of six seconds (300*20 milliseconds) gives you time to set up the screen. Next, the Intuition library is opened. SctupDRP places its ten parameters on the stack, the printer is opened, and DumpRPort sends the screen to the printer. When the dump is complete, the printer is dosed and the memory which was temporarily allocated is returned to the system.
That's all there is to it.
DumpRPort accomplishes precisely the same thing that the C example does, but (as you will see, if you compare the two) in Forth fashion. I think that the Forth version is easier to read than the C example ... but I'm prejudiced.
Happy Forthing!
Next Installment Do you want well-behaved sprites? My latest revision of the sprite compiling tools, along with a change in Multi- Forth, corrects a few of the previous version's problems.
Hardware sprites now work just as they should on a machine with more than 512K. The earlier version places sprites in FAST memory where they can't be displayed (1 had a 512K machine when I created the tools.), The latest enhancement works together with a change in Multi-Forth to automatically place the images in CHIP memory where they belong, and return the memory to the system when your application exits.
DumpScreen This is a translation of the RKM: Libraries and Devices example program on pages 424-427.
IntuitionBase is an extremely handy structure.
DumpRPort should be usefulr and a few other goodies, like CreateExtIO and DeleteExtIO, are also included.
Since the RKM example is freely distributable, so is this.
I'll take credit for the translation, though.
J. Bryan: 8-9-B7 SYM7A3LE DEFINITIONS find EXEC_TYPES_F not IFTRUE include exec typns. F IFEND find INTUITION_INTUITIQN_F not IFTRUE include intuition intuit ion.f IFEND find DEVIC£S_PRINTER_F not IFTRUE include devices printer.f IFEND A word of warning: There is MUCH more to IntuitionBase than the members presented here. Almost all of it is forbidden: if you want to know why, read the Rom Kernel Manual.
These are the only members "guaranteed" to stay the same across revisions of the Amiga operating system.
Structure IntuitionBase Library struct: +ibLibNode View struct: +ibViewLord ptr: +ihActiveWindow ptr: +ibActiveScreen ptr: +ibFirstScreen long: +ibFlags short: +ibMouseY short: +ibMouseX long: +ibSeconds long: +ibMicros structure.end structure printerlO one.of: lOStdRoquest struct: +ios or,of: IGDRPReq struct: +iodrp or.of; IOPrtCmdReq struct: + iopc ;go.on structure.end FORTH DEFINITIONS DECIMAL : OpenLibrary ( libNarae version - error ) !d0 !al exec? 92 : : CloseLibrary ( library - ) !al exec 69 ; N The C source for CreateExtIO and DeleteExtIO can be found in RKM:Exec B-9. The translations
are straightforward.
: CreateExtIO ( ioReplyPort slze - lORequest if successful or 0 ) LOCALSi size ioRepLyPort I ioRepiyPort IF size MEMF_CLEAR MEMF_PUBLIC or AllocMem dup IF 1 leaves the dupr ed zero an the stack if no memory ) NT_HE5SAGE over +ioMessage +mnNode +lnType cl size over +ioMessage +mnLength w| ioRepiyPort over +ioMessage +mnReplyPort 1 THEN ELSE 0 if ioRepiyPort is null ) THEN ; : DeleteExtIO ioExt - ) ?dup IF "just in case the user did not check things properly.,." 2S5 over +ioMessage +mnKode ?InType c;
- 1 over +ioDevice ;
- 1 over +ioUnit 1 dup +ioMessage +mnLer.gth w§ FreeMen THEN ; 0"
intuition.library" constant intuition.library 0" my.print.port"
constant my.print.port 0" printer.device" constant
printer.device These could just as well be normal variables,
but globals work well here so I threw them in as an example.
Global IntuiBase global prir.terPort global printerRequest V DumpRPort is changed from RKM and expects "request" or. Top.
I hate having to reference the 11th item on the stack!
: DumpRPort (rastPort colorMap modes sx sy sw sh dc dr s requGst error) dup +iodrp LOCALS| req+iodrp request I PRD DUMPRPORT VIDEO FONTS by JDK Images High Resolution Fonts tor desk top video Use with DeluxePaint II, T*V Text, Deluxe Video and other Amiga software accessing disk based fonts. Excellent fonts tor desk top publishing. These fonts have been individually bit mapped to virtually eliminate jaggies and give you bold, eyecatching banners and headlines.
VIDEO FONTS contains 11 type styles; each in 3 lont sizes.
72 pt.
30 pt. 44 pt.
$ 49.95 See your local dealer PVSPublishing • 3800 Botticelli • Suite 40 Lake Oswego • OR » 97035
(503) 636-8677 Amiga isa trademark of Commordore-Amiga, Inc,
DeluxePaint and Deluxe- Video are trademarks of Electronic
Arts, Inc., TV-Text is a trademark of Zuma Group, Inc.
Video Fonts are not compatible with Pro Video CGI, ask tor
CGI Font Library Set 1 & 2.
Req+lodrp +ioCommand v!
Req+iodrp +iodSpecial w!
Req+iodrp +iodDestRovs I req+iodrp +lodDostCol3 1 req+iodrp +iodSrcHeight w‘ req+iodrp +iodSrcWidth wj req+iodrp +iodSrcY wi req+iodrp +iodSrcX wi req+iodrp +iodModes * req+iodrp tiodColor.Map !
Req+iodrp +iod3a3t?ort !
Request Do10 ; GetlntuiBase ( - ) intuition.library 0 OpenLibrary dup to IntuiBase 0- error" Intuition won't open!" : SetupDRP ( - rastPort colorMap modes 3x sy sw sh de dr s ) IntuiBase +ibFirstScraen 0 dup +scVlcwPort LOCALS I vp screen | screen +scRastport get screen's RastPort vp +vpColor.Map 0 pointer to CclcrMap vp +vpModes w? modes variable 0 0 x ar.d y offsets into rastport screen +scWidth w£ source size screen +scHeight w0 source size 0 0 dest size 0 because of Special SPECIAL_FULLCOLS SPECIAL_AS?ECT or : print maxwidth w prop height Cleanup ( - ) The RKM example
passes a size to DeleteExtIO la bug) .
Left over, I believe, from a much earlier version.
PrinterRequest DeleteExtIO printerPort DeletePort Intui3ase CloseLibrary ; ClosePrinter I - ) printerRequest CloseDevieo ; OpenPrinter ( - request ) my .print .port 0 CreatePort l - port ) dup to printerPort printerlO CreateExtIO ( request ) dup to printerRequest printer.device over 0 swap 0 OpenDevice (- request 0=successful ) IF cleanup abort" Couldn't open printer!" THEN ; DumpScreen | - ) 300 Delay GetlntuiBase SetupDRP OpenPrinter DumpRPort drop ClosePrinter Cleanup ; Modula-2 Programming on the Amiga™ Part I CALC: Command Line Calculator by Steve Faiwiszewski In the following few
articles, I will present CALC, a calculator utility, and sonic interesting derivations of it. CALC has 26 memory variables and various mathematical functions. All this fits into about 24K of executable code; not bad in comparison to the 28K, four-function calculator supplied with the Workbench. Keyboard use atone seems quite sufficient for this simple tool, so no gadgets, menus, or graphics are used here.
The concept for this tool was originated by Richie Bielak and implemented as a four-function integer calculator a few years ago in Pascal running on a PDP-11. In addition to enhancing the original program to work with real numbers, I've also introduced other capabilities, and ported the utility to TD1 Modula-2 and the Amiga.
How to Use CALC Using CALC is quite simple; you can run it from the Workbench or the CLI. From the CLI, you can open the CALC window' by typing "CALC" on the command line. With the CALC window open, you can enter many calculations and use the 26 temporary storage variables. To do a calculation w'ithout opening the CALC window', type "CALC" and the expression to bo evaluated. CALC prints the result in the CLI window and terminates. For example, typing "CALC 3*15" causes CALC to print "45" and return to CLI.
You enter an expression to be calculated just as you would write it. For example, "CALC5 SIN(LOC(50)*3)+SQR(345) 3" is a valid expression. (In case you're curious, the answer is
6. 28023.) The 5 in CALC's prompt requires that a five-decimal
answer be displayed. You can change the precision of the
output by specifying " On," where n is the number of decimals
to be displayed (1 through 7).
You can assign values to the variables by entering the variable name (A through Z), an equal sign, and the expression. For example, "CALC5 d=5A3" sets the variable d equal to 5 cubed. To examine the value of a variable, simply enter its name. You can even use variables wrhich have been assigned values previously. For example, after you type "d=5A3" and "d*2," d equals 250.
Enter "?" To display a help screen. Enter " E" to exit the program.
The Program The program is w'ritten in Modula-2 and is made up of four main modules; each module contains procedures that (more or less) logically belong to the same group. The main modules arc described below.
The WBStart module determines whether the program was launched from CLI or the Workbcrch. Before the main routine in CALC runs, the initialization code of WBStart executes. This code first obtains a pointer to its process record and examines the prCLI field. If this field is null, then the program was launched from the Workbench; otherwise, the program was run from CLI. When the Workbench launches a program, it sends it a "Workbench Startup Message," which the program must receive before it does anything else. So if CALC was launched from the Workbench, the WBStart code waits until it receives
the Workbench Startup Message. The WBStart module also provides a procedure which replies to the Workbench, to be done just before CALC exits.
The Interpreter module is the hearl of the calculator. CALC evaluates the input after analyzing, checking, and converting the expression to some internal representation (which makes it easier to evaluate). More about this module a bit later.
The InterpretcrO module contains miscellaneous routines which could not fit into the Interpreter module, and grew too large to be compiled with version 2.00 of the TDI compiler.
The CALC module (main module) first decides whether to open its own window or to get the input from the command line. If the program was run from the Workbench or from CLI without command line input, CALC opens its own window.
This is done very simply with a call to OpcnlnputOutput. All input is obtained from, and output sent to, this new window.
At this point, the module goes into a loop, reading input ffom the user and processing it appropriately until the exit command is given.
The Interpreter MODULA-2 the successor to Pascal There are two other modules, WriteReal and RcadString, which contain substitutes for certain procedures in the support module library. I didn't like the procedures provided by TD1, so 1 rolled my own.
The mechanism for evaluating expression consists of three logical parts:
1. Lexical Analysis (also known as scanning). The expression is
broken down to its building blocks, called tokens. For
example, the expression "3*(2+4)" consists of the following
tokens: 3, multiply-operator, opcn-paren, 2, add-operator, 4,
close-parcn. The procedure called nextoken returns successive
tokens.
2. Syntax Analysis (also known as parsing). An expression in its
original form is not easily evaluated by the computer.
Therefore, it must first be analyzed (as well as checked for correctness) and converted into a format the computer can digest. The internal format used here is a binary tree, where each node is an operator that operates on its two leaves, For example, "2+3" is converted to: + 2 3 Each leaf can also be an operator with two leaves to operate on.
The previous example "3*(2+4)" is stored as: ?
3 + 2 4 Functions such as SIN, COS, and SQRT are special; they take only one operand, so they have only one leaf. COS(45) is stored as: COB 45 The procedure which builds the binary tree (GrowTree) knows operator precedence (e.g., multiplication comes before addition) and builds the tree accordingly.
3. Eva luation. The binary tree is evaluated by recursively
traversing all its nodes. The Evaluate procedure is smart; it
docs not allow invalid operations, such as dividing by zero or
finding the log of negative numbers.
(continued) i FULL interface to ROM Kernel.
I Supports real numbers and transcendental functions is sin. Cos.
Tan arctan. Exp. In. Log power, sqrt i 3d graphics and multi-tasking demos i CODE statement for assembly code i Error lister will locate and identify all errors in source code i Smgle character I 0 supported I No royalties or copy protection i Phone and network customer support provided i 350-page manual Intuition Workbench and AmigaDos i Smart linker for greatly reduced code size i True native code implementation iNot UCSD p-Code or M-code) i Sophisticated multi-pass compiler allows forward references and code optimization i ReallnOut LonglnOut InOut Strings Storage. Terminal i Streams.
MathLibO and an standard modules Works with single floppy 512K RAM Pa sea and Modtria*? Source code art* nearly identical Modtrfa*2 should be thought of .is ,in enhanced superset of Pascal Professor NiklauS Wmn jthe creator of Pascal) designed Modula-2 lo replace Pascal Added leatures of Modula-2 not found in Pascal i CASE has an ELSE and may contain subranges i Programs may be broken up into Modules lor separate compilation i Machine level interface Bit-wise operalors Direct port and Memory access Absolute addressing Interrupt structure I Dynamic strings that may be any size i Multi-tasking
is supported i Procedure variables i Module version control i Programmer definable scope ol objecis I Open array parameters (VAR r ARRAY OF REALS.)
I Elegant type transfer functions Ramdisk Benchmarks (secs) Compile Link Execute Optomized Size Sieve of Eratosthenes 6 1
4. 9
4. 2 1257 bytes Float
6. 7
7. 2 86 3944 bytes Calc
5. 7
4. 8
3. 6 1736 bytes Null program 48 4 7 - 1100 bytes MODULE Sieve;
MODULE Float.
CONST Size 8190; FROM MathLibO IMPORT sin, In. Exp, TYPE FlagRange (0 Size).
Sqn. Arctan FlagSel SET OF FlagRange.
VAR x.y REAL, i CARDINAL.
VAR Flags FlagSet BEGIN ('ST .3A-.SS--) i FlagRange, x 1.0. Prime, k. CourH. Iter CARDINAL FOR « 1 TO 1000 DO BEGIN CSS-SR-.SA- *| y sin (x). Y In (x) y exp (x).
FOR Iter 1 TO 10 DO y sqrt (x). Y arctan (x), Count 0.
X X • 001.
Flags FlagSeh), f empty set *) END.
FOR i - 0 TO Size DO END float IF (i IN Flags) THEN Prime - (i' 2) * 3 k i • Prime WHILE k Size DO MODULE calc.
INCL (Flags k).
VAR a.b.c, REAL, n, i CARDINAL.
K - k • Prime; BEGIN CST- SA- SS-D END n 5000.
Count Count ? 1 a 2 71828 b 3 14159 c - 10 END FOR - I TO n DO END, c c'a. C c*b. C c a. c c b, END.
END.
END Sieve END calc Product History The TDI Modula-2 compier has been running on the Pinnacle supermicro (Aug
- 84). Atari ST (Aug 85) and will soon appear on the Macintosh
and UNIX in the 4th Otr 86 Regular Version S89.95 Developer s
Version S149.95 Commercial Version S299.95 The regular version
contains all the features listed above The developers version
contains additional Amiga modules, macros ana demonstration
programs - a symbol Lie decoder * link and load file
disassemblers - a source file cross referencer
- the kermit file transfer utility - a Modula-2 CJ - modules for
IFF and ILBM The commercial version contains all ol the Amiga
module source files Olher Modula-2 Products Kermil - Contains
lull source plus 515 connect time to CompuServe Examples - Many
ol the C programs from ROM Kernel and Intuilicn translated into
Modula-2 GRID - Sophisticated mulli*key file access method with
over 30 procedures to access variable length records S29 95 S24
95 TDI SOFTWARE, INC. Dallas, Texas 75238 ¦ (214) 340-4942
CompuServe Number; 75026.1331 10410 Markison Hoad Telex, 888442
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for CDC Plato Systems. . .$ 30 Points of interest Before CALC
exits, it does three important things:
1. It calls the procedure FirtishUp, which calls DestroyHeap.
DestroyHeap frees up the memory the initialization code of the Storage module allocated to the 20K heap.
2. If the CALC window was opened, it closes it.
3. If CALC was launched from the Workbench, it calls the
procedure RcturnToVVB, which replies to the message the
Workbench sent it upon start-up. If CALC failed to reply, the
memory allocated to the message would be lost until a reboot.
When a procedure in the Interpreter module encounters an error, it calls a general purpose error routine which is provided through the procedure variable HandlcError. The nice thing about this arrangement is that HandleError can be several different procedures, depending on which program imports from the Interpreter module, yet the Interpreter doesn't have to concern itself with these details. This is another example of Modula-2's flexibility.
The Evaluate procedure does not always avoid invalid or out- of-range conditions successfully. An out-of-range or invalid condition causes a run-time error, which then causes CALC (and often the Amiga) to crash. The TDI implementation solves this problem: You can trap and handle run-time errors yourself (This works properly only under version 3.00 of the compiler.). One of the first things CALC does is point the procedure variable ErrorProccssor (imported from AMIGAX) to a procedure which will shut things down and exit in an orderly fashion. When a run-time error occurs, procedure ErrorTrappcr
gets called, and it closes everything down and exits.
Compiling the Program You should have no problems if you first compile all the definition modules (the ".Def" files) in this order:
1. MylnOut
2. MyRealOut
3. InterpreterO
4. Interpreter
5. WBStart After all the definition modules are compiled, you can
compile the six ".Mod" files.
All the modules should compile cleanly using version 3.00 of the TDI compiler. Compiled under version 3.00, CALC should work correctly under AmigaDOS 1.1 and 1.2. If you use version 2.00 of the compiler, you might have problems running CALC under AmigaDOS 1.2. A Word About Style My prime objective in porting this program to Modula-2 was to get it to work, not to make it lock pretty. Also, I had to make the source fit into the 60-column width restriction imposed by typesetting requirements. Please keep that in mind if you come across a segment of code you consider hideous, or if you spot a
blatant case of Tascal-ism' (a piece of code, obviously written for Pascal, which doesn't take advantage of the more advanced features of Modula-2). I apologize in advance.
About the Listings I wanted to present the program already tailored to the new Benchmark Modula-2 compiler, but I ran into some unexpected problems (bugs) in the ported code. Therefore, the accompanying listings are for the TDI package only. In the future, however, I will present more and more programs for the Benchmark package, as I find it easier and faster to use.
The accompanying listings include only some of CALC's modules; the rest will appear next month.
Suggested Reading You can find out more about scanning and parsing in any good book on compiler construction, such as Compilers: Principles, Techniques, and Tools By Aho, Sethi & Ullman. Publisher: Addison Wesley.
More information on binary trees and recursion can be found in books dealing with data structures and algorithms, such as: Algorithms + Data Structures = Programs By N. Wirth.
Publisher: Prenticc-Hall.
Data Structures Using Pascal By Tcncnbaum & Augenstcin.
Publisher: Prentice-Hall.
Programming in Modula-2 By N. Wirth. Publisher: Springcr- Vcrlag.
Some Late Breaking News The Amiga Modula-2 compiler market keeps getting more and more interesting. Another contender joined the race: Interface Technology has a fast, one-pass compiler which has some interesting features (like handling run-time errors in a civilized manner). It lists for ST99. I hope to have more to say about it next month. For more information, contact: Interface Technology, 3336 Richmond, Suite 323, Flouston, Tx 77098 (713) 523- 8-122.
...measures your stress level through innovative hardware. And golly gosh, do we have software! From a full-featured arcade game with sampled sound, to bar and analog graphs for your WorkBench, the five included programs will knock your socks and dry your eyes! On the serious side, the People Meter allows you to fully explore the realm of stress management.
Requires an Amiga 500, 1000, or 2000 with at least 512K and Kickstart 1.2. Available from your Amiga dealer or order direct for $ 59.95 plus S3.50 shipping. CA residents please add 6.5% state tax.
Aminetics P.O. Box 982-205, Whittier CA 90608, (213) 698-6170 Amiga is a registered trademar of Commodore-Amiga, Inc. DEFINITION MODULE InterpreterO; DEFINITION MODULE MyRealOut;
(c) Copyright 19B6, 1987 by Steve Faiwiszewski For
non-commercial, non-profit use only.
(c) Copyright 1986, 1987 by Steve Faiwiszewski s Richie Bielak
For non-commercial, non-profit use only.
PROCEDURE WriteReal (r : REAL; decimal: CARDINAL}; (* r : The REAL to print *) (* decimal : the number of digits printed after the *) maxtree = 40; maxoper = 40; (* decimal point. *) END MyRealOut.
TYPE DEFINITION MODULE MylnOut; PROCEDURE ReadString(VAR s: ARRAY OF CHAR) ; (* Read a string of any characters, Including blank *} (* Reading is terminated when 's' is filled or EOL M (* is encountered. »} END MylnOut.
Nodep = POINTER TO node; node = RECORD Ison ; nodep; val ; REAL; oper ; CHAR; rson : nodep END; treestack ; ARRAY[1..raaxtreej OF nodep; operstack : ARRAY[1..maxoperj OF nodep; PROCEDURE WriteLine(VAR line: ARRAY OF CHAR); (* A WriteString followed by a Writel.n *) PROCEDURE Trim(VAR sss: ARRAY OF CHAR) ; (* Remove trailing blanks from a string *) PROCEDURE FreeNodes(VAR t: nodep); (* Dispose of the binary tree *) END InterpreterO.
(continued) " Original concept implemented in Pascal on a PDP-11 by Richie Bielak (CIS: 75716,352. Plink: RICHIEB), Enhanced and adapted to work with TDI Modula-2 compiler by Steve Faiwiszewski (CIS: 74106,425. Plink: THE INTERN).
(c) Copyright 1986, 1987 by Steve Faiwiszewski £ Richie Bielak
For non-commercial, non-profit use only.
FROM CommandLine IMPORT CLStrings; FRCM InterpreterO IMPORT nodep; TYPE CharSet = SET OF CHAR; tokentype - (func,operator,number,endofiine,oops); tokenset = SET OF tokentype; exptype = (assg,expr); ErrorType - (MissingValueError, MissingOperatorError, MissingOperandError, MissingOpenParenError, MissingCloseParenError, IilegalValueForTanError, II legalValueForLogError, IilegalValueForSqrtError, IilegalValueForExpError, DivideByZeroError, GeneralError); VAR tstack : CARDINAL; ostack : CARDINAL; whatwas, what : tokentype; symbtable : ARRAY[0..26J OF REAL; valdef : ARRAY[0..26] OF BOOLEAN;
HandleError : PROCEDURE (ErrorType,CARDINAL); PROCEDURE GrowTree(VAR line: CLStrings; VAR Linelndex: CARDINAL); (* Build the binary tree representing the expression *) PROCEDURE Evaluate (Root: nodep; VAP sue: BOOLEAN): REAL; (* Evaluate the binary tree *) PROCEDURE InitStack; PROCEDURE FinlshUp; END Interpreter.
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PART I: The Beginning by Gerald Hull People Link: DRJERRY In 1970 mathematician John Horton Conway came up with a mathematical recreation based upon cellular automata theory he called 'The Came of Life," it generates a special universe of objects which exhibit complex, unpredictable behaviors. In addition, the objects illustrate principles being applied today to fields as diverse as cosmology, particle physics, and thermodynamics.
As you will see, the Amiga is unique among all popular microcomputers in its ability to play Life. In the early days of the Game, it often took months, or even years, to uncover the properties of certain configurations, and to confirm or deny theories concerning their behaviors. Today, with the Amiga, it is possible to achieve the same results in under a minute.
Another von Neumann Architecture John von Neumann is usually associated with the serial, stored program, single CPU architecture found in most of today's computers. In consequence, HyperCubcs, neural nets, and other special parallel processing systems are often lumped together as "non-Von Neumann architectures."
This categorization is ironic because von Neumann was also one of the first to investigate the properties of a particularly rich approach to parallel processing. This "cellular automata theory" studies the properties of systems composed of arrays of processors (or cells) representing independent finite state automata. Although each cell operates according to the same set of rules, they reach their own separate conclusions, based upon input.
Usually that input consists of the states of the other cells in the neighborhood.
Von Neumann's interest was in the "self-healing" robustness of such systems of the multiple, independent units of such systems, and in the possibility of using them to demonstrate the mechanisms underlying sclf- reproduction. He was able to show that a cellular automaton consisting of 200,000 cells, each of which could be in one of twenty-nine different states, could reproduce itself. His proof anticipated the DNA mechanism of reproduction, discovered a few years later by Watson and Crick.
Conway's Game of Life uses much simpler automata. Its cells can be imagined as the squares of an infinite checkerboard. The neighborhood of each square consists of the eight squares immediately surrounding it.
The rules governing these cells are deceptively simple. At any particular time, each cell is in one of two states: "alive" or "dead." In the next succeeding generation (or "tick"), a living cell remains alive only if it has tw'o or three living neighbors, and a dead cell changes to living ("is born") only if it has exactly three living neighbors.
So this is not a "game" in the same sense as Chess or Marble Madness.
There are no winners or losers, nor any special goal or payoff. The point, rather, is to see how the repeated application of this simple set of rules can produce an amazing, unpredictable universe of objects and behaviors.
For example, the following are five of the more common Life objects.
O o o
o o 0 0 0 0 o
o o o
o o o
o o o
o o 0 0 0
o o Of the five objects, one will disappear completely in six
generations. One will go through a four tick cycle that results
in the same pattern, but shifted one square diagonally (so that
it "glides" across the screen).
After sixteen generations, another pattern will settle down into a symmetrical "still life," or unchanging pattern. One of the objects is an "oscillator" with a period of two: it repetitiously cycles between two separate configurations. Finally, one will explode into an incredible profusion of different objects and debris that won't settle down until 1,103 generations have passed. Which is which?
The only way to find out is to apply Conway's rules over and over again "recursive reiteration" and to see what happens.
(continued) Life on Ihe Amiga 1 don't intend to go any deeper here into the phenomenon of the Game of Life. There are a number of excellent articles and books on the subject, some of which are listed in the bibliography accompanying this article. What I'd like to turn to is the excellent advantage of exploring the Life universe with an Amiga.
The first substantive program 1 wrote in C was an implementation of Life that I sent off to John Foust for the AMICUS public domain disks. He seemed unimpressed by my Life program. I found out why when I learned of a package called the "Cizmoz Productivity Set." It had a Supcrlife program with a 320-by-180 cell mode that raced along at more than four generations a second. This represented a 300 fold improvement over my poor version!
I knew that somehow the Amiga's special chip set was involved, but didn't learn the details until 1 joined the PeoplcLink (PLink) network. A programmer named Scott Evcrndcn had uploaded source code that showed how to use the Amiga's blitter to implement the Game of Life. His algorithm was derived from a Byte magazine article by Mark Niemiec (see bibliography).
Another Plink user named Alonzo Gariepy soon uploaded a version of the Came which galloped a 320-by-200 cell array along at seventeen generations per second! It had taken Everndon 39 blits to calculate a single Life generation, and Gariepy did the job in just 10! With justifiable pride, he stated, "As of this writing, 1 believe this is the fastest micro implementation of Life." Alas, Gariepy did not post his source code.
1 tried to figure out Gariepy's solution for a number of months, but I couldn't seem to reduce the Life algorithm to only ten blits; the best I could do was eleven. Finally, I chanced yet another version of the Game of Life by Tomas Rokicki on Fred Fish Disk 31. There it was at last the ten blit solution.
Astonishingly, I realized that the trick I had overlooked would simplify my approach by two more blits.
More by stubbornness than ingenuity, I had done Gariepy one better. I had a nine blit solution to the Game of Life! In Part II of this article, I will publish the complete source to this nine blit version. Until then, readers who enjoy mathematical puzzles can see if they can figure it out on their own. Shortly, 1 will describe the features of the blitter that are relevant to the solution.
Using the Blitter for Graphics First, let's sec why a computer designed for special graphics capabilities has a fantastic talent for cellular automata. The chart I have included shows that Amiga versions of the Game of Life are more than 300 times faster than highly optimized IBM PC programs. I am tempted to suggest that this simply reflects the relative worth of the two machines, but a more detailed answer is possible.
Most Amigans know about the blitter in connection with "bobs," or blitter objects. Although bobs are slower and tend to use more memory than sprites, they can be any size and can have as many colors as the screen. By giving the blitter maximum flexibility for manipulating bobs, its designers created a chip with much broader powers.
The basic function of the blitter is to move a block of data from one area of memory to another. Let's see how this can be used for graphics animation.
Suppose you have a game in which you want to move a foreground object, say a car, across a background of road and houses (Any resemblance between this description and material in Chapter Six of the AMIGA HARDWARE REFERENCE MANUAL is hardly coincidental.). Here's one way to do it. You start with a screen that has just the background on it (call it A) and another with just the car (B). These screens can consist of one to five bitplancs, but it's simplest to think of them as one bitplane deep. Now make make a third stencil screen (C) with 1's everywhere the car screen has a 0, and 0's
everywhere it has a non-0 value.
We can create a new screen by logically ANDing the background screen with the stencil screen. This action creates a screen with a hole in it the shape and size of the car. Next, OR this screen with the car screen, and voila, you have the car set against its background. Or, symbolically: D := A and C; D - D or 3; To make the car move, all you need to do is shift both the car and car stencil screens in the appropriate direction by an appropriate amount, and repeat the process. '[Tie result is a car moving against a backdrop of road and houses.
The Amiga blitter has the ability to perform all these operations in a single step, or "blit." It will work with up to three source bitplancs (A, B, and C) for each destination bitplane (D), and two of the three (A and B) can be shifted by any arbitrary amount. In addition, the blitter can render the destination as any logical function of the three source bitplanes.
Operations that produce an object-on- background, like our car-and-road example, are used so often that they have acquired a special name. Here's such a "cookie cut" blit for the above: D := (A and C) or B; which is logically equivalent to: D := (A and B and C) or (A and B and nof-C) or (A and not-B and C) or (not-A and B and C) or (not-A and B and not-C): The latter version of the formula something that logicians call "disjunctive normal form" tells us how to encode this particular logical function for the blitter. A special eight-bit value codes which of the possible states of the three
source bitplanes will produce a pixel in the destination bitplane. To perform our particular cookie-cut, we use the code OxEC = 11101100.
ABC 1 111 1 110 1 10 1 0 10 0 1 Oil 1 0 10 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 mimmuiin-A 1111111111111111 111111111111111100 Two 16 X 8 A 1 0 111111111111111100 bitplanes 1 0 111111111111111100 become 128 1 0 111111111111111100 (16 X 8) 1 0 111111111111111100 two-bit 1 0 111111111111111100 registers 1 0 111111111111111100 (In - 1 0 0000000000000000 profile) .
1 0 OOOOOODOOOOOOOOO !
B 1 0 B Cellular Automata with Blits The same blitter functions that make the Amiga such a facile manipulator of graphics also give it a formidable capacity for cellular automation. Many readers will recall the task of building a one- or two-bit adder from simple logic circuits. Now think of a bitplane as a big sheet of registers; two bitplanes give you two-bit registers (turn them sideways in your imagination), and so forth.
Instead of logic chips, you simply use blitter operations in the appropriate sequence. For example, the result, in tow resolution mode, is a big sheet containing 320 x 200 separate sums.
This is the blitter's strength for simulating cellular automata. It can perform the same calculation simultaneously on as many separate cells as there are pixels in a bitplane, all at DMA rates.
Thus, though the blitter is not "really" a parallel processor (It doesn't consist of a number of separate CPUs.), it can be programmed so that it functions like such a processor. How does it compare with special hardware designed specifically for cellular automata? Here's an instance of the latter.
'The Cellular Logic Image Processor number 4 (CLIP4) ... is an array of 9216 one-bit CPUs .... When conducting more complex nearest- neighbor operations, its speed is equivalent to over ten billion instructions per second. This makes CLIP4 one of the fastest computers in the world .... It will be produced by commercial manufacturers in 1984 at a price of only 100 thousand dollars." (MODERN CELLULAR AUTOMATA; see bibliography.)
By comparison, it takes the Amiga about 5 milliseconds to blit a lo-res destination from three source bitplanes. Counting each bitplane separately, we get 3 * 200 * 320 * 200 = 38 million operations per second on a computer than can be bought for under S1000. I wonder if there are any good games for the CL1P4?
Let's sec how the Amiga blitter enables us to calculate a generation of the Game of Life. A low resolution, monochromatic Amiga screen (just one bitplane) is generated from an 8000 (320 * 200 8) byte block in chip memory each bit equals one pixel.
For Life, a value of one in that bit represents a living cell, and zero means a dead cell.
In order to make the calculations, you allocate some additional bitplanes to serve as registers for our calculations.
By using the right shifts and offsets, you can use the display screen as source A, the same screen shifted one pixel to the left as source B, and now shifted one pixel to the right as source C. For destination, you can use one bitplane register to hold the first bit of the sum, and another to hold the carry. With repeated applications of this procedure, you simply add up the number of "on" pixels in the "neighborhood" of any given pixel. In virtue of the blitter, the same calculation is performed on all the pixels on the screen at the same time.
Next, apply the Life rules to those sums, and generate a new bitplane in which a pixel is on that is, its bit is set if, and only if, it: (a) was on during the previous generation and had two neighbors; or (b) had three neighbors. This solution bitplane becomes the new display screen. The Amiga's blitter has calculated the next Life generation.
The Meaning of Life That should be enough information for anyone who wants to figure out how one generation can be calculated in just nine blits. The concluding article in the Life pair will discuss that algorithm in detail, along with procedures for manipulating the Amiga blitter to perform such tasks. Not everyone is fascinated by mathematical puzzles and games, though. So let me finish with a few remarks on the broader implications of Life.
One of the problems of cosmogony the scientific study of the beginning of the universe is explaining how the lavish diversity of existence could arise (continued) LIFE PROGRAMS ON THE AMIGA AND IBM PC MICRO LANG MODE ARRAY GEN SEC CELL'GEN SEC
• IBM (a) POUNDSTONECb) IBM PC BASIC 8 20x38 1 15 51
0. 01 HULL Amiga C Asm B 38x38 1 2 800
0. 18 POUNDSTONECb) IBC PC Asm W 50x80
1. 1 4400
1. 00 GIZMOZ(C) Amiga C?
W 320x180
4. 3 247680
56. 29 EVERNDEN Amiga C B 314x187
5. 3 311205
70. 73 GARIEPY Amiga c W 320x200
17. 2 1100800
250. 18 POKICKI Amiga c B 318x198 19 8 1246687
283. 34 HULL Amiga C Asm W 320x200
19. 9 1273600
289. 45
- -(d) Amiga -- B 318x198
23. 2 1460765
331. 99
(a) The two different modes are bordered and wrap-around (or
"toroidal"). With a wrap-around screen, a glider sailing off
the top of the screen appears at the bottom. The same holds
true for right and left.
(b) William Poundstone's programs can be found in his book The
Recursive Universe (see bibliography.).
(c) Gizmo? s SuperLife, very useful for exploring the Life
universe, allows the user to control the speed of execution.
(d) This is the current hypothetical maximum for the Amiga a
nine-blit version without the elegant, but blit-consuming
wraparound feature.
From a simple beginning, like the Big Bang. Was it all somehow encoded right from the start? The Game of Life suggests an alternative explanation. It shows how complex and varied results can emerge from simple beginnings governed by simple rules.
The science of thermodynamics has problems of its own. According to the famous Second Law, the amount of disorder "entropy" in the universe must steadily increase. How can one explain the emergence of structures of cvcr-incrcasing complexity? The Game of Life shows a way out of this dilemma by providing a model in which structures are inevitable byproducts of random reactions.
If you arc puzzled by claims that particles like protons and neutrons are made up of even more fundamental particles called quarks, you might find a helpful analogy in the way a peculiar arrangement of Life cells can come together as a "glider," which thereupon takes on a "life" of its own.
Have you ever wondered how a brain composed of vast numbers of largely identical neurons can be a repository for profound and trivial thoughts of every conceivable variety? Once you become familiar with the odd and intricate objects that populate the Life universe, you will acquire a great respect for the potential conglomerations of independent processing units.
What's Life? You've read the magazine, now play the Game! With your Amiga computer you have an "unparalleled" opportunity for investigating the curious and fascinating universe of the Game of Life. Happy exploring!
A Brief Bibliography for the Game of Life
P. W. Atkins, The Second law, Chapter 9.
Scientific American Books, 1984.
A very accessible discussion of the light shed upon the mysteries of thermodynamics by the Game of Life.
Arthur W. Burks, ed., Essays On Cellular Automata. University of Illinois Press, 1970.
Not for the faint of heart or weak of mind; don’t look at me, I haven't read it!
Martin Gardner, heels, Life And Other Mathematical Amusements, Chapters 20-22.
W. l I. Freeman and Company, 1983.
This work, by Scientific American's legendary Mathematical Games columnist, includes the articles that first introduced the Game to the public at large.
Mark D. Niemac, "Life's Algorithms."
Byte, January 1979.
A nice survey of different algorithms for the Game of Life and some of its more common variations.
Kendall Preston, Jr., and Michael J.B. Duff, Modem Cellular Automata. Plenum Press,
1984.
If you really want to fry your brain with the mathematics of cellular automata theory and some of its practical applications, you might check this one out.
William Poundstone, The Recursive Universe.
William Morrow and Company, 1985.
This is perhaps the best general introduction to the Life universe in all its glorious detail.
The Game's significance, not just for thermodynamics and cosmology, but also for partide physics and the ongoing search for a Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is outlined.
• AC- AmigaNotes Music on the New Amigas by Rick Rae CIS
76703,4253 As I write this (mid-October), the Amiga 500 has
been selling for some time and the 2000 is just becoming
consistently available in computer stores. With this in mind,
it might be worthwhile to take a look at making music with the
new machines. As you might expect from the level of com
patibility between the new entries and the 1000, there arc only
two significant differences at this time.
Ttie New Anti-Aliasing Filter Many people aren't aware that the output filter on the new machines can be bypassed. This filter, which is always active on the 1000, has a corner frequency of about 4 Khz and a cutoff slope of perhaps 40 db per octave. In audiophile terms (where frequency response is normally quoted at the 3 db points), the Amiga has a top end of considerably less than 5 Khz. Even if you stretch to the limit, 7 Khz would have to be the maximum. Anyone who knows audio will readily admit that this limitation doesn't do much for sound quality: It's akin to turning your amplifier's
treble control all the way down.
A few hardware hacks opened their machines and bypassed this filter, but most of us just lived with it. With the 500 and 2000, however, this change is no longer necessary. Commodore has added control circuitry that allows the filter to be bypassed, by software!
Whenever new circuitry is added to an upward-compatible system, there's always the question of where to put it.
Commodore found a tidy solution: The control line for the Power LED also switches the filter. This duality means the system comes up with a bright Power indicator and the filter enabled. Turn on bit PA1 of CFA A (the same 8250 whose other port drives the parallel interface), and the Power indicator goes to half intensity as the filter opens up. Not only does this scheme avoid any incompatibility problems, it even indicates the state of the filter, (A note of caution: 1 am told that the new circuitry is included in the "Fat Agnes" custom chip. If this is the case, the German version of the 2000
doesn't have the switchable filter.)
It would be fairly simple to cobble up a small program to toggle this bit, but if you're not a programmer, don't despair; it's already been done for you.
Gregg Tavares [70275,627] has written a program called F1LT, which is available from CompuServe's AmigaForum under the name DL15:F1LT.ARC. This is a handy little mouse-driven utility with its own window handy, since you can lay FILT's small window over your Pro MIDI or DMCS or whatever screen, and have instant access to the controls without flipping screens.
Don't expect elimination of the filter to make your Amiga sound like a S10,000 dedicated sampler. For one thing, we're still limited by the 8 bit S N ratio; for another, bypassing the filter means aliasing can occur on the output, resulting in all sorts of buzzes and whines and tweety birds if you're playing back a sample with lots of high frequency information. Still, it's a step in the right direction and opens up some now possibilities. If you have a 500 or 2000, grab a copy of FILT and play with it.
(continued) Problems with MIDI Interfaces Barry Massoni (73260,1413) brought this problem to my attention. His MIDI interface would not run on his Amiga 500. 1 knew the gender of the serial port had been changed to match the IBM PC, but Barry already had a gender bender, so that wasn't his problem. Through Barry's research and the help of others on the forum, it soon became obvious that owners of the new machines have a problem.
The original 1000 serial port provided + - 12 and + - 5 volts, with the latter pair normally used to power MIDI interfaces. With the new models, Commodore not only switched the gender of the DB25 connector, but they also disconnected the 5-volt supply pins.
So the problem involves figuring how to provide the + - 5 volts to the MIDI interface. One approach uses an external power supply, but most small calculator-type adapters only provide one voltage at a time; dual supplies arc a bit scarce and more expensive.
Barry did some calling around and thinking, and came up with a reasonable alternative: Regulate the 12 volt lines down to 5 volts and drive the MIDI interface with that. (See Barry's instructions on page 109.) The original instructions are available from the AmigaForum as DL15:MIDIAD.TXT. Although it was designed specifically for the Mimetics unit, it should work with any MIDI interface which doesn't draw too much current. ! Haven't tried it, but Barry says his solution works quite well.
Another approach saves you some money if you have a 2000. Jeff Arnold of Colden Hawk Technology tells me that the 26-pin header, located immediately behind the serial plug, contains all the signals, including the five volt lines. If you don't mind running a ribbon cable into the 2000, you could conceivably make up a custom cable to connect your older MIDI interface.
If you're not a hardware hacker, there are other alternatives. Once 1 was aware of the problem, 1 called various interface manufacturers to find out what options are available. Here's what I found: ECE R&D CORPORATION Chuck Sanders informed me that ECE is finalizing a new MIDI interface called the "MIDI 500," designed specifically for the 500 and 2000. It will look exactly like the current model. The price will be the same as the original. If you have the old interface, you can exchange it for a brand new unit for S25.00. GOLDEN HAWK TECHNOLOGY Jeff Arnold notes that Colden Hawk is working on
a completely new MIDI interface for the 500, but that it's a bit too early to quote a price or talk about upgrade policy. I'm not supposed to divulge the details 1 do have, so I'll just say it sounds like this new product wiil be the typically excellent Golden Hawk effort. They also have some interesting plans for the 2000 which, if they pan out, could save you quite a bit of money over buying a new interface. I'll pass along details as they firm up.
MIMETICS Dave Rasmussen says the new Mimetics interface is already in production.
Like the 1000 version (model HMC-1), it's built into the adapter cable. The only physical difference is the gender of the plug and the lack of a THRU port. The new model, HMC-2, can be used on a 1000 if you use the appropriate gender bender. Price remains the same and upgrade plans were not finalized at press time.
J. MICHAELS COMPANY I was unable to contact J, Michaels Company
to inquire about their interfaces. The original phone number
has boon disconnected, and I haven't been able to track down a
new one. If anyone knows where I can contact them or what the
situation is, I'd appreciate hearing from you.
SKYLES ELECTRIC WORKS These folks managed to miss out on my first MIDI interface roundup, but they do have a 1000 unit available, so I'll take a moment to give you a brief overview.
The unit from Skylcs Electric Works provides one IN port, one THRU port, and two OUT ports. Rather than being mounted in an enclosure, the entire interface is built on a two-by- three inch printed circuit board, with strategically placed blocks of epoxy encasing the components. The DB25 connector is mounted on one side of the board, and the MIDI jacks arc on the other side, so it's almost like having a built-in MIDI interface.
Unfortunately, this is not the best approach. Not only is it impossible to perform any sort of repair if the interface fails, but you have to reach around the back of the computer to swap MIDI cables. Anyone who has dealt with more than a minimal system knows that quite a bit of cable swapping goes on. This interface makes it more difficult than need be.
The interface instructions are so detailed that you could almost see them as a joke. Two folded sheets explain how you plug the interface module into the serial port. These instructions are prefaced with comments such as, "If you are concerned about 'getting your fingers into' your AMIGA computer, please have your local dealer install the MIDI For AMIGA." Plugging a device into the serial port is getting your fingers into your computer?!
Actually 1 shouldn't poke fun at this effort, even if it might be overkill.
The instructions include annotated photographs and in-depth instructions, and anyone should be able to install the interface. If you are all thumbs, this could very well be the perfect interface for you.
I spoke with Bob Skyles about their new interfaces, which are already shipping. "MIDI for Amiga 500" and "MIDI for Amiga 2000" are similar to the original 1000 model, except that the module plugs into the Amiga horizontally instead of vertically (better for visibility). Rubber feet support the board when the MIDI cables are plugged in. The two new interfaces arc identical except for the height of :he rubber feet, which varies to match the machine. Retail price remains the same. No upgrade details were available, but Bob invites interested owners to call for further information, THE AMAZING
MID! INTERFACE What about our own interface ("Ami- gaNotes," V2.2)? Since the 6N138 is limited to an absolute maximum of seven volts, there really isn't any way to use the 12 volt lines. Probably the best approach would be to simply build Barry's circuit right into the box.
If you do this, you can substitute straight wire for his 1N914 diodes.
Theoretically, the 6N138 could be MIDI Interface Comparison Chart ECE Research and Development Corporation 1651 North Monroe Street Tallahassee. FL 32303 904-681-0786 Golden Hawk Technology 427-3 Amherst Street Suite 389 Nashua. NH 03061 603-882-7198 NOTES MANUFACTURER RETAIL SIZE (HxWxD) IN OUT Do-It-Yourself As you please!
2 2 Serial Passthrough ECE R&D Corp. S59.95
1. 75x3.25x5.25 1 1 Serial Passthrough Golden Hawk $ 79.95'
1. 40x5.70x3.25" 1 2 Sync Output
J. Michaels Co.
$ 49.95
1. 50x3.75x4.20 1 1 Mimetics $ 49.95 Cable assembly 1 1 Skyles
Electric $ 49.95
3. 00x2.10x1.20" 1 2 i replaced with a 6N139, which is good up to
18 volts. In practice, however, a complete redesign of the
circuit would be required and would probably be more trouble
than it's worth.
These specifications for the 1000 models apply to the 500 2000 versions as well, except as noted: ‘Retail price has not been established. "Form factor has changed. " 'No TFIRU jack available.
Tiie New Interface Review Since the Skyles Electric interface didn't make it into the first roundup, I've included a new table for those of you shopping for a MIDI interface.
You might want to refer to the earlier article ("AmigaNotes," V2.1) for detailed information, but please ignore the original chart; some errors crept in during printing.
That's going to do it for now. I'm going to turn the rest of the column over to Barry Massoni (See page 109.). As for me ... See you next month!
• AO
J. Michaels Company 2232 Summit Street Columbus, OH 43201
(¦Status unknown) Mimetics, Inc. PO Box 60238. Station A Palo
Alto. CA 94306 408-741-0117 Skyles Electric Works 231-E South
Whisman Road Mountain View, CA 94041 800-227-9998 415-965-1735
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Amiga is a trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc. 5 Reasons Why You’re Ready For MacroModem ]. You love telecom, bin not memorization. MacroModcm's user- written macro libraries and companion help screens (36 macros per file) store tog on procedures, remote system menus and commands......
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tion Objects. This last article addresses the problem of doublebuffering, which is necessary for any elaborate animation.
Double-buffering involves creating 2 BitMaps for your screen and displaying them alternately. This operation is a little more cumbersome, and your programs will run more slowly because of the time used by the RcthinkDisplayO routine. Doublebuffering also uses more precious Chip memory because you not only have to use 2 BitMaps for a screen, but you also must create a second SaveBuffcr to save the background for the bobs in the second SitMap.
Double-buffering has not been very well documented by Amiga literature.
The RKM mentions what you need to do, but the sample animation program at the end of the chapter on graphics does not use this information. A double-buffered sample program based on the RKM example is in the public domain, but it suffers from the "developer turgidity" that is so frustrating to beginning programmers.
Other Commodore sample programs have used the idea of swapping multiple BitMaps in and out (such as in the Dual Playfield examples). I have borrowed a few ideas from these programs.
By Michael Swinger The clearest and most concisely written C code I have seen appears in a public domain program called "3D- Arm" by Bob Laughlin. It is on a Fish disk and I encourage you to marvel not only at the program, but at the clean and logical source code. Mr. Laughlin uses double-buffering, and, as he says, "It is simple, but not obvious."
For the benefit of those who are typing these programs, ! Have included the bob data in all examples. As your programs become more elaborate and the data becomes longer, you will probably want to put your data in a separate file, compile it separately from the main program, and then link the files later.
If you are using the gi program to create bob data, you can strip out much of the commented information and use the AmigaDOS JOIN command to join all your files. JOIN involves a lot of noisy disk grinding (especially if you have an early Amiga with the Vegematic drives), so you will probably want to join all the files in RAM: and then write them to a disk.
A typical data file would look like the following: include Exec types.h WORD lmage„data 1(130) =
* ' data here for bob 1 '*}; WORD Image_data2(130) = ( " etc. **
1; In place of the bob data at the beginning of your program,
you would have statements like the following: EXTERN WORD
Imagejdata 10: EXTERN WORD lmage_data2Q: etc Be sure to write
down the sizes of your bobs as you edit the data files. If you
do this, you don't have to search a separate source file for
the information of the buffers and Vsprite structures. You
could also include the data for the colormap in this file, as
this data is unlikely to change.
Program 3 Double Buffered Animation Objects *** NOTE There is a close gadget on the window to end the program, but it must be wiped out with the SetRast call. Just keep clicking In the upper loft corner where you think the gadget should be.
Some of the variable names have changed from earlier programs. We are now using the Screen's RastPort and viewport, rather than the Window's structures. •** finclude functlons.h * For Manx only * finclude lntultion intuition.h finclude graphics gels.h struct IntuitlonBase 'IntuitionBase; struct GfxBase 'GfxBase; struct Screen ‘Screenl; struct Window 'Wlndowl; struct Viewport *VP1; struct RastPort *R?1; struct AnimOb Objl, ‘animKey,- struct AnimComp compl, comp2; struct Gelslnfo gelslnfo; struct Vsprite si, s2; struct colITable Ctable; VOID DrawlCO; .*. N0TE 1 struct BitMap BM[Z);
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0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,OxDOOO,0x0080,
0x0000,0x0080,0x0000,OxOOBO,0x0000, 0x0080,
0x0000,CxCOBO,0x0000, 0x0080, 0x0000,0x0080,0x0000,0x0080,
0x0000, 0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,
0x0000,Oxffff,0x8000,Oxffff, 0x8000,
Oxfcl£,0x8000,Oxfclf,OxSOOO,Oxfclf,
DxSOOO,Oxfclf,0x8000,Oxfclf, 0x8000,
Oxfclf,0x8000,Oxfclf,OXSOOO,Oxfclf,
OxSOOO,Oxffff,0x8000,Oxffff,OxSOOO,
Oxffff,0x8000,0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,
0x0000,0x03e0,0x0000,0x03e0,0x0000, 0x03e0,
0x0000,0x03e0,0x0000, 0x03e0,
0x0000,QxD3eO,0x0000,0x03eC,OxOGOO,
0x03e0,0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,
0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,
0x0000,0x0000,0x0360,0x0000, 0x0360,
OxCOOO,0x0360,0x0000,0x0360,0x0000, 0x0360,
0x0000,0x0360,0x0000, 0x0360, OxCOOO, 0x0360,0x0000,0x0000,
OxOCOO, 0x0000,OxCOOO,0x0000, OxOOOC, OxOCOO,
0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,QxOOOC,0x0000,
0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,DxOOOC,0x0000,
CxOOOO,0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,
0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,OxOOOC,0x0000,
CxOOOO,0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,0x0000 1 WORD Image_data2 [130
j = * Width: 16 Height: 13 Depth: 5 * 0x0000,
0x0000,0x0000,OxOOOC,OxOCOO, DxOOOO, 0x0000,0x0000,OxOOOC,
0x0000, 0x0000,CxOOOO,0x0000,OxOOOC,CxOOOO,
CxOOOO,OxOOOC,OxOCOO,0x0000,0x0000,
0x0000,0x0000,Oxffff,OxSOOO,Oxffff,
0x8000,Oxffff,0x8000,Oxfclf, OxBCOO, Oxfbbf,
0x8000,Oxf7df,0x8000,Oxffbf, 0x8000, Oxff7f, 0x8000,
Oxfeff, CxBCOO, Oxfdff, 0x6000, Oxfbff, 0x8000, OxfOOf,
OxSOOO,Oxffff,OxSOOO,Oxffff, 0x8000, Oxf f
ff,0x8000,0x0000,OxODOO, 0x0000,
0x0000,0x0000,OxOOOQ,OxOOCO, 0x0000,
0x0000,0x0000,CxOOOO,0x0000,0x0000,
0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,
0x0000,OxODOO,0x0000,0x0000, Oxffff,
0x8000,Oxffff,0x8000,0x0000, 0x0000,
0x0300,0x0000,0x0440,0x0000,0x0820,
CxOOOO,0x0040,0x0000,OxOOSO, 0x0000,
CxOlOO,0x0000,0x0200,0x0000, 0x0400,
CxOOOO,OxOffO,0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,
Cxffff,0x8000,Oxffff,0x8000,0x0000,
CxOOOO,0x0000,0x0000,0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0000,
0x0000,0x0000,0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,
0x0000, 0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,0x0000,OxCOOO,
DxOOOO,Oxffff,0x8000,Cxffff,0x8000 J WORD Sbufferl[2*13*5i;
WORD Cmaskl [2*13] ; WORD Bllnel[2|; •** NOTF. 2 *** WORD
Dbufferl[2*13*5!; WORD Sbuffer2[2*13*51; WORD Cmask2[2*13];
WORD 31i no 2[ 21 ; WORD DbUffer2[2*13*5J; USHORT colormap
[321 "I OxOccd, 0x0685,0x0f79,0x0f30,0x0f9b,
0x0f90,Qx0eb5,0x0fc8,DxOeef,OxOdda,
0x0ccc,OxOaaa,OxOfdc,OxOfcb,OxOfba,
OxOeaO,0x0e93,0x0d90,0x0c87, 0x0a54, CxOc75,0x0777,0x0556,
0x0069, 0xC9el, 0x0fed,0x07cl,0x05a0,0x0270,QxOfdd,
OxOfff,0x0000 1; struct Vsprlte vl =( NULL,NOLL, NULL,
NULL, NULL, NULL, OVERLAY | SAVEBACK, 10, 20,13,
2,5,0,0,sImage_datal [0 j, Sblinel(0),(Cmaskl[0),NULL,NULL,
OxOlf,0,NULL 1; Struct DbufPacket Dbl =( NULL,NULL,
NULL,sDbufferl[Oil,• struct 3ob bl-| B03ISCCH?,4Sbu£ferl
[Of, Sqnaskl 10], NULL, NULL, svl, scor.pl, tDbl, NULL};
struct Vsprlte v2 =( NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL,
OVERLAY I SAVEBACK, 90,50, 13,2,5,0, 0,(Image_data2[0],
Sbiir.e2[0], Scir.ask2 [0),NULL,NULL, 0x01 f, 0, NULL );
struct DbufPacket Db2 - NULL,NULL, NULL,SDbuffer2[0]};
struct Bob b2=(
BOBISCCMr,(Sbuffer2[0],sOnask?[0],NULL,NULL,
(v2,(ccmp2,4Db2,NULL) ; struct NewScreen NewScreenl *¦(
0,0, 320,200, 5,1, 0, NULL,CUSTOMSCREEN [ CUST0M3ITMAP,
NULL,NULL,NULL,SBM[01 ); struct NewWindow NewWindowl -(
0,0,320,200,1,0,CLOSEWINDCW, SMART_REFR£SH I ACTIVATE |
BORDERLESS 1 WINDOWCLOSE, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, 0,
0, 0, 0,CUSTOMSCREEN |; main () ( SHORT x; Open_Librari.es
() ’ Cpen_Screetis 0 ; Init_Bobs () ; for (x=0; x 500? ++x)
1 Drawltl); 1 Cleanup(); } *** end main ***
Open_Libraries() I IntuitionBase - (struct IntuitionBase *)
OpenLibrary("intuition.library",0}; Gfx3ase - (struct
GfxBase *) OpenLibrary ("graphics.library",0); ret urn I) ;
1 (continued) USE CUR EXCLUSIVE Oeluxelnstructor Interface
(narrator) included basic & advanced lessons perspective
-¦ stencil --multicycle - elc.
WEGfCaSRTMKS 257-1 PGA BLVD. SUITE 1(M PAEK BEACH GARDENS. FLORIDA 33410 RHIE! IS t TRUt'CMRRl! Of CDMMCD3RE-UMIGR. LTD.
['EtUllEPHlHT-11 IS .1 TRRE'CMRfli: !f ELECTFIJHH SPT: Open_Screens() 1 SHORT j; ***NOTE 3 *** InitBitMap 4BM[01,5,320, 200) ; InitBitmap(&BM[I],5,320,200); for (j-0; j 5;j++) ! B«[0|.Planes[1] - (PLANEPTR) AilocRaster (320,2001 ; BM[l|.Planes[jJ = (PLANEPTR) A1 LocRastor (320, 200); ) Screenl-OpenScreen(4NewScrconl}; NewWindowl.Screen-Screenl; Windovl-OpenWi ndow(SNewW1ndowl); RP1 = 5Screenl- RastPort; VP1- 4Screenl- VlewPort; (define RI Vpl- RasInfo Sereenl- RastPort.Flags-DBUFFER; LoadKG34 (VP1, Scolonrap, 32) ; **¦ NOTE 4 *** Rpl- BitMap=4BM[0]; SecRast(sScreonl- RastPort,0);
Rpl- BitMap-SBH[l) ; SetRast (4Screenl- RastPort, 0); RP1- 3i Cmap-4 BM[0]r return I); r Init_Bobs(| ( Objl.NextOb-NULL; Objl.PrevOb-NULL; Objl.AnY-64 *20; Objl.AnX=64*lQ; Objl,YVel=0; Objl.XVel=0; Objl.YAccel-O; Objl.XAeceI=0; Objl.RingYTrans-3'64; Objl.RingXTrans-2* 64; Objl.Headcomp-£compl; compl.Flags-RINGTRIGGER; compl, Tiner=50; compl.TImeSet=l0; compl.Nextcamp=NULL; compl.Provcomp NULL; compl.NextSeq=s comp2; compl.PrevSeq-4comp2; compl. An 1 mCRout I tie -NULL; compl,YTrans=0; compl.XTrans-0; comp1,KeadOb*4 Obj1; compl.AnimBob-4bl; comp2,Flags-RINGTRIGGER; comp2,Tlmer-50; comp2 ,T i
meSet=10; comp2.Next comp=NULL; ccmp2.P re v comp-NUEL; ccmp2.Next Seq-4 compl; comp2.PrevSeq-4compl; comp2. AnlmCRout ine'N’ULL; ccmp2.YTrans«0; ccmp2.XTrans-0; comp2,HeadOb-SObjl; comp2.AnlmBob-4b2; gelsinfo.nextLine - NULL; qelslnfo.lastColor - NULL; gelsinfo.collHandler -NULL; Soreenl- 3astPort.Gelslnfo = 4gelsinfo; vl,VSBob=4bl; v2.VSBob”4b2; InitGels(ssl, 4s2, sgelslnfo); GetGBuffers (40bjl,RPl,TRUF,l ; InltGMasks(40bjl); InitAnimate(ianlmKey); AddAnim0b(40bjl,sanlmKey, RP1); ret urn(); ) Cleanup 0 I SHORT j; Walt(l Wlndowi- UserPort-Nmp_Sig31t[; if (rastptr) FreeRaster (rastptr,
320,200); FreeGBuffers(40bjl,RP1,TRUE); CloseWindov(Windowl); CloseScreen(Screenl); for (j-0; j 5; ++j) ( if (BM10],Planes[jl ) FreeSaster (BM[0(.Planes(j],320,200); If (BM(1). Planes[ j]) FreeRaster (BM[1).Planes[j],320,200); I CloseLibrary (GfxBase) ; CloseLibrary(IntuitionBase); return () ; I VOID Drawlt () *** NOTE 5 *** ( Rpl- BlLMap -SBM[TOGGLE]; RI- BltMap - 4BM[TOGGLE]; Anlmate(4animKey, RP1) ; SortGList (RP1) ; WaltTOFO; DravfGLlst (RP1, VP1) MakeScreen(ScreenlI; RethinkDlsplay (); TOGGLE *«1; I NOTE 1 These are new declarations. We are setting up an array of 2 bitmaps, and, as we
will sec later, the TOGGLE alternates between BitMap[0] and BitMaptl].
NOTE 2 This buffer saves the background for the second BitMap. If you are not using the system animation routines, and you are using simple bobs, remember that you will have to call RcmBobt) or RcmlBobO for each of the BitMaps in order to remove the bob from the gel list.
NOTE 3 The order of these statements is important. Several spectacular crashes occurred when I was first running the program, even though it would compile. You must initialize and allocate the bitmaps before opening any screens or windows, since you have already told the screen to expect a CUSTOMBITMAP.
NOTE 4 The SetRast calls clear the screens to whatever color you specify in this case, it is color 0. This is what is wiping out the window's close gadget.
If you really want to preserve the borders and gadgets, you can use GIMMEZEROZERO.
NOTE 5 Since the TOGGLE has previously been set to 0, wc are writing into the first BitMap. When we reach the end of this function, the TOGGLE is bitwise EORcd, which sets it to 1. It will then continue to alternate between 0 and 1 each time this function is called.
In the Intuition Reference Manual, Robert Mical warns us against using RcthinkDisplayO in too cavalier a fashion ... but nothing else works.
RemakeDisplayO is an even more potent and ominous statement that calls MakeScrecnO for every screen. I prefer to limit its scope and call it for just my one screen.
¦AC* WARNING: A New Computer Virus May Be Hazardous To Your Amiga.
So far, Amiga public domain software has been free of a phenomena common to other computers a class of programs known as 'Trojan horses" or "viruses." When run on your computer, these programs cause some form of insidious damage.
The Amiga now has a virus. This type of program is called a "virus" because of the way it replicates and transfers itself to other disks, like the way a cold is spread by shaking hands.
A European gToup called SCA claims responsibility. It is yet unknown what the virus does, but an examination of the virus code shows the message "Something wonderful has happened. Your AMIGA is alive! And, even better, some of your disks are infected by a VIRUS!" There have been one or two reports of this message being printed at random times, but no confirmed reports of any damage done to disks.
I Ed note: The Amiga 2000 is most susceptible to attack, according to early reports. A major software company attributes major losses to the virus' work on the 2000. Amiga 500s and 1000s seem unaffected thus far.} The virus is spread from computer to computer by an infected Workbench boot disk. If you start your Amiga with an infected disk, then the virus is transfered into memory. The virus survives a warm boot that is, a restart of the Amiga by the "Vulcan nerve pinch," also known as CTRL- Amiga-Amiga. Any Workbench disk used to boot an infected Amiga will "catch" the virus if the
write-protect tab is dosed.
" i If you warm-boot with any Workbench after your computer has been "infected," then the virus will be copied to that new disk. Of course, booting with that disk at a later time will infect the machine again, and so on.
The virus code hides in the first block on a disk. Normally, this area holds the "boot block," or the very first piece of code loaded into the Amiga. The disk continues to work as usual. You can view the virus code with a disk editor, such as the public domain program "Sectorama " There is a way to eradicate the virus from infected disks. The standard AmigaDOS INSTALL command rewrites a uninfected boot block to disk. By running INSTALL on all infected disks, then turning your machine off, you can eradicate the virus.
¦AO Advanced 68000 Assembler Language Programming The Big Picture by Warren Ring " How do you do a good job of writing a program?
What do you keep in mind?'
I have always believed that assembly, on any machine, is the best language. By definition, it is the most efficient and fastest language. A good macro assembler, tuned with macros the programmer is comfortable with, can be used with as much case and reliability as most high-level compilers, and with initial coding nearly as fast as a high- level language.
The element of assembly programming I like best is that you btow exactly what you have. You can call your object code into RAM with a debugger, look at the disassembled object code, and match it with your source code. If necessary, you can even step through your program one instruction at a time.
Now, I know all your C friends are snickering, but when integration and debug time rolls around, and they're decorating their source code with "printf"s and wondering whether or not 00C07327 really points to a valid record, we'll see who has the last laugh. There are times when you have a really exotic bug, and you need to examine disassembled code to see where the misunderstanding, wrong language documentation, unwritten rule, or incorrect code generation lies, regardless of the source language.
In this first article on 68000 programming, we're going to talk about good general programming practices that apply not only to 68000 assembler programs, but to all other programs as well. We're going to discuss: (1) how to effectively comment programs; and (2) how to make assembly programs portable between machines incorporating the same or different microprocessors. You didn't know that assembly language programs can be portable between different microprocessors? Boy, are you green! They can be ported if they are set up correctly. I'll show you how this is done.
Before discussing 68000 assembly programming specifically, let's talk about programming principles in general, in any language. How do you do a good job of writing a program? What do you keep in mind? How should you approach it? What is the big picture? ! Once attended a two-day seminar put on by the Yourdon people. They had a great answer to this question. Studies have shown that over the life of a program, two thirds of the total effort that goes into writing done in the maintenance phase. Therefore, when you write a program, you should keep ease of maintenance in mind.
Ease of maintenance. What does that mean? It means you put in a little more effort at the beginning to save your hide later on. It means that you assume that two years from now, when you're called back to make a change, you can pull it out of your drawer and dust off the source listing without fear that essential pieces of information about the program have been long forgotten. You also do things uniformly. Don't use some procedures in one place and other procedures in other places to perform the same function. No quick-and-dirty procedures are allowed.
Exercise the self-discipline it takes to do it right the first time, even if it means delaying introduction of the product.
Ease of maintenance also means anticipating the kinds of changes that may be needed later on. Put some hooks in for them, like array sizes and validity limits. My rule on this issue states that every value that is not a zero or one must be called out symbolically in the program and defined in a pool of equate (define) statements. No exceptions. (I don't always measure up on this one, but it's an ideal I always strive for.)
Comments Now, let's talk about comments. I've been programming for 15 years, and I've discovered one thing most programmers don't know much about commenting. Each time I get involved in a new programming situation, I notice the same mistakes. These mistakes occur because of a lack of planning. Lack of planning occurs because of inexperience.
How do you get experience? I know, by making mistakes!
After a losing season, famed Green Bay Packers coach Vince Lombardi once said , "Men, THIS is a FOOTBALL." Like $ 19.95 m Amiga 1000 1 pin* part* and jalei tu o Authorized Commodore Service Center Commodore PC-10 MZ3 22A 73 Z.DO @000C09QJ JJSCZQ DSP1HEX1) D0++++++++ DSP1HEX1 ADD'07 DO GORETDisployChar MZ3 22A RQGETRAPOPGOTO DSP1HEX MOVE1 D0.-CA7) ANDI.L S0F,D0 CMPI.L 10,D0 BMI DSP1HEX1 ADDI.L 7,D0 DSP1HEX1 ADDI.L 'O',DO JSR DisplayCnar MOVE! (A7)+,D0 RTS Lombardi, we're also going to cover some basics. We're going to talk about commenting in a style you may never have seen.
Let's talk specifically about comments. Ease of maintenance requires functional, but not physical, coupling of comments and source statements, in other words, a comment cannot reference a register, a cryptic variable name, or anything else that is machine or implementation dependent. How can that be? Comments should define functions, not machine attributes. Look at the following example; many of you will recognize this function. The routine converts a hex nybble to an ASCII character for display. The comments without the source code arc: DSP1HEX ."Display 1 hex character' rouline ;(Push
registers) ;Strip off all but bits 3-0 ;!f the value Is less than 10, ; then jump to DSP1HEX1 ;Add 7 to the value DSP1HEX1 ;Add 'O' to the value .¦Display the character ;(Pop registers) ;Return You must add the value of an ASCII zero to the value to convert a 4-bit nybble to a printable character. If the value started out between SOA and SOF, add 7 to put the value in the range of ASCII "A" through "F," since, on an ASCII conversion chart, there are 7 characters that reside between "9" and "A."
The "DSP1HEX1" is a label. Notice that there are no references to registers or variable names; there are references only to functions. Of course, there are no variables referred to here. If there were, I would require that they be referred to descriptively, rather than by their cryptic variable names.
Let's assume we are programming on a 68000. The source code and comments should look like this: .'Display 1 hex character' routine .in: D0 bits 3-0 = the value to display .(Push registers) .Strip off all but bits 3-0 ;lf the value is less thon 10.
; then jump to DSP 1 HEX l :Add 7 to the value Add 'O' to the value Display the character (Pop registers) Return DSP1HEX ;* Display 1 hex character' routine PUSH PSW ,Tn: A bits 3-0 = the value to display ;(Push registers) ANI 0FH .•Strip off all but bits 3-0 CPI 10 ;lf the value is less than 10, JM DSP1HEX1 ; then jump to DSP1HEX1 ADI 7 Add 7 to the value DSP1HEX1 AD! ’O' Add ’0' to the value CALL DSP1CHR .¦Display the character POP PSW :(Pop registers) RET .Return 19 Crosby Drive Bedford, MA 01730-0523
(617) 275'8892 Tired of the high cost of computer repairs?
- ? FLAT Labor charges
- ?FREE Estimates These comments are descriptions of functions,
as they should be. Two years from now, when I'm looking through
the source listings for a certain location in this program, I
really won't carc what registers are used. Rather, I'll care
about which function is being carried out and where.
- ?Warranty work Also; 1764 to 512K: J61 128 64K vdc RAM: *40“
NEW: 01902 conversion to RGB-Ll40- .¦'Display 1 hex character*
routine ;Args are passed in the usual manner : described in
1672-820-443-2323.
: Push registers) :Strip off ail but bits 3-0 :lf the value is less than 10, : then jump to DSP1HEX1 Add 7 to the value If you are programming an 8080 under CP M, your source code and comments should look something like this: If you happen to bo programming an M-5, then the ingram programming would look like this: Add ‘O' to the value :Display the character ;(Pop registers) : Return DSP1HEX $ 3495 Did you notice that each comment is actually a complete sentence? Such construction should always be the case. The following examples should never be used as comments: (continued) No.
Is the loop done yet?
Get the next data value Yes.
1 consider the following examples acceptable: Read the next disk record into the buffer If the record type is invalid, then jump to GORF5 Wait here until a key is pressed Display "Enter a value: " If there was a read error, then jump to ERR003 Portability Between Machines With Different Microprocessors Did you also notice that the comments in the above examples arc machine independent? This structure leaves the door to portability wide open! You can move your source code to the new machine and go down the listing, adjusting the assembler source statements to match the comments' description.
I have done this with great success, migrating line drawing routines from 8080-bascd CP M machines to 6502-bascd Apple 2s.
The method used for commenting your assembler programs can have a dramatic impact on the maintainability of your programs. Now let's discuss portability of code between 68000 systems.
68000 Portability We need to discuss one more aspect of portability specific to 68000 systems the handling of system calls. Let's say you've written the world's greatest Amiga program. Since you know that other 68000 machines also have windows and graphic screens, theoretically, you should be able to run your program on any machine with a 68000 processor without too much conversion hassle. Well, yes if you structure your program properly when writing it.
My rules go like this: Divide your program into three sections: (1) machine-independent read-only (application code and constants); (2) machine-dependent readonly (interface code and constants); and (3) read-writc (uninitialized data).
Section one, containing your application code, will probably be the largest. System calls are not allowed in this section.
If you want to make a system call, you must place that system call in a short subroutine in section two, and then call that subroutine from section one. Code and data in section one cannot be changed or written over at run-time.
Section two contains a scries of short routines that make the actual calls into the system. Their only function is to insulate the application code in section one from making assumptions about the system. You may find, for example, that sending a character out to the console requires a slightly different calling procedure on the Amiga than on a Mac, an ST, a Sun, or an Apollo. By structuring your program to make system calls only through section two, you can rest assured that this section is the only area of your program that requires modification to perform migration.
For disk files, there should ideally be only one subroutine to open a given file, one to close it, one to read a record from it, one to write a record into it, one to create it, one to delete it, and, perhaps, one to append records to it.
Section three contains your scratchpad variables. This section should contain your writable data and your stack.
When you start up your program, initialize your stack pointer to the top of your stack +1. You should also be careful not directly address data in this section. Rather, you should place the location of this section in one of the address registers (like AS), and then access the data as an offset from this section's address. This procedure sounds a little strange at first, but it can buy you an incredible bonus: time-sharing. You can have multiple copies of the same program running (such as a bulletin board), using only a single copy of sections one and two, and a copy of section three for each
user (modem).
This arrangement means you can have a bulletin board program with a 250K section one, a 2K section two, and a 20K section three. If you want to add another user (modem), the 20K for the additional section three is the only additional memory consumed! You can support many modems before you run out of RAM because you are running all users from the same copy of the object code.
There are a few smalt considerations, of course. For instance, there must be a way for each section three to know with which user (modem) he is supposed to be communicating (i.e., a modem number (0..n)). There must also be only one modem character-output routine in section two, and you must pass the modem number to that routine along with the character you want output. Every other routine that interfaces with a modem must also have a modem number passed to it as an argument.
What power! I know of no high-level language that can do that!
In case you are wondering what kind of high-powered, realtime executive is needed to do the switching among the different sections three, it is a surprisingly small one about one page. I'll show you what it does next month.
Next month, I wall cover some of the actual system calls you can use to get characters in and out of the CLI, and, perhaps, some disk I O calling examples.
- AC- Roomers by the Bandito A special high-resolution graphics
board for the Amiga 2000?
From the cover of Newsweek to cancellation, in just a few months ... The television series Max Headroom has been cancelled, and with it go the use of Amiga graphics on the show. A day after the cancellation, dozens of Amiga systems were removed from the set. As one computer network pundit said, "What? Couldn't they use the Amigas on Knot's Landing?"
Commodore has extended the Amiga 1000 to 2000 tradc-up offer until the end of November. Reportedly, sales of the 2000 are brisk, and Commodore can't make them fast enough. Meanwhile, rumors continue to surface about problems with the 2000 as developers test fully-trickcd-out machines, loaded with expansion cards. Some combinations just don't work, and there has been a lot of finger-pointing between Commodore and hardware developers. Sometimes the finger points at Commodore, sometimes at developers, sometimes between developers.
Baseball hero Earl Weaver was interviewed on the ESPN sports network recently and plugged his game from Electronic Arts, Earl Weaver Baseball.
He pulled out a copy of the program and told announcer Roy Firestone that it runs on the Amiga. Thanks, Earl!
Commodore may be planning an expansion chassis for the Amiga 500 that can accept Zorro standard cards.
Early guesses say the price will be so high, you may as well buy an Amiga
2000. Hardware developers were quite surprised at this
revelation. By and large, Commodore has stayed out of the
expansion hardware market, Along with the rumor of the
Commodore expansion box came word that digitizer company
New Tek may be working on high-end video graphics hardware.
The first sight of it may be at COMDEX in Las Vegas in
early November. Meanwhile, video digitizers arc coming
out of the walls at Amiga shows, and more are said to be on
the way from different developers.
Griffin Bacal, Commodore's advertising agency, has hired director Peter Wallach to do the Amiga 500 commercials. Wallach's previous credits include a video for some song called "Thriller."
Beta versions of the new Agnes graphics chip with one megabyte CHIP memory are being circulated to key developers, according to insiders.
The latest word says the chips may be at least three months away from distribution.
Commodore may also be preparing a special high-resolution graphics board for the Amiga 2000. It will reportedly have as many as 1024 pixels of horizontal resolution, and perhaps, a four- color video mode at higher resolutions than the Amiga currently boasts.
Some estimates say that the black-and- white resolution may be as great at 1280-by-800 pixels. The Workbench software may be limited to a standard 1024 pixels wide, but custom software could access the higher widths.
Commodore hopes to attract the desktop publishing and computer- aided drawing markets with this graphics board. A monitor for these higher resolutions would cost S300-400 for the monochrome display, and about SI 500 for color. The odds-on bet is for the monochrome at those resolutions. The price for such a graphics board? About S500. Some developers consider this area to be a blind alley and wish Commodore would work on the Amiga 3000 instead.
Another rumor says Commodore is hot on promoting the Amiga in educational markets with an emphasis on CD ROM technology. The bearer of this rumor says they are trying to compete with a similar campaign being carried out by Apple with the Apple II GS computer. To the Bandito, this makes a certain amount of sense simply because it is so crazy after all, if Commodore has completely ignored CD ROMs so far, why not declare them to bo the latest and greatest thing for the Amiga?
Electronic Arts is dropping the Sierra label from their distribution. Another rumor says Microprosc is not interested in doing anymore Amiga stuff and is shifting attention to the Atari ST. Rumors about the laser toaster keep popping up. Some attendees at the AmiExpo show saw someone walking around with "Laser Toaster Designer" on his show badge. A developer who uses the Amiga to control laser light shows confirmed that lasers can indeed be used to toast bread. The developer said he is thinking of using the toast trick in a rock concert, perhaps for a reunion concert of the group Bread.
• AC* Disclaimer. The following article is a composite affair
made up of my own opinions, some hard facts, and a rumor or
three. ! Am not ashamed of my opinions. The rest you can take
for what it's worth.
As I See It Digi-Paint, Portal, and Videoscape 3D Digi-Paint: When is a paint program not a paint program?
Every once in a while, a program comes along that I don't think about; 1 just use it. What I mean is, usually in the course of getting to know a program. I'll say to myself "I wonder how this works," and then proceed to figure it out. Occasionally, though, a program comes along that is sooo tricky that I won't even hazard a guess as to its inner workings. Digi- Paint is such a program. It docs so many unbelievable things, it's hard to imagine how it works. The math must be staggering! It makes my head hurt just to think about it. So I don't.
I just use it ... and love it.
Digi-Paint does so many things, and all so well; it's hard to know where to start. The shading and tinting must be seen to be believed. HAM brushes shouldn't be possible, if you know anything about Hold And Modify! A pixel's color is determined by the color of the previous pixel. So how do you make a brush that is separate from the main image? Don't ask. You can load two images at once, then cut out a section of one image to see the other image "behind" it. How does Digi- Paint do that in HAM? Don't ask.
This is what 1 mean by headache- inducing features. If you try to figure out the magic, you get a headache.
By Eddie Churchill If Digi-Paint has a serious flaw, it's that it's being marketed incorrectly. It is not a paint program, at least not in the same sense that Deluxe Paint is a paint program. I suppose if you are ultra-talented, you can sit down and paint with it. That strikes me as overkill, and a clumsy way of accomplishing your end. Digi-Paint is a graphic-arts effects package. You load a picture (either drawn with DP II or digitized with Digi-View) and then "finish" it with Digi-Paint. You can even make a black and white picture look like it was taken in color! This area is where you
really use the program to its maximum potential.
Which is a lot, because Digi-Paint is complicated and powerful. So don't buy DigiPaint to use it only as a 4096- color painting program that would be like buying a Cray XMP supercomputer (a cool S4 million) to draw pretty pictures. It can do sooo much more.
Digi-Paint represents the second generation of Amiga software, along with Deluxe Paint II, VideoScape 3D, Word Perfect, Sonix, and Diga!. These are products that are doing more than anyone thought could be done on a personal computer just four years ago.
More like them are coming out every week. This is an exciting time to own an Amiga.
Portal: When is a game not a game?
This product has been a favorite of mine since 1 first saw it around last Christmas. The problem is, it's not selling as well as it should. I know why. People don't know what it is.
They think it's a game. Nothing could be further from the truth! The box tells it like it is: "A computer novel."
That's exactly right. Portal is about as much a game as hiking the Appalachian Trail is a game. Most people would think of a hike from Maine to Georgia (if they thought of such things at all) as a beautiful journey along a predetermined path. That is exactly what Portal is: a beautiful journey along a predetermined path. You read it like a book. You don't type anything (It's not a text-adventure.), you don't kill anything (sorry, fantasy role- playing fans), and you don't affect anything along the way (It's not an interactive adventure.). So it's only a book? What's the big deal about a
book? Well, for one, this book comes on three full 880K disks.
Over 2 and a half meg of book? A typical novel would be about 400K.
This book creates an atmosphere of which paper books can only dream. It docs this by combining elements we computer users all too often take for granted. Elements like stereo sound, program controlled timing, and text from a computer that seems to be talking to us. By doling out information at its own rate, and having Homer (an Al computer construct who's talking to you) talk about things as if they were real, Portal creates a sense of tension and realism that you've previously had to sec a inovic to experience. Not bad for "just a book."
A product rarely comes out that is so original and radical that people don't understand it. Portal is such a program. 1 think Portal deserves a second look by a lot of people. If you love reading Science Fiction as much as I do, you'll like Portal a lot no matter what you may have heard.
Videoscape 3D: Animation for the Dedicated One thing you must say about Aegis: They believe in truth in advertising.
Their box for Vidcoscape 3D is the most truthful thing I've scon in a long time. Two separate items come to mind. The first is a note on the back of the box: "Note: VidcoScapc 3D is a sophisticated script-file-based animation tool designed for producing video effects.
It is intended for the professional or advanced video hobbyist."
That's no lie! You know how you learn to use most programs like this.
You slap it in the drive, boot it up, and start playing around, right? Not this baby. You'll be lost in 15 seconds if you don't read the manual (Which is written very well, by the way. It starts out simple and builds on earlier topics, just like instructional manuals ought to do.). The second bit of truth is on the side of the box.
"Hardware Options - 1 Megabyte RAM to create animation files."
They don't lie. If you don't have a meg, don't bother trying to record an animation to disk. It's a big no-go.
You may as well try to copy a standard workbench disk to ram:. It won't fit.
Not that these are faults! Far from it.
I salute Aegis for being honest enough to tell you these things that might limit sales upfront. If you qualify to use VideoScape 3D, you will love it!
(If you were frustrated by the Animator, with its lack of real tri-dimensionality, and you have at least 1 meg, you qualify.) This package allows you to get serious about animation. There will be a lot of vertical market sales of the A2000 and VideoScape 3D packaged together.
There are already some spectacular animations hitting the public domain that have to be seen to be believed.
They are being broken into pieces for uploading because they are so big, but they really demonstrate what a tremendous graphics engine wc have here. If you get a chance, download the ShowAnim player and any of the videos you can find on your favorite net or BBS. You won't be sorry. You will probably be surprised.
EndRun Well, that about wraps up another edition of "As I See It." Before I fade back into the bit-stream, however, I must award the Public Domain program of the month. This month's winner isn't a single program, but the first of a series of lifetime achievement awards to programmers who consistently put up quality goodies. This month, I salute Creg Cunningham.
His DirUtil VI or DiskMan 1.3 are utilities that I'm willing to bet the vast majority of Amiga users (at least those who have access to any public domain programs) are using. They are clean, utilitarian, and simple. If you don't have one of his utilities, your life is a lot harder than it has to be. Thanx, Creg. Keep up the good work.
Well, another month has slipped away, and my time is up. Until next month, remember: Piracy Just Say No!
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P. O. BOX 2106 MANASSAS, VA 22110 Karate Kid II review (continued
from page 8) Overview The game is very fun to play (espe
cially with two people), but docs have a few bugs. At times.
I've hit an opponent at the right side of the screen, and he's
disappeared and reappeared on the left side.
The graphics appear to have been ported from another computer system, but, for the most part, the animation is quite well done. The little men on the screen rub their heads when they fall, and everything on the battle screens moves smoothly.
The sound is good, too. Each time a player kicks or throws a punch, he lets out a yell or grunt. The sound really adds a lot to the game.
This program is copy-protected, and writes scores to the disk. I haven't taken the write protect tab from its "write protected" position, for fear that the scores might ruin the diskette (I've seen this happen with several other games, and 1 didn't wrant to take a chance!). Despite the minor problems with this program, I've enjoyed playing it. Karate Kid II isn't the slickest game on the block, but it is still very, very enjoyable.
• AC- Command Line Arguments in C by Paul Castonguay One
advantage of the Amiga's disk resident command system is the
case with which existing DOS commands can be modified and new
ones added. As a trivial example, MS-DOS users who prefer to
use the command name "ERASE" rather than "DELETE" can simply
change the name of the erase program in the command directory
with this command: Rename Wo:kbench:c defete as
Workbenchic ERASE Creating new AmigaDOS commands is simple,
too. You just add a newly compiled program to the command
directory. This makes the program executable at any time, just
like any other AmigaDOS command, regardless of where the
current directory is or even whether or not the Workbench disk
is physically installed in a drive. The Amiga takes care of
everything, telling you to install your system disk when it is
needed.
Of course, not every program added to the command directory should be considered a new AmigaDOS command.
An example is an arcade game like GALAXY-CRUNCH.
Why not? Well, I would not view an arcade game as a new command because it is not a useful utility. It docs not do something we normally associate with the system commands of a computer (The designer of GALAXY-CRUNCH, however, might legitimately argue with me on that one.). Would a calculator program like NUMBER-CRUNCH be a valid command? Sure! A calculator that operates right in the CLI window; I'd like that. You might enter NUMBER- CRUNCH 345*894 TAN(43.7)+EXP(28.345) and AmigaDOS would return ... uh ... 1059184.709 (argument of TAN in radians). That might really help an engineering
student.
And he could say he had added a NUMBER-CRUNCH calculator command to his Amiga.
For this article, I have written a simpler program called Roman which returns the Roman numeral of any Arabic number you enter. Believe it or not, this command exists on the computers made where I work (LISP programming stations for artificial intelligence applications). That is where I got the idea that I should add it as a new command to my Amiga. You simply enter in the CLI window; Roman 29 and the Amiga will return: XXIX But wait a minute. Typing "Roman 29" is more complicated than simply typing the name of a program resident in the command directory. Somehow the program must recognize the
number 29, or any other number of which I wanted to find the Roman numeral. This is called "passing command line arguments," and this is really the subject of this article.
Passing Command Line Arguments In C Every time a program is executed from an AmigaDOS CLI window, that program has an opportunity to find out:
1. How many words were entered by the user?
2. What are those words?
This information is passed to the function main() of your program; to get this information, you must use two arguments. You might, in general, write: main(x.y) The information passed would be handed over to the variables x and y. Well, don't forget that you have to properly declare these variables according to some rules of the C language.
First, let's use more informative variable names. Let's declare our mainO function of our program like this: main(how_many, where_are_they) I'm taking advantage of the fact that the implementation of Lattice C on the Amiga lets me use variable names which are 30 characters long. (This is an article about the Amiga ... isn't it?) As the name implies, the first argument receives the number of words that have been passed to your program. If you had typed this from the CLI window, Roman 35 42 8636 The All New SS-20 Fixed Drive System for Amiga 500, 1000 and 2000 Computers The Model SS-20 Is
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INQUIRIES INVITED the system (AmigaDOS) would pass the number 4
to the variable "how many." Did you think it would be 3? The
system passes the total number of words the user has entered.
The command Roman is itself considered a word.
And finally, since the system is passing an integer, I must declare the variable "how many" as type integer: main(how_many,where„are_they) Inf how_many; Now your program can use the variable "how many" to find out how many arguments were passed to your program. What you do with that information is, of course, up to you. You could have your program respond to only one argument if you wanted. You could have your program issue a warning message if it received the wrong number of arguments. How about: "Enter only one argument you bean-brained human!" Maybe: "Hark! I perceive an overabundance
of formal parameters." Be creative!
Now, let's find out what was passed. You may have heard that C is a language that likes pointers. Pointers are used to find out where things are. In this case, our program knows how many arguments have been passed, but it does not yet (continued) know exactly what was passed. In fact, what happens to the words entered on a CLI command line anyway? Surprise! They are conveniently stored in memory for you by AmigaDOS. The location in memory where these arguments are stored is passed to your program via the second variable "where_are__they," as a number representing their address.
An address is like a memory location number. We say that the variable "where areAhcy" points to the character string the user just entered in the CLI window. You don't have to know exactly what number is. Your program can read it all by itself by looking into the variable "where are they."
So, I must declare "where_are_they" as a pointer. Yes, but that's not all. You already know that AmigaDOS allows you to receive more than one argument. Docs that mean you need to declare many pointers? One for each argument? Yes and no. Your program does need a separate pointer for each argument passed, but fortunately, you do not have to declare them individually. The system will help you out on this one. All you have to do is declare an array of pointers.
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• • An array is a collection of things which all use the same
variable name, except that each one is identified by its own
particular number, called an index number. The declaration: inf
bozo(l2); This declares an array of integers bozo[0], bozo[l),
bozo[2],.....bozo[ll]. That's 12 elements starting with 0 and
ending with 11. An array of pointers is a scries of numbers
representing addresses in the computer. They similarly use the
same variable name followed by a particular index number. I
might declare: char ‘find_it(2Cl), This would represent 20
places where the addresses of character strings could be
stored. The * operator tells the compiler that you have just
declared a pointer. I might store the computer address of my
favorite girlfriend's name in find_it[19], findjt(19) = &'
Matilda'; The & is the address operator applied to the string
"Matilda." Since I don't know where in the computer my
compiler placed the name Matilda, I use the address operator to
find out. I could now write: prlntft'Matilda Is In my computer
at memory location %u‘, find_lt(19}); Matilda's location in
memory would be reported to the CLI window! Wow! Matilda may
not be very impressed but 1 sure am. Finally, 1 could write:
prlntfCMy favorite gal is %s", find_it(19)); The CLI window
would respond by reminding me exactly who it was that 1 should
keep so dear to my heart. Matilda will like that one. The
printf command used the address stored in find_itI19] to find
and print to screen Matilda's name.
Okay! Okay! Back to passing arguments in C. I want to declare the variable "where are they" as an array of pointers. Here is how it is done: maln(how_many. Where_ars_they) inf howjnany: char ‘where_are_they[); Don't I have to declare the size of the array? No. The array is passed to my program as its beginning address.
That's the address of the first pointer variable "where areJheylO]." The second pointer immediately follows the first. AmigaDOS docs that for me. To find the first word passed to my program from the CLI window, 1 look at the address pointed to by the first element of the pointer array "where_arejhey[0]." 1 could write: printf('The first word is: %s', wherejare_they(0)); The word Roman would appear on the screen. Why?
Because the first element of the pointer array "where_arc_thcy[0]" points to the first word the user entered in the CLI window. That's the name of the command, Roman. The second element of the pointer array "where_are_thcy[ll" points to the second word entered by the user. That happens to be the first argument, a number in character format, maybe 29 or 83 or just about anything.
The system separates each word by looking for blank spaces. Anything separated by a blank space is treated as, and reported to my program as, a character string address in the pointer array "wherearetheylj." Yes, I did say character string. If you were trying to pass a number like 29, the system would pass you the character string "29." If you wanted to use that number in any calculations, you would first have to convert to the integer 29. I had to do this in my program "Roman," which is Listing Two of this article.
(continued on page 106) Expanding Reference Amazing Computing .fmazlng- v Computing" ’ CmouDpQjjffl Mann *M h»Hi The Excitement Continue* SuperTem The User's Issue Volume 1 Number 1 Premiere 1986 Super Sph*r*« By Kriiy Kauflman An Abesc Graphc* prag.
Data Vim¦ ByJFouU A Canase may aback your Arngal EZ-Term by K*fy Kauffman An Aflasc Termed prolan Mga Mania by P. Kivolowitz Programming fie* S mouaecara InridaCLI 9 Q MjtaerigudedineghtintotoaAmigtDof™ Clt Summary by G Matter Jr. A ito of CU command* An ft For urn byBLutom Vn Cor-p eme* Am aSIQ Commodor* Amiga Davtlopmant Program byO. Hc*a Amiga Product A sbng s!pra»m and Bipecwd pKixLct* Volume 1 Number2 March 1986 Bactrortc Arta Comaa Through A tv'ow of »fVar* •rom EA IniIda Clt: part two G Wjssot h« jis Cll4 ED A Summary of ED Command* * Llval by Rich Mner A rev** of toe Bata wriOfi o1
Live!
OnlnaandthaCTSFabh* 2*24 ADHUodam oyj Foufi SupanirmV1j8 By K. Kauffman A term, prog m Amga Bate A Wortibtftch Hora' Program by FfckW.mn Amiga BBS rumbera Volume 1 Number 3 April 1986 Analyjv! A rave* bf ErneR Vwnc* Ravlawa of flatter, Birataecaa and kind shadow Ferthl The trc at our on-goirg utonaf Oriux* Drawl I byftWrch An Amiga Banc art program Amiga Baalc, A begmnara tutorial In at da CU: part 3 &y Geary* Aluur Gec-ye gvw ut PPE Volume 1 Number4 May 1986 SkyFax and ArtJcfa* Rerltwvd Build your cwn S 1 4 Drlva Connector By Enact Vvarat Amiga Baalc Tlpa byRjchWifch Scrlmpar Part On* byP
Kivobwrtz prog to print Angascrwn kfceroaoft CD ROM Corrtaranca by Jn Oxaana Amiga BBS Mjmhara r«u. Sift* nrnuzinijBga Computing Volume 1 Numbers 1986 Tha MSI to RGB Convtfrior Tool by S PwtxwCZ Crior manpuiaStto in BASIC Amiga No tai byR-cuRw Thefvatoftoe Arga nu»c wiunrs Sidecar A Flrit loch bf John FouK A itR ,unoar toe hood’ John Fouat Ti»n wfth R. J. Meal at COMDEX™ How doaaSldacar atfacttha Tranalermar an in»v*w wto D&j0at Wyman (rt Simile Th a Com mod or a Lay erfla by J Fauft AiookCoHT.ooora'a a* Scrlmpar Part Two by Parry Kvo'oanU Mtri.dw raV.mad by ftc* Wrtf Building Toa a by Dene
Ka*y Volume 1 NumberG 1986 Tamfdtof AoaSa! Trloiogy rewewd by Stephen Petrowrcz Tha Halwy Project A Marion In oir Solar Byatwe evewed by Stephen Petoaacz Flow: renewed by Erv Bobo Ttiterafl Pwa a Flrat Look bf Joe Ltwe'y Howto itirt your own Am lg aUa ar Group by Wiliam &mp*or Amiga Uaar Groupa MaingLJat by KwyKaufman a Disc m*! Irprogra- Pointar image Editor by Stephen Perowez Scrlmpar: part thra* by F -ry Kvabivtz Fun WiTi tot Amiga Diik Controller by Thom Storing OplmUaYour AmigaBaaie Fkogrima for Speed by Petwc.'
Volume 1 Number 71986 Aegte Draw; CAD com aa to tha Amiga by Kelly Adana Try 30 Jrn Meeww* an mtpGjccon to 30grtfrc* Aagia tnagatf Animator: awewtyErvBoDo Dteuia Vldao ConitTuctlon Sat ravewed E r Joa Lowe Vflndowraquaatera In Amiga Stale by Steve Mrf-el ROT OyCotinFrarch a 3D graph ct editor 1C Whit I Think* Ronf te’tomeratewCyioiKprogi Your Mau Ski byBCaaey pr&yan A-iga Bas n -u« F Bruah to AmlgiBawc‘BOB' Baseedtor byM Swnger Unking C Progrtma with Auwrbi w Roulnae on the Amiga by 06**1 Hull Volume 1 Number81986 The Unfvertety Amiga ByGGamble Am a1! Mrsad* atWateipgan Sate Lhvwaty MieroEda
b« a: a one man a my for toe An(a MtcroEd, Tha Lnfi nd Clark Lpaoibon renewed Frjee StflbbaVaralonlO artwew Computara In the Cluaroom by Robert FruafSe Two tor Study by Fume Dtexwery I TheTalwng Cobfrg Book True Baric mnoaed by Brad Grwr Uring your printer with the Amiga MarUt Ate dnaaa rewwp by Stepne PwtojwwLt Uring Fonta tom AmlgaBaaic by Tn Janec Screen SaYar by P. Knroiowra A montor protecton prog, m C Lfttki MAKE Utility wewed by Scott P. Evernden A Tala of Thrae EMACS by Sieva Poing ip Fiit Raedar In Amiga Baric by Tjonea Volume 1 Number 9 1986 In* tent 14-i c Rar««C by Steve Pwbowaci
U-;w| ior Ror*«ed R rard Knepor Tha A’agra Mevory Board Rev**wee Ren Wroi TiEd Rwroiwd by Jan and CH Kent Amaring Directory A 5 jde to fa aoi cta and retourcee Amiga Developed A Wng of Soppier* and Deveoder* Rjbie Domain Catalog A Sang of Am u* ana Frad Fa PCS Dot 2 Oca w«w Ft K-fCOt' TraraV lea torn PGVSOOS and ArgaBasc MadRan 'wwr by Rcrrd Knepper The Amga Sp'wdsfteJt Cizmoi by fvewed ty PesrWapv At o wtm1 The Loan formation Program by Bran Crtay base prog to for yoj finance! Optone Starting Vour Own AMIGA Rented Bualnm ty W &mp*on Keep Track of Your Burro** Uaage for Taxoa by J Kunnwr Tha
Abeoft Amiga Fomin Compiler rerewed by R A Rena UalngFontafrom Amlga£aak,Pa lTwabyTm Jy« 58X5 Uapoa On ft* Amiga by Q Hul Advance you'eblty.
TCI Modia-2 Amiga Compiler review by S Fauna Volume 2 Number 1 1987 WhalOgl-Vrwte.. Or, Whet Oarlock Sfcouk B»! By J Fxd AmlgaBete: Default Color* oy&'yr C«Sey AmigaBiatTtbaaSyByr Crey A Public Darren Modula-2 Syatam -evwrwd by WeTen Boca Ora Qr va Compili by Oojgwi Leva!
Dsng Lane® C aP a angle frrvte sy*»m A Megabyte Without Uagabudu by 0*a hrrg An Harr i UmjJtyte upgrade Ogl-Viiw n mvac by Ed J*kOb*f Defender oftfia Crown renewed by Kaji Con'ort Laaoar Board rava*« byChucARkK.il Round hill Computer Syatam a PANEL 'evawmd by Ray La-co DglPelnL.._by Haw Tak previewed by John Faust Dduw Paint H from Ejac Ironic Arta previewed by J. Fouit Volume 2 Number 2 1987 The Modam by Joer. L Rof'-a* e**ora a" a BBS Sytao UacroUDdtm tevewed by Steph*" R P«ra«*a GEI4M or 71 takea two to Tar go" by in-Uaadowf Gaming between r a r net BB5-PC! Rev owed by Steprwi R Pwtroiwa
1h* Trouble trite Xmodem by Joaeph L flolhman The ACO Projid...GraphicTafaeonlaranelng on the Amiga by S. ft, Fherowiei Flight Simulator )L.ACro« Coimfy Tutorial by Jon* Ra'Vty A Dak Librarian In AmlgaBASlC by John Karnan Creating and Uaing Amiga Workbench Icona by C. Hansel AmlgiDOS varefcri UbyCifoto Kant Tha Amulng 14CM tntarfaca buBd your own by Re arc Raa AmlgeDOS Operating Syttim Calls and Dak Fla Maria gamer! By D Heyne Working with fha Workbench by Lo j* A Mar ekoi P*og n C Volume2 Numbers The Am Ige 20W* ty J Afrr loo*« t» new, rgrants Amgs™ Tha Amiga 500*“ by John Foua!
A look at the w, low pr wJ Vrga An Analyala of tha Haw Amiga Pce oyj. FouM Soeafaton on the New Am at Gam Ini Part B bf J m Mmtdowl Thecondjckng aitode on teto-diyergamei a-becript* and Supericripti In AmlgaBASlC by hran C. Strip Tha Wintir Conaumar Elect’onica Siow by John Foust AmigaTrli by W Bxk Amiga™ahirtute Intuition Gadgat*byHarr.eiMayoeekToi!y Ajourney frougn gadget- au, utrg C Shanghai ravltwad By K*?i M Confort Chwarn aatar 2000 A Chaeamata wewedby Edwin V. Apei. Jr.
23n j! From Meridian Software rev owed by Ec Bercovtx Forti! By Jen Bryr Gat kteted aound rfc yj» Forf pograma Aaaembiy Languagi on tea An!gi™tiy Cm Msan Roomer* dr fteSanoto Ge-ioaa n ?r»y te-ippng. I MORE1 AmlgaNotaa by R Rae Hun BuCm . "No mei7 Ynot?.. Tha AMCUS Network by J Foue C£S, uaer group aauaa and At 9a Expo* Volume 2 Number 4 1987 AvnuJng htanriawa Jim Sacha by S. Hu& Viga Art*£ Tha Uouaa That Cot Rarorad oy J*ry H» i and 600 f sce SuatNng Public Domain Daka with CLI by John Four Highlight* bom tha San F nnd ace Commodora Show bySHJ Spaakar Sea wore: San Frmceco Commodore ShowH
Tafy The Houeahold Inventory Syatam in AmigaBASJC™ by B Cray Seerite ot Seaan Dumps by NaSc,n Oun Uaing Function Kay* wifi lAicroEm aca by Greg Doogf at Amlgitrii 1 by War1*? 5oa Ho-a r*ga ahoicuts Base Cadgrta by & r Cray Create gadget LxKna Gridiron revewM By K. Cortac Raai 1«1 * tyTis *ga Stir Flaet I Varaion 2,1 revmwd ty J Trsry V’gsn Speoa Tha TIC revewtt by J. Faut: Brwy powe-ad Cda Caanoaf kfetaacopa revew by K Totiy An easy to-uae deCugger Volume 2 Number 5 1987 Tha PiHaci Sound Dgltliir by R. Bela Tha Futura Sound Dgitliar by W B-ccx Acoed VvbrYa SO Forth! By J Brytxo“r*"g Jforh smd
HUT-Fyf.
Batec Input by B. Crey Ar gaSA&C "OLt'xlnwV .te ~ si joy program.
Writing a SourdScapa lAod-i - C by T Fey Progrimmrrg wth WO!, Anga and SoxcScapo t* SauncScaoa autior.
Programming in 6BX0 Aaatmtiy Languagi ay C. Msrtn Co-bu ng wnf Counters A Addressng Uodei Uiing FutyreSound with ArigiBASIC byj. Meacows A-5£ASCP*agriTirngutityw?r. Rss.agijed STEREO AmigaHotsa by R Raa A r**m ¦? Umefc* Sou ScBpa Sound Sarper Mora Ami jaNaaatyR Raa A firTier rnea af Sunriis'a Ported SoltxJ , Wavtlorm Workahop In AmlgaBASlC byJ. Shedt wkt A save wavefarm tot u» n oner AngaBASIC program Tha Mmalca Pro MU Studio by Sufi van, JeVry A '9f** of Umabca'musc mStorfpfayer.
Intuition Gadgata Part H by H, MsybeckToy Boolean gadgete pramoe tte utsr wn an o-VoH user ir»rteca.
Volume 2 Number 6 1987 FortifbyJ &yar Acdkj 'aaouttea-n fa ROM Kern at.
Tha Amazing Computing Hard Dak Rr»iew dy J Foust A S. lee-yi h-owriioKittni Clb Hau Ova, Ucrosetcx' MAS4 ma20. Byte by Byte'a PAL J', S iifUHaaO w and Xebec*i 972SJH Had C ve Aao a took a£ d» 9w so* wa cj-ar?y vmdr dwtepmsnt Modula-2 AmlgaDOS Dflldas by S Fawtzewtk A Call a to AmgaOOS and bn ROM urns Amiga Etpanaion Paripharaf by J. FouB Ejpcnaton of A-ga eioaray pa fywn t Amiga Technical Support try J. Fouat How nd wm to gal Ar ga tech wpst CoodbyiLoa CatoibyJ Foutt Cosng Lot Gant Tha Amlcua Network by J Fouat WaatCoaat Computer Fs'a.
Metacomco Shall and Toolkit by J.FouB A Tha Magic Sac by J. Faun Run Mac program on your Anga.
What You Should Know Before Chooalng an Amiga 15X Ei pan* I on Device by S Grant 7 Aaaarnblara for the Amiga by G Hull Choose you' assembler Kgh Leva I Shakaup Rapfieta Top Mamgamant at Commodon by S. Hu Pitar J Bacror'by S Hu I Manage' at COM gvea an rsca look Log) at a A review by Ricnard Knapper Orgsnlit1 tjf A revw Rcrn’d Knepper database 6IQQ0 Aeeambly Language Programming on Eva Amiga byCh-aMartn Sipartout Praonai RtiatlonaJ DatiJaaai by Ray McCase Am igaNotw by Rae. Rena to A look 4 Futo'aSound Commodore Shew* the Amiga RW and 5® at tie Bettor Computar Society cy H Uaytoeca Toly Volume
2, Number 7 1987 New Breed of Video Product* by John FouJi .
Vary Vfted! ByTim&teitian .
Zdap and Your Am iga oy &ar Sere* II Amlgaa I Waatvar Foracaabng byBranden Larior Asquarad and the Uva! Vwao DgJtMar 9f Jom Fxit ug. Animator Scripte and Caf AnimafisnbyJornFoutt OuaiTy Video from a Qualify Computer by Oar Sands II la IF Really a Standard? By John Fount.
An 12 In g Star lea and tea Amiga™ by John Fouft Al about Printer Drhrara by Rcreto 5 n L-tyiton Gicjrj by Hane:Mayoecx Tb-ey De uia Video 1J by Gob Eter Pro Video CG1 by Oan Se-toi HI DgLVItw lODvgWiarflofTararaby Jenter M Jank Priam HAM Editor from Hiputai by Jdnrrltr U Jink Eaayl drawing tab at by John Fount, CSA'a Turbo-Amiga Tower by Ated Abuno HC00 Aaaembhy Language by Chrta Mann Volume 2 Number 9 1987 Anaiyit 21 u evuec By (Cm Sc"aV Impart Bualn*a* Graphic* wew by Q"xx RsjCna Ucrof ch* F!*r **vew zy Ks’v Lu Pi;eae~w ftbr W*cn Ginn Of Ptdurfvfty Sat 2£ *ev w ty Bap E ft' KJ Oiworti aw*
by Hwv Laser D 31 Taiaeomminlcaton* Package wi nZtf Stv» Hjl Molk Tim* in Tr raivr T ewty JahP FouC hud* Memory Ex pans Ion &y Ja-es OX w» Mootootic* Sarootrd-2 r*r(w by S Fnv% utu» Leather Goddeau d Phoooa ¦Bvmwd ty MayDea-Toly Latte* C Com pilar Vara on 110 renewed tjf Gary Sartl M*ni 3Ai Uoflita ty Jot FouC AC-BASIC ‘*v«wd by SnOr Lae*"0'i AC-BASIC Compliar a- m-i*.* co-pa'wr gy B Catay Modula-2 Programming Sftwsarwu Raw Conjse Devco Events Directory Lifting* Under AmigaDOS Dy Dave Hay-te AmigiBASJC Pinama By &.ai Carey Programming wifi Soundacapa 1000r Fay manpuinaY sa ovs B II Yolk,
Yct-Pre* dent Aej a Dawaiopnart, rpfwm K ty Swr* Hull 4m Goodnow, Dnakoper ol Mau C rjpvawc Harre: Mtoy Volume 2 Number 10 1987 Mix Headroom and tha Amiga by John Foust Taking Pi* Perfect Screen Shot 3y Ke n Corlarr Amiga Artiit: Brim WUIiima By Jsnn Foust Amiga Forum on Compua*rvt™._ So’tora a Puhiahing Confaranc* Truiacrlpt By Rcrart Rae All Aooul Orlln* Confarandng by ftcftard Rao dO MAN 'eremd try Cl*orfl K*n| Amiga PikiI 'ft'weO by Mcr ae Mc 4e AC -B ASJC C cm p i »r tv ewofl by Bry an Cttoy Bug ByteaByJohn S n*» Amiga No tea by Rena rd R.v Roomer* cy The Band* to 6BCOO Aaaamby Languaga
by Ohs Ma n Tha AMCUS Nftwork By Joftft Faj« Amiga Programming: Am ga BA9C Svut.ne oy Slav* Men Quick and Dirty BoP* By Mcha* Swnger Dractory Uabngi Under Amlga-DOS, Part I By Qiv* Hay**o Fiat File I O with Modul*-2by SwvoFawszowok: Window tO By Raao PrOmor* S0 , Er‘Vtaa w Bjseaa , PotaJ, T*w Syg*3fl, I re fVspfl, S-oad, SsnScw. K-g’i Ou« J,l| ard III F»7 T*« k!W'ljr&. II it* III Faaci a* Ac*jt t. Vd« V05as and Bs'e’i Ta* PM AnulngaiomWjr column*... A- aNtfes, Raarn, Modula-2, G8CC3 Assem&y Laig agft aid Th AicjS NeVwrx.
Diak-Z-Ditk by Mo*w Leeds The CdofFont* Sanda'C By J»".n Fau*!
Skrwy C Program* ByRaberlRwT'i-i, J* Hiddtn Mtutgti hYou* A-ga By Jot Fauat TS* Coniunar EJ e*orlei S*ew an* Co'ftbtx.By J Fb-tt Your Resource to the Commodore Amiga™ Volume 2 Number 11 1987 Word Proceaaora Rundown by GoottGambie F oW' 59, Sens Be', ar J Ws’dPe'TC.cs-po'ec LPD Wrttw Review oy Manjn Doano YlaWrit* R aviaw By Hw Luw Aodlt Review By Warms Boo WordPerlict Preview by Hrv La»r J*i San Interview By Ed Bvcof 2 The a-ro1 el Su-Gklff jpci-j Do-ll-your*aillmprov*menta to Bit Amiga Genlock Dgl'Pilnt Ravi aw by Hrv Laser Sculpt X Review SievePetoiva Shidowgete Review By L nde Kepian
TeteGeme* Review By Mch» T. Cnb'i' Rwaon Preview iQucklookitm im*® gwnmiraiam n«on aoo'caso- A* I 5** ft By Eboo Chtfth'. FWurg atWyePwMc* Gsr u V2 3 enC Z ng'Keyt Bug Byleiby John Sir no* AmlgaNotei By R Raa A eecTonic muse books Modula-2 Programming by Steve Fiwsxewsiu devces, IO. And fie sv vi port Room era By T-o Bax to 6 0CC Aaarrbiy Linguag* By Cnr t Marin Qrswa« tirougn prdspiay roulnes The AMICUS Network Jobn FouJt Ctesatop PuB tnng & Seybi 0 C AnlmitionPirtlltyM. « Svvngar Artmtto-i Ob«c» B ASC Tart By B'an Ca’ey P i« De'te lert poslan.ng Sajndecipe Pirt II yf Todor Fay WJ Me*'
andmd'e Fun wifi Amlgi Numbori By Am Ek*nat Fite Browaer oy Bryan Casey Ful Fealre BASC F-l« Browsng utility The phrase above is not just empty words. The pages of Amazing Computing™ arc filled with articles on technical operations and procedures, basic use, and just-plain-fun. The growing library' of Amazing Back Issues contains articles from building your own IBM Disk controller, to setting up your own startup sequence. Amazing Computing™ has repeatedly been the first magazine to offer the Amiga users solid, indepth reviews and hands on articles for their machines.
Amazing Computing™ was the first magazine to document CLI Amazing Computing™ was the llrsl to show Sidecar™ from COMDEX™ in full detail.
Amazing Computing™ was the first to document a 5 1 4 drive connector Amazing Computing™ was the first with a 1 Meg Amiga upgrade hardware project!
Amazing Computing™ was the first magazine to offer serious programming examples and help.
Amazing Computing™ was the first magazine to offer Public Domain Software at reasonable prices.
Amazing Computing™ was the first magazine with the user in mind!
From the Beginning Since February 1986, Amazing Computing™ has been providing users with complete information for their Amiga. This store house of programs and information is still available through our back issues. From the Premiere issue to the present, there arc insights into the Amiga that any user will find uscfull.
$ 4.00 each!
Our Back Issue price is Still $ 4.00 per issue! (Foreign orders, please add Sl.OO per issue for Postage & Handling. All payments must be made by check or money order in U.S. funds drawn on a U.S. Bank.)
Limited Supply Unforunately, nothing lasts forever, and the availabilly of some of our Back Issues is definitely limited. Please complete your Amazing Computing™ library today, while these issues arc still available, Please complete the order form in the rear of this issue and mail with check or money order to: Back Issues, PiM Publications, Inc., P.O. Box 869, Fall River, MA 02722 (Please allow 4 io 6 weeks for delivery') filename hello out there in the country BUTCHER OK, so the name is a little strange. Butcher 2.0 Includes some strange utilities that you won't find in paint programs. It
also includes powerful features for manipulating your pictures. Features like edge detection, resolution changes, pixel counting, halftoning. Bit-plane-slicing, sorting colors by pixel counts or intensity, density slicing, and palette effects like toning, positive-negative reversing, color separation, complementing, and false colors. You can also change a picture into a mosaic of colored shapes. Use the shape editor to define the shape. Butcher does the rest. Imagine a picture transformed into bricks, diamonds, hearts, or even shredded wheat.
Butcher 2.0 suports color cycling, video overscan, spare screens, and pictures larger than the screen. It requires 512K RAM and Klckstart 1.2. IFF compatible.
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(804) 452-0623 Well, there you have it. You now know how to find
out how many arguments were typed, and where to find them
in memory so you can do something impressive with them.
You can pass any argument to a program right on the same line you use to call the program. Install the program in the command directory Workbcneh:c. Who could argue that you did not add that program as a new command in your Amiga?
Try the example in Listing One first. It will let you try what you have learned. The printf command will cause the number of words entered by :he user to be printed on the screen. Also, notice how the value found in the variable "how many" is used in the condition part of the while loop.
It says to print as many words as the system reported entered by the user. The index variable i increments from 0 to the value stored in "how_many" and then causes the loop to end. That's exactly what we want. Type the program using ed (the resident Amiga editor). Compile and link it. I used Lattice C version 3,03. Notice that I did not use any Sincludc "stdio.h." 1 did not have to. Everything needed to link the printf command to my program is contained in "Istartup.obj" which 1 must compile with my source code anyway, as per Lattice C's instruction manual. When you finally get your object
code, run it from the CLI window.
Enter something like this: Then press return.
Here's what I got: The user has entered 7 words Word 1 is dfl :Amazing„Examplel Word 2 is hello Word 3 is out Word 4 is there Word 5 is in Word 6 is the Word 7 is country That's all folks.
Now, take a look at the program Roman.c (Listing Two).
This program uses exactly the same method to determine how many arguments have been entered and also to process each one. Naturally, it's a bit more complicated than only printing the arguments to screen. It also has a conditional statement which limits the maximum number of arguments that the user can enter.
Try to apply what you have learned here to applications of your own. How about a program to find the arithmetic mean of a bunch of numbers? Or perhaps a program which returns the size of a file by counting the characters in it?
The command could be called HowBig and the filename of the file you want to tally up could be the argument. How about a program which converts Roman numerals back to Arabic?
For now, you can type in the source code, compile it, link it, and install it in your command directory. Tell your friends that you added it yourself as a new command to your Amiga. You will notice numerous attempts to add humor to the program. Try running it with foolish arguments to see the various responses. Try running it to see if it docs indeed work correctly. Above all, enjoy!
Listing One • Ar-a 2 In Example 1 .c * main how many, where_are_they) int how many; char 'where arethey[); int i - 0; * declare a counter * print f (* nthe user has entered %d words n nw, how rr,iny) ; ( printf("Word *ld is %s n*% i + 1, vhere_are_they[i]); i++: } printf(' nThat's all folks. n n*J; Listing Tzvo * Roman.c * ?include "lattice math.h" * needod by pow ) function * main(argc,argv) i* argc la the number of arguments * int argc; * argv[) is the pointer array * char *argv ); I int length_string - 0 ; int i - 0; int arg_number - 1; int letter_flag - 0; int decimaljocint -
0; int negative_sign - 0; int user_entry - 0; double pcw() : while ( arg_number argc a argc 10) • How long is the string? ¦ length string - strlen(argv[arg_number]); » check for decimal point • decimal_point - 0; for (1 - 0; i length_string; i++) ( if (*(argv[arg_number] + i) 46) decimai_point - 1; } * check for negative sign • negative_sign - 0; for (1-0; i length string; i + + ) if (*(argv[arg_numberl+i) 45) negative sign - 1; } * check for letters * ZINGJSpell Check and correct your spelling as you type!
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Letter_flag - 0; for (i-0; i length_string; i++) ( if ((•(argv[arg_number]+i) 4 8 | ¦(*rgv[arg_nunber]+i) 57) 44 (•(argv[arg_number]+i) I - 46) 44 (•(argv[arg_numb«r]+i) 1- 45)) letter_flag - 1; 1 if (|decimal_point 1) 44 (letter_flag 0)) ( prlntf r n") ; for (1 - 0; i length_string; i++) printf("%c'r *(argv[arg_number] + i)); printf(* is a decimal number. "); prlntf("The Romans weren't that araartiXn-); decimal_point - 0; 1 else If |letter_flag 1) t printf " n"); for (i - 0; i length_string; i++) printf• (argv [arg_number J + i)); prlntf(* contains letters. "); printf("Enter only
numbers ......you duraboll n"); letter flag - 0; ) else if ((negative_sign 1) 44 (letter flag 0)) printf r n"l; for (1 - 0; 1 length_string; 14 + ) printf("Ic", •(argv(arg_number) + i)); printf(¦ is a negative number. The Romans didn't know about thera. n“); negative_slgn - 0; } else I • Convert to Numeric * user_entry - 0; for (i-0; i length_3tring; i+ + ) user_entry +- (•(argv(arg_nunber]+i)-
48) *pow(10.Q,(float)(length_string-l-l)); SUBSCRIPTION
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C_c OHMODQRe ~6H«-ftMIGn«ieon Btaaaaaaaoaa oooa ?????QoaBaa qoljs iu[a[]j[a[ij!ij[ijuja jj yuuu QBOQaBQBffla 0BBB BBBBBBBBBBB OOBQ [CjT- TL --IL TPI COMMODORE COMPUTERS 237-68HB The Memory Location 39B Washington 5t.
Wellesley, MH 02181 Commodore Specialists If (usor_ontry 3999999) ( printr(" n") ; for (i - 0; i length strlng; I + + ) printf("%c", * !argv|arg_number] * i)); printfl" is higher than most Homans knew how to count. n“); 1 else if luser entry 0) prlntf(“ n“1 ; for (i - 0; 1 lcngth_string; i**) printf ric", ¦ argv[arg_number] + ij); printfl* did not exist in Caesar's Rome. n"); } else I romanluser_entry): } 1 arg_nunber*+; 1 if argc 9) 1 printf(* nThat's too much!! Maybe you'd better buy a bigger computer. n"); ) if ( argc 1) 1 printfI" nFORMAT; Roman x*x xxx xxx ... where xxx -
arable number ...you bozo] nM); ) : - Find the Roman numeral of any arable number Using Diane's Special algorithm!!!!’ ¦ roman(arabic) int arable; I char ansi[SO],ans2[50]; int index - 0; int question; question - arable; arabic-romanize (arable, 1000000,, 'M' ,ansl, ans2, fiindex) : if (arable - 900000) ansi[index] - ; ans2[indexJ - 4C'; Index**; ) arabic-romanize (arable, 100000,' , *C', ansi, ans2, fiindex); if (arable - 90000) 1 ansi[index] - ; ans2findexl - 'X'; index*+; arabic-ronanize(arable,90000,,'C',ansi,ans2,£Index); !
Arabic-romanize (arabic, 10000,'X', ansi,ans2,£ index); if (arabic - 9000) 1 ansi[index] ¦ 1 ans2(index] - 4M': index**; arabic-romanize(arabic,9000,','X', ansi,ans2,fiindex); J arabic-romanize(arabic,5000,' ','V',ansl,ans2,fiindex); if (arabic - 4000) f ansi[index] - ’ ’; ans2[index] - 4M'; index* + : arabic-romanize(arabic,4000,fV', ansi, ans2,6index); J arabic - romanizo(arable, 1000,' *K', ansi, ans2, fiindex); if (arable - 900) ( ansi[Index] - 1 *; ans2[Index] - ’Cr; index* *; arabic - romanize(arabic, 900, 4 1, 4M', ansi, ans2, fiindex) ; I arabic - romanize (arabic, 500, % *, ’D',
ansi, ar.s2, fiindex); if (arabic * 400) 1 ansi[index] - ' 1; ans2[index] - 'C'; index**; arabic - romanizo(arabic, 400, 4 4, 4Dr, ansi, ans2, sindox); ) arabic - romanizo (arable, 100, 1 4C', ansi, ar.s2, fiindex): if (arabic - 90) ansi[index] - 4 4; ans2[index] - 'X'; index*+: arabic - romanize(arabic, 90, 4 4C', ansi, ans2, fiindex); } arabic - romanizo(arabic, 50, 4 4, 4L', ansi, ans2, fiindex); if (arabic - 40) ( ansi[index] - 4 ans2[index] - 4X'; index**; arable - romanize (arabic, 40, 4 4, 4L', ansi, ans2, fiindex) : 1 arabic - romanize (arabic, 10, 4 4, 4X', ansi, ans2,
fiindex); if (arabLc - 9) [ ansi[index] - 4 %; ans2[index] - 'I'; index**; arabic - romanize(arabic, 9, 4 *xr, ansi, ans2, fiindex); 1 arabic - romanize (arabic, 5, 4 4Vr , ansi, ans2, fiindex); if (arabic -4) ( ansi[index| - 1 ans2[index] - 4T'; index* *: arabic - romanize (arabic, 4, 4 4, 4V', ansi, a.ns2, fiindex); } romanize(arabic, 1, 4 4, 43', ansi, ans2, fiindex); ansi[index] - 4 0' ; ans2[index] - 4 0'; printf(~%s n", ansi); printf("is is the Homan numeral for id n”, ans2, question); I * Print the character c as many times as there are
* j's in the number i, then return i minus the j's.
* romanlze(i, j, cl, c2, al, a2, Lndexaddress) int i, j; char
cl, c2, al[], a2[]: int "lndexaddress; t whiled - j)
al["index address] - cl; a2("indcxaddress] - c2; "indexaddross
- •lndexaddress ? 1; i - 1 - j; ] return(i); ¦AC* Barry
Massoni's MIDI Interface Adapter for the Amiga 500 and 2000 The
following is one method for converting an Amiga 1000-type MIDI
interface to be used with the Amiga 500 or 2000. The conversion
is not difficult and does not make the interface useless with
the Amiga 1000 because ail the modifications are made inside a
gender bender. Only 7 components are needed for the conversion
which can be done in about an hour.
The serial port gender, pin assignment, and available voltages have been changed on the new Amigas. On the Amiga 500 and 2000, the 5V and -5V power pins from which most interfaces draw their power are not supplied.
The conversion reroutes the 12V and
- 12V power to the correct pins and converts this power from 12V
and
- 12V to the correct 5V and -5V.
First, a few warnings. You must follow the instructions exactly. Failure to do so may severely damage the interface or a connected synthesizer.
Proceed at your own risk! Either you, I, or the component manufacturers might make a mistake. If you build this device, follow the testing procedures carefully. Testing is the only way to be sure you will not damage something.
If you don't know much about electronics, you will need to know the difference between the anode and cathode of a diode. The band identifies the cathode end (That wasn't so hard ... was it?). Be sure that all diodes are correctly placed.
Here are the assembly instructions.
All modifications should be made inside the gender bender. When soldering, always use heat sinks to prevent damage to the components.
1) Designate one side of the gender bender as the Amiga side and
one side as the interface side. Mark which side is which. The
interface will not operate if the gender bctuier is plugged in
backwards.
2) Open the gender bender. Once inside, disconnect all wires from
pins 1, 9, and 10 on the Amiga side. You need not remove the
wires; just trim off any leads that might create a short
circuit.
3) Disconnect all wires from pins 21 and 14 on the MIDI side.
Again, you don't have to remove the wires entirely, but rather
trim the leads to prevent short circuits.
4) On the Amiga side, connect one 680-ohm resistor to pin 9.
5) Connect the cathode of one of the Zener diodes to the
unconnected end of the 680-ohm resistor.
6) Connect the anode of that Zener to pin 1 on the Amiga side.
7) Connect the cathode of the 1N9I4 diode to pin 21 on the
interface side.
8) Connect the anode of the 1N914 to the junction of the Zener
and the 680- ohm resistor.
You have now completed a circuit that converts the 12V to 5V and routes the power to the correct pin. Next, you will construct a circuit that converts the -12V to -5V. It is not an exact duplicate of the first circuit, but rather more of a mirror image. Some parts will seem to be backwards in comparison to the first circuit, but this is okay.
9) On the Amiga side, connect the 680- ohm resistor to pin 10.
10) Connect the anode of the 5.1V Zcncr diode to the unconnected
end of the 680-ohm resistor.
11) Connect the cathode of the Zener to pin 1 on the Amiga side.
You will notice that it is connected opposite to the first
Zener. That's just the way you want it (Yes, both Zeners
should be connected to pin 1 on the Amiga side.).
12) Connect the anode of the 1N914 to pin 14 on the interface
side. (Again, this is the opposite of the way you connected
it on the other circuit.),
13) Connect the cathode of the 1N914 to the junction of the
680-ohm resistor and the Zener anode.
14) Now, very carefully check all the connections that you have
made.
Look for cold solder joints and reversed diodes. Also make sure there are no short circuits.
15) If you did not understand any of the directions, stop right
here and leave me E-mail (Barry Massoni, CIS 73260,1413).
I'll try to answer as soon as possible.
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16) Turn off your Amiga and connect the interface (stilt open) to
the serial port on your Amiga 500 or 2000.
17) You'll need a voltmeter for this step. I've seen them for
less than 510 at hardware stores. If you can't afford one,
borrow one. You should not test with your interface and a
synth. It's just too expensive if a mistake has been made.
Connect the red lead to pin 21 on the interface side and
connect the black lead to pin 1 on the Amiga side.
18) Set the meter to read DC at a low range (12 volts or so, but
not less than 5 volts).
19) Turn on the Amiga while you are watching the meter. It should
almost immediately read 4.5V. If it does not, turn the Amiga
off and check all connections again.
20) If it docs read correctly, within 1 2V or so, turn off the
Amiga.
21) Connect the red lead of the Volt meter to pin 1 on the Amiga
side.
Connect the black lead to pin 14 on the interface side.
22) Again, turn on the Amiga. As before, it should read within
1 2 volt of 4.5V. If it doesn't read like this, check the
connections after turning off the Amiga.
23) If everything reads properly, turn off the Amiga and remove
the modified gender bender.
24) Very carefully close the case, making sure no short circuits
occur.
Be sure no solder joints break when you are closing the case (The results could be disastrous!). Also, make sure the case is non-metallic. If it is metallic, insulate all exposed wires and leads with electrical tape.
25) You've done it! Connect the gender bender to the Amiga and
connect the interface to the other end (Bo sure you don't
have it backwards.). Always make the connections when the
Amiga and your synthesizer arc both off. Turn everything on
and you're ready to go! Have fun!
• AC- PARTS LIST (Radio Shack Part ) GENDER BENDER: This device
converts a male DB25 to a female. It is basically just two
connected female DB25s. Some are made in cable form; you don't
want this type. Try to find the kind made like a small plastic
box with a DB25 on each end. The gender bender must be the type
you can open not the permanently-sealed variety.
Taro 5.1 VOLT ZENER DIODES (276-565) Two 1N914 DIODES (276-1620) (1N4148 diodes may be used instead.)
Two 680 OHM RESISTORS (271-021) (These are 1 2 watt or 1 4 watt.)
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Jay Miner, the former lender of Amiga Los Gatos and mastermind of (he Amiga custom chip set, started things off at the first AmiExpo as the premiere keynote speaker.
The AMICUS Network The Commodore Show and AmiEXPO At Amiga shows, you can almost feel the optimism and affection of software developers. It is directed at customers and dealers as usual, but a good share of the devotion is aimed at the Amiga
500. Sales are good, and that means software sales will do well
over the next few months. The Amiga 2000 is making
developers happy, too.
Hardware developers are moving their products to the 2000-sized slots.
Software developers are considering applications that take advantage of hard disks and extra memory.
This month’s column is a run-down of the new products announced and displayed at two recent Amiga shows, the Commodore Show and AmiEXPO.
With this healthy enthusiasm, it is not surprising to see good attendance at Amiga shows. The Commodore Show was held in Anaheim California at the Disneyland Hotel October 3 and 4.
The Commodore 64 will live forever, it seems. The Commodore Show is not Amiga-specific. Vendors show'cd hardware and software for the 64 and
128. Talking with 64 owners in the crowd, J found that many
admired the Amiga, and realized they would need to trade up
in the next few months if they wanted to catch the wave.
Early Sunday morning, the Los Angeles area shook from a 5.5 magnitude earthquake, an aftershock from the larger quake several days earlier.
The earthquake was the first for many of the vendors who live in other parts of the country. Rumor had it that a certain Amiga hardware company from the Midwest decided not to come to the show because of the recent earthquake.
The First AmiExpo The first AmiEXPO was held in the Sheraton Centre hotel in Manhattan, New York City. It was the first completely Amiga-specific show of major proportions. It was also the first major show on the East Coast, so I know it attracted Amigaphiles from as far cast as Ohio and as far south as Virginia.
Being much closer to London, it also attracted many people from Europe.
Each morning opened with a keynote speaker. On Saturday, Jay Miner, the former leader of Amiga Los Gatos and mastermind of the Amiga custom chip set, started things off. Sunday was RJ Mical, the main programmer behind the first version of Intuition. Monday had Richard McIntyre, Commodore's senior vice-president of sales and marketing.
AmiEXPO had as many as four seminars running simultaneously. The staff did an excellent job of arranging speakers. Many of the developers on the show floor were represented in speaking sessions, so if you couldn't talk to them in their booths, you could hear them speak to a crowd. The panels on graphics and video were most heavily attended. I participated on several panels one on entry-level desktop publishing, one on animation and modeling programs, and one on computer journalism.
Digital Creations, the people who made the Gizmos utilities, revealed several new products at the Commodore Show. They showed a new genlock called Super Gen. The genlock functions can be controlled by software in the Amiga. There is no extra hardware connection to the computer's serial or parallel ports.
Instead, they superimpose control information on the video signal using the Amiga custom chips. The video signal is not distorted in any way because the control information is placed in a part of the video signal that is not displayed. The price is $ 749, and the product will be available in November.
D-Buddy is Digital Creations' new paint program. It edits all resolutions of Amiga images, including HAM, overscan, extra half-bright mode, and pictures larger than the screen. It has some features not found in either Prism or Digi-Paint, the other two HAM paint programs on the market today. It looks good and sells for $ 79.95. PAR Software showed Express Paint, a new paint program that supports multiple active brushes, a number of brush special effects, selective backup of regions of the picture, and unlimited use of fonts. Express Paint also supports the extra-half bright mode for a palette
of 32 colors and 32 more colors that are half as bright as the first 32 (Remember, not all Amiga 1000s support extra-half bright, but all Amiga 500s and 2000s do.). Express Paint sells for $ 79.95. (continued) Perfect Vision is a new video digitizer from the people who make the Perfect Sound audio digitizer. It digitizes video information with four bits of resolution. With an additional hardware device, it can create color HAM pictures by taking three separate digitizations of the same still video image. It will sell for S219 and is expected to be ready before January.
Perfect Vision connects to the parallel port, so it will work on all Amiga models.
At both the Commodore Show and AmiEXPO, A Squared Systems showed the Live! Digitizer. It is really, really shipping. No kidding. What more can I say? Mimetics also showed their frame grabber again, which is said to be shipping soon.
Music Hot Licks is Infinity Software's entry into the music market. An early version of the program was shown at both the Commodore Show and AmiEXPO. Infintiy will sell a plastic overlay keyboard that makes the Amiga keyboard look like a piano (Infinity also showed a game of Go that reportedly plays at the 18 kyu level and can beat the leading Go game on the IBM PC.). In Anaheim, The Other Guys premiered Synthia, a digital synthesizer, priced at S99.95. It is a system for creating synthesized sounds. Musical sounds can be reproduced and controlled mathematically. Existing or sampled
instruments can also be modified with Synthia.
Microillusions had a tremendously large booth at the Commodore show.
They had thirteen Amigns and a rather complete MIDI instrument setup to demonstrate Music-X, an upcoming MIDI music package.
In New York, Magnetic Music showed the latest incarnation of Texture, a MIDI recording and editing package with special features for developing melodies and rhythm tracks. Sound Quest showed patch librarians for the Yamaha DX-7 and Roland D-50.
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People in the Electronic Age” Animation Hash Enterprises,
creators of Animator: Apprentice, made their first show
appearance at the Commodore Show.
The animations produced by their product are first-class, Animator: Apprentice is a full-blown system for creating cartoon-like characters and choreographing them on a stage.
In Anaheim, InnoVision Systems showed a preliminary version of Video Effects 3D, a program that animates IFF brushes in three-dimensions.
Given brushes or text in different fonts, and a path of motion through space, Video Effects 3D produces animations that resemble the special effects found on video production systems costing much more than the Amiga. The frames of animation take a minute or two each to produce, but the animation plays back at full video speeds. It will sell for $ 249 when it becomes available in December.
At both shows, Meridian Software, makers of Zing!, showed the Demonstrator, a program that can record and play back anything on the Amiga. It can record keystrokes and mouse movements within other programs.
The Demonstrator demonstration showed the mouse movements of someone drawing in Deluxe Paint, and let the user interact with the demonstration. Speech and text can be added to the recording. The product sells for S39.95. At AmiExpo, R&DL Productions showed their Light Box software, a program that assists in creating hand- drawn animations. It shows the previous and next frames of the animation sequence. It works in conjunction with a SummaSketch tablet from Summagraphics and should ship soon. R&DL showed a videotape of animation created with this system and animated with their page-flipping
routines.
Boing Jackets GR€nT oven ups Protect your investment with opoque vinyl covers.
Amiga & Monitor (Stacked R1000) $ 9.49 AMIGA & Monkor (Stacked A2000) $ 9.79 Amiga 500 $ 6.49 Amiga 500 & Monitor (2 piece) $ 13.95 AMIGA CPU(A1000 or A2000) $ 6.49 Amga Keyboard (A1000 or A2000) $ 3.49 Disk Drive (3' s' or 5' « ”) $ 3.49 Amiga Monitor (1080 5i 2002) $ 7,49 Printer Covers Narrouu Carriage $ 5.49 tilide Corrige $ 6.49 Piease Specify Model Number of your Panasonic or Epson Printer If you've wanted one of the shiny black Amiga Boing jackets seen on the backs of former Amiga employees, you can now get one of your own. A company called Boing is taking orders for the jackets at $ 125 each. You
must send a self-addressed, stamped envelope to the address below for an order form.
Please add SI.00 per item (Max. $ 3.00) for postage and handling, Send Check or Money Order (U.S. funds only) to: GREAT COVER-UPS (503) 655-0602
P. O. Box 751 Oregon City, OR 97045 Dealer inquiries invited.
Ray-tracing Animation A ray-tracing animation program called Silver made its debut at AmiEXPO. Silver comes from Impulse, the makers of the Prism HAM paint program. Silver lets you build objects from geometric primitives, such as spheres, cubes, cones, and triangles.
Each object is assigned motion and color characteristics. The program can render frames of the animation in minutes, building a twenty or thirty- second animation overnight. The results look very much like the Juggler demo, which was done writh similar techniques. Impulse promises new features and modules to expand the abilities of Silver, including such things as texture mapping, w'here the image of an IFF brush is "painted" on the surface of a geometric object in the animation.
At AmiEXPO, Crystal Innovations showed Mouse Trace, a very clever Amiga product. Mouse Trace resembles a drafting aid that holds your mouse in a brace on an extension arm.
The brace has a clear crosshair for pinpointing locations on a drawing placed on a drafting table. It works wonderfully for tracing drawings or entering precise information with the mouse. It is a truly original product.
It made so much sense to me when 1 saw it, and it was easy to use. Of course, it works with all existing software. I think this product could substitute for a drawing tablet in many applications. It sells for $ 59.95. Gold Disk announced a product called Comic Setter, a program for making comics. It works in sixteen colors and has a library of dip art, as well as the ability to handle both bitmap and line- oriented graphics. It supports all Preferences printers at a user-specified resolution, so 24-pin printers should yield much better output than 9-pin Epson-style printers.
Very Vivid The Very Vivid people were at AmiEXPO. I think their booth wron the "ooo and ahh" award of the show.
Their software and hardware system, called Mandala, incorporates a realtime video digitizer with sophisticated software for detecting motion and collision between the digitized images and the graphics on the screen, The system was up and running in their booth. By standing before the camera and moving your arms in space around you, you interact with the graphics on the screen. One part of the demo was a paint program; another interacted with musical instruments. By touching dots on the screen, you could pluck strings and strike bells. It is very exciting to play with.
I heard about Commodore chairman of the board Irving Gould's visit to the Very Vivid booth. Apparently, he stood by very interested in the interaction between the computer and the person being digitized. Someone (continued) suggested he step in front of the camera himself. He demurred and suggested that one of his subordinates step in instead.
Very Vivid also gave a live performance at a local night spot called the Tunnel. Unfortunately, I didn't make it to this presentation. According to one observer, it was a spectacular performance, but not everyone in attendance understood what was happening.
The Very Vivid people thought some people obviously mistook it for a choreographed presentation, where the dancer had a prcmediatcd series of movements synchronized to the computer images. As soon as the audience realized that the dancer was truly interacting with the computer, there were many more "ooos" and "ahhhs."
Very Vivid planned to give their full stage demonstration at the AmiEXPO show on Monday; unfortunately.
Arrangements did not work out and the performance was cancelled.
That same night, Amiga artist Sandra Filipucci, whose works have appeared in Byte magazine, hosted an event at Mission Graphics Support. The show was titled Digital Monotypes.
C-64 emulators Software Insight Systems showed the GO-64! Emulator for the first time at AmiEXPO (see review in this issue).
A friend suggested an idea for an ad for GO-64! the headline would read "A great step backward."
Another Commodore 64 emulator was shown by Readysoft. It is supposedly very near completion and should be shipping soon. Like GO-64!, it is somewhat slow and not quite a perfect emulation. Until the new one ships, it is difficult to compare the two emulators. The features listed for the ReadySoft emulator look good. The spec sheet says it will support all Amiga disk drives and printers, and that it has a monochrome mode for extra speed.
Games INTERCHANGE Share object* between Sculpt 3D and VideoScape 3D Dae Sculpt 3D aa an editor to create objects for VideoScape 3D Use Sculpt 3D to make HAM ray-traced Videoscape 3D schemes Full Intuition Interface for all functions Discovery Software showed an Amiga version of Arkanoid, a popular arcade game from Taito. Discovery will be producing Amiga versions of other arcade games under an agreement with Taito. MicroSearch, makers of City Desk, showed Head Coach, a football simulation. Psygnosis showed two new games, Barbarian and Terrorpods.
Tntmivingc™ converts Sculpt 3D objects to MdeoScape 3D objects and back a iln. Save hours of work and tedious calculations by ush j Sculpt 3D to make VxleoSoape 313 olijocls. Shitrc objects with others.
Price $ 49.95 Sard check or morxy cutler only, (lease include S3.00 postage & han- dhr i. WI and MA residents add 5% sales tax. "Ibis product requires Sculpt 3D and WlcoSeipe. It ts not a stand-alone animation program.
Scnrl a stamped, sdf-addrcseod envelope lor a catalog of Synckids products. Dealer Inquiries trrvitod. [ntcreJiangc ts a trademark of Syndesis.
Sculpt 3D and VicknSrape 3D arc rcfjiitcrcd trademnrkB of Byte by Byte Os' porotkn and Aegis lievdopmtnt, respectively New C compilers At AmiEXPO, Lattice was selling their C compiler, version 4.0. Software Distillery member John Toebes is manager of the 68000 compiler development at the SAS Institute, the parent company of Lattice.
S1 YNDESIS on UfCCT CIDCCT ¦Hk 4J Weal OiKtxl MGTON, MASSACHUSETTS 01887 617 • 657 • 5585 The new compiler has dozens of exciting new features. Many of the changes are direct results of requests and suggestions from the Amiga community, as well as from programmers within the company. The code size is down and the speed is up. The Blink linker is improved and has become an official Lattice product, so future versions will not be freely distributable. The now compiler more closely meets the proposed ANSI standard for C. Upgrades from version 3.10 arc S45 and well worth it.
A future article will discuss the features of the new compiler.
Manx Software was also at AmiEXPO, claiming that the new version (3.6) of their Aztec C compiler will be ready soon. The professional and commercial versions of the compiler will include a source level debugger.
Manx reports that the next version of the compiler, version 4.2, will be ready early next year and will meet the ANSI recommendations for C. A source level debugger lets you view the human-readable program source code while the program executes. The debugger has two windows. The top window shows the source code with the next line to be executed highlighted in a different color. The code can be scrolled with an Amiga scroll gadget. The lower area of the window displays debugging information. The source level debugger makes code development much easier. You can check the values of variables
without inserting scads of "printf()s" to find out what is happening in the program.
You can change the values of variables on the fly. The debugger prints values in the proper form for the variables' types.
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This software will be freely distributable and may make its way onto a future distribution of AmigaDOS. It will also be posted to bulletin boards and a future Fish disk.
The ARP library will remove a layer of the Amiga operating system that has been a thorn in the side of Amiga programmers from the very beginning.
Parts of the operating system rely on data in a certain form, endemic to a language called BCPL (It is more popular in Europe than the United States. Its detractors jokingly call it the British Cruddy Programming Language.). BCPL coding conventions make C programming too difficult.
The vagaries of BCPL have limited the development of certain programs, such as shells to replace the CLI.
APL The Spencer Organization showed a version of the APL language. It is fully integrated into the Amiga programming environment (It includes windows and graphics) and sells for $ 99. It comes with labels with the APL character set for the front of the keys on your keyboard. They have ported this language to most popular microcomputers, so there are bindings to many other third-party software developers for this APL.
Auto Boot Comspec showed an autobooting hard disk for the Amiga 1000. It is a SCSI 20 megabyte drive that will sell for $ 1150 if you own a Comspec RAM board, and SI 495 otherwise. It uses "black magic" to accomplish hard disk booting within a few seconds of power-up without a Kickstart disk according to a company representative with a finger on the Amiga power switch. As he spoke, he flipped the power switch to demonstrate how fast the disk could boot.
A company called Dcsignlab showed a video digitizer box for the Amiga. It worked in black-and-white in 256-by- 242 pixels, but future versions will have higher resolutions and color. The box is designed to accept more memory expansion boards to increase the amount of digitized video that can be stored within the box itself. This product is not aimed at the home market, but instead is targeted at video production houses and other artists. Prices start at S2200.
Dcsignlab also announced a print program called FincPrint. FinePrint uses an interesting technique to output high quality black-and-white prints.
Using a worn-out dot-matrix printer ribbon, FinePrint builds up a greyscale image with layers of light ink. It also prints images at any size, from an inch square to hundreds of feet, according to Designlab's promotional literature.
(continued) On a related subject, Wollner Associates showed the GlennLoc RM-2 sync generator genlock system at the Commodore Show. This is a professional quality genlock that also does fades and keying between video sources and sells for S2995. Again, this product isn't aimed at the home market.
Central Coast Software, the makers of Disk-2-Disk and Dos-2-Dos, announced a WYSIWYG word processor called Precisely and a hard disk backup program called Quarterback that works with all Amiga hard disks.
ASDG Hardware company ASDG showed preliminary boards for their Satellite Disk Processor, a hard disk controller that promises to be faster than existing Amiga interfaces.
The card has its own 68000 processor and 512K of RAM. A socket for a 68881 coprocessor is also provided. The card supports two ST-506 IBM-style hard disks and as many as 56 SCSI devices.
ASDG had promised to show their 2000-and-l box at the AmiEXPO, but they decided to devote their time and effort to bringing the device into production, instead of completing the prototype to be shown. The 2000-and- 1 is an upgrade path for Amiga 1000 owners. It brings much of the expansion ability of the Amiga 2000 into reach of people who don't want to give up their Amiga 1000s. It will accept two Zorro cards of the old style standard, five Zorro cards of the type used in the Amiga 2000, a coprocessor slot, three IBM AT style cards, two 3 1 2 inch drive bays, and a single 5 1 4 inch drive
bay.
Byte by Byte showed the Byte Box, a zero to two megabyte FAST memory expansion for the Amiga 500. Byte by Byte is no longer making the PAL Jr.
Hard disk system, so their attention is now focused on Sculpt 3D, their three- dimensional modeling and ray-tracing program.
Two animations were shown to demonstrate their announced product, Animate 3D, an extension of Sculpt 3D.
This new product should be out in late November. One animation showed a rotating Amiga logo passing through a mirrored apple. The other showed one of those executive toys with the bouncing metal balls, sitting on a desktop, complete with books and a desk lamp. Interplay of the lights on the balls and all the shadows were rendered correctly. The frames of the animation were produced with Sculpt 3D and compressed and animated using code from Animate 3D.
Finally Technologies showed an internal 68020 upgrade board for the Amiga 1000 called the Hurricane Accelerator. It runs at 16 megahertz and has a socket for the 68881 floating point coprocessor. An optional board can add up to two megabytes of 32-bit memory. Without the 68020 or 68881 chips, the Hurricane sells for $ 495.
The unpopulated two megabyte memory board sells for the same price.
Software runs four to eight times faster with this board installed. A six- hour Sculpt 3D picture can be rendered in about 30 minutes, according to a company representative.
Finally makes several software products as well, including Dr. Xes and Talker. B- Paint is a paint program written ying completely in AmigaBasic which loads and saves pictures in IFF format. The source code and compiled BASIC versions are included for $ 39.95. This product would be a great tutorial example for novice AmigaBasic programmers.
At the Commodore Show, Pacific Peripherals showed the SubSystcm, an expansion chassis for the Amiga 500 that sits under the computer. It has room for two Zorro style cards and an optional floppy drive and sells for $ 249.
Amazing Computing For the first time, PiM Publications had a booth at an Amiga show. The current issue of Amazing Computing was given away for a donation to the Amcrcian Cancer Society.
A number of other Amiga magazines had booths at the show, including two from England, Enigma and Commodore Computing International. North American Amiga magazines included AmigaWorld, Amiga Sentry, RoboCity News, Money Machine and two disk magazines, Amnews and fumpdisk .
Don Vandc- vcnter publishes Money Machine on using Commodore computers in business. At these shows, Vandeventcr always gives a talk on using your computer as a business tool.
His magazine reviews Amiga products and is produced completely with Commodore equipment.
A company called Telcgnmes had a computer set up in the corner of the Amazing Computing booth because they needed a location distant from their booth. They make two-player games that are played over a modem link.
The games include including chess, checkers, backgammon, and a strategic war simulation.
Net party One night during AmiEXPO, national computer network users from People Link, CompuServe, Delphi, BIX, and Usenet met at a local Irish bar. These parties of network people are as fun as costume parties. Everyone comes in the "costume" of their real-world bodies, which can seem very different from the electronic personalities broadcast on the national compuer networks.
After the party gets rolling, there are always people shaking their heads and smiling at others. These people are perplexed because the friend on the network doesn't quite match the body of the person in real life especially if the other person looks like a middle- aged suburbanite or a little kid who doesn't shave, and you were expecting the opposite.
Electronic networks are wonderful equalizers. When you read messages from other people on a network, their thoughts and personalities are all that count, not age, race, or gender. As the night drew to a close, there was a toast to the network people who could not be there. At that point, some rushed back home to their modems and screens to check their mail.
New AMICUS disk AMICUS disk 23 is a music disk. The new entry contains twenty-four samplcd-sound instruments in the IFF 8SVX format. These are not copyrighted and they are freely distributable. They can be used in Instant Music, Deluxe Music Construction Set, Deluxe Video, SoundScape, and Sonix, The IFF file format for music is also called SMUS. This disk has a public domain SMUS music player, as well as fourteen public domain songs in SMUS format. There are two programs for converting old music formats to SMUS, one for Music Studio and one for MusicCraft.
Once converted to SMUS, these old format songs can be played or modified with most Amiga music programs.
ListlNSTR lists the instruments needed to play a Deluxe Music song. A Deluxe Music song file contains a list of the instruments. This program lets you get around the "cannot load all the instruments" message. Also included is a wonderful version of the 1812 Overture for Deluxe Music Construction set, right down to the cannons. Special thanks to Rick Wirch and my local Amiga user group, CAMEO, for producing this disk.
¦AC* (Product Source Listing on Page 120) Product Source Listing ASDG, Inc 280 River Road Suite 54 A Piscataway, NJ 08854
(201) 540-9670 A-Squared Systems 10 Skyway Lane Oakland, CA 94619
(415) 633-0703 Boing 188] Ellwell Drive Milpitas, CA 95035 Byte
By Byte 992 Capital of Texas Highway North Suite 150
Austin, TX 78759
(512) 343-4357 Central Coast Software 268 Bowie Drive Los Osos,
CA 93402
(805) 528-4906 Comspec 153 Bridgcland Ave, Ur.it 5 Toronto,
Ontario Canada M6A 2Y6
(416) 787-0617 Crystal Innovations 2286 E. Steel Rd St. Johns, MI
(517) 224-8683 Designlab PO Box 419 Oswego, NY 13827 Digital
Creations 530 Howe Avenue Suite 208 Sacramento, CA 95825
(916) 344-4825 Discovery Software 262 South 15th Street Suite 300
Philadelphia, PA 19102
(215) 242-4666 Finally Technologies 25 Van Ness, Suite 550 San
Francisco, CA 94102
(415) 621-5670 Gold Disk 2179 Dunwin Drive 6 Missisauga, Ontario
Canada L5L 1X2
(416) 828-0913 Hash Enterprises 14201 S.E. 16th Circle Vancouver,
Wash 98684
(206) 256-8567 Impulse, Inc 6870 Shingle Creek Parkway, Suite 112
Minneapolis, MN 55430
(800) 328-0184 InnoVision Systems PO Box 743 Hayward, CA 94543
(415) 538-8355 InterActive Softworks 57 Post Street, Suite 811
San Francisco, CA 94104
(415) 956-2660 Lattice Inc PO Box 3072 Glen Eltyn, IL 60138
(312) 858-7950 Manx Software Systems PO Box 55 Shrewsbury, NJ
07701
(201) 542-2121 Meridian Software PO Box 890408 Houston, Texas
77289-0408
(713) 488-2144 Microlllusions PO Box 3475 Granada Wills,
California 91344
(818) 360-3715 Mimetics Corp PO Box 60238 Station A Palo Alto, CA
94306
(408) 741-0117 Micro Magic Suite 320B 261 Hamilton Avenue Palo
Alto, CA 94301
(415) 327-9107 Money Machine Box 2618 Ocala, FL 32678 PAR
Software PO Box 1089 Elevator Way, Terminal 2 Vancouver, WA
98666
(206) 694-1539 Pacific Peripherals PO Box 14575 Fremont, CA 94539
(415) 651-1905 R&DL Productions 11-24 46th Avenue Long Island
City, NY 11101
(718) 392-4090 ReadySoft PO Box 1222 Lewiston NY 14092
(416) 731-4175 Software Terminal 3014 Alta Mere Fort Worth, TX
76116
(817) 244-4150 Sound Quest 5 Glenaden Avenue East Toronto,
Ontario Canada M84 2L2
(416) 234-0347 Spencer Organization 366 Kindermack Road PO Box
248 Westwood, NJ 07675
(201) 666-6011 Software Insight Systems 16 E International Drive
East Granby, CT 06026
(203) 653-4589 SunRize Industries PO Box 1453 College Station, TX
77S41
(409) 846-1311 Supra Corp 1133 Commercial Way Albanv, OR 97321
(503) 967-9075 The Other Guys 55 North Main Street Suite 301-D PO
Box H Logan, Utah 84321
(800) 942-9402 Very Vivid 302-1499 Queen Street West Toronto,
Ontario Canada M6R 1A3
(416) 537-7222 Wollner Associates 3306 Horseman Lane Falls
Church, VA 22042
(703) 533-1236 The AMICUS & Fred Fish Public Domain Software
Library This software is collected from usergroups and
electronic bulletin boards around the nation. Each Amicus
disk is nearly full, and is fully accessible from the
Workbench. If source code is provided for any program, then
the executable version is also present, This means that you
don't need the C compiler to run these programs. An
exception is granted for those programs only of use to
people who own a C compiler.
The Fred Fish disk are collected by Mr. Fred Fish, a good and active friend of the Amiga.
Noto; Each description lino below may include something liko ‘SO-E-D', which stands lor ‘source, objoct file, executable and documentation'. Any combination of these letters indicates what lor ms ol ihB program are present, Basic programs are presonlod entirely in source code format.
AMICUS Dlek 1 AMCUSOfekJ ten teste tests serial port commands Amiga Buie Prograrna: Abaacprogra mi: Graphics C progrant: ansarp.c «xamp«ofier.* pon use (Note: Mi-y of resepregrarrsare p'esenton AMCUS JOSjcs SdSdCl-OOeng prog wUrp as Ar gaDOS ac»ect ibray ti . 5~E prrrJC Simp* pr-nter mter*iD code Dsx 4 Sew* of rese weracanrwtefl t)Am«ga Base.
Carafe* ar text frcrnw pogfar, S-E prbaste- crn*r o*v *oeknterra
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Bccti cmoxM UoO) audxropi euatac* s et raynteac *g a nte*t program AocrastBow a s-oe add-ess Dds crabue C„oes O'MCLiOtl tetefl srpteatin*'. 5-E ¦lactec r jca a-ter se* crYof* program B* dram a ba O’eert pcVW r r* Cyi* of Durar ».-» f * co-rptetton programs, S-£ »t4-ae c serre i~5x,te*c'recsrete: poi Cox program 3 corverl Compuw* n x F Scape C ow hectt a-cscapes Yatr-tC afar Ur game, SE SeSfrtc ie:7rac7&utei(pvty.caratSaKlW 1*s te brery, S-D Hear' 3O0'iwmg program. W hdcten It Msk a trpe •«' progranm ng uBtey. S-E angpayc *-?« pay**a oianp* Cue tw game, tftilon dnwn '•nov* E'rea
anee'Y*raan o'Tn Area textOTtv. S-E-D ceecrtyc so ctaxnatef SX c oneocsowo CoarArt artflrawng p,og*an Jptt amp* pant program AaunPte procrimt: tmedefyc *-pe5r,eroe-o De iaOraw tie crawng program in re 3X AC, S-D Opseai c-aw tmri opecai if jtena 06tea-c*.as- bnarjr seaiei caoe lm*r.c toKSDOOrttnrfjXXI Elza Omkaraatenal compute* psyctioogtt PtmBc* imp* pen pragra.11 qsartasn Urlii corrpota qaortj) fuxlon. Sojco JmritAc my* **csuOOOF.im*r fyxlOX Oreo tie game, at know as ’go' &X3e o-fcrt re SA.se in 3d wireframe and C »tt pogran Wsc-Fcrc loactaXdB-aysat tv*ao«syt»T fons RstMaze 3D ritnalB giTe
SoflcuAT g iphrctdema aetjfflp.asm aeqmpQ cod« for Lattoe 3 02 pocest' and fruase 1 assmecer ixuda ies Rofi bogpiTg g*aprc*oerro SpOOk O' apeecn usiity Svprmtf Onu pystem V compattU prtnfl(|
* ,torqrtr.*t warnings ol deUiocks wti au&reqjesteri SxtJe
drarr«30p duresof the space *iutda Sonwo draws spheres tees 0
Unit con- pat tie troe() tyncton, O-D consoieOtit copy of ft*
RKM console Wddiapter Soetmg
* mp* spelling preysm Sa * C'BWS CD O' iprat
(Truditeifo'i,«r1yhadR:ip«3V»tanfktesiPdeU'nfk i S*'ce di*tontW
wamngofdiik forfl load ng bug Y0Y0 wwd zaro-gravty yo-yo «»mo.
Taora T nr ee Dm 3d fjxton plop tin spec s corstersy -pdated.
Re FF spec *e* nr* w L tiT i! 1*1 of fdeVtes, nacres k xCons
yo-yo to re rouse 1000grapry
a. 'i'oa topog ecry moved ta ther ardsi-j'ft AmfCUScoteccan )
teptVtv.txt pr* min*y copy 0?tte mput OWXtecnaate* Eucutiua
program ¦: c’wuc'oeg'ayvcs John 0*per An ica Tutor ma: Lxxrse
rteorm**or on Worapenpi d sTtvtir tcwse 30cae Mod j*-2 oamo of
t rotalng cube Xrn C'te* t-acal pine; ax sc apes A'rite oescr
oes arm-ason agcyr-s prrter pe-'e«» cajy of be cn*3*r on W
pr*ra, from Atkan se* 1 seccx con image, dtdfyed Abulc pr 09
rim 1: Tool 1 Gaog n i tonal ongaog«ts RKM Y.1 teltXAR *of of
XstecrangtesfraTvraan 1.8 r 1.1 w*" ro can abud AodrassBca-,
ir-ple database arogram ‘y adCresses Mr us leer aoout teflon
meats w29r1.6ff tJ'ff of nd jJe*e charges *rom **son 2B3 VO
A-gaSoe 1 iowbutarr piesoe: cfraorar.E-D C»Cf* ample cax tie
caraoaae program AMCUS Oak 3 AMCUS Dfak S Fin from the Amiga
Unk a tte ARC 'veconprmon progr* Demo rr jtwxow demo C
programs: Amiga tiformabon Network ijT i* for «*com, E-0 Key
Cooes lXw» irycodes fcf a key yOw dtes XV a C po«-refe'erx*
ger'.. S-E Note the! Tome of rese ‘«ara old. Ax rate- 3 oder
vortex of Bwrax yaohctdemo Me or run mawy A Base programs **om
a many Bo to'a" eatrt ak-Crgpfcftp gS demo. S-E
tvesperaXgsystem Thus fItstr**remAmgabrtL FaraSrae.
Ceittvage prog 3 rescue oaaxd dau, E-0 MoitCotars w y to get rre » co-ors on s* ic«r Oao bvncite(chop) 1 s dowto ta, SE Commodo* tuppo’ted Amga Lrnk. *a AW. For onlrveoeve oper KwkCopy a Quoi but rssfy d » copy at once, using* asng OteiXD
* ro*s jf i ge p'a-Kten or ter! Ttea tetr-.ca Rpporl l! Was o«y
up «X rutting *or »*ra weeu program: gx'est'raf*. E-0 tMptt
ample color sftsje desgne- Speekh CR2LF conveu carr ag« mum b
kne teecs n Then hes do not carry * warrany, aX are ter
educabontt purLbOr tala Xnkain an objecttte E-0 speech and
narrator demo Angafei,S-E poses only. Ofcourae. ThafinotB say
irey don't work.
SaveiLBM taws try screen as Ffp .E-0 7?
Abulc progrtmt: Games Error adds com pu errors yi aCflle, S A demo of Intuition menus called 'manudemo', in C source SaeenDump xarewa-e Kreei dump prog, E oiy BxsOut ewse computer b'ckwa game HeEo
M. Tdowtr from the RKU. S wexsc IX a *l« searching all
suddractones StarTerm wxon 2,0. Tem program, XrroderrE-D Owflo
itaofcnow as go' Kterml gene-c Kermrt mpi mertstor. F tetey,
bobteslc BOG programming example Ttrta: St.ce’ ample
ShOOt-em-upgarr* no term nal m«J«.SE sweep c kjX sy-yiess
eia-pe LitceMin ips x ling _m*nx n Lattce Sort mg ampra te'tng
spa mg gare Sc*«» soux der 0 siys icaes, SE Aaeenttar ll«:
GdtkOve m*u your own 5 1M tt ve ToyBox
• eecrape grafhc* dan 0 S-n-Q Rubk cube oamp n -t** co*o*. SE
n-yfltei asm »-pte Otveo OW Cur JAW exp*-s re Gi ’u nun- bera
Abulc prograna; S&rfM Am.lgiBiaict ogifdrl mykpi*- m-m 1 tyt e*
arde Lac3C3buga bug i*t©f Lsttee C wrasn 3 03 E-tent r-er
piiyjMtme A,teraa ca jar xtarsta amu ason mykti Uforgeflev jeer
* vew of the Mcoforge fC HAL9M3 O'nrcs hY a raa con a.**
CraryEgrs carc game mydw.i PrnSpopief EXE CUTE-cesec prn* ipoo
prog P doe simple pok» sftr. Sound Graph ineton gupnng pogrars
asmiupp.i .BMAP fllti: Sug«rRi i payi *Tne Daroe a'the
Sugarplin Wt*v«gHour aqan* m acres acaemOter indude flai Txse
ara re necessary l’ksoe *en AngtBucrore Fanea* AfiisC progrimi:
Taata: syran! Or area TotauadraTageofreAmga'tcxab'.'jBs C
p-’og'ir.a: Caax ga-es of oomt, daosack, Poe. *X Pipe amgathcu
tpacn CLI comm arXs in Base, you rraed rese *e« BMAPs ar
iXufed for te lf.
Atem amp* ten*1 program, SE Gomaku «*o know 11 ‘ot* mfcte exten* d skspea4caSo- 'consoi*’. Te«fonf. 'exoc’. Van', Viuson', layer s', Varff, « a-d to comping Lane C Saootege sort Of |1 ad*ni te game garepori gam port spec maT eedoubaa'. ‘rr r*ee*ngb*a,l fnirTans', 'po )', dflcvrf apposite of CONVERT for ooss Eiacutabla vograni; parai«i paratei pon soec Imer1 aX Vinaiajar’.
Owaopers Dsasser e S6COO d ie stem b«r, E-0 sera; ate s port spec AMCUS DllXl Dory source code to the tiosy wXowfloma Dp Side sXws sgiven set of FF pcitrei, E-0 vVlupoas fiato'newfeasjretin verson 1.1 Amiga Buk Progrimi:
• CtlOJC wu'Stye filename expansion, paraal 5,0-0 Anoge e text
term«tv« program, E-0 v1.1h.Ot teiff of indude 1«
changesKraatrli on FightSn
• mple lightairmiaw program +BSVfp eitp'ans use of fasl-hoaing
pom mati Aaumblar progrimi: F!« to* bu Bing you own printer
drvers. Indudng daspOT* c. HitePawtte axtftns Hoe. Saiirasx, &
kraens-ty FxDe* fxes tutor* dates 01 at kies or ads*, S-E
Argoterr.
Term rtaJ program wth speech rid Xmadem.
EpaoXatsc, inrtaarr, printer prr'Sor (n prntertegain.
Recuetw ax of raouestefSfram Amga Base ‘raed-aw an pie Wo'ibwxr draw ng prog ,S-€ S-E raXer c, aX waiasm. Ths dte coej co-tem a ximtef oJ *»* ScrPiDemo ttem xiSltea SCJOCng capa&' t** g'ipAc ntma usage .Xcator. SE AMICUS &b I Flat from u orldn*l Ami04 desc-brg Te FF spea4ca)sr. T wse are net ne *test aX Synretaw ao jX prag*am Oeo max* te' 15ven St ng Tetfirncii B63 7Mtest He* bul ramsn r»* Ipr n *src» pupcses They Wore Map drew* 1 map Of r wore Gees.
Harr shows p'ftt'eXd-aX-mody Ho te f e sar e c4 r«se 1 tei 1 * 00. Arc * V 3 a o«r ** or s of route tef! Lee md C souxe«u’»t Tx eter.FF soec s Encuktes programi: r a*xd of color geX'lMi txo»*ngsystem TneMlteacamatranTteSji aycer re
• sewereinrul-vt'y.
Bang1 a»s! Bo ng demo.wr aeectede weecE eU2A-g« fast pe*a «l caSe ?ansVi oerweer aer*ou Amgatecmca support HD •or maK of t9fl5 Tbeste FFPietwee Brur2C converts an FftruinteCdr* a- BM ex a- Ar e
1. *t 00 not caiy a warrary. And ee for edxatar* purposes Thudsk
ncudetTieCPStd pregram. W d:canvewagven rsbuC-ons, meiizitx
coot. E Mix* M anoeb'oi set program.
Y"i Ofcau'sa, rats no: a say rev do-'.wc*. st'esc1 Ff pcueA sx Tra ,snowt»c' proyw. W ci can vew Br.r2ton corwti FF orjtfi c an con. E nor* pa wnad g'apnedema. S€ eecnf*at?tec:ckp1ancon. Txpdresrdudeascewfrem Dazzle graprxc* demo, tac*a 3 moui*, E Otl'l ni«sLa5oeCo jiec1fle syrpoil Cor-ptete arX xyy .p-to-Oate C so-rce ta 'm»ge vf. *n ea y ArtcFox iDtejisMncer. Rwg fsa! EecToncA'ts, ago'i'i.
DecGEL ¦ssemtwr preyam te' stepp ng va&te d Waci. S-E »*.on of tna bon Ed®r. Tnt 1 a t-rta ta y, P . Co-pet am horses. K ngTui 1 fouit. I acreen hom Maoe Macxsj. Re SK'C erys, S-E-D qvc* pwck SOI (T' S rouOr* rum.
Bugs Bunry Maroan, a tan from an o*d mowe, re Dre S?a ta Kco merMnbr cxxaXcite o «hay, E raw eunp'e unpe wrctw 1C moving company, a screen from Fvnbal Conduct an Se!, a TV Ida tie game of Ha, E wr'aco turns on interlace mods, S-E An htulondteno, m WtC source, mdud ng fttee:dtemomenj. ; nevwaste'. Tie PartCar a world map. A Poracx, a iduttle TrreSei hcipon-based wiry 3Ee!thetrreA date IplXI
q. i-type grapftc demo, &E dam an an ule, Oenooq c, yeticc,
Ktemoc. Idemo gude.
M sso.n path, • tyannoaauus rex, a panet view, a VISA card, EMEmaci another Emiea, more orwtod to Othor executable programi: Xerno rrake, «Kro»l h. nodose, end trw-tec and a ten-spewd word precessng, S-E-D SoeeciToy ipMChoerr.onsraron addmtem.e add extern* m morytoTe»ystem AMCUS Pak 7 DfgiVlew HAM demo pfcLire disk MyCLl a CLI met, woks *nout the Wn&Fart d'loeytai cvaiaoeVte bcblsslc Btsmpflo'BOBuse Tfxs dak x* octuo tom tv Dg V*w hold-artFreoddy voes Warxbencn. S -D Tea: ccuoelD.c carscle Oeurpte dgtaer. H-nriutes?» edeswtepenoisand o*‘yp ©s,?ieyou,g T«te: 6SJK d«scr be* 66C33 swot.3 borfl
orr CSA cespc .c crane axcee® mu 9“, re tw'ocir, re Xrae and buggy, r» By* csver, re FrtTfCeys
• *X ‘jnclon teyi frem v a Base Aun 001-3 uses;4 r ASSiGN
cor-rrxj cressr'C crare rrd* K3'«cue«
dctorarypage.rerooclandRobe-, Tms ncsjdesapreg'imto HaekwSm
«xpi*is Xw 3 wn -ragtm teKjrar1 Bogs know bug i*;n Laace C182
oeetasAc crar-g annrMt v eeacnpcveteca-atey axi! Togerwis
teoi-ste.t caoe frsaaia gjoe 3 msta rg 160010 inyotu* Angi
CLIUttJ rete'srye crd *or AmgaDOS CU dlkOC exsTpe cl back read
sX wrto Scraws Th 'lOT'bn' program, 3 bn any tcraen r*jj an FF
Bangi eteti Bo jigroemo,wiri »ecte » speed. E CUCofwnanda guoe
ta usmg re CLI 00 rye soutsto the dory wxow'oero pora Bren2C
corwta an FF brusn ta C date Carmaxi snorter g joe to AngaOOS
du*payc dua ptayferd eumpte AMCUS Dltel rajjcoont, initiizauan
code. E CLIconTaxs loodc iood'f erpe C progrimi: Br rJton 03-wn
FF Bnj*!» an can, E EoCommaxs g oe ta ?te ED ec ty teemapc old
vera.a" 0’ e*rtp‘ Browse vewter! T e» on 1 fisx, uing T«nus
S-E-0 Cazre grtohes demo, tacra 3 m ou», E Fienames AigtDOS
Swarewpearo gteteose tools for Vsonte* rxl B03* CnrW
wo*acomm«rte*XWtespece DeoG El tsse-oe* pragram te' itepp
can«n!arte plMfflA graphc memory usage mdeaior tom C4te*.SE
6BS‘Cerrora, S-E-0 H*!Brght *pia na r are graph cs cn ps tha t
can da heria.e wndoM ei arde tram RKU teonExec EXECUTE a seres
of conmaXs Ktodc menj-bar dock aX date tf spiey, E more colors
inputdev.c ad *ng an mpyt haXier to tm mput ab*em tom Workbench
S-E Irte tra game of life. E Modern Pmi dwcnplon of the serial
port pmout joyiflKc reading Jvejoyitck POScrem Dumpdumpe
Ras wrt of highest screen to prime' TmeSat
tetjiOorvbisedwayteaetthtflme da*.
RAMcjkl tip* on aeEng ip ycu’ RAM disk keybdc drect keytwaiJ rauj-ng SetAtemete sea 1 second mag for an eon.
EUEmact another Enacs. Mora oriented 3 ROMWodi toe on usrg ROMWwx icyerteic irjteiiJinpei wen dckad once S-E word oracersi;, S-E-D Somsi espienabonof Insbvrnen; d*mo souX mxsport.c tectroutapart SehW-oo* mane* wXowa ter 1 CLI p'ogram Myai 1 CLI ixi. Swras wtoiA re fte format sen oc, 3 run uxer Worxbencr SE Workteerw.SE-O Speed raVksonof An sa’s CPU arc cuttem d p speed Omniptsm eumpte0! Makng your cw Lpray wt1 L*!lce SnaiCteoi a sm* dgXcteoxnawiXowmeatMf WeaGxs :x an Wacx pe.ratn'E tests peratel port commaXt Scm par r screen jr-te m re teu-T AC S-E ~7«SI FrttoKeyi expans he* to reed Lncton
keys from Amgs Base Hacks'Sn exp an* haw town toe game hacker' lf.66019 gi*oe to mealing a 68019 r you- Amiga PrnferTip send"g exspe gwvercss *.3 your printer StarbpTip ipeon se:ng xyours'uYtoo-Mjexnee4* XkmrRevew lr(tof Transformer Bogrsm* Bill worn Printer Driven: PriR* flrvrsfor toeCinonRj-'CfiO A toe C toh Pro«r;fe'. N improwe Epao- 91m fat® " “atw mfcrg rt Eaton LO-flCO. To*Gem A StoMS.toe NEC 9C25A toeOtdife ML- »2, to* Prurc KX-P'So ia-y, arc toe S-rOana 03CC. Wf a oocum*- OMTO-ng tot *S»*S5on pooew AMCU5 D-ik 19 kriftnirent nurd demoe Tpi* s r- e&fHjawi cer-o, cta asc to nary cedars.
1: i jOm toe tOuncaaf art aco-stcgutsr, a-a ar-. Aba-e. A bast gurfa'.1 bpnu. Aca 0*. Acar hom. Cam, «a»’ r p. eecie guw, a ‘jib. A -art ypeg-a. A kcadrum, a fra'npa, a organ m.nor rord. Peoo« tanmg, pgt. A ppe o*gan, a Rhodes para, a saxophone, a va a itr'b drum, a steel (frum, bo I, 0 v Bophone, a veld, a welng gutar, 1 hone wrtryiy, and a white AMC1L3D Hail C program* (Mull InliilOh-paswJ. CU'tPBCOnen! Manege* S-E cor anew* and aC us* pr arty o'CL I poauw, S-£ ps iv«s r*o on CLI processes, S € «tn a ways Cs-xssnw RLE tx». S€ A-gaBeecp'og-ams eo-sa-ec pd "*'anc ©'*eoar or gtir,'• opSm,IB
optmizasor ex a-'pe'-om AC artce ctencar a e. Ar -ek caenca*, Oay art dale book yagraT a-ytjB loan amortiatons tatfttoBOO co-ve'to pra IFF brushn to Amgaflasc 306 OBJECTS g*id* d'flwandpay wnvefrjrp* Wtwl d'aw* rt'berf curve» rad b r ad l b story generator motVk tainng m*lmg bat program readawsSD 30 grap- cs prog-a-i, from A C™ and* rowae rackng exa-pe * h-ts *ws totnacrnegare toega-e %t*V pacfi*«o-Uegi- ew-d r*t*$ jfiTfesxhct Enc.3M prjyn co iru-Lae copy cam-and. E cs lewcea' ,S-E of* urn-Lne s?eam ad-Df u»a frff pg PUt S3 it lies pm chart recorder perfymaxM mdcitor Assam btor programs ca
screen clear and CLI argument* example Modula-2 ffala mcv ng-wn g'aphci demo ciMconvert carvers Mod J a-2 keyword! » uoparcaie Forth Bresnenar crde aigo*toim au-'pe A"aya» 1 ? Tern pates far toe sarMdtheet Anay?e Th**e a* W pr3g*i“t here rat -eac Comm ooo-e 6* xtn'ai Tneyca-ra-sraKoaa P c.Owtf«, Pr"t Snap arc News Roc- graprcs to FF fem-t Geti-g re
* ¦« from your C-64 to you' A-ga s re hard pa".
AH51ZmU2 Eieeufebe programs P’l 'mink' cs pstPe inker, but ‘astv, E-0 cean sp-s te c st *o' cs« cmto-s. T -0 epspniBt sends Epaoi se“ngs to PAR horn memj ET)
• hoetog vewhi-retpcsn cw-ret fcperpr-ip, e 0 tpeaxtre
*;retrne,E-0 unceete uhdeeiBS a ile, E-0 crvap dhm ccrve*a Appe
j[ low. Medium and high res pcwes B FF, E-D mended menu ec r ’
voaxa C cooe for menus, E-0 qxA qjekdsk tuJsxntjtie coper, E D
quc«£A cofr« Eecro- c A*3 a saa rerove* pr oBCtS". E-D PM V3
oer-oo*wite jtar 3- Saer»-f».ET) Cprogn ip-3
roStngbi»«g'ayTcsoe-5, S-E-D popo tterta newCLI*tr» yesia'a
butsn. I«« Sce*cx, S-E-0 vscyw Vso'® ets-De c&oe‘¦or Conroe re.
S-E-D ArgaBBS A- ga BessauGtnaoard prog. S-D Atinmblar programa
BU‘10 mor.es Star felds like Star Trek mro.S-E-0 Pctjr 4 Msuhl
MmdeWflt 30 vew o' Ma.ndPbrot set SS'OesToyer hi-res Ss.' Wat
starsrp Rooct rooota'mg'sodTg scyroer T »!S moo't A-ga wndcrs.
Nere atJO'esaes crdra ‘xessearyCe-owre-aryboa'dt ccuae
c-osi'pWf-ce to C -ncuo Yes m"d»a«er djeitopeyngTwgareee i
cm-'o« mexeysurom sidei"c»«!*om re Keedoscooe dt« mCUSDxil3
ArgaBescp'05'arrs Rpjtnet Vpr Carolyn Schepone' of CBM Tech
Support, to read and Replay FF pcijres Tom Arrga Bosrc W.7
docv- meirjlon. A'so oc oed s a pogram to do sawn prrt* in
AtgnDu c,md r«h&ftesIBMAPffeiVkthacorr»CeoCcn- wtFD program,
W7. Esampd pctures. Art t-e SawllBM aaeencapwa program Ro-t"«
t) 'oad and pay FjveSoutJ and FF so .me *'es Torn Amga Ba&c. By
Jonn FoukV Awed Vaior-a Wf ctox-entiton and C and asae-Be* *0
jna *y wntng ypgr own lbrare*,and "Sehec-ngCtoaHe'-bermprres
W?r«aTpe aotnd.
Execjtaoio programs grsv.ty Sc Amer Jan 86 graviaton graphc anulaton. SE-D Texts UCH rake p j* ovm MCH midum rt rterface, wto oocunertiyon ard a r» « acnemaic pd e.
MKUSPjUI Sevs'a prog's- ‘t Yarn A*« ng Corpueng :*uet Top* Da- fear's C stoucve "o*i progrw". S-ED ArgaBascd'ogi-s BMAp Reacer by Tim jyws FP3',sr2SCe by U e Swnge' A,tR«xestor exampe DOS Haber Wnoowecr-*p lysiem to'CLI commands, S-ED PETrw* frana ato* PET ASCII f*t to ASCII fes. S-E-D C Squared Graphics pfdgram from Soensfc Amtocan, Seot86, S-ED fff adds o' arrows carrage'etrnsrTor* fies.
S-E-D cooeooe flec PS De-ta Pert, iro wscopy pro toco n, ED c-wyWB Du Y»» or No *o” toe jet* eln exl code. S-E w V sC*c *ype wwacrest, no -xstonral.
ED m vnntort 1«j wto w-dow ano soer gaogr.. ED Ong, Sffb-g, pBcrg. Zd ng a-e tb'hecasec Bong sye oe” os, S-E-D CICw, sCoa. WOpw e*e w-xtwr oxder coca, SE-D Terta An article on ong-perps nce pnosoor ronior*, tpe on mak ng brushes of odd shapes in DelunoPamt, and fecdnmentfstonson teen interfaces Tom Commocore-Amgi AWCUS Disk 15 The C programs Indude: fer1 if eprrtng jplty.wmchcar prntles nre oecrg-s jho, arc er i e -xmaers ana conpi cre-acfc'Yfc'ng Tm* osoays a crart o1 boot iiocaisd on a on.
‘Aw‘ auetto'i an ¦*sec-»‘1«e, rsc ns an er’ar code B conqp rw e«tulo" m rettMncmYe ¦Star ar enhances ve'ian o' A« aDOS 'status'Command DssoW rardom-ootossc!»*Oemgc:» isy» FF pcLre wWy. Dot oy dot in a random, fasten.
PopCLI? Invoke new CLI wndwr at the aess of a key.
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ftam Speed Ueeure rasbve RAM speed, cr p and ‘art.
A® lh*J'*a tp‘capy prog'am dtk. Very good1 Set Repacementtor the Mani *aet* Ckw Uoditod wson of cock on j» 15.
HH TshCIUJJ ®mmand tor erv.ronmrt v*' Jbes,w!h Cr Manx tm'-M CU, h sary. Var ose* rc Th* dtica"l*rtbw new'dtons* olrriaoeraci imprcvymgnS, DetAd Del pamtrtg ad opgames retbes, Lem act verson 3 6 by Da-re1 Lwrmoe For Tree Daws a recursive f ee, jw ei-y type.
Cio'bi Uni* V7, BSD 12. A«ga. MS006.
Not tin Ecno frnproved echo1 rammand win ®pr, VMS UseiAmgakrcton wys.
Tifd & ocwo oam o vers, on o f Mcr osmito1!
Cu-*or anTFssng rtatoit 1 r*. Ewarto, startup les, mor*.
Tolled ar,T*£a FaHunk Fa pogramsto let them n i m Per-acs ByAnoyPoggo New tostum! Ncude VO aw Fut-toeU'Odd’awng program by fieme memory.
ALT keys as Meta i*yj. Mouse Stephen Vermeulen.
Fm Maps me sector* a II uses on re cub tuOOOl nyser prarity, D*»M fW.
Xcon tovokes CLI scrpto from con KcxBonc Does program a mike a srge c a word arac. FuncJOrt keys Too" Ds syi text f es from on con.
Tost wolis ¦¦••B a IcotStort and Warkaer r.
T-rf Fin- Cm FriVFltf OMB Les Corrpu i Fog, Feci, arc Knao D* y aoi a to'UcraCmae aeve-a vem.or’t'or moti Add'eat Eitonped access poos w tton r ArgaBosc ¦eadao ty oftatf e* popL-fr Operrtng tyttoni on mwot and mtrframei For Ceenoir C*enoar i7 progTim nw.an n AngaBosc.
Tjin*JV»an Devd Add son Abasc 3D rroA people wo wi" to pot UcroEmaca to bar ta«ino m aenn* 0»Pj|t Frit »:; ne o' CLI cv n wd tobs tor persoectve gam* FtBdEAIMikH; oew opart Vc Vscax- ku spread sheet cocJrto' ConQuM ¦TBTtoltor adwrrtore sim Jaton game DotPiji2 Seccrrt voume of CLI c**ntod too* program.
C*.n jpcatetorttoi on Dsk U.wthbmlm fcr drvwopm WOO Vernon 22 o' Dave WeAerT b'eccvr conm anc s,named var apes tubsttuaon.
Eieajlathes only: program ""cErfi K highly parable forth im plemeitiion, Lcaolgoooei rtsp Xi»p1 4, nolwonmgtt'TecTy FrfraFihpsM: oarne' Ptra ro'jsra ta-r*' bg-ec A fcy*'-W;y* §* - « -3 fry S*flr CHU Uni r*( ¦cene't V ace*. Not ¦Crtnj bn Ahotoe'&jy*'-Mw*gr*o- leu-torty g»p DECUS gr*p Wnrut ump«pD'tM *K*ftp;:wpiraconn*cl moo*.
WyCLI Replacement CLI for & Amiga. V. 1.0 nanoe A Mandelbrot set yogram, by Robert Francr tro RJ Ucai FfldF.ihfr.n3 CO'S Ccrioe OffWMCSero prog1*- **7 RfipoAng -wo rouiw Ctooiet a va,aaagrariO"'aa memory mputoev unoi 'W!*'«T *r.iraotieyof aMmj ;Oystc S'xm H5W to .0 f* gs-ecrt Off. As u a aysba.
Keyboard CemcmcraoK d’set comm urea tons
* rt! Toeoeybaara layers Stows uss of toe layer* library mmoesrot
FFMi-worotDtogrem mouse h«k* ujmxsebngm.joyfttiipart Dne.wnccw
consoe wnoowoemo para « Demon stabs axes* la r« pa'* « pci
pnhtar optnng ¦xJui' bwp nisr.doeiB screw' djr p, ftjtwcrngng
ynlSuppcl P'rtor support rautras, nclwo’kng P'oofC ir p*
CKOostj ceatn cace, not working 'egon den os spit O'ewrg'eg on*
wnp¥cnt iar-pt Vt wT rb cm erasing y?g' cwn seri DroirswiiMi
C-*r»s32Ci 2C3p»yf C soeec-toy a«t veresn o'cu* ©eecr a*mo
Soeecnoemo smptfed version ctsoeecrTtoy, wto 0 requests Sifrdan
a displays svalibta font* timer demos tmerdwce uS8 frackdst dor
01 baked sk * vto' Efl&Fiiftfrriifc ra-yess like Una compres*.
A f« squeea' CKX analog COCkm'Oe'Wnator rcraoraci uOg-BMC
Mtttor ot-C'Mr-aCB H*t cm2 rv?l 'e-oves mutp*occur ng l-wa n1«
sca« demo* -mg %arC and *vOa Lrctons setM'se A-ows trrgng paie*
port par*m*b'» ftfsv.g Aaws toang ng serai port pyamc*"s svx
Qucajort toseo wn program. In C srpc Strpiammernaand ex?a
whitespace tarn C*o. » Frtd Flih D11H 7; Trtccift con asm to*
tweutabtos of the gars H*& V
1. 0.1. EttlflilPtlLL True * co-lit tow C to.’os to Hi« an atk 7
Frtd F.ififtia t; roi* OiBi-a1* orwt r saci aid wm» UVP-FOflTH
Ux-jr Ve* P-ess Fo'T, WSC"
1. 00 C3A. ArtMBwamve'sonof FORTH from Faissa Systems.
P«ff a more powerful tertformaong program tel ace Program to toggle interaca mode on and oft ssewb a rube's cube type demo soa t moving snaxe ©aprvcs demo EaiEiLOMJi; eanq-ert. A- mmsf r tCWjr* snJuon oen« conMrt a "mi * * to b»nary Pitpyo7in tr ary pBO * Srogsrbags e? Xroosfn Trs%"W *»«.
Fff Rxmstc mac anov a H Icrrr.lw d urpiadractt prog'an t MrmUNKiffMh woca*ong, in C
W. uW t'* tqu«c» me unsqje«2t b»k73 Star Trw gams yacrr (tog an*
FrodFia&&ih.l1; c»0* t Je tnawproyar ‘a'dwayng FF ¦ ragst irti
r w an*c u* Ixtjrsi Fnii Flah Pan 12: a- ga3o &.•*»«! • matng
3 d' anaon* ntc ’Aigi *gV.
A-gcTrr a tormina1 mutator yogrnr. *fcw in atsc-b*’ anawto Snows a ratcng 3 orenson* we frar* arra*.
!d4 d»cja7i«ngpr)grari fcO"£»c SetWndM Wroy5gt*or ajxftngpragstr&r Wo'X- MrxJ . Pm»6nTyonlywy ti vaarCLL ScAtornato Mmw an con snow a saconc maga wban ctci«d one* StorTarm fcmn onjj*o'. Arbi ASCII XtoObt.
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Frtd Fnh 0. 13: A 5-~de of Base pog'amt. Noudng: Jsec toybci ezsbsa rnmdtotwt irodm jnoci aocx agtoi tv
a. -gs*qf amiga-CDpy band sxxt &01 brcout canvas cardl eta
cdO'O't** Copy ob«f cuipom dale cog car dragon craw
dynam.crangto Eia enen fUbuito' YiBong Ong rye gin* p r i'isw
rjritm* !'br*ry *4 ?to':UattDl;on Ler D sp ays n y-bar of ta w
a m run queue.
M ?oEmics Conroy MeoEm.fics V3.8b, newer 53 to CO ItC" CctBCto Po laoos Subset Bo*"*ey and'mm'maootV irreraged over last 1, 5. And 15 mmu» toandsa 22. S-E-D fHAFuftDAJZ 0lT penjes. By W i«jm Rutscga PeerFont Lie Toon tx-t 'bunJed edges This Pa*, a i oor of Timotry BjWs Lue S- syw, VaSoew Tranatrmaafefrom En ir t Vatey Mdrrooa Vagrans to ptyfrecord torsugfi toe Teren Ge-eritos *racti: scene S-5-0 Os'* Oy &! K-nerwy « Washington s»LfrYWflrty Speaa.
MCI IF. By Freo Casver VsortoS Uaus 28 VsanlB. From PadEO:*.
Frtil Fir. &H.1I F td F:tlDilk4I UyBfiaw, bg’ar to -an to* Worn Bene- Sc-w EnlGih.KA.fi2 Csaarec See 85 Sc Arencr, Crce Sqja*ed DA- Srmuliton of a maax a rm. Very g aod rge'toan ror-a, py Me! Xatn anc Trii a e oct o' tne Uux came Via*’, by re Sofavee agyf graphic*. Toed'rgtoo .mOjd.ngCsa.ree
- Uao-i; Ddtob, wr*on 1 3 30 FiOO; Srsgnigf s'XrwrniVw A ger
ErieGr*h*m1i st-rmng HAU avnejor of a Tito P'sg'am to maxe yo j
A-g* mm *» r-tlFlihBHQ otyect tec robot'ugger it Cdhl pass
vbraten Ming Tfria a a pot o' toe Urxx game Lam’, by toe
Sofawra Del !*y, AmgaQOS hande* [devcej oxarp-e VT-100 Vreon
24o*Dav*Wec*e*1siBr- -e by Lao ‘Bo* E*mac'5cm««o xnon t2Ca from
C-A emJiB'. ErtoX-ocem anoXerm'tie EalEUlP.AK Ho-lOc Wn c» a
HP- 13C cacjeir. Wrtw m tansbr poaco* Can V2 C5 of Man Dl’on
cah Me shat (Mod 'ed Thl II in ofcal FF tpecfctton d« Va.m
Commodara, an Modula-2 Fred Flih P-iih 41 br ManiC). By
MattDxlon, upoatotodift 16.
FFEfCOdt Sms ire screen as an FF *ie Bru Apha verson ot a h*rd d ss 1e arenver Madiied by Steve Dew FrttiFiifiHAH Pdump Dump* infa about an FF Ate Comm Ve-esn ’ M o'a term ne'emyear NewSfartuPS New C Startup modiAe*.
Bww Urxx tox! Processor, ixe 'awk‘ Doemt vwrx, Jah BOSC-ikeCUtfWf wp onone a rectone* AsfatoB asm wth 1 2 fjws and bettor quoto handling but ta.r» is included. S-ED.
STATUSAke prog'im, shows C*- Ver»on 2 34 of Man D-lon* Urn tsr'-.ke TWStartupasm opens ¦ upa wnpow. U*ing u»f ipecs ty MWB Exa-pe o4 troji-g Workbench wx»w prorty, assesses Cllrapacemems nd jdng CoTmboo*e, aoan cafs a a norm custom sc-wr R*veri Game of Revert, win 6.1 La her *no Mjr C iojot posted to SIX by Cam p Sceppe' Version t.91, S-ED uudacooe T'a-srtobreyf esto tei; Uix- Ds.pe'4 Dm oexnm ek program br Uni at A-ga Pm be On~gs tnotoe- program’i icreen co'oi ClowWB Eximpe far dw-ng a custom 1prog'iTS Du Comp.»so» ca'sgeofateor c'scary by Ceroy- Sceppe' Woroevr ac*eer, S-ED Vt}!M D-aw-g
program, kareion 1.14 MhrWatof Pograr to watt tor program* rat tasn iowr PpeOewoe Alowrs toe sfardt'd outoul cf one process to Coo toe GerfirnK one- ne fartone aoi« V3 *F‘er DX MIDI syntoeszer wee frier
- emory IrtortcrabHopA'teenage, be bd to toe starda'd -oput of
anotoer.
Actoors.T*. S-E D prog'im and puts up a requestor a 'nform you of T» by Uj*t Dion Jtime B 'd-your-owr rouse port efodt Wnoow Ex am pec freeing a DOS widow on a da-age From, tse Sofware Dsbery.
Screen Saw Sew a normal or HAM moo* r »" as MeaBjOer Geafi* C soufce f es far menu* custom acreen Pofr r A ree-ime executon prefer for Manx r FF ie. By Certfyn Schaeoer based an toitwacrctcni S-ED Ffti(F* a* ii Cprograms todudeaCao ce Snengna.Oomo Demo of to» Actvition game Srangh*.
NeePackets CBM tutorial on new packela and ArsEttoo facho', “tojcrt, liar, las' Litton in assember Fred Fid1 Diak4l Sound Exam pie A double butto'ed sound example for atrucLres n Am gaOos 1.2. Dapey Ospays HAM image* from a ray- Cyd oi Uodoto of afectrorc w-'ograpr- fram dM 27 UenxC by Am Goodmyw PaicaJToC Pascal to C Ta.ns&tor, not n gr*et S-ED t-acng p'ogram, *rto example ccVes DrUS Enhanced ei af DhJj from os» 35 Vxpriaa A working yapr;ta example by Enc Cotton Ftp atter‘-l«flFORTRANp prooawor S€D Dw Eu’Mwee or-w ixw ten LO'jDef Scars a aet of atyectr oo j« arc tvares VtlDO V2 6 of Dew's
WIOQto'mna emjaeorwffi RrBacx Stars progrars from CLI * owrg CLI kw RAM: a ax saaThi-g tor rutpy denned syrbas xem-it and xmodam by Daw Wecw*
• mdowtaccw ED XL» 1 7, exeats ae any WyUpce* Dm wOCtto ut
Cctjns tor PUPthOtis S Mate Ths toog’i- autom cAydec* n
EuiE*lBA48 tt »ng comments from c neacer fies, and CpBoarO G
pt»ato dovce Ta ace rguinaa, to pmvd wncwa wren -ouse s
-owfl vwt T*r-.n* t-JlS’wr X-oOe-, Kerri irhe cive ven'caio- C
re „pcti"g prxess a standard -w ace 9f ArcyFHde over rern.
Veaor t .3,ED and C6 B P'ctocba. rcHn itys. Vs 73.
Pat Computoc andpidaya 3 d mereone ConPeoetl Dem» re .se a4 DOS Pacws Fnd Flih DA 66 RLE graph ct anc ca"feence moot.
‘j «y*mhre* CflrUr-; « by Ce’py Screapar A-See ffr®'T-ni7 pars far ¦ SCSI dti AnglMontor DyernidiyflipBystoemitf-me rta*.
Poygon Mo'to type pattorn g«n«rac am cdsr eyeing GsOsa Prag'am to And a awlatoa o a oevoa cofato *r bord tjcn as open !«. Tctrt laws, 'eaou’ce* Omj.sb Ou*r«* *rm70r * mxae 8u«r. S prouec '*-« end ret n toar- at *r exec ut by A*r6& Macro o»rjr, versan 1.0,1, ED ofr oa rjoas. I-te-r.ta. »r«. Parti, Th- a can g e a «eirn ewe ret car Ph 'p Lndsey Ai»gn«j Exampe far aradl-g DOS rseh- Ac PooJarfseeompreiso-syiwrn. He cutsm j» a wt.pieojence based on GetVo'i e Program » get volume name of me OS* •drfstor. By scannrg ra H1 lanot’d tor Mntrng Fes wr«tar a mouse Duaan ml prised Wunetoat agver fewdos
aa af'asagnfad names S-E-D A'saCooe Program toil decodes aea codes Touch Ex am p-e of eon ng toe cafcsto-p on ef»e.
By Chu A UcUe-is D» P'etoncs to rat away at CLI into m and faceaiy.
U»-ng a toenrcje from Comrocore-Amga tor2C Reads n cr la and woes but I wncow S-ED Bn* ‘a nk“ repacemert tnker. Wr«i 6.5 Trees Woe axto-sie veTion of toe tws fragment of C cooe wr toe can ora F*P F:pew-ce stetv as a joke S-ED Cce-o An 'wxj1 csn®, program on Dia 31 stoucvea. By Cemyn Scecoe* Foogo Foogo cross-ramp erge-eraiei Os 210 Ora Ge-vi D-FOTermrl e-uaar Fr ri F.r.Ciik53 My geite- ffrogram to m* e ne MamLs: art* a* VAXesae-bycaO* S-ED DDW W-dowed DCS -srtce txog'irr. V 1.4 Aa- Vrer 1.1 of a a'-a-wm' G8CC0 r-»ero aeouaniaiyoon'gutod RAM boards Fae f*rti Irani of tee space on a Orwi
DOSHepe- Wxtewed Arga(X)Saiheppogrim aueme-er.com patoe ter toe Meacomca by Car b y S-ED PageFVm Pnna art %s wir n**det o«9« aaaame-er Ths nctooeaaneis-pe startp
- CAD At oayec yen*o o'awng prog-em, MatxTec ma x ee memo
jestptogra- y»Mt ' na i itan modue and mom Motorola mnouncres.
VI. 1 by Tim Mooney S-E-D PopCLI San * nee CLI • sng* BreeOjf
AbncAtjrewoutgame.uiei 3Dgesset FfrtFlfh DM57 Met ffretenqs •
mdt toe scree-. S-E-D xevstro*.e. from any program, With a
D»JUp Verson 1.1 otaprog'amtoadn.fliMs Rep1 need try FF97 De
to Copmgto prooema Mart Grur'cfyng syng demo. S€D Krae-i
saver teriife. Vewe4L w?i andtxnary 1es frttfEHh.Hvh.5t Fvry
Eary way to set primer atr butos E y»£d Spna Eo»r oo s two
ssnBs at a ima FircSlcon A *m art CLI repiaoemeflt wto fjl
ASOG-rrd Ealemey useful tharowore tom Wornbercf, E-D X-Spel
Spofrng &ecner a ows ects a f-i«c ed tng and real of prevou*
commands lecoverooe ram dsk. 7 Ftorry Kvoiowtz RayTracer
Smpla ray tracing prog'im. ED ftidflihftikll Mur A Wise
Command-ype gam*, wth BgVew D*playa any FF pctoto,
independent SandPackats Updated CBM enmp'es of pacuit
ArgaVenve Cmele yojr o*r text adwiWe aound, m asaemeer of
toe pfry*caf dspey *CB. U»ng rouOne* on d A 35. S-ED program*
n AmgaBas'-c Fvj'tocSajryJ Sound edtof to' a tow-coat aci va
dg tier hetJwoto icnu. By John Hodgson SnapShot Mema
resdertscwndi np E-D On Versa- 203 of Dl an1* C iWW ir»
Szzers Graphics dam as Egraph Readi pa -s of * end y vak*
from a L« Tag BBS &ur«wire BBS aystom, wxc- 1.02 £xecy1 t»fl
o'Xy UrjArc Vereon o'erc'torlh* Syrem Vmnr nea of tea and
dtows a brmattod graph.
FredFlihH*S7 [fcug Maao based Cdeougg' maadgFFAJ tnC fy La enece Turner A-Cat S- s-ewi'e a m can sg ng Erfl ’im k*Payf*a aa-pe sm CBM, XCI» »l-titon Worn pit Vmst 3 01 ofDawWan s HyparBase 9'armare data management aystom, VI 5 A-gaSow 9na'»«rs'e Kilon soe ng mrv tormina) emulator Uer-Getf Wax* torouyi tod free memory ; to. A-3 ng erecxe', V2.3. ED Gef * Heat's t * fMjessr, wt source EtitffiiiPitKai
* -ee memory atong toe «y &ancer 3-Dbotrongbal urttoninMjtfcrn
S-E D uxy Con iVexeofLamce 110 “e*de' *e* a»n GNU tor Uni y*x
wonxng update to byJohnhodgaon Comm Ttrmine prog'am wrsott
1.33, E Lree Lre drawing oero program Pth 4 vVion NewZAP A
tonJ-generatori m US-purpoSa f • Dux 5 Ancfrtof verson of
DrUti. S-E-D Changes font used n a CLI wndow Compreas Update to
toe * « corrpm on wcto’ Bdtrg ui VIB by Jcnn friodgesrn
HexCac Hex. Ocra, & dacrr A ce cuear. E D VHW Varaon 23otpie
VT-1DC arm nal program program on Dix 6 RarBow A Ue extor-S e
renoow generator ton* Vena*og ard awnna image icon* EttAfto.fi
Ai2 Co*
• W»eei of Fortune*-type game n Am g a Bate ByJonr Hoegton Maneea
Mancaa grapbes arc *and E Tfr a ds co a na an Am ga verson oi
McroGNUE- act D'Sced Lto* Jke UiT ard “iwf for fndng toe
SMUSPiym Two SMUS pays, to pity SMUS FF FvsMe: Oama rafewse
person* l« manage' fiid FiA fin 43 oftoreneea between %w free
and
- use Vm attod frea by RSLGock Morj bar dock verson t .3 E-D
BescBc g A-gaBasc progam der m page f ppng of to*n recettng re
ster. Pn*n one John Hodgson RTCubes Grierc*de,-oo4 30 cube* ED
a 30 cube fie, and toe Its! O' 0 rencet Vee A try LBM vewe* by
John Hoogaon vv•«e Vhto* yFor ne'-iypegare. R ArgaBatc a&m
Deroco o*B£.ST. Busness Sq.lhc Pc-tobe rjric-j c fr CPU
VftCJ'O JX-M epCm ffld wonoe-cto prnler fnd.Fjfi.J2A 59
Manage -! rtiam.
Soeezeand -aqueare toetdoesnotuw DwnsRPor. By Tria swrso-MG ibo'toe Mcr»3NLF-acs Sc ce ro BdsLc A lias of ArgaBJetn Beard Syrem* fTMfltflDiikSl Johr Hoogaon eaajtKW re-ojMd, as *e' as sovtoa far or* ca-xiri Cc C camper Vo-nerds b' Uii and Lance C Aa n Rebact'-or! Tor Am gaOCG ‘asagr' Fed Rah DIMM besdes re Amga Copoer A narcwere eoppe'i *; dMt*e 't»ej comm and in C Browser Upcato to broweer crogram on out 18 EndFnfiJ .AH HUFF Convats ln|&- n*nadeno soia ds t) FF Fractal Uaaea random fricta •'ram trd 34 S-E Aar 6Bx Maro eeaemtwr, yl.0,3, E D la-ped tovncs Poy, HAMPoiy Workbench-type dema * for
mabng VtSHWl Arother o hetofnbrwrie'pog'am E BitUo Star esporng proper, in C, SED PopCoiours to jtt RGB oon of ary sc-een poygona n lores and HWJ Oocti Got* program wto tona. Odors E Cormm Repi’acafrdhtcorsbe devce handle* adds SpMeCock Srrpectodiisdisplijfldon a sylB MiGedi Exam pie o* mutual eduser gadgeS Dm« Olfan text editor V1 22 far programmers ED ediing and bsto745 WO cab or toll aocve a I screens ernGadgeiText DooOoto Ffato a pattorn on toe Workbench baerdrop uiet CON:. *3.9. ED ST En*u:aty Naneer ojsAan ST em'jinar TevAC'O Teoon 14013 tofm ne! Emiiatar E-0 Corsoe Reoiacamem: car sole
fousne* in C, SE-D Vi&ur Lets WorW»n t pragrtms be n i from Vt iw Ve'ton* 1 1&and 1 Da'a Dbub DwShAdcw Rjto to'aflowson Wodcbentfi wndowi E*0 Dx Decays toe sctoen brt by to; upcato to te CLI Pam-tkeffawng program
F. WB Sm:!*r to DopGoto. Bul doeanl worn yet.
Dan 66, n Modu a 2 SED Wifl Tw U-t* snel itye wc card rastng FiedflahWekn S-0 Frega Dsp'ayv memory frag-eratbf iltng ratijne* Vmepors Demo anmafron* ear payer program for
- CAD Owe-o entod 0'awng crogam, verean Fesjeo'freemiro BoitoA n
C. SE-D F!ttfFl*R*44 AegsAnmitor
1. 22, Much improved mar dsk 56 ton Type Oange toe Ype of an con,
in C. SED fcatt Uics antses icons AflC'e Oicm **ame ta pa tor
f iesieto tong Rooorof4 Demo of immatod [»-M or Warkcencp Mate
tn*e' r Minx C. SED NewFF New FF mflerg from C8JJ far ramot,
ao toey car be easiy ‘arctod and S-E-D MonPtoc Morton
processra far packet ectvty, m samp ed voca and rrusc l«s
untorcW.
Suoermort Gene'll compoLndng amorliebon loan
C. SED RayTraoePci The famous ray-yaang pictuw ARP Pteiminary
AmgaDOS repacamerts far csculator. E D MauseCock Turns mouse
po ner ntte a dgt* dodgn from FF 33. Rviw ccm-bc n FF HAM
toeax', W. thm«T. Tortoo', fienoto'and1 EmfiiUbkN
C. SED format fpr ‘much' tas»* vwang.
Maxedr’ Vanout thiirewito and frwrrare program a Sb Browses systom structores, from VewllBM Dtplays nemal and HAM LBU s*t Camper NotfjiyportBdBtoeAmge.toisea 60303 C atz Memory resident 1 ev«wef Vary fast E D Trantector magazine, v1.0, n C, SED frilEtofiA45 comper. Ttvv Dfodjce a “p« assempy 3'jFonta Uiwestoitoutput'xrtx ED Spew Generates “NUchal Enqi tor'-fypa C-t Cue oaifl gime larguSQ* au9bl Dut need t a iot of ncrk.
HandSheie Terrral am Ja»i*ato VTS VT'OtV headineefrom nAesfle hC,S€D Uju* AnoTer t,a«B'; erti more Vaves SomaCB-fle!
Upcato wto ®-rce of toe *w' VttC2uppon ED Spool Three frograr a fa Oe-omtrto RcV« U» eneous pctres sareecsnee; on O* 36 Wed UouttoOnventextedfar wTun 21 6D
m. jittaurg and sped ng n a prnfcr Uocas Upcaw an w d»*rr w fee
Vom Tt-Splt Porto4 program to apt l n 'w'lfcmes PovGer
Gene tos pnrtor d'ver*. Wrean V f. Sate Vkne* faC.v1ZS-ED
rarer p* l* ncade Utlet to encode and decoda bnary toes for
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A Squared Distributions, Inc. 89 Absoft 42 INDEX OF ADVERTISERS Aegis Development 22 Ami Expo 37 AMIGA Times 80 Aminetics 79 Applied Visions Cll Arexx 80 BCD Jim Black 30 Byte by Byte CIV Central Coast Software 38 Comp-U-Save 114 Computer Visual Services 59 ComputerMart 87 Conflict Recreations 88 Creative Solutions 12 D-Five Associates 95 Data Solutions 44 Discovery Software International Inc. 64,65 Eagle Tree Software 106 Firebird 41 Fuller Computer System 60 Gimpel Software 20 Great Cover-Ups 115 Hilton Android 53 HyperTek Silicon Springs 110 InterComputing Inc. 51 Interface Technologies 67
Kent Engineering & Design 88 Kline-Tronics 31 Lattice, Inc. 7 Lightning Publishing 46 Lynn's Luna C 88 Manx C 15 Megatronics 9 Meridian Software 43 Michigan Software 111 Microbotics 13 Microillusions Clll Mystic Plain Software 110 NewTek 1 New Wave Software 61 Pacific Peripherals 35 Peacock Systems 26 Phoenix Electronics 49 PiM Publications, Inc. 103-105, 128 Pioneer Computing 62 Prolific Inc. 3 Prospect Software 78 PVS Publishing 75 RGB Video Creations 92 Rittinghouse Software Development Co. 63 Scenics 99 Sedona Software 4 Second Source Systems Inc, 101 Snake Design Software 32 Software
Supermarket 102 Software Terminal 127 Speech Systems 21 Sunrize Industries 17 SunSmile Software 14 Syndesis 116 TDI Software 77 The Memory Location 108 The Other Guys 19 The Right Answers Group 10 TRU-IMAGE 3 TSR Hutchinson 91 Westcom industries 117 F'*d Fhh DUH17 MFFTJooato AteJd f*Dort dtl for UooRtfte Reo ac« FFS7 for Co opr* yobem* FterjsJema on FF 83; a to uodate* 0 .AndP«fto of l a at ana pete to Kn-e F’D di » I bray datotoaie* corr*rancs Cry John Weec P«ctH Tak« and d a an Graprh Progran ¦» ptoisrrpie nclOTS 2 or 3 tffflttWrtt by Flynn Rahman ad v and pebtsbwn mtaasnge 4te
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TotoObt A prog to improve ca-tor and hand.ng of fte mator*; on a csk* in 'CLi-area' TeleGames is what you've waited for.
The Future is here.
TeleGames allows you to use your computer and modem to play Chess, Checkers and Backgammon with a human opponent over the telephone. Only $ 34.95!
TeleGames Features
* Chess * Checkers * Backgammon
* Superb Graphic Game Simulations
* Smooth Depth Arranged Movement
* 4 angle 3D & 2D view perspectives
* Digitized Sound Effects
* Compatible with any modem
* 300, 1200, 2400,9600 Baud 2D Checkers 3} m i * ~1 o«t Vihu, M *
• • lZ t ||l Cl m ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
• ¦ ¦1» • ¦ • • in •
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* Call originate or answer
* Null Modem Connect option
* Save Game & Transmit Game options
* Opponent File Directories
* Send and Receive Typed Messages
* Easy to Use Menus & Requesters
* All Official Game Rules Supported
* Play Over the Phone or at Home
* Legal Moves Graphically enacted on the TeleConnected computer
* Fully copyable to hard disks
* Upgrades available on our BBS If you Enjoy Telecomputing,
You’ll Love TeleGames!
Published by Software Terminal 3014 Alta Mere, Fort Worth, TX 76116 817-244-4150 Modem; 817-244-4151 Dealer Inquiries Invited Amaze Me Please use this order form when subscribing to Amazing Computing™, ordering Back issues, or ordering Amiga™ Public Domain Software Name________________ Street__________________________________ City__St._ Zip _ Amount Enclosed _ Please circle the appropriate item: New Subscription Renewal Please start my subscription to Amazing Computing™ with the next available issue or renew my current subscription. 1 have enclosed S24.00 for 12 issues in the U.S. ($ 30.00
Canada ar.d Mexico, $ 35.00 overseas). All funds must be in U.S. Currency on a U.S. Bank Back Issues: $ 4.00 each (foreign orders add $ 1.00 each for Postage and Handling) Please circle your Back issue choices below: Voll.l Voll.2 Voll.3 Voll.4 Voll.5 Voil.6 Voll.7 Voll.8 Voil.9 Vol2,l VoI2.2 Vol2.3 Vol2.4 Vol2.5 Vol2.6 Vol2.7 Vol2.8 Vol2.9 Vo]2.10 VoI2.ll Public Domain Software: $ 6,00 each for subscribers (yes, even the new ones!)
$ 7.00 each for non subscribers Please circle your Public Domain Software choices below: Amicus: Al A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 All All A12 A13 A14 A15 A16 A17 A18 A19 A20 A21 A22 A23 Fred Fish: FF1 FF2 FF3 FF4 FF5 FF6 FF7 FF8 FF9 FF10 FF11 FF12 FF13 FF14 FF15 FF16 FF17 FF18 FF19 FF20 FF21 FF22 FF23 FF24 FF25 FF26 FF27 FF28 FF29 FF30 FF31 FF32 FF33 FF34 FF35 FF36 FF37 FF38 FF39 FF40 FF41 FF42 FF43 FF4 4 FF45 FF46 FF47 FF48 FF4 9 FF50 FF51 FF52 FF53 FF54 FF55 FF56 FelSA FF58 FF59 FF60 FF61 FF62 FF63 FF64 FF65 FF66 FF67 FF68 FF69 FF70 FF71 FF72 FF73 FF74 FF75 FF76 FF77 FF78 FF79 FFNA FF81 FF82
FF83 FF84 FF85 FF86 FF87 FFTS& FF89 FF90 FF91 FF92 FF93 FF94 FF95 FF96 FF97 FF98 FF99 FF100 FF101 FF102 FF103 FF104 FF105 FF106 FF107 FF108 FF109 FF110 (NA denotes disks removed from the collection) Please complete this form and mail with check or money order to: PiM Publications, Inc.
P. O.Box 869 Fall River, MA 02722 Please allow 4 to 6 weeks for
delivery m .***- TH IS SEASON ffl MICROILLUSIONS' OFFERS:
-SM viBVPtvvvm For AMIGA, C64 128 and MS DOS: :AERYTALE
ADVENTURE Today's hottest gome! BLACK JACK ACADEMY ROMANTIC
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For AMIGA: DISCOVERY and DI5COVERY EXPANSION DISKS PHOTON VIDEO DYNAMIC CAD MU$ IC X DYNAMIC WORD 1740S Chorsworrh Sr., Granada Hills, CA 91344 • Inside CA 818 360-3715 * Outside CA 800 522- 041 ¦ FAX 818 360-1464 N’T BUILT IN A DAY, UNTIL NOW... Create your own universe with SCULPT 3*DTM SCULPT 3-D brings the power of 3 dimensional solid modeling and ray tracing to the Amiga. Imagine an image: choose a color, a shape, a texture. Spin it, rotate if, extrude it into the third dimension. Pick a camera lens, set your lights, and let SCULPT 3- D create a three dimensional picture complete
with shadows, reflections, and smooth shading. All in 4096 colors with true edge to edge overscan video. Easilyl Automatically! Change your mind? Change the colors, textures, camera or lights in seconds and create a new image. The only limits are the boundaries of your imagination.
"I haven't had this much fun with a program since Deluxe Paint II." John Foust of Amazing Computing.
’Performance previously only available on mini and mainframe computers." Info Magazine.
Now animate your universe with ANIMATE 3-D.
Enter the fourth dimension, time. Choreograph the free flowing and simultaneous movement of objects, lights and camera through space and time, Details of object rotation, camera movements. Timing and action are controlled in an easy to use graphical interface or through a simple script language, individual objects can be linked to orchestrate complex Mer- archial movements that simulate live action. Quick check wireframe playback preview's your final production: storable as a compressed animation file playable from RAM. Or recorded on videotape. Additional output opiions include single frame
VCR control or image rendering to a frame buffer card. Animations can incorporate either solid modeling or ray tracing. ANIMATE 3-D is quite simply the most powerful and easy to use animation program available for the Amiga.
Expand your universe with the BYTE BOXTM Your Amiga 500 deserves the best you can give it. More memory for more powerful applications, faster performance, better graphics, and RAM disk storage. It deserves a memory expansion system that lets you add additional memory as you need it. In easy to install and easy to afford increments. The included memory verify software provides a visual check whenever you add additional RAM. The B'iTE BOX is available in a variety of configurations from OMBytes to ZMBytes of RAM.
Easy to install Fully Auto-Configure Fast memory that's truly fast Has its own power supply Fully tested and ready to use Zero wait state design Low profile case Memory check software Capital of Texas Hinhway North Suite 150 Austin, TX 78759 (512)343-4357 Aboretum Plaza II
- SOX are trademarks at Byte by Byte Corporation.
'ommodo 'a, Inc. Deluxe Paint II is a trademark ot Electronic Arts.

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