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The Shell is an Amiga.DOS performance enhancer that you shouldn't be without! The Shell gives you the capability to recall previous CLI commands with the arrow keys so that mistyped commands can be quickly corrected, and frequently used commands can be easily repeated. Fast Amiga.DOS command replacements give you UNIX-style performance from your Amiga. What other software does so much for you at such a low price. Only '49.95 + shipping and handling. When ordering from overseas, add an additional .00 shipping for first class airmail. ll-1-86 262 S. 15TH STREET, PHILA. , PA 19102 (215) 546-1533 AmlgaTM ts a regtst.ereo tr&dem&rk of Commodoro-Amlga Inc. UNIX Ja a registered trademark or Bell Lalloratorles Amazing Dealers The following are Amazing Dealers, dedicated to supporting the Commodore-Amiga. They carry Amazing Computing, your resource for information on the Amiga. ti you are not an Amazing Dealer, but would like to become one, contact: PiM Publications, Inc. P.0.Box869 Fall River, MA. 02722 1-617-678-4200 - Amazing Computing1987 1 MetaSc()pe: The Debugger MetaScope gives you everything you've always wanted in an application program debugger: Memory Windows Move through memory.

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Document sans nom AC Hardware Project: Expand your 512K Amiga To 1MEG Volume 2 Number 1
U. S.A. $ 3.50 Canada $ 4.50 Vl fr VSfc _t * 1 SUPERBASE IS NOW
AVAILABLE FOR THE The enormously popular and proven database
system, Superbase is now available for the Amiga computer. We
completely rewrote Superbase to take full advantage of all the
power available on the amazing Amiga, This is not a
conversion, but an entirely new Amiga program!
TOTAL SOLUTIONS Superbase provides the total information management solution. It is a true productivity program for the Amiga computer. You can finally use a serious database with a serious machine. It’s easy to keep track of inventories foryour business whether you're working with parts inventory or real estate listings. Superbase is perfect for church membership rolls, patient files, personnel schedules or any place you need to manage and control large amounts of important information.
Access the power of the first true relational database management system with Superbase Personal Relational Database System. It will turn your Amiga into a truly productive tool, with virtually limitless capacities. Imagine being able to have an unlimited number of files open at any time. You can even have each file indexed with up to 999 key fields to search and sort.
EASY TO SET UP Superbase utilizes the latest ideas in easy-to-use mouse and windowing technology. There are pull-down help menus to ease you through problems that may occur during database creation. Superbase is completely menu driven and takes advantage of the point-to-click features possible with the Amiga mouse.
Q.,1., » 1 1,.
Q,¦« «*¦!, ii,
-!. — », M- LJMtsJLJM O'*'*! J? U:__J L__uJ n L 11 __l1_1 L J, J
i _i _l.J _J „. j t -i -J J Create a database in minutes using
the easy to understand menu selections and control panels. Type
in field names, add details like length or data style and you
are quickly ready to input your data. Unlike other databases,
you can alter your formats at anytime, without disturbing the
data already in existing files.
Using Superbase's Enhanced BASIC, your database can be totally customized to virtually any application.
IT'S EASY TO MANAGE YOUR DATA Display your data in the format you choose. Either page by page or just as it appears in the record format. You choose how to view the data you need. There is practically no limit to the number of fields in a record, you have complete control over what is displayed on screen or printed in custom reports.
Decide on the fields and on the sequence, then use the VCR style controls to viewyour data — Get the first record, then fast forward, pause, continue or stop — it's as easy as playing a video tape!
+ i i — cini* ii it it*;.11 I 1 1! 11 s l (_| (11 If'1 111 w!
It ii. -*s'i i MM Si I J1 ’ 11...1
- I -U I _J.J _l _J £3 I -J WORKING POWER Superbase makes
iteasy to define reports or generate relational queries across
multiple files, with multiple sort levels if you need them.
Import data from other databases or applications. Export data
to your favorite word processor, or join several files to form
a new database, The advanced B+ tree file structure and disk
buffering means high performance — Superbase reads a typical
name and address record in an incredible three hundredths of a
second!
THE VIDEO DATABASE WHEN QUALITY COUNTSI Superbase includes an amazing array of data types in your record format, including the names of pictures or digitized images stored on disk. Read the words, then look at digitized pictures you have already stored on disk. Your data records can "point" to images to recall them for viewing!
You can even link multiple images to a single database record to run automatic slide shows. It's all easily done using the VCR style commands ihatyou control. Revise, update or review your illustrated database, in any desired arrangement. You have total control! Superbase is the total software solution for people who must manage information.
THE BEST HAS ARRIVED!
Finally, a program that utilizes ALL the power and functions of the Amiga computer. Superbase brings to the Amiga the business solutions you have been waiting for.
The power of Superbase is also available for the Commodore 64 128 and the Apple Ile IIc.
Superbase Personal, [Amiga, Commodore 64 128). Apple Ile llc. Are registered trademarks or Precision Software Ltd. Commodore Business Machines, Apple Computers, respectively This ad and all of its contents arc copyrighted by Progressive Peripherals & Softw are. Inc and may not be reproduced, or duplicated in any manner without written permission The Mirror Copier Can Now Back Up A Disk Almost As Fast As Marauder II, And It Only Costs About 25% More!
Marauder II is the most powerful copier ever produced for Amiga. It will automatically copy ALL software released to date, and it requires no hardware modification of any kind.
It produces completely unprotected copies of most Amiga software faster and better than any other copier.
No other copier can copy as much software as Marauder II.
Marauder II also has the most advanced user interface your money can buy. If you have an Amiga you already know how to use Marauder II. You never have to reboot your machine to use Marauder II, it is completely compatible with the Amiga’s multitasking operating system.
Marauder II has been designed with your future needs in mind. As protection schemes change you can update the program yourself with our unique “Strategy Files.” The Strategy Files are developed as new software is released so that you can get them quickly and easily when you need them.
Compare the features of Marauder II to our competition and you’ll see that Marauder II is quite simply the best copier you can get. At any price! And for only $ 39.95 you can rest assured that your software investment is safely protected against damage, loss or theft.
Don't wait, order now!
Duplication Speed 83 Sec.
1 Minute 48 Sec.
Upgradable With Strategy Files YES NO Mouse Driven User Interface YES NO Exit Without Restarting Amiga YES NO Runs From Workbench or CLI YES NO Makes Multiple Simultaneous Copies From One Original YES NO Copies Itself YES NO Copies The Mirror YES NO Price $ 39.95 £49.95 This amazing keyboard macro processor is just what you need to give your fingers a rest. The Genie Is always at work to save you time and keystrokes.
Complicated or repitious keyboard sequences are easily assigned to a key you choose through the Genie's Pop-Up Macro Definition Window. You can also load and save your NOW YOU CAN SAVE ANY SCREEN, FROM ANY PROGRAM, ANYTIME WITH GRABBIT.
With GRABBIT you can capture exactly what you see or. Your screen in an instant, regardless of what programs you’re running. GRABBIT works with all video modes, including “Hold and Modify.” What's more, GRABBIT runs completely in the background, transparent to your other software.
GRABBIT is always ready for you to use, even when you’re in the middle of another program. As if that is not enough, GRABBIT requires only about 10K RAM to operate, and it supports dozens of printers.
GRABBIT is truly a productivity power tool for your AMIGA!
With Key Genie One Key Launches 1000 Strokes!
Favorite macro sequences on disk.
Once saved, the macros can be automatically installed at startup to save time. In addition to the Genie's powers, Discovery Software has added a bonus program "Turbo-Shell”. The Shell Is an AmigaDOS performance enhancer that you shouldn't be without! The Shell gives you the capability to recall previous CLI GRABBIT is far superior to other screen-printing “programs" because of its small size and quick performance. No complicated setup is required. Just install and go! Also, GRABBIT doesn't require the screen to remain visible during printing or saving, and stopping the print operation is as
easy as starting it, GRABBIT supports all standard Amiga printer drivers. GRABBIT also supports full color printing.
In addition to GRABBIT’s printing capabilities, the package also includes a powerful utility program “ANYTIME." The ANYTIME bonus commands with the arrow keys so that mistyped commands can be quickly corrected, and frequently used commands can be easily repeated. Fast AmigaDOS command replacements give you UNIX-style performance from your Amiga.
What other software does so much for you at such a low price. Only $ 49.95 + $ 5 shipping and handling.
Program is a “Preferences” style palette requester that allows you to change any colors of any screen, anytime! With ANYTIME, you are NOW capable of customizing all colors to match your printer’s hardcopy to the screen’s colors.
Once you start using GRABBIT and the bonus program ANYTIME you will want it on every disk. You get all the power of this sizzling new software for an unbelievably low $ 29.95 + $ 5 shipping and handling.
When ordering from overseas, add an additional $ 5,00 shipping for first class airmail.
11-1-86 I DISCOVERY 262 S. 15TH STREET, PHILA., PA 19102 (215) 546-1533 SOFTWARE I j rritiNATION AL, AMIGA TM is a registered trademark of Commodore-Amiga Inc. UNIX Is a registered trademark of Bell Laboratories TIME LORDS An immortal race of beings.
Responsible for protecting the temporal balance of tbe universe from chaos and destruction, Alien Fires uses every ounce of the Amiga's power to create a state-of-the-art visual and aural sensation, with colorful fullscreen 3 dimensional computer graphics, digitized music and sound effects. It is an experience of incredible realism and sophistication that tabes you through lime and space to a new dimension in entertainment.
Play the pan of a Time Lord in this imaginative new series of role-playing adventures. Alien Fires Part 1,2199 AD, is now ready to take you into the distant future, in search of a great man and an awesome device capable of twisting the very fabric of time itself.
Pan I is available now order one of ihe first thousand games and receive a rebate on our next scenario, Alien Fires Part II, coming soon.
For credit card orders or the dealer nearest you, call toll-free; 1-800-267-1904 or, send $ 39.95 (price includes shipping) in check or money order to: Jagware Inc. 2-288 Montreal Kd.
Ottawa, Canada K1L6B9
• * •f ¦ • r
- v' A Dealer inquiries invited.
Amazing Dealers The following are Amazing Dealers, dedicated to supporting the Commodore-Amiga™.
They carry Amazing Computing™, your resource for information on the Amiga™.
If you are not an Amazing Dealer, but would like to become one, contact: PiM Publications, Inc.
P. O.Box 869 Fall River, MA. 02722 1-617-678-4200 MetaScope gives
you everything you've always wanted in an application program
debugger:
• Memory Windows Move through memory, display data or
disassembled code live, Ireeze to preserve display and allow
restoration.
• Other Windows Status windows show register contents and program
state with freeze and restore; symbol, hunk, and breakpoint
windows list current definitions.
• Execution Control Breakpoints with repetition counts and
conditional expressions; trace for all instructions or
subroutine level, both single-step and continuous execution.
• Full Symbolic Capability Read symbols from files, define new
oneB, use anywhere.
MetaScribc: The Editor MetaScribe has the features you need in a program editor:
• Full Mouse Support Use for text selection, command menus,
scrolling or use key equivalents when more convenient.
• Multiple Undo Undo all text alterations, one al a time, to
level limited only by available memory.
• Sophisticated Search Replace Regular expressions, forward back*
ward, full file or marked block.
• Multiple Windows Work with different files or different
portions of the same file at one time.
• Macro Programs Lisp-like macro language lets you customize and
extend the editor to meet your needs.
• Virtual Memory Set the amount of data memory to be
used, transparently edit files larger than memory.
19762 MacArthur Blvd.
Suite 300 irvine, CA 92715
(714) 955-2555
• and More!
MetaScope $ 95.00 MetaScribe $ 85.00 MetaTools $ 69.95 DosDisk $ 49.95 Keystroke macros for repetitive text, copy between files, block copy paste delete, set tabs and margins, etc. (California residents add 6% sales tax).
Visa MasterCard accepted.
Metadigm products are designed to fully utilize the capabilities of the Amiga™ in helping you develop your programs. If you're programming the Amiga, you can't afford to be without them.
Dealer Inquiries Welcome Amiga 1b a trademark of Commodore-Amiga Inc. MS-DOS ii a trademark of Micronofl. Incorporated Powerful Expression Evaluation Use extended operator set including relationals, all assembler number formats.
Direct to Memory Assembler Enter instruction statements for direct conversion to code in memory and Morel Mouse support for value selection and command menus, log file for operations and displays, modify search fill memory, etc. MetaTools I A comprehensive set of tools to aid your programming (full C source included):
• Make Program maintenance utility.
• Grep Sophisticated pattern matcher.
• Diff Source file compare.
• Filter Text file filter.
• Comp Simple file compare.
• Dump File dump utility.
• Whereis File locator utility.
DcsDisH A program that lets you access PC-DOS MS-DOS™ diskettes on your Amiga. Use it to list file information and copy files between the PC-DOS MS-DOS diskettes and Amiga diskettes or devices. Patterns can be used for file names, and you can even operate on all files in a directory at one time. A copy option converts source file line-end sequences as the copy is performed.
Publisher: Joyce Hicks Circulation Manager: Doris Gamble Assistant to the Publisher: Robert James Hicks Corporate Advisor: Robert Gamble MetaScopC: The Debugger Managing Editor: Don Hicks Hardware Editor: Ernest P. Viveiros Amicus & Technical Editor: John Foust Music Editor: Richard Rae Art Director: Keith Conforti Assistant Editor: Ernest P. Viveiros Jr.
Assistant Advertising Manager: John David Fastino Production Manager: MarkThibauSt Amazing Authors Ervin Bobo Bryan Catley John Fousl Don Hicks Kelly Kauffman Perry Kivolowitz George Musser Jr.
Steven Pietrowicz Rick Wirch & The AMIGA Special Thanks to: Robert H. Bergwall RESCO, Inc.
E. P.V. Consulting New England Technical Services interactive
Tutorials Inc. Advertising Sales & Editorial 1-617-678-4200
Amazing Computing™ (ISSN 0886-9480} is published by PiM
Publications, Inc.
P. O. Box 869, Fall River, MA. 02722.
Subscriptions: in the U.S. 12 Issues for $ 24.00; Canada and Mexico, $ 30.00; Overseas, $ 35.00. Printed in the U.S.A. Copyright© 1987 by PiM Publications, Inc. All rights reserved.
First Class or Air Mail rates available upon request.
PiM Publications, Inc. maintains the right to refuse any advertising Amazing Computing™ Amazing Contents Volume 2 Number 1 What Digi-View Is... Or, What Genlock Should Be! By John Foust "There is a lot of confusion about the capablities of Amiga video products.” AmigaBASIC Default Colors by Bryan Catfey 17 35 37 51 65 71 ”... palettes 4 through 31 are also setup with default colors."
AmigaBASIC Titles by Bryan Catley "...how a program 'looks' goes a long way" A Public Domain Modula-2 System by Warren Block "it has some faults, but it also has a large amount of potential."
One Drive Compile by Douglas Lovell Using Lattice C with only one disk drive A Megabyte without MegaBucks by Crts Erving "For about $ 70... internally expand your 512K Amiga to a full megabyte."
Digi-View by Ed Jakober "...an excellent digitizing package at a resonable price" 9 29 31 61 15 23 Defender of the Crown by Keith Conforti "...it is your duty to unify the kingdom of England and regain the lost crown" Leader Board by Chuck Raudonis "...a TRUE 3D golf simulation" Roundhill Computer Systems' PANEL by Ray Lance "...a generalized data entry programming system" Digi-Paint... by NewTek by John Foust "The Hold-and-Modify mode allows 4096 colors on the screen at once."
By John Foust Deluxe Paint IL.from Electronic Arts "The best Amiga program is now better."
Forth!
By Jon Bryan "...how sound can be generated from Forth."
41 Roomers by John Foust "Hey....Did you hear about..” 46 Amiga Notes by Richard Rae "A look at some... MIDI Interfaces" 57 The Amicus Network by John Foust "...the Amiga Developer Conference and COMDEX Fall" 82 From the Editor 4 6 80 91 Amazing MAIL On the CONTRARY Public Domain Software Catalog From The Editor: Toys Ok. I admit it! 1 like toys.! Have always enjoyed every thing from puzzles to toy cars (I believe that half of the reason men want sons is to have an excuse to play with toys again).
Before my obsession with computers started, I had two great toys: trains and cameras. Oh, I never bought expensive versions of either. My cameras are all over ten years old and were used when I got them. My trains are a collection of simple HO pieces gathered from toy stores and flea markets, not a collectable in the bunch. The idea was to have fun, not have the flashiest most expensive item.
1 never actually completed a true layout of the trains. They were placed around the Christmas tree or used in displays. (Joyce has made a Christmas display at her school of trains almost every year, she was too busy with the magazine this yearto go as far.) Each year, someone would give me a small building or maybe a car, and! Would add it to the growing box of material for that ultimate railroad I would build someday.
When we bought our home, I was sure the basement would be perfect for a train layout, but there was so much work to be done around the rest of the house. I could not spend time "playing".
Now, the basement is crowded with the things we need to build this magazine and the Public Domain Software and 1 do not believe there will be time or space for trains for awhile.
My cameras are another story.! Enjoy photography. A picture is a simple record of a section of time and space. Yet, I feel a special emotion when! See a picture whose sum equals more than its parts. A small section of time placed on film can make people see more in themselves and their dreams.
When we were first considering the cover for this issue, we were shooting for December and Christmas (yet, even as I type this weeks before Christmas, the time required for the printing and distribution will place this in your hands just after the new year making this our first issue for 1987). We wanted both the cold look of winter and the warmth of Christmas. So, we gathered some old "toys" and played with some new ones.
Keith Conforti, our new Art Director, and I spent an afternoon creating a little mountain scene with a winding track through the snow. By the time we created the Digi View™ picture we wanted, we were using about ten percent of the entire scene (that is half the fun of creating: not really knowing what you will produce).
Dlgl-vlew!
Digi-View is one of my new toys, lean use it on my Amiga to capture subjects in a similar way as I did with a camera. Our own Copy of Digi-view came through the good graces of Software Supermarket in Kenmore, NY. Paul Boden, heard that I had been trying to get a copy and was quick on hand, "Yea, Don, I can get that to you tomorrow."
When I first opened the envelope and saw the small plastic gel and the little connector for the Amiga port, I was disappointed, "Is this all there is? How can I get pictures from this?" After a very short stint with the software, we produced our first digitized picture for AC (cover of Volume 1 Number 7).
Tim Jennison was a pioneer Amiga developer. While Commodore and A-Squared were announcing Live!, Tim was distributing Public Domain Software of incredible digitized full color pictures.
These first pictures demonstrated the graphics quality of the Amiga and were probably responsible for more Amiga sales than the "50's Advertisements" from Commodore. When I learned the pictures had been digitized with a black and white security camera, i knew New Tek was on their way.
Tim has produced a product which allows us to take a small section of reality, move it into our Amiga™, and then either preserve it or change it as we wish.
More Memory!
This issue we have also added a second Amazing Hardware product, a memory upgrade to add 512K to the interior of your computer. At press time we are analyzing Ihe few last minute changes for 1.2 (our copy arrived just an hour ago!)
Defender of the Crown Cinemaware has released their first product for the Amiga, and they have shown what great graphics can do for a program.
Toys and Joys We all know that the Amiga is a good machine, it has potential for expansion and abilities that the software and hardware community are only just starting to reach. In the last week we have heard of a few new items available:
1. A SCSI interface and 20 Meg hard drive from C Ltd. Tor $ 995.00
2. A new page layout program from Gold Disk.
This certainly makes the Amiga a top business machine, after ail these are the items that the other "business machines" have claimed were important. However, unlike those others, the Amiga has a wider depth that can attract more fun applications. After all, it is through ourtoys and play that we do most of our learning.
Have a good year, Lattice!® C Compiler S225-00 Software designed for AMIGA New version 3.1 of the AMIGA DOS C Compiler replaces version
3. 03. Major enhancements include the addition of: TMU, an
assembler, a faster linker and version 3 MS-DOS.
With more than 30,000 users worldwide, Lattice C Compilers set the industry standard for MS-DOS software development.
Lattice C gives you all you need for development of programs on the AMIGA. Lattice C is a full implementation of Kernighan and Ritchie with the ANSI C extensions and many additional features.
Professional Latticet® C Compiler S3 75.00 A new product called the Professional Lattice C Compiler is now available. It includes the C Compiler package (complete with TMU), plus LMK. L5E and the Metascope Debugger.
AMIGA C Cross Compiler $ 500.00 Allows AMIGA development on your MS-DOS system. Price includes the Professional lattice C Compiler described above.
Lattice Screen Editor (LSEJ") $ 100.00 Designed as a programmer’s editor, Lattice Screen Editor (LSE) is fast, flexible and easy to learn. ISE’s multi-window environment provides all the editor functions you need including block moves, pattern searches and “cut and paste." In addition, LSE offers special features for programmers such as an error tracking mode and three Assembly Language input modes. You can also create macros or customize keystrokes, menus, and prompts to your style and preferences.
Lattice dBC III™ Library $ 150.00 The dBC lit library lets you create, access and update files that are compatible with Ashton Tale’s dbase system, dBC Ill's C functions let you extend existing dbase applications or allow your users to process their data using dBC III or dbase III.
Lattice Text Utilities (TMU™) $ 75.00 lattice Tex! Utilities consists of eight software tools to help you manage your text files. GREP searches files for the specified pattern. DIFF compares two files and lists their differences.
EXTRACT creates a list of file names to be extracted from the current directory, BUILD creates batch files from a previously generated file name list. WC displays the number of characters and optionally the checksum of a specified file. ED is a line editor which can utilize output from other TMU software in an automated batch mode, SPLAT searches files for a specified character siring and replaces every occurrence with a specified string. And FILES lists, copies, erases or removes files or entire directory structures which meet the specified conditions.
Lattice Unicalc* Spreadsheet $ 79.95 Unicalc is a simple-to-operate program that turns your AMIGA computer into an electronic spreadsheet, Using Unicalc you can easily create sales reports, expense accounts, balance sheets, or any other reports you had to do manually.
Unicalc offers the versatility you’ve come to expect from business software, plus the speed and processing power of the AMIGA.
• 8192 row by 256 column processing area'Comprehensive context-
sensitive help screens * Cells can contain numeric, algebraic
formulas and titles • Foreign language customization for all
prompts and messages • Complete library of algebraic and
conditional functions
* Dual window capabilities * Floating point and scientific
notation available • Complete load, save and print capabilities
• Unique customization capabili ty for your every application ¦
Full compatibility with other leading spreadsheets * Full menu
and mouse support.
Lattice MacLibrary'" $ 100.00 The Lattice MacLibrary" is a collection of more than sixty C functions which allow you to quickly and efficiently take advantage of the powerful capabilities of the AMIGA.
Even if your knowledge of the.AMIGA is limited, MacLibrary can ease your job of implementing screens, windows and gadgets by utilizing the functions, examples and sample programs included with the package.
Other MacLibrary routines are functionally compatible with the most widely used Apple®. Macintosh™ Quickdraw Routines™, Standard File Package and Toolbox Utility Routines enabling vou to rapidly convert your Macintosh programs to run on the AMIGA.
Panel™ $ 195.00 Panel will help you write your screen programs and layer your screen designs w'iih up to ten overlapping images. Panel’s screen layouts can be assigned to individual windows and may be dynamically loaded from files or compiled intoa program. Pane!
Will output C source for including in your applications. A monitor and keyboard utility is also included to allow you to customize your applications for other systems.
With Lattice products you get Lattice Service including telephone support, notice of new products and enhancements and a 30-day money- back guarantee. Corporate license agreements available.
8 Lattice Lattice, Incorporated Post Office Box 3072 Glen Ellyn, Illinois 60138
(312) 858-7950 TWX 910-291-2190 INTERNATIONAL SALES OFFICES:
Benelux: tries Daiacom 32) 2-720*51*61 Japan: Lifeboat, Inc
(03)293-4711 England: RoundhiII (0672)54675 France: SFL
(1)46-66-11-55 Germany: Pfotenhaur (49)7841 5058 Hong Kong;
Prima 85258442525 A.I. Soft Korea, Inc (02)7836372 Amazing
Mail: Dear Editors and BBS Sysops: I am an Amiga bulletin
board sysop, fam seeking to change the status quo. I
believe that my BBS(Enterprise BBS) is one of the few BBSs
that is open to first time callers. Make that one of the
very few BBSs to be so. For some reason, sysops are
paranoid that people will use their systems illegally thus
causing them to lose their equipment. This situation is
easily controlled. That is why any BBS software worth
mentioning allows the sysop to screen new uploads before
making them public.
I make a run of long distance calls every other month to update my library. It is extremely irritating to find that I've lost access to BBSs that I've downloaded from before. Also, I don't believe in upload download ratios anymore because those with something to share will share; those that wish to download only, might send a short garbage file to receive further downloading privileges.
Using new names is a common practice too. For long distance users, it is important for them to have unlimited downloading privileges because uploading long distance is usually out of the question. This will also reinforce the use of individual systems, and shared public domain programs will bind the Amiga community together. Complete control of users was a neat gadget, but now it's a ridiculous obstacle. It is time that the Amiga community grew up and got rid of this restricting nonsense.
Sincerely (and seriously), Bryan Sladek
P. S. If you are interested in calling Enterprise, it's number
is: 517-372-6037.
This number is in Michigan. The BBS will be up from 10pm through 10am everyday, with early afternoon access available during the business weekfholidays excluded).
Good Luck!
Just a note of support!
I have enjoyed every issue of Amazing Computing. Although I wish it was published weekly, I appreciate your efforts to make the best possible magazine. The effort shows!!
Promise to submit information and programs that I come across that are "important and worth knowing", but so far you are the front runner in the local information line.
Please continue the excellent work, and I will continue to tell all Amiga™ users I come across to subscribe (many would simply rather buy the issues from "Software First", iguessthat’s alright, too).
Thanks for all your help, Dave Matthews Nashville, TN WEEKLY!!!!!
Gentlemen: Your magazine is the best I know of for the Amiga™. Keep getting the information out to us as fast as possible. We don't care about the date on the cover.
Thanks, Galen Hardesty Dothan, AL Bless You!!!
Dear Amazing: Would you or any of your readers of your magazine be able to tell me if you can add more memory in the 256K board that plugs in the front of your Amiga™, maybe take the old ones out and replace them with larger chips to up the memory.
Sincerely, Tom Price Dartmouth, N.S. Canada Just in time! We have an article enclosed in this issue to add 512K to your Amiga™.
This was originaly designed to be added to the Amiga's 256K RAM expansion card, however, this would still require jumpers on your main mother board and is much more difficult. Working on the Amiga's main board is easier and carries a higher percentage of success.
Dear Sir, Since I do not have a modem and I cannot get the word out to everyone, I hope by advising you and other magazines of the following information about Flight Simulator II for the Amiga, you can save some people some problems with the program.
I found a problem in the program and when I contacted SubLOGIC Corp. about it, they looked into it and confirmed that there was an error in the program they were unaware of.
When you start the program and pull down the NAV menu and go to POSITION SET to put in your coordinates for any of the Chicago area airfields, you will find that if you use any of the altitude settings that are given to you on the maps, you will promptly do a nose dive onto the ground.
When I advised the SubLOGIC people about the problem they called me back soon after and advised mete use zero (0) altitude instead of those indicated on the map. Ft worked, and for all your readers that are doing nose dives near Chicago, zero is the magic number.
Yours truly, Paul Messina Holbrook, NY We are publishing this notice for the benifit of all residents in the Chicago, IL area.
Dear Sirs: I heard of your publication through the Sacramento Amiga Computer Club (SACC) and 1 bought Vol. 7 and 8. These were the only Iwo issues Ihe dealer had, I am very pleased with your publication. I am legally blind and greatly appreciate your editorial parsimony since I have to read it on an electronic (closed circuit TV) magnifier. There is a lot of meat and little fat in the articles and that is a pleasant change.
I would very much appreciate your consideration of reviewing software occasionally with the blind and visually impaired in mind. The Amiga has a major advantage over other personal computers for the blind and visually impaired because of the built-in speech synthesizer. While this can be added on most Pcs, there is rarely any effort on the developers part of genera! Public software to include speech in their functions. It is obvious that this pattern is changing with the Amiga software development and I am very optimistic that the trend will continue.
1 am writing this letter on the TALKER which is a talking word processing program by Finally Software of Newport Expansion Memory Without The Wait.
Introducing Alegra The Amiga™ Memory Expansion Unit from Access Associates.
512 K now.
Now you can add 512 K bytes of external memory to your Amiga. In the smallest package available, a footprint only 3 V'-wide. And Alegra's no-wait-state design lets your Amiga operate at its intended speed. No delays. With Alegra you get the benefit of fast memory at a surprisingly economical price. AND, BEST OF ALL, IT'S AVAILABLE NOW, Upgradeable to 2 MB later.
If you'll need 2 MB of memory in the future, Alegra is still the right choice now.
Our 2 megabyte upgrade (using 1 megabit Drams) will give you the memory you need in the same compact package.
Ask tor Alegra at your quality Amiga dealer.
| ACCESS ASSOCIATES 491 Aldo Avenue Santa Clara, CA 95054-2303 408-727-8520 Beach, Ca. It has some weaknesses but I don’t feel comfortable with criticizing if since I am a novice on personal computers and word processors.
Perhaps you could review this product as a word-processor of general interest and your observations about the speech controls.
Thanks for listening and I am looking forward to receiving your fine magazine.
Sincerely, Robert M. Belts Fair Oaks, CA Thank you for your letter. I have mentioned this to a few developers and have received some interest, Let's hope more Amiga Developers will take the initiative.
Dear Editor: In the Volume 1 Number 8 issue of Amazing Computing, Mr. Larry Pahlam was mentioning that he could not "Sink a Sub". This was in your Amazing Maii column. He could not delete some empty sub-directories. I don't believe that this is a bug in the software.
The Amiga™ uses some directories for its own purpose. For example, fonts directory for fonts, a s directory for script files. The Amiga™ looks for these directories, and others on the system disk. If it finds any of those directories it needs, it assigns them as being in use.
To delete these directories, you must do one of two things.
— If you have a second drive, put the disk that you want changed
into your second file. Boot your system and then you may delete
that directory of your second drive.
— If you only have one drive, get into CLI and do the following:
let's assume that the "font" directory is the one to delete.
First, make sure the "font" directory is empty. Then reassign the "font" directory as follows. Type (assign font: c:) excluding brackets. This will allow you to delete the "font" directory. Now when you reboot, your system will not find a "font" directory and will not bother to assign it to anything.
Yours Sincerely, Dick Fehr Memory Lane Computers Saskatoon, Sask. Canada Dear Sirs, [am writing in regards to the letter from Mr. Pahlam in your Vol 1 Num 8 issue of Amazing Computing. Mr. Pahlam and J.
F. seem to think there is a big Bug when trying to delete an
empty directory. Not necessarily so! I have also received the
message "object in use" and have rebooted in order to delete
an empty directory. Then one evening while starting at my
little buddy "Amiga" he said not deleted-object in use". After
taking him at his word, I searched for a task that was using
the directory and sure enough there it was a CLI window with
just a prompt "1 More or less by a quirk of fate I typed "CD"
and what to my wandering eyes did appear but the name of the
directory I could not delete.
Amiga will not let you delete any empty directory if it is being used by any task including CLI and Workbench. It is more obvious to see an open directory window from Workbench than to remember a CLI task's current directory. So remember, before booting an "object in use"maybe your little buddy is telling you the truth!
Humbly yours, Lanny L. Ebert Eaton Rapids, Mich Dear Mr. John Foust, I read your answer to Mr. Larry Pahlman on Amazing Mail of Amazing Computing volume 1 number 8. You said that there was a genuine bug in DOS that caused the "not-deleted — object in use" error when you tried to delete an empty subdirectory. I had encountered the same circumstances only when I used cd command to change current directory to a sub-directory and later tried to delete that sub-directory without first getting out of it.
When I changed directory back to root directory, I could delete that subdirectory easily.
I am a student of Laney college, Oakland CA, and I am working in the Laney computer lab as a lab assistant. I subscribed to Amazing Computing when 1 found out that Amazing Computing has had more news, rumors, tricks and tips than those on the other magazines. It would be nice if I could find some articles about assembly language or Modula-2 for the Amiga on future Amazing Computing issues.
I’m trying to create a simple text editor using TDI Modula-2 for my Amiga. I wonder why ed reads a file and displays data of that file on the screen so fast.
Using TDI Modula-2,1 created a circular linked list to store on line of text in an element of the list. I use the read procedure in DOS Files module to read one character at stime, and then put the data in the list. When my program reached the end of the file, I opened a RAW: console and print data of the list to the console. My method seemed to take 2 or 3 minutes to read a 5K text file then display on the screen, it was too slow. I wonder if you can give me some advice.
Thank you.
Sincerely, Leduy Nguyen Oakland, CA Dear AC: RE:"Hqw to.. Sink a Sub": Larry Pahlman; AC 8, p. 6.
Larry's letter doesn't give enough information about his problem. John. I'm just not convinced this is a genuine bug. 1 have encountered this problem in two very specific situations only:
1) If you have a workbench drawer window open for the directory
you are trying to delete you get the "object in use" message.
Close the window and it should delete. (No, deleting the info
file does not automatically close the window for you.)
2) If the director you are trying to delete is the current
directory (as is likely to be the case if you have just
deleted all the files in the directory} then you will get the
same error message. AmigaDOS will not, and in my opinion
should not, delete an open directory file. The solution, of
course, is to type "cd " to get to a higher directory and the
sub should delete.
If you check out both situations and stilt get "object in use" then I agree there is a problem here I just haven't seen yet. I think its worth noting that one of several advantages the workbench has over CLI is that you may delete a directory and all of its tiles in one easy operation. Hope this helps.
Sincerely, Owen M. Milter Renton, WA Regarding Larry Pahlman's letter (Vol. 1, No. 8) it seems to be more of an undocumented feature than a bug.
Sincerely, Tim Fitzgerald Albuquerque, NM Amazing Reviews.. Digi-View "...an excellent digitizing package at a reasonable price."
Reviewed by Ed Jakober The adage "a picture is worth a thousand words" is well accepted by the Amiga community, but only a fortunate few have sufficient mouse-eye coordination to express themselves well.
Digi-View is a product for "the rest of us." Is this digi-deja vu?
Digi-View is a sofiware and hardware combination, developed by NewTek, that uses a black-and-white camera to digitize images in color or high resolution black-and-white.
What comes in the Digi-View package? A little box about 2 x 3x1 inches square that plugs into your parallel port, a fitter wheel with red, green, blue, and clear sections, the disk of software, and an instruction manual. The box is not a passthrough.
You don't get a black-and-white camera, a lens, and lights — all important items if you want quality digitized images.
You may be wondering "Why would I want to use a black-and- white camera to digitize color images?" Simply put, a black- and-white camera is capable of a much higher resolution than a higher-priced color camera.
When speaking of the resolution of a camera, it has little to do with the usual definition of ’resolution'. Most computer people think of resolution as the number of horizontal and vertical pixels on the screen. The horizontal resolution of a camera is the number of vertical lines the camera is able to resolve.
A typical black-and-white camera can resolve about 600 lines — it has 600 lines resolution. "So what," you may think, "my Amiga is capable of resolving 640 vertical lines in high- resolution. Wrong! If you had a white screen in high resolution mode, then drew 640 vertical black lines, you would have a solid black screen, and would have resolved no lines.
So, in high-resolution mode, the Amiga is only capable of 'resolving' 320 vertical lines and has a 'camera resolution' of 320 lines.
Needless to say, a camera wtlh 600 lines of resolution is capable of very sharp images.
A typical color consumer camera in the $ 1000 to $ 2000 range has a monochrome resolution of 300-350 lines, and in color less than 100 lines. A monochrome camera and lens is in the $ 250 range. It is easy to see the cost and quality advantages of the black-and-white route.
One of the costs of quality digitized images is time. Digi- View is not a frame grabber. It will not capture a video frame in a 30th of a second. You can not take video "snapshots".
This lack of speed is no secret. The Digi-View ads are 'up front' on how long it takes to digitize an image. However, Digi- View will give you an image that is probably better than the 'Amiga Live!’product.
Before starting, plug the Digi-View into the parallel port. Plug the camera into Digi-View, via the RCA jack. In some cases, an adapter may be necessary.
The color wheel bracket is designed to be attached between the camera and what the camera is mounted on. This holds the color wheel so that each colored section can be placed in front of the lens. In my case, this bracket proved to be too short, due to the long lens I was using. A little ingenuity and duct tape, and I was in business.
To run the software, boot up normally using Kickstart and the Workbench VI.1 or newer, on an Amiga with at least 512K.
Digi-View is not copy protected, and works in the multitasking environment. But even with with 512K, it leaves little room for anything else.
If you are planning to buy a RAM upgrade of the Amiga’s FAST memory, be sure it is truly fast and contains no extra wait states. Digi-View does not work properly with RAM that uses extra wait states. * After opening the Digi-View disk icon you’ll see two Digi-View tool icons, 'RGB' and 'HIRES’. 'RGB' is the lo-res (320 x
200) color software and ‘HIRES’ is the high-resolution (640 x
400) monochrome software.
Double click on 'RGB' and the software is loaded and running in 4 seconds. No kidding! The Digi-View RGB software comes up with a black screen and grey menu bar. Pressing the menu button on the mouse reveals five menu items, 'Project', 'Red', 'Green', 'Blue', and ’Color'.
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800-762-5645 Cardinal Software 14840 Build America Dr. Woodbridge, VA 22191 MfH Info: (703) 491-6494 wm Have your camera set up and locked down so it will not move. As a temporary set-up, I used a tripod, and aimed the camera a! The wall where! Taped my photographs. I used additional lights to increase the depth of field. This eases focusing and overall color saturation. More about lights and cameras later.
When everything is framed and focused to your liking, rotate the red filter in front of the camera lens, pull down the 'Red' menu and select 'Digitize'. The image is then scanned, from left to right, on to the Amiga screen.
After the red information is digitized, the brightness and contrast for red are then automatically optimized. Now rotate the green fitter into place, pull down the 'Green' menu and select 'Digitize'. When the green is complete and optimized, rotate to the blue filter, pull down the 'Blue' menu and again select 'Digitize'. [Editor's note: You can also use specific Amiga-key sequences to start the digitization process for each color.] After all three colors are digitized, your Amiga will contain three separate black-and-white images, each representing red, green, or blue information. All this
takes 30 seconds, 10 seconds for each color.
Under each color menu, in addition to 'Digitize' there is 'Histogram' and 'Display1. 'Histogram' is an undocumented feature that displays a little bar graph that shows the distribution of color intensities.
Apparently this is primarily for scientific use and software developers. A call to NewTek will get you all the information you need for this item. 'Display' re-displays the black-and- white representation of the previously digitized color.
Now that we've captured three separate images, representing red, green, and blue information, a number of options are available to us.
Under Ihe Color menu there are three items, 'Controls', '4096 Colors', and '32 Colors'.
Selecting the '4096 Colors' item results in the software combining the three images and forming a 4096 color hold and modify (HAM) picture.
Obviously, selecting '32 Colors' results in a 32 color picture, but! Must say I was pleasantly suprised at the quality of the 32 color graphics. Typical thinking may be that more colors result in better looking graphics. Not nessesarily so! Some things actually took better in 32 colors than in HAM mode.
Let's assume that you weren't totally pleased with the HAM or 32 color representation. Selecting 'Controls' presents to us the control panel with a set of vertical slider bar adjustments. The following adjustments can be made: ’Bri': Brightness. Just like the brightness control on your television set.
'Con': Contrast. Again like your television. Raising the control makes the whites whiter, blacks blacker, and colors more intense. Lowering It makes blacks and whites more gray and colors washed out.
'Sat': Saturation. Like the 'color" control on a television.
Setting it at the minimum yields a black-and-white picture. At maximum, colors are abnormally intense.
’Blu': Blue. Raise for more blue, lower for more yellow.
'Red': Raise for more red, lower for more green.
'Sharp': Sharpness. Raising sharpens the image but tends to increase the "grain" or "snow". Lowering reduces "grain" and increases "contouring" or "banding".
After you have made the adjustments you feel were necessary to improve the digitized image. You simply click in one of the following boxes on the control panel.
'4096': Clicking this box removes the control panel and redisplays the image in the 4096 color HAM mode according to the new control settings.
’32’: Removes the control pane! And re-displays the new image using the 320 by 200 low-resolution, 32 color mode.
'Default': Sets all sliders back the initial center position.
'OK': Removes the control panel without making any changes.
This is where the real beauty of the software comes in. I can now look at a picture in 32 colors, HAM, or black-and-white, make a number of adjustments, and fine-tune the image to suit my needs, without having to re-digitize from the camera image. All the adjustments are made by mathematically processing the image data in memory.
One of the many things you can do is create high-contrast images, by using a special "threshold" mode in which all pixels are either black or white. The "threshold” mode is entered simply by raising the contrast to the maximum setting.
This feature is useful for digitizing line art and logos. In color, this mode reduces the image to eight primary colors, red, green, blue, magenta, cyan, yellow, white, and black. It gives you that posterized "Warhol" effect.
Another nice feature is that you can abort the digitize or redisplay process by pressing the left mouse button. For example, it you think the image is too red, press the left button. This avoids waiting for the entire picture to be redrawn.
Now that you've manipulated, adjusted, fine-tuned, and tweaked your image into perfection, it can now be saved in a number of different ways. Under the 'Project' menu are five items, 'Save IFF', 'Save RGB’, 'Load RGB', 'Calibrate', and 'Quit'.
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sub-items. The first is ’4096 Color’. This saves a
hold-and-modify IFF file. This can viewed with a program such
as SeelLBM. At this time, no program allows the manipulation of
HAM files. Someday we may see a HAM Paint, who knows?
'32 Color’ saves a 32-color IFF file compatible with graphics programs like Deluxe Paint and Aegis Images.
’B W (Red)' saves an IFF compatible file. Only the contents of the red buffer as are saved, as a black-and-white image.
The next two items under the 'Project' menu are 'Save RGB' and 'Load RGB'. Digi-View allows you to save or load all the raw data from the separate red, green, and blue images. An RGB file allows you to load the separate data you saved earlier and then use the control panel to manipulate the image again to create yet another modification of the original.
This could be useful, but an RGB file uses 192k on your disk. Only 4 RGB files per disk! Ouch! The cost of flexibility. Remember, a HAM file, once created, can not be manipulated. So the only way to modify a 4096 color image is to digitize one from scratch or load in a RGB file.
'Calibrate', the next item under the 'Project' menu, displays a panel with 'Sync' and ’Width' control sliders. The 'Sync' control allows the use of a camera that is not RS-170 compatible but has a 2:1 interlace. 'Sync' adjusts the Digi- View software so that it syncronizes more closely with the camera. 'Width' adjusts the width of the image being digitized.
The 'HIRES' software is similar except for these differences.
There are only two menu items, 'Project' and 'Hi-Res'. Select 'Digrtize' under 'Hi-Res' and in 20 seconds you'll have a beautiful high-resolutiors (640 x 400 pixels with no interlace flicker) black-and-white image in 16 shades of gray. This is as nice as any black-and-white image you've ever seen on television.
The 'Controls' item contains only 'Bri' (for brightness). ’Con' (for contrast), and 'Sharp' (for sharpness) — all the controls needed for black-and-white.
Some digitizing hints to consider: You are not limited to photos and flat art, try setting up a still life, flowers, a bowl of fruit, glass. Be creative.
It is possible to sit motionless for 20 or 30 seconds. Try a self-portrait. (Personally, my eyeballs dry out after 20 seconds.)
You can digitize from a VCR, but only in black-and-white and only if the VCR has a good still-frame capablity. A way around the lack of a solid still-frame is to record a static shot, with the camera locked down on a tripod, for at least 20 seconds.
Another option is to digitize color slides. Project them on a screen and have your video camera on a tripod just behind the projector. Be sure your projector has a nice, even illumination.
Select photos or graphics that have a similar screen ratio as television, three units high by four units wide. If you insist in extreme verticals or horizontals, such as a Playboy centerfold, expect large areas of nothing on the sides or top and bottom.
Yes, you can use a color camera with the color wheel to digitize color images. But remember what I said about camera resolutions earlier. Don't write if your images appear smeared, mushy, blah, and or chunky.
A few notes on lights, cameras, and lenses: Sufficient light is important, this allows you to iris down the lens and give you greater depth of field. Basically, this means a larger area in front of the lens remains in focus.
Good lighting will also reduce noise and improve color saturation.
Two lights are best, one to each side of the art work at a 45 degree angle. This is to keep the light from reflecting directly off the art or photo and back Into the lens, causing a glare. If you are serious about your digitizing, I recommend buying or building a copy stand.
A copy stand holds the camera vertically, aimed down, and two lights at the perfect 45 degree angle. The photograph or art work is simply laid down under the camera and is easily moved or tilted to aid in composition. The camera can also be moved up or down, to zoom in on a specific portion of the artwork.
Plans for building your own copy stand can be found in back issues of photo magazines. Check out your local library.
This is a very simple project if you are the least bit handy with tools. But if you are not so inclined, NewTek has one for about $ 75, with the lights.
Digi-View requires a black-and-white camera with RS-170 video and 2:1 interlace. This means some black-and-white cameras don't work with Digi-View. Shop carefully. Beware of cheap security cameras. These are built more cheaply by eliminating Ihe internal sync and connecting them all to a central control box that takes care of those things.
You might find something second hand. Some school systems may want to get rid of old tech. In this case, watch for burned video pick up tubes. This comes from letting the camera sit on a brightly lit scene for long periods of time, or an instant directly in the sun will do the trick. To check for this, aim the camera at an evenly lit plain background, if you see anything but an even gray, those are burns.
Cameras come with different size video tubes...1 2", 2 3", 7 8" or 1 inch. A larger tube equals a higher resolution equals a higher price.
Frankly, the Panasonic WV-1410 that Digi-View offers for $ 230 is a good price, and you’ll know it works correctly.
Get a lens with an iris. This gives you a control over the amount of exposure, it gives you the added depth of field, and will allow you to close or cap the lens so you can avoid burning an image in to the video tube.
Zoom lenses are nice for composing, but require more light.
This is no problem with a copy stand. Also the close focus range on a zoom is limited, so the art work may have to be at least two orthree feet away.
The best combination I have found is a zoom lens with a macro extension tube to allow extreme closeup work.
Imagine a full-screen image of a quarter. If the macro feature is unavailable, there are a few tricks that can be employed.
A macro tube only puts more distance between the lens and the focal point. In this case, the focal point is the video tube. Extension tubes are threaded to screw into the camera body, and the lens is screwed to the tube. They come in different lengths and do the same thing as a macro, move the lens away from the focal point.
The recommended Panasonic WV-1410 camera allows you to physically move the video tube, giving you macro capabilities. Macro capability is nice, but with a non-zoom, fixed foca! Length lens, the only way you can focus is to move Announces New Business Software for the Amiga Amiga Cash Register $ 99.95 CALL FOR DEALERS AMIVAR We have turn key proven packages for:
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If your camera does not have a built-in black-and-white monitor, you might have to buy one. A monitor greatly inproves your ability to focus and compose your shot.
Otherwise, you must wait ten seconds until the first color is digitized, and focusing becomes hit-and-miss.
You could use the composite input on the back of your Amiga monitor. This would mean constantly switching the video cable back and forth between the Amiga monitor and the Digi-View hardware. A black-and-white monitor with a video loop-through would be best.
All things considered, I am quite impressed with the Digi-View package. The instruction manual is short but complete. It answers most technical questions people may have about setting up cameras, lights and the software. The software was totally intuitive and lends itself well to play and experimentation.
The oniy other annoyance was digitizing a photo that had high contrast areas (very bright next to very dark). When displaying the image in the HAM mode it seems that the color cant change fast enough to create a sharp edge. The resuit is that it takes two or three pixels to make the color change.
Those two or three pixels turn an odd color and can mar some images.
Here's the good news! NewTek is working on new software with an improved HAM mode that will let them change colors faster and improve the definition on high contrast transitions.
Also in the works is high-resolution software with 16 colors and a little motorized control for the filter wheel that plugs into the joystick port, so you dent have to turn the filters by hand.
[Editor's note: The new Digi-View software does markedly inprove the sharpness in HAM mode. The motorized control will be available pending FCC approval.] Digi-View is an excellent digitizing package at a reasonable price. I would recommend it to anyone working with or is interested in Amiga graphics. Remember — I did not review your camera, your lighting, your camera lens, or your original artwork.
For the cost and quality, Digi-View can't be beat. Now that I've given you all the facts, "Go forth and digitize!" Take aim, and let Digi-View capture the images in your imagination.
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Amazing Previews... IDBgB-PuM...by NewTek By John Foust Digi-Paint is a hotd-and-modify paint program. The Amiga has a powerful video mode that produces near-television quality images. This mode is called hold-and-modify mode, or just HAM mode for short. The hold-and-modify video mode allows 4096 colors on the screen a! Once. HAM pictures are incom-patible with every other Amiga video mode.
Digi-Paint's expected price is below one hundred dollars, available in December, from NewTek, thesame company that makes the Digi-View video digitizer. Before NewTek acquired the program, it was called ’HamBone’. Digi-Paint is written entirely in assembly language, for speed and compactness. This version of the program was 80 K in size.
This is a product preview, not a review, based on a beta-test version of Digi-Paint. This program did nol include some planned features, such as the ability to cut and paste brushes.
Digi-Paint can load more than one ordinary IFF picture into the program at once, and preserve the color palette of each picture. This is a one-way street. Once a picture has been modified using the Digi-Paint program, it cannot be edited in Deluxe Paint ever again.
The Digi-Paint color palette requester has 32 colors, with sliders that allow color selection of any of 4096 colors. Each slider selects 16 possible values for amounts of red, green or blue in the current composite color. This is similar to the color choices available in Preferences, when you choose your screen color.
This color requester is unique in one respect, when compared to other Amiga color requesters. The color determined by the slider settings is not linked to one of the 32 palette colors, it is independent. You could have 32 shades of green in the palette, and select a red with the sliders, and paint with that, without changing any of the greens. There is no need to select a color from the palette before modifying a color.
Dissolve and wipe Digi-Paint has dissolve and wipe abilities. You can load two 32-color IFF paintings into the program, and dissolve between the two in a specified area, so that the Botticelli image will be at 100 percent intensity at the left edge, and King Tut will be at 100 percent at the right edge. The center of the area would be a blend of both pictures.
The dissolve feature also works with a chosen color. You can circle an arbitrary area, and it will be filled with gradations of color, growing to 100 percent color in a horizontal or vertical direction. This has the appearance of illuminating the area from the side or above. This can lead to some interesting effects that look much like watercolor paintings.
Another mode allows you to slowly change the color of an area, by adding small amounts of a given color. It will add a given colorto an area in percentages, gradually lightening or darkening an area, or changing its tint.
Several other modes are harder to describe. These include the ability to AND, OR, and NOT colors together, giving stencil effects where it appears to be painting above or below a given range of colors. There are also modes to paint art area with the minimum or maximum colors found there.
Do you know where your bugs are?
This C programmer is finding his bugs the hard way.: one at a time.
Thatfs why it's taking so long. But there's an easier way. Use Lint 2.00 for the Amiga™ Lint analyzes your C programs (one or many modules) and uncovers glitches, bugs, quirks, and inconsistencies. It will catch subtle errors before they catch you. By examining multiple modules, Lint enjoys a perspective your compiler docs not have.
Rub-through mode Digi-Paint has a rub-through mode, where drawing on one image will revea!
The image below. In simplest form, this can serve to superimpose an image from the swap screen to the screen above.
The dissolve effect works with the rub- through mode, to slowly revea! The painting below. Instead of a direct superimposition, this can effect a dissolve from one screen to the other, from left to right ortopto bottom.
From sightings at these pre-release demonstrations, it is apparent Digi-Paint is not a fuil-fledged paint program, in the style of Deluxe Paint. It does not have the full complement of line drawing modes and fill modes present on the Deluxe Paint function bar. It has a selection of over a dozen pre-made brush shapes, however.
At this time, it is the only HAM editor available. Another company is rumored to be working on one, but they have not officially announced this product.
• AC-
- NEW; ANSI C extensions (enum, prototypes, void, defined,
pragma) and many additional checks,
- Full K&R C
- Use Lint to find: Inconsistent declarations argument parameter
mismatches uninitialized variables unaccessed variables
unreferenced variables suspicious macros Indentation
irregularities function inconsistencies unusual expressions
... MUCH MUCH MORE
- User-modifiable library-description files for the Aztec and
Lattice C compilers.
• All warning and informational messages may be turned off
individually.
— Indirect files automate testing.
— Use it to check existing programs, novice programs, programs
about to be exported or imported, as a preliminary to
compilation, or prior to scaling up to a larger memory model.
— All one pass with an integrated pre-processor so it's very
fast.
— Has numerous options and informational messages.
— It will use all the memory available.
— PRICE: $ 98.00 MC, VISA, COD (Includes shipping and handling
within US) PA residents add 6% sales tax. Outside USA add
S15.00. Educational and quantity discounts available.
— Trademarks: Amiga (Commodore) 3207 Hogarth Lane • Collegeville,
PA 19426
(215) 584-4261 What Digi-View Is... Or, What Genlock Should Be!
"There is a lot of confusion about the capabilities of Amiga video products."
By John Foust Great Expectations You can hear a lot of strange talk when Amiga users get together. Many people have big plans for their computer.
The best thing is, they will be able to reach their dreams with future Amiga hardware and software. However, many people are not planning on using the right tools for the job!
Many times, the confusion is simple. There is a lot of confusion about the capabilities of Amiga video products.
For example, someone told me they wanted a Genlock so they could digitize their favorite television program. Another future Genlock owner said they were already painting complex backgrounds in preparation for mixing these scenes with actors walking in front of the painting.
Our attempt here is twofold: The first step is to describe the abilities of each device: a sound digitizer, such as the FutureSound from Applied Visions, the Digi-View video digitizer, a real product available now from NewTek, the futureware Genlock video mixer from Commodore, and the seldom-demonstrated Amiga Live!
Video digitizer, from A-Squared.
The second step is to examine some common misconceptions about the capabilities of each product. This will also describe new Digi-View products, and discuss some features of the new Deluxe Paint II.
What is a'digitizer''?
You may hear the term ’digitizer1 in several contexts. To ’digitize’ means to break down into numbers. All of these products represent something as numbers: either sound waves or video signals. There are several Amiga sound digitizers, and several Amiga video digitizers.
Common misconceptions: There are several common misconceptions about these products:
1. Digi-View can make color pictures from a color video signal.
Answer: Not true! Digi-View can only make color pictures from three black-and-white images, using the color filters, in front of any camera. It cannot make color pictures from a color video signal, such as your VCR.
2. Genlock can digitize a video image, and let me edit it in
Deluxe Paint.
Answer: Not true! Genlock only synchronizes two video signals so they can be recorded or viewed together by a third device, such as a video monitor or a video recorder, it does not have any digitizing functions.
3. I can use Genlock to make a video of my friends walking around
on the deck of the Starship Enterprise, if I draw a picture of
the deck in Deluxe Paint.
Answer: Not true! To do this, you need a technique called chroma-key. This is the same effect used when the television meteorologist walks in front of the satellite image.
Actually, the meteorologist is walking in front of a blue screen, and the satellite world-view is added as a video special effect.
The Genlock will superimpose an active Amiga video image on top of an external video signal, and synchronize the two signals so that they can be viewed or recorded together. So, your friends could appear to walk behind a stencil, but could never walk in front of it.
According to an early Commodore Genlock specification, chroma-key effects would have added about $ 100 to the consumer price of the Genlock. At last word from the hardware engineers at Commodore-Amiga, the production Genlock will not have chroma-key abilities.
4. You can edit those great-looking HAM images in Deluxe Paint.
Answer: Again, not true. Not even the soon-to-arrive Deluxe Paint II will have the ability to edit HAM images. However, several companies are working on HAM picture editors, so expect to see some in the next few months. Today, once you save a HAM picture from Digi-View, you cannot change it.
5. I can record my voice with FutureSound, and have the computer
recognize my words.
Answer: No! A sound digitizer, such as Perfect Sound or FutureSound, only records a sound, and stores it in the computer's memory, it is stored as a stream of otherwise meaningless numbers. Voice recognition is not included with today's sound digitizers.
Is this all bad news? No, not really. If you want to do heavy- duty video work, both genlocks and chroma-key devices are available from third parties. They will not be as cheap as the announced Commodore products, of course. Either way, if you want to make an low-budget video studio, you will still need other equipment, such as video signal mixers.
Sound digitizers A sound digitizer records a sound by measuring the amplitude of the sound at many close-together intervals, and stores those measurements in the Amiga's memory. When these measurements are played back through the Amiga sound chip, a dose facsimile of the original sound is heard.
If you need to record a long sound, you will use more memory, just as if you needed a 90 minute cassette tape, instead of a 30 minute tape. Computer memory is much more precious than cassette tape, unfortunately, and the Amiga cannot play more than a few seconds of sound at a single time, without tricky programming.
The Amiga sound digitizers on the market today have different styles of sound signal input. Most have an RCA- type phono jack, and some have a microphone jack, of the type traditionally found on input jacks for inexpensive cassette recorder microphones.
If you hope to get clean, crisp sounds from a sound digitizer, you must have a clean audio signal. Keep in mind that a noisy sound source will be recorded as a noisy sound source. All the clicks and pops in the original recording will be present in the Amiga sound samples in memory.
However, a good sample editor might help you remove clicks and pops from a sampled sound, STATIC TRAPPING MOUSE PAD What do you get when you combine the optimum surface for mouse to run on, and static protection for your entire computer system?
MOUSE TRAP, the static trapping mouse pad!
Crystal Computer has produced the complete answer for the computer mouse user. Keep your mouse clean and protect your system from the devastating effects of static discharge. MOUSE TRAP is designed to give your mouse a smooth surface to run on, while maintaining the traction needed for the mouse ball. The surface is clean able, even with industrial solvents and is five times harder than conventional desk tops.
It's 8 1 2X11 inch size fits your work station, and because it’s not made of foam you can write over it when your mouse is not in use.
MOUSE TRAP is only S49.95 including shipping.
Cali or write, ¦ P. AI: ¦ Crystal Computer Inc. 22S6 E. Steel Road St.Johns, Ml 48879 Ph. 1-800-245-7316 24 hrs. 7 days Ph. 1-517-224-7667 in Michigan Some Amiga owners imagine they can do speech recognition with a sound digitizer. This is certainly possible, but it is certainly a task beyond the reach of most programmers. A very complex analysis of the digitized sound is necessary to recognize the spoken word.
A sound digitizer is good for accurate sound recording and playback, but not for voice recognition. Future Amiga products for voice recognition might arrive someday, and they would probably work with today's digitizers.
Video digitizers Digi-View and Amiga Live! Are video digitizers. A video digitizer breaks a video image into thousands of numbers. It assigns a number to the brightness level of each pixel in an image. Through other manipulations, it can create color values for each pixel, and display it on the Amiga screen.
’Pixe11 stands for 'picture element'. It is the smallest dot you can draw on the Amiga screen. In a high resolution mode, the pixels appear to be smaller than the pixels in a low resolution screen. So, in a high resolution image, there are many more pixels than in a low resolution image. Every pixel must be stored in memory, as a number, so a high resolution image uses a lot more computer memory.
The Amiga Live! System is more properly called a frame grabber, while the Digi-View is more properly called a video digitizer.
Broadcast or VCR video information is presented in frames, similar In concept to the frames of a movie film. A single image is presented, held in place for a moment, and then replaced by the next frame, with smaii changes from the last, representing movement in the image. Since this flipping process takes place faster than your eye can detect, the image appears continuous.
A frame grabber will digitize a frame of a video image. The term implies that the video image can continue to play, but the freeze-trame ability of the frame grabber captures the image at a single instant. This instant is a moment of time shorterthan the time a single frame is normally held in place to fool the eye, so the video signal can continue to change.
Video Dagguerotypes When photography was a new technology, films were not very sensitive to light. A proper picture required a long exposure time, so the insensitive film could soak up more light from the scene. Old-style photograph films are often much sharper than today’s films, since insensitive film has much smaller pixels, or grain, if you will.
Imagine Digi-View as old-style photography, and Amiga Live!
As a camera with an electronic flash. A bit of a turn-about is necessary to complete the analogy. Digi-View is sensitive to light, but it takes several seconds to digitize a complete frame of video information. Amiga Live! Works much more quickly than Digi-View, at the expense of resolution — the pictures look much more grainy.
Imagine you wanted to capture the image of a visiting friend with Digi-View and Amiga Live!. With Digi-View, the process would be similar to old-fashioned Dagguerotypes, where the photographer used a brace to clamp the neck of the subject to keep them from moving.
If you are satisfied with a black-and-white image, Digi-View might work if your subject can stay still for ten or twenty seconds.
If you want a color picture, your friend needs to stay still for about forty-five seconds, as you digitize and twirl the color filters in front of the camera, for the three exposures needed for color images. If the visiting friend is a fidgety young niece or nephew, forget it.
Digi-View uses three exposures to produce color images.
For each exposure, the video signal must not change — that is, your subject must not move. If the camera is mounted on a tripod, pointed at a picture on the wall, the video signal will not change.
The Digi-View comes with a transparent plastic square filter mounted on a bracket. This attaches to the video camera, and can rotate in front of the lens. One square is clear, and it is used for making black-and-white images. The other quadrants of the filter are transparent red, blue and green filters. The Digi-View software can integrate the red, blue and green exposures into one color image. You do not need the clear filter to make black-and-white pictures.
Announcing... CHARTMAKER the new chart program for the Amiga that allows you to create charts and graphs which use the full power of the Amiga.
• Barcharis, 3D barcharts, line charts, area charts, pie charts,
3D pie charts, and more.
• Options include 3D, patterns, outline, drop shadow, lines,
ticks, legends, and more.
• Completely IFF compatible; save your chart, then load it under
your favorite paint program and add finishing artistic touches.
Use many chart images in a "slide show."
• Spreadsheet style data editor for easy data input.
• Easy to use mouse menu interface, plus 4096 user selected
colors.
Dealer inquiries encouraged.
DISKETTE AND MANUAL $ 59.00 send check or money order to: South Park Software 115 South Park San Francisco, CA 94107 415-957-1963 We accept VISA & MasterCharge Chartmaker is a registered trademark of South Park Software.
If you had a photographic print of your friend, you could put the photo in front of your video camera, and digitize the picture, in color or black-and-white.
With Amiga Livel, your friend could be walking around the room, and you could capture their image without trouble, in color or black-and-white, but at low resolution.
In the demonstrations of Amiga Live! To date, it does not distinguish colors very well. It produced the cartoonish images of Andy Warhol in the early issues of AmigaWorld.
This was less the influence of Warhol than the inability of Amiga Live! To produce real-worid colors.
Digi-View can suffer the same problem, especially in the 32 color mode. The best color pictures have a range of colors, such as a lot of shades of red and yellow, instead of a variety of colors.
With a range of colors, the Digi-View software has a better chance of matching ail the colors in the image. With a variety of colors, it must compromise, and color changes will be more drastic, or cartoonish.
HAM Mode HAM is an abreviation for "Hold And Modify". How does HAM mode work? Each pixel is stored as a number, composed of several bits. In HAM mode, one bit selects whether the currently-draw pixel is a modification of the previous color, or a color from the palette of 32. The modification can only be a small amount per pixel, so sharp color transitions took several pixels to go from white to black, for instance.
Printing your pictures No matter how hard you try, it is difficult to reproduce color pictures on a black-and-white dot-matrix printer. If you buy a color printer, do not expect to use it for fetter-quality text.
Several companies are working on improved printer drivers for popular color printers. To date, color printer drivers have tried to literally transcribe the pixel colors on the screen.
Since your eye can blend colors, an improved color printer driver would blend the boundaries of the pixels on the paper, much the same way as the four-color printing process used in magazines.
So many Amiga peripherals use the parallel port. Some provide a pass-through connector that restores normal use of the parallel port, when you are not using the peripheral. The Digi-View is not a pass-through. You cannot use Digi-View at the same time as a parallel port printer. To use one or the other without powering down and disconnecting the cables, you need a A-B parallel port switch. These are available for between $ 30 and $ 60.
The Digi-View works on the back of the FutureSound sound digitizer, on its pass-through. Someday, troubles will arise from stacked pass-throughs, since they cannot go on forever.
Financial Manager Easy, powerful and fasi single-entry accounting system for your Amiga. * Appropriate for home or small business. Track your finances in up to forty accounts (checking, Visa, savings etc.) and 130 income expense categories (groceries, clothing, car, paycheck, rental income etc.). * Reconcile your bank statement. • Establish a budget for all categories and graphically compare actual to budget amounts refining the budget as needed. * Print checks (any format). ’ Determine and print a networth statement. ’ Calculate compare various loans and savings plans for best terms. *
Customize the integrated tax-calculation projection to suit your own needs and the new tax laws. " Track special occasions (with optional reminder of coming events whenever you boot up). Manage a list of names, addresses and phone numbers. • Summon and select context-sensitive help options throughout the program using the keyboard or mouse. ¦ Program constantly anticipates user's intentions and provides a guessed answer which can be accepted with a single touch (keyboard or mouse) or typed over, drastically reducing typing. * Requires 5I2K bytes memory and one disk drive.
We're so sure you’ll love it that it comes with a 30-Day Money-Back Guarantee!
(When purchased directly from Marksman Technology Inc.) PHASAR" Only 389 ¦ Including postage and handling.
Available immediately — we’ve been shipping since July!
Marksman Technology tm Route 5, Box 221S Santa Fe, NM 87501 505-455-2681 (Inquiries) VISA 800-334-7792 (Orders) Video signal quality Your video camera choice might introduce other problems. In Digi-View high-resolution mode, the digitizer can resolve the sensing pixels in a color camera. Color cameras have larger pixels than black-and-white cameras. The pixels will show up as faint stripes and vertical lines in the image, visible with the magnifying glass in Deluxe Paint.
Can you digitize images from your VCR? Maybe. Some VCRs have high quality still-frame abilities. A video frame is analogous to a movie frame. However, a video frame is displayed in two parts. Some VCRs still-frame by displaying two frames of the same half-frames, interlaced like your fingers when you fold your hands. This type of video signal will digitize better than a VCR that only displays one half- frame.
Can you record the output of your Amiga on your VCR? Yes, but it might not be what you expect. Your Amiga monitor is a very high-quality video monitor. You will need to use the Amiga's composite video output signal, and this might not be as sharp as you see on your monitor screen.
Also, some older VCRs do not have composite video inputs, only radio-frequency inputs, so you might have to buy an Amiga RF converter, and use that to convert the composite signal to a signal the VCR can accept.
In either case, the public domain program called 'SetLace' (Fred Fish disk 9- see page 93) can be used to turn on the Amiga interlace video mode, which will improve the recorded signal, according to many reports. Also, the Preferences program in the 1.2 version of AmigaDOS includes a switch to turnon interlace mode.
The production Genlock will have an external video sync, so that serious video studio users can synchronize the mixed video, whether the output is composite or RGB.
Digi-View warnings Digi-View will not work with some RAM expansions. These RAM expansions introduce extra wait states that slow the processor. Most of today's memory expansions do work with Digi-View, but if you have an older model, ii might have wait states. Confirm that your particular RAM expansion works with Digi-View, just to be sale.
After you digitize the three color separations in Digi-View, you can save all three images to disk as a whole. In this way, you can adjust the color settings at a later date. If you don’t save all three images, you have little control over the color registration, aside from palette manipulations in Deluxe Paint.
These RGB files are large, about 128 K each, so only a few fit on a disk.
Also, the present Deluxe Paint does not access the RAM: disk correctly, so you cannot have both Digi-View and Deluxe Paint resident as separate screens, and use the RAM: disk, if you have a memory expansion. This is said to be fixed in the new Deluxe Paint II.
Use Your Own Photos... in programs such as Deluxe Paint or Images. Your pictures from flat art 2"x3" to 8Vz X 11" or color slides 35mm to 4"x 5" will be digitized by the Digi-View system to 32 color, 320 x 200 resolution pictures compatible with any IFF paint program. Minimum order is 8 images for S24, disk included (California residents add state sales tax) plus S2.50 shipping.
Additional images $ 2.00 each. Pictures may be cropped to fill the screen. For no cropping specify full frame.
Photographic Clip Art!
Sample disk includes landscapes, clouds, trees, buildings, celestial object, etc. Use in your own IFF paint programs.
Customize to suit your needs by flipping, stretching, stamping, changing colors..More realistic than drawings! Order Clip Art Sampler 1. Catalog of other Clip Art disks will be included. $ 20 (California residents add state sales tax) plus $ 2.00 shipping.
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SALES AND MORE I I I A BETTER QUESTION WOULD BE "WHAT DON'T WE
HAVE?"
ONLY WHAT WORKS, SATISFACTION GUARANTEED Other new features include the ability to set a fixed background, and paint on a surface above that, without affecting the picture below. It will have three dimensional features, such as rotations and three dimensional pattern fills.
There will be anti-aliasing features to take the ’jaggies' off straight lines, pattern fills, and improved color cycling.
It allows virtual pictures, bigger than the screen, at least 1024 x 1024, using Amiga superbitmaps, or maybe even more, using virtual saving to disk. Electronic Arts is not yet talking about Deluxe Paint II, but well-informed informers claim the program will have these abilities, and that it should be out by the end of the year, (Editor note: See the Deluxe Paint li preview article elsewhere in this issue.)
New NewTek products At the WCCA show in Los Angeles, and at several user group meetings, NewTek showed a motorized control for the color filters that plugs into the joystick port, so you do not have to turn the color wheel by hand. It is undergoing FCC approval, and will be available soon.
At WCCA, New Tek demonstrated improved digitizing software. It makes much sharper HAM images, since it can change colors faster on the screen.
The old software never created a palette, it always created colors from the previous pixel. The new software creates a palette of 32 colors most optimal for reducing the number of pixels it takes to go from one color to the next.
NewTek also showed a few glimpes of video special effects software, such as a rotating rectangle with a digitized image mapped on its surface.
Will they ever arrive?
According to one source, the Amiga Live! Digitizer has been through three major revisions so far, and that the developers keep tweaking it, to make it a little better. The ship date is ultimately decided by A-Squared, the company that is developing it.
The Amiga Livel people are working on digitizing HAM pictures, and they have said they are getting one or two frames of HAM images a second in low resolution. Of course, you cannot store that much data, or even process it in any useful way. It remains a slick effect. It might be valuable in the HAM picture composition process.
The Genlock has seen at least two revisions. One was intended to clean up the video signal, so that it would work with most consumer VCRs, which have varying levels of quality. After each revision, it must get FCC clearance, and this introduces six to ten weeks delay.
According to last word from more than one Commodore- Amiga employee, the Genlock should ship at the end of the year, perhaps in December. Some production deiays were caused by a lack of second-sources for some electronic components.
• AC- By John Foust Amazing Previews.
Deluxe Paint II...from Electronic Arts Deluxe Paint II is wonderful. I spent days tinkering with it, neglecting my writing deadlines — one of the highest compliments I can imagine. The best Amiga program is now better. Deluxe Paint is the flagship of the Amiga software fleet, and Deluxe Paint II will stay on top for another year.
Is this just more AmigaHype? No, Deluxe Paint II will amaze you in the way the original Deluxe Paint amazed you when you first bought your Amiga.
According to Electronic Arts, Deluxe Paint II should sell for about $ 130. If you have Deluxe Paint, the cost of an upgrade is expected to be about $ 30, when you send in the cover of your original Deluxe Paint manual.
Perspective plotting Perspective drawing allows a standard or custom brush to be plotted as if it resided in three dimensions. Instead of selecting a brush, and using it to paint directly on the image, perspective painting rotates the once-flat image in three dimensions, as if it was suddenly free of the screen, and floating somewhere behind it.
To execute a perspective plot, you first choose a center, also known to artists as the vanishing point. This isthe spot In the picture on the visual horizon where parallel lines appear to converge, the place where the train rails meet. Deluxe Paint II allows only this type of vanishing point. To create pictures where parallel lines do not appear to quickly converge, you would need to either move the vanishing point, or resize the brush.
(This is a product preview, not a review. It only discusses the features of this new product. This preview was done with a beta-test copy of Deluxe Paint, described as 'very near shipping'.)
The newfeatures include a much improved manual, perspective plotting of brushes, smoothing of sharp lines, better IFF support, and more. Deluxe Paint II feels cleaner and appears to run faster. Programmer Dan Silva reportedly switched to the Manx C compiler, which could account for this. Due to the newfeatures, the program is slightly larger, at 190 K, compared to 165 K before, The SIAM: disk is supported. The program no longer has bugs due to CHIP FAST memory allocation, so it works with memory expansions, Deluxe Paint II can now be started from the Workbench, and picture icons are now
clickable. They invoke the program, and load that picture.
Eir-i-D The manual has grown to nearly one hundred pages. As compared to the previous manual, which said little more than "ft has menus and a mouse, so go for it!", this manual has step-by-step examples, color pictures, a reference section, and a relatively complete index.
After a center is chosen, select Perspective Do to position the brush in space. A four-paned window will appear on the screen, linked to your mouse movements. The number pad allows you to rotate the pane in space, setting X, Y, Z angles of rotation. See Figure 1, ascreen shot of the perspective plot window pane in action.
When you press the left button, the pane disappears, and the image slowly builds up, one screen line at a time, from the top edge of the pane to the bottom. This gets slower as the plotted brush size increases. Anti-aliasing can be set to three levels; none, low and high. The 'none' setting for antialiasing is the fastest, setting it to 'high' considerably slows the plotting process.
The speed of perspective drawing reminded me of the Mandelbrot picture generating programs in the public domain. They generate interesting images, but they lake a long time to complete. You can watch each line of the image being drawn, counting asecond or two perscan line, as the new image is omit up. It would be nice to have a way to abort the plotting of abrush, to stop it and undo it if things did not turn out as planned. The anti-aliasing makes plotting even slower. A stray mouse click can have disastrous effects, since a plot may take as many as five minutes, depending on the size of the
projected image.
Figure 3 is an example of a single brush that has been plotted and bent several times, a brush with the Japanese spelling of 'Amiga'. Figure4 is an example of plotting a brush made up of text, this image is similarto the opening sequence of the Star Wars movie.
With digitized images, perspective plots are truly eerie. You can enlarge an eye, and rotate it to make a cube of made of eyes, or grab a face, and distort it in ways not possible with the original Deluxe Paint. With the anti-aliasing turned up high, the image remains as lifelike as the original picture. The perspective plot performs a smoothing-out of the pixels, in effect, when the anti-aliasing is turned on.
Deluxe Paint II allows arbitrarily shaped brushes. Clicking twice on the brush menu box lets you cut a non-redangular brush, by rubberbanding a polygon around the area, it can leave Ihe area behind the newly cut brush the same, or fill it to the zero background color, as if you were lifting the image off the paper.
Stencils are another'gee-whiz'feature. Stencils prevent certain colorsfrom being affected when you use alSthe other features of the program. The manual steps you through an example with a pre-drawn sunrise coming through a mountain range. The sun is missing from the picture. By locking the colors of the mountain as a stencil, and selecting a sunshaped brush, you can move the sun brush behind the mountains, as if the picture was made up of layers, and the sun was behind the layer of the mountain, but in front of the dawn sky colors. With stencils, brushes can appear to move behind and in
front of other parts of the picture.
Gradient fill is another option on the Fill function. By setting a few parameters, and selecting a cycle range, all fills will be done in agradient of these colors, in a horizontal or vertical direction. Figure 5 is an example gradient fill between orange, green and white.
Select the oversoar area, called Full Video, creating low resolution pictures with 352 by 240 pixels, drawn out to the edges of the screen. This has important implications tor people using a Genlock, since it gives a more realistic image.
Another Page Size option called Full Page gives a scrollable image area of320 x 340 in low resolution, as if you were working on the top and bottom halves of a portrait on a full page of paper.
Smoothing Another new item is smoothing, added to the menu where Blend and Smear reside. This brings sharp edges out of focus, ft takes a clear transition and blends the edges, using available colors from the current palette. See Figure 6, a screen capture with the magnifying glass function selected.
The actual f reedrawn black line is visible on the left side of the screen, the magnified view of the smoothing is shown on the right. The palette contains many shades of grey.
You can change resolution and screen size in midstream, and also view the entire image on the screen at once. This is done by only drawing every other pixel orso on the screen, giving you an overview with some loss of detail.
Figure 4 Sometimes, a change in screen size will destroy information in a picture, and a requester warns of this. Since the screen size is also selectable, you can keep all the picture intact, but you'll have to use the scroll keys to see the entire picture.
A J uno tlh »««. In h. Changing resolutions can also distort a picture, when the pixel aspect ratio changes. For example, a low-resolution picture has a 320 by 200 ratio, and changing to a 320 by 400 picture will make the first image seem tall and skinny.
It is a poi l ad of owl lebel Bpaceshipn, striking from » base, have won tVieit first battle against Orv & evil Craiaotic Ewpiiofc.
It has a new 'interlace' resolution, with 320 by 400 pixels, in up to 32 colors. There are four resolutions available on the Amiga, this is the only one that the original Deluxe Paint did not use. The ultra-realistic pictures of floating glass balls that circulated recently in the public domain are done in this resolution, but in HAM mode. This is a useful intermediate step between 320 by 200 pixels in 32 colors, and medium resolution in 640 by 200 pixels, with only 16 colors.
The Amiga has another powerful video mode that was previously unexploited until Deluxe Paint II. While most computers are limited to the strict rectangular box for screen images, surrounded by a borderer a single color, the Amiga can draw video data right up to the edges of your monitor screen, just as a television image does. This border is called the oversoar area. Underthe Page Size option, you can During the battle, Many digitized images suffer from strange transitions in color or brightness, when viewed underthe magnifying glass.
These flaws could be caused by several things, the most common being small vibrations in Ihe camera support ortho use of color cameras, which have less resolution than black and white cameras. Smoothing serves as an airbrush, in these cases, removing sharp transitions. Smoothing has its limits. In broad areas without many transitions, such as a cheek, smoothing only sharpens the boundary, since it changes subtle feathering between nearly similar colors into blended sharp transitions.
WELCOME TO CANADA!
’Software Publishers ‘Peripheral Manufacturers ‘Hardware Developers regardless of conflicts in format. Deluxe Paint’s strict adherence to low, medium and high resolutions violated the spirit of the IFF specification.
This remains a source of mystery to me, since Electronic Arts coordinated the IFF specification. Deluxe Paint would have made an excellent vehicle to demonstrate the flexibility of IFF. Instead, the original Deluxe Paint violated some of the most basic principles of the IFF standard. Since it was so picky about the format of the pictures it could load, Deluxe Paint nearly forced a separate standard for picture formats, since all programs wanted to conform to Deluxe Paint.
Be Represented by Canadas Premier Distributor of Amiga support products The most obvious answer to the mystery is time — the programmers for the first Deluxe Paint might not have had enough time to implement all the recommendations of the IFF committee.
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Fixed background allows you to set the current picture as
the image restored when you click 'CLR'to clear the
picture. All things you draw after this could be lifted off
thef ixed background by clicking 'CLR'. A complex,
layered image can be built up by repeated applications of
fixing Ihe background, using stencils, and merging the
foreground to the background.
Fortunately, Amiga graphics users were not clamoring to load pictures between resolutions. Once Deluxe Paint II is released, many people will wonder how they got along without this ability. It was promised in the IFF standard, but only Graphicraft explored the concept of loading a file with a screen size different than the program’s current settings.
No limits on size?
Aside from the ever-present constraint of memory, there is no longer a limit to the size of a picture. Low resolution images were formerly limited to 320 by 200 pixels. Now, all pictures can be as much as 1008 by1024 pixels in size. In a 512 K Amiga, I loaded a 16-color high-resolution picture into the 32-color low-resolution mode. With the screen size set to 640 by 400,1 could scroll over the entire high-resolution picture, using the shift-arrow keys.
Deluxe Paint Color IS!
M m m 103 HUES Pi in i.... continued The number of color cycling ranges has increased to four, and cycle direction and speed can be controlled. A new drawing mode called multicycling gives a new twist to the cycling effects found in the original Deluxe Paint. The old cycle drawing mode would not changethe colors as you drew with a cycling brush, while the new multicycling mode will draw with the cycled colors.
Better IFF support The new Deluxe Paint more closely adheres to the IFF standard file format. The original Deluxe Paint did notfollow through with the grand language of the IFF specification. It recommends that a program attempt to read any IFF image, Font support has increased, including options to select bold, italic, and underline fonts, if they have been defined for each font.
REF — hange FOYER HALF-WALL BEDROOM (I o' 6‘X I I'O') PRINTED CIRCUIT ARTWORK MECHANICAL DRAFTING SCHEMATICS ISOMETRICS | | 4 merging from years of successful problem solving II applications in piping, and electronics for the aerospace industry, DYMAMIC CAD has brought a highly advanced and powerful CAD system together with today's most dynamic and versatile micro-computer, the Amiga. DYMAMIC CAD takes full advantage of Amiga's extensive capabilities with color, multiple modes of resolution, mouse functions, and easily accessible pull-down menus.
This is not some promised "vapor-ware.'' DYMAMIC CAD exists now and comes to the Amiga with a proven track record. The time and money-saving applications of DYMAMIC CAD for engineers and architects are truly astounding. Here is an advanced, 2-D drafting system with isometric capabilities that can be combined with many models of printers, plotters, and digitizers. In getting started you’ll have the support of an extensive manual written in understandable English along with working examples as tutorial lessons.
WHAT DYNAMIGCAD CAN DO FOR YOO M«1 M 00 MW NET LIST FROM SCHEMATIC 'Gerber trade mark of Gerber Scientific Instruments 'Leroy trade mark of Keutfef £ Essen 'IBM — trade mark of International Business Machines Autocad trade mark of Autodesk. Inc. 'Amiga — trade mark of Commodore Business Machines
• D. C gives you all the expected CAD functions of zooming,
rotating, panning, group functions and menu driven features.
• D'C brings you professional CAD capability tested and proven in
the production of tens of thousands of drawings.
• D'C will liberate you from the need to draw free hand.
• D'C has net listing capability from your schematic,
• Schematic comparison to your printed circuit artwork for
continuity check.
• D’C can produce isometric views.
• Mil-Spec quality Leroy’ fonts.
• Automatic line dimensioning.
• D‘C includes a series of information libraries: Symbols,
Electronic Parts Chips, Architectural Components,
Landscaping, etc.
P. O. EOX 3475, GRANADA HILLS, CA 91344 ® Data base to store and
retrieve information on parts specifications, vendors, and
pricing.
SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 512 K RAM 2 Disk Drives (or) 1 Drive and Hard Disk Printer or Plotter Inquiries invited. (818) 360-3715
• Data base system utilizes ASCII format files which are
convertable to other standards.
• Capable of utilizing up to 4.096 colors.
• D'C can generate over 8.000 layers.
• D'C supports most standard dot matrix printers, inkjet, lazes
jet, pen plotters, and the Gerber* Photoplotter.
New Amiga Books NOW AVAILABLE!
The Amiga System ii THE AMIGA SYSTEM, An Introduction The AMIGA System: An Introduction by Bill Donald is now available from Progressive Peripherals & Software. Inc.!
This book is a storehouse of technical information about the Amiga computer and its operating system. I f you have been looking for in depth information on the newest 32 bit computer available today, the Amiga System: An Introduction is the best source of information you could obtain.
NOW $ 1595 I W Sugg Suggested Retail Price THE Amiga HANDBOOK!
NOW AVAILABLE!
$ 0495 Ml Suge Suggested Retail Price The Amiga Handbook contains ali the information you need to get the most out of your Amiga. It is a well thought out and clearly written book to give you the information they never included in the Amiga documentation. This book provides a complete, detailed reference source of the Amiga and its operating system If you own an Amiga, or are considering purchasing one, this book is a must!
The Amiga Handbook Includes: Description of the System Architecture-Amiga Workbench Discussion Intuition: Basis of the Amiga The Graphics Programs Graficraft and Deluxe Paint Amiga for the Advanced User The Graphics User Interface Understanding the CLI Automation of the Amiga (Command Sequences) The Special Chips of Amiga: Denise, Paula and Agnes Basics of Sound and Graphics Programming the Amiga (Amiga Basic from Mirosoft, Lattice) Call Today
(303) 825-4144 What happens when you save this picture, and try
to bad it into the old Deluxe Paint? The old program will
not load it as a picture, but it will toad it as a brush.
Stamping this brush will only create pictures within the
low resolution boundaries of 320 by 200, but the entire
image of the large brush is available for stamping.
Better get more memory... Extra memory enhances Deluxe Paint II, and Deluxe Paint II loves memory. I haveaComspectwo megabyte memory board, and my pleasant thoughts about Deluxe Paint II have been influenced by the increase in performance due to increased memory.
Memory also constrains Deluxe Paint II. In a 512K Amiga, the version tested would not allow sixteen colors in high resolution, only four colors were allowed.
When the program starts, you are given the option of loading the entire program into memory, or letting it swap in portions of program from disk, like the original Deluxe Paint. Choosing 'load all' or 'swap' meant a difference of about 45 to 50 K. It appeared the program assessed the amount available at startup, and pre-selected the most reasonable choice of the two.
With the expansion memory, all the code, including the 45- 50K, was in FAST memory, leaving about 295 K of CHIP memoryfreein both'load'and 'swap'choices. The memory expansion is clearly an advantage here. In a 512K Amiga, ail the code and data must reside in CHIP memory, stealing space from potential graphics data, decreasing the graphics capabilities by half. Only 110 or 155 K of CHIP memory is free in this case. The CTRL7A function shows the amount of available memory, spilt into CHIP and FAST sections. There is a menu option to attempt to close the Workbench, which could free a little more
CHIP memory space for 512 K machines.
I spent an hour or two demonstrating the program on a 512 K Amiga, and I was frustrated at some points by the constant swaps to disk, or by requesters that warned I did not have enough memory to do what I wanted, to do what I had done without question on atwo-and-a-haif megabyte Amiga. With extra memory, I was able to load two high resolution screens, one into the swap screen, and quickly switch between the two. I had the distinct impression it was swapping the alternate image into FAST memory when I pressed the 7 key.
I have wanted to keep both Deluxe Paint and the Digi-View digitizer software in memory at once, to show off the interact nature of multitasking. With a little juggling on a freshly- booted machine, the Workbench, a CLI, Deluxe Paint II and DigiView RGB were all working at once. By saving pictures to the RAM: disk, I was able to quickly swap between the two programs, for on-the-spot editing.
The new Digi-View software has been rumored to include brush-making functions, the ability to load an existing IFF picture, adjust the colors using Digi-View's television-like color controls, and then save the image out again. This would greatly enhance the synergy between these programs, Reviewed by Keith Conforti Welcome to the twelfth century! As one of six landholding knights, it is your duty to unify the kingdom of England and to regain the lost crown. Your leadership as well as your abilities to joust and swordfight are crucial to your success.
You must also raise an army to carry out military campaigns in order to defeat your opponents, the Normans... HAVE AT YOU!
Behind The Scenes Defender of the crown was developed by Kellyn Beeckfor Master Designer Software™. The computography was done by R.J. Mical, and the game is distibuted by Mindscape, Inc.™. The two disk set requires an Amiga™ 512K RAM board, but the external drive is optional. Either the Kickstart
1. 1 or 1.2 versions is acceptable. No typing is required to play
the game; only the mouse is needed, Defender of the Crown is
aCinemaware Interactive Movie presented in a theatrical
format, quite different from the average computer game. There
are credits, a cast introduction, and an original music score
programmed in stereo! The graphics are done in superb
animation, among the best available for the Amiga™ today.
Roll'em!
You choose your character from four Saxon knights. Each knight has varying levels in his abilities as a leader, swordsman, and in jousting. Once you have decided on a character, the game's plot unravels in a style reminiscent of the old Hollywood swashbuckling films.
By Master Designer Software, Inc. In order to succeed, your knight must overcome his opponents weknesses as well as his own. It is important to capture as much land as possible through military campaigns in orderto maximize your income which enables you to purchase soldiers, knights, catapults, and castles.
The soldiers form the core of your home defenses and your campaign army. Knights, on horseback, are valuable to the campaign army because they are effective in battle.
Catapults are a necessity for conquering enemy castles.
And building castles on newly conquered land enables you to better defend it from invasion.
The graphics for the enemy castle siege are spectacular.
Using the mouse, you launch Ihe catapult and destroy the walls of the castle before storming in. The sequence is very detailed and functions well. The recurring map shows your advancements over the kingdom and the locations of your new territories and castles as well as your campaign army.
You also have the chance to raid enemy castles at will. The graphics for this sequence are incredible as your knight duels two swordsmen in attempt to capture the gold of the castle. If you are successful, you are rewarded with vast amounts of treasure. If your character is a weak swordsman, you may suummon the help of Robin Hood, who pledges his aid to you three times throughout your struggle to unite Ihe land.
At random, Norman rogues ambush your tax collector and steal your revenues, or they sabotage your catapults which can severely undermine your strategy. At times your knight may be invited to a joust held by one of your opponents. The spectacle is tensely convincing as your horse charges toward the opponent with your lance drawn. By defeating three opponents, you win the tournament, but it is no easy task. You may joust for land or fame. If your knight is a weak jouster, it would not be wise to wager your land!
Perhaps the most creative sequence of the story (and the one that separates itfromthe average computer game) is the rescue of a Saxon maiden. Your knight must first defeat two swordsmen (adapted from the castle raiding scene) before receiving "the greatest treasure", the love of the rescued maiden. The scene culminates with two shadows on the wall embraced in a passionate kiss.
As the number of landholders dwindles and the enemy campaign armies increase, the strategy you choose becomes more and more important to your success. One hasty decision and your home castle could be invaded by the Normans and your territory lost to overpowering campaign armies. Use all your knight's skills to avoid any defeats, retain all territory surrounding your home castle, and to invest your income wisely, and you may survive long enough to become the King of England!
Defe nd er of The C sown $ 49.95 created by Master Designer Software, Inc.: 5743 CorsaAve., Suite 215 Westlake Village, CA 91361 318) 889-1537 distributed by Mindscape, Inc. 3444 Dundee Rd. Northbrook, IL 60062 (312)480-7667 8 MEGABYTES Now RS DATA'S New POW*R*CARD Let's You Play Like The Big Boys.
Playing games on your Amiga can lie a great deal of fun, but let's be honest there's more to life than playing games.
Now you can turn your computer into a real-life professional machine with the POW*R«CARD from RS DATA Systems.
The POW»R*CARD is a powerful new expansion board which allows you to mature in your computer use with greater flexibility in multi-processing and multi-tasking.
POW»R»CARD starts you off with a 2 Meg capability and allows you to grow with upgrades to a huge 8 Meg RAM expansion, all on the same board so you don't waste valuable slot space. That means you can run more software without fear of Guru Meditation Numbers, out-ot- memory crashes or any other small system boo-boos! What's more, you won't have to rob your piggy bank because POW*R»CARD offers this tremendous growth at a cost lower per megabyte than you'll find anywhere.
With your new POW»R»CARD, memory expansion is as easy as 1-2-3.
The POW»R»CARDand enclosure will pass through the Buss without modification for even greater expansion. So you don't have to play games with your data anymore. Graduate to bigger and better things with the POW«R»CARD from RS DATA!
Upcoming Products from RS DATA:
• New Hard Disk System, 20 & 40 megabyte memory.
• 4 Port Parallel card.
• 4 Port Serial Card, allowing more serial type peripheral use, ¦
4 Slot Expansion System with horizontal board placement for
system height red uction.
• Much, much more!!!
The POW»R»CARD is available now from your local Amiga dealer... Or call RS DATA today!
Amazing Reviews... Leader Board A TRUE 3D Golf Simulation from Access Software Reviewed by Chuck Raudonis People Link CWR Are you depressed because it is the middle of winter, cold outside, and your golf clubs are hanging in the garage collecting dust? Are you waiting for the first hint of warm weather to dig them out, dust them off and head for the first tee? If you are, I have just the game for you.
Access Software has just released the Amiga version of Leader Board. It is a true 3-D golf simulation. The game will allow up to tour players to compete. The player is armed with a complete set of clubs including one through nine irons, one, three and five woods, a pitching wedge, and a putter.
Conspicuously absent from the bag is a sand wedge. All short shots from the sand are hit with the pitching wedge.
The player has control of the amount of hook or slice that is applied to the individual shots through timing the shot correctly.
For practicing that timing, the game supplies what it calls a "driving range". This is actually the first tee of the easiest course. The game allows you to hit an unlimited number of balls from this tee and allows you to change clubs to test the distance and action of each club. One very nice feature of the Haven’t You Set Your AMIGA’S Time And Date Once Too Often?
Introducing A-TIME A clock calendar card with battery back-up, so you will never have to set the time and date in your AMIGA, EVER AGAIN!
• Hugs into ibe parallel port.
• A completely transparent primer port is provided, with total
compatibility to all I O operations.
• Battery back-up keeps the clock calendar date valid on power
down.
• Custom case with a footprint of only 2'W t’A’* 3' j " (W x D x
H) in standard AMIGA color.
• Leap year capability.
• A-TIME package contains: 1-A -TIME clock calendar module 1-3.5"
DS Utilities Disk Operating instructions PRICE $ 59.95
AVAILABLE: NOW Mai! Check to: AKRON SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT (ASD)
P. 0. BOX 6408 (409) 833-2686 BEAUMONT, TEXAS 77705 include 5
3.50 (or shipping and handling For MCA'ISA orders call (-1091
B33-26E6 AMIGA is a trademark of Commodore — Amiga inc.
"driving range" is that it keeps the balls that were hit out
on the fairway. This enables you to try and duplicate shots or
see patterns developing in your swing. would have rather had
a true driving range graphic rather Shan the first hole but
that really does not impair the function of this option. It is
merely cosmetic.
The game comes complete with tour different courses on the disk. Each course is slightly more difficult than the previous course. All four courses are championship-style courses that are par 72.
These courses are not styled after any existing courses. In fact, the more difficult courses provide some very interesting ayouts that increase the difficulty rating of the course. There are Y-shaped fairways forcing you to either hook or slice to reach the landing area. Approach areas to some of the greens are pointed away from the fairways to make the shots more difficult and even some offset fairways to force the player to hook around some trees to reach a safe landing.
All in all, there are some VERY interesting holes of golf supplied in this game. While they are interesting, 1 would liked to have had some course layouts based on actual courses. It would be nice to pick a course that the pros piay.
One of the features missing from Leader Board is a course editor. The game gives the player no provision for modifying the existing courses or creating new courses. The ability to install your favorite home course and play it when bad weather prevents actual play would have been a big improvement.
Access Software does intend to sel! Additional disks of courses. Each disk will contain four additional courses and will sell for $ 19.95. That seems like a steep price to pay when you get tired of the four courses included in the game.
A course editor would have been a much better solution to this problem.
Off to the first tee.
The game is loaded just like any other Workbench disk.
When the game starts, it asks for the number of players for the round. Also, at this point, you can select the driving range option If you only wish to practice, or you can start a nicely structured demo and let the game run itself and strut its stuff. If you are playing with more than one player and wish to play other than stroke (Medal) matches, you must keep your own tally on a sheet of paper as the game will not keep track of best ball or match play scores. This is inconvenient at best.
Once the number of players has been selected, the names of the players must be entered. The game will accept input from the keyboard, or the mouse can be used to select letters from the alphabet on the screen. For each player, a skill level must be specified. This determines how the game will affect your shot. There are three levels of difficulty of play.
At the novice level, your shot will not hook or slice so the timing of your shot is not very critical. Also, there is no wind at the Novice level. At the Amateur level, the ball will hook and slice, but there is still no wind. At the Advanced level, wind will blow the ball off course as indicated by the wind marker and a hook or slice is very probable if the shot is not hit correctly.
After the players have been identified and their skill level has been set, you must decide whether to play one to four rounds. This option is selected by clicking in a box on the screen. You must then decide which course to play. If you are playing more than one round, more than one course can be selected.
At this point, the first player is placed on the first tee of the course that was selected. The graphics used to depict the course are all 3-D and VERY, VERY good. The representation that the player sees is from behind the tee.
The video golfer is placed at address until the player starts the action. To hit the ball, first you select a club.
The screen is divided into two sections. The left two thirds of the screen is the graphics window. This is your "window" on the course. All of the action happens here. On the right of the screen is the status window.
This includes information on various aspects of the game; what hole is being played, par for the hole, distance from the ball to the hole, wind speed and direction, and current club selected. To select a club, determine which club to use based on the distance from your ball to the hole. This game assumes you can hit like a pro, or at least as a very good amateur. The instruction booklet has a table of the distances to be expected from each club. The distances are respectable and fairly accurate in relation to the distances that a good golfer would expect.
The driver, when fully hit, can be expected to carry for 275 yards, the three iron is rated at 200 yards. Once the club has been selected, it is time to hit the ball. The shot is aimed by moving a cursor on the fairway with the mouse and the left button. The swing of the club is a three step procedure. To start the backswing, the right mouse button is pushed and held down. This starts an indicator moving up. When the swing is back as far as you want it, the button is released. This starts the forward swing. When the swing is at the bottom of the arc, the button is pushed again to snap the
wrist of the golfer.
This is all made easier by the bar graph indicator. The indicator has a horizontal line to indicate Ihe bottom of the swing. If the snap is applied too early or too late, a hook or a slice will result. The game realistically simulates the action of a shot on a real course. More club is needed from the rough to achieve the same distance as a fairway shot. Shots out of the sand are wonderfully unpredictable. Sand shots will have you talking to yourself just like on a real course.
Around the green, putting is also 3-D, The break of the green is indicated by a slope indicator on the green. The same cursor that was employed on the fairway to aim the shot is used to aim the putt. The power of the putt is controlled like the backswing of the full shot. The only difference between the putt and the full swing, is the putt does not require a snap of the wrist. The bar indicator for the putt is marked in increments of 8 feet of distance on a level green. If the putt is up or down hill, Ihe length of the swing must be adjusted.
The one major flaw that l found with the game is with its interpretation of the rules of golf. If a ball is hit out of bounds, the rules of golf stipulate that the ball is to be returned to the original location and be hit again. This incurs a penalty stroke.
Straighten Up and Fly Right!
With THE FLIGHT SIMULATOR book (And ask lor the special AMIGA supplement) INFO magazine (N D ’86) says: The Flight Simulator Book lays out dozens of simulated flights for you to try with SubLOGIC’s Flight Simulator II. It is almost like taking a full flight course from an instructor. Included in the book are all the flight maps and details you will need to step yourself through almost everything you need to know about flying an airplane except the proper prayers. Whether you arc frustrated by all the times you’ve crashed, have logged too many hours and need a new challenge, or just wish you
could actually learn how real pilots fly, this book is outstanding. The author, John Rafferty, has done an excellent job.
Only $ 19.95 plus $ 4 p h CALL NOW TOLL FREE (Visa MC Amex) 800 221-6086(USA) 800 843-3485(AZ) or write EN ROUTE P.O. Box 48407 BOOKS_Phoenix, AZ 85075 Leader Board does return the ball back to the original location, but DOES NOT add the penalty stroke! The rules of golf state that if a ball is hit into a water hazard, the player has two choices, the ball can be played again from the original location, or it can be dropped behind the hazard in a straight line with the hole. Leader Board falls back to its catchall penalty of returning the ball to the point it was last hit. The same appliesforan
unplayable ball.
The only penalty incurred is the distance of the shot. The player is not penalized an extra stroke. In addition, the three ball placement options for this situation available under the rules of golf are reduced down to the catchall of "move the ball back to the original position."
In addition to the disregard for the official rules of golf, the game has a few other quirks that bear mentioning. One of the strong points of fhe Amiga is stereo sound generating capability. Leader Board makes good use of this feature.
The swish of the golf club as it rushes downward to impact the ball is recreated as is the gratifying "plop" as the ball drops into the cup.
¦ Supports real numbers and transcendental functions le sin. Cos, tan, arctan. Exp, In, log, power, sqrt ¦ 3d graphics and multi-taskmg demos ¦ CODE statement for assembly code ¦ Error lister will locate and identity all errors in source code ¦ Single character I O supported
• No royalties or copy protection ¦ Phone and network customer
support provided ¦ 350-page manual Optomized Size_ 1257 bytes
3944 bytes 1736 bytes 1100 bytes 49 72 61 67
5. 7 48
4. 7 MODULE Sieve; MODULE Float.
CONST Size — 8190.
FROM MathLibO IMPORT Sin. In, exp.
TYPE FlagRange; |0 Size], sqrt, arctan, FlagSet = SET OF FlagRange, VAR x. y REAL, i CARDINAL.
VAR Flags: FlagSet: BEGIN fST-.SA-.SS-*) i FlagRange.
X — 1 0, Prime, k. Count. Iter CARDINAL.
FOR i: — t TO 1000 DO BEGIN fSS-.$ R-.5A- ¦) y- sin (x). V — In (x). V — exp tx).
FOR Iter — 1 TO 10 DO y: — sqrt (x). Y- arctan (x, Count — 0.
X = x • 0 01; Flags = FlagSetf), (' empty set *) END; FOR i — 0 TO Size DO END float IF (i IN Flags) THEN Prime = (14 2) * 3, k -1 * Prime WHILE k — Size DO MODULE calc, ICCL (Flags, k), VAR a.b.C REAL, n. i CARDINAL, k — k — Prime.
BEGIN f$ T-.$ A-,$ S-’) END.
N;- 5000.
Count — Count * 1 a:= 2.71028. b- 3.14159. c — 1 0.
END.
FOR r- 1 TO n DO END.
C — c'a. C c‘b. C c a. c c'b.
END.
END.
END Sieve END calc Added leatures of Modula-2 nol found in Pascal ¦ CASE nas an ELSE and may contain
• Dynamic strings that may oe any subranges size ¦ Programs may
be broken up into Modules (or separate compilation
* Multi tasking is supported
* Procedure variables n Module version control b Machine level
interlace m Programmer definable scope of Bit-wise operators
0b|6CtS Direct port and Memory access ¦ Open array parameters
|VAR r Absolute addressing ARRAY OF REALS.)
Interrupt structure ft Elegant type transler functions Regular Version 589.95 Developer's Version 5149.95 Commercial Version S299.95 The regular version contains all the leatures listed above The developer's version contains additional Amiga modules, macros and demonstration programs — a symbol file decoder — link and load file disassemblers — a source file cross referencer
- the hermit file transfer utility — a Modula-2 CLI — modules for
IFF and llBM The commercial version contains alt of the Amiga
module source files Product History The TDI Modula-2 compiler
has been running on the Pinnacle supemutcro (Aug.
'84). Atari ST (Aug. '85) and will soon appear on the Macintosh and UNIX tn the 4th Qtr '86 _ Pascal and Modula-2 source code are nearly identical Modula-2 should be thought of as an enhanced superset of Pascal Prolessor Niklaus Wirth (the creator of Pascal} designed Modula-210 replace Pascal ¦ FULL interlace to ROM Kernel.
Intuition, Workbench and AmigaDOS d Smart linker lor greatly reduced code sue ¦ True native code implementation (Not UCSD p-Code or M-code) ¦ Sophisticated multi-pass compiler allows forward references and code optimization ¦ ReallnOut, LonginOul. InOul, Strings. Storage. Terminal ¦ Streams MathLiDO and all standard modules ¦ Works with single floppy 512K RAM MODULA-2 the successor to Pascal Ramdisk Benchmarks (sees) Sieve of Eratosthenes Float Calc Null program 36 Even with the minor difficulties listed above, this is a very enjoyable game. The look and feel of the game were obviously very
well thought out and crafted by very talented programmers. The player of Leader Board will most likely be the type of person who spends as much time on the links as possible. To make a game that feels good to this audience is a challenging task. With Leader Board, the design team proved that they are more than equal to the task. This game has taken me through many rainy Sundays when I would rather be holding afive iron instead of a keyboard.
— AC- These seem to be digitized sound samples and the
reproduction is very realistic. However, the Amiga is a STEREO
computer. The sounds in Leader Board only come Irom one
speaker! Now realizing that it would require some sophisticated
code to produce a swish of the club that travels from one
speaker to the other to simulate the 3-D sound of a real golf
club, and this extra code might have caused problems, why not
put the same sound out to both speakers? Those readers that
have their Amiga hooked to a stereo will find themselves
switching their amplifier to the MONO setting to provide the
sound to both channels.
My only complaint is that the greens only have one "break". It is not very realistic to experience greens that are only sloped in one direction. This makes it very easy to judge the break of a putt because it is pretty much the same on all holes. The only difference is the direction of the break. Once the direction is determined, just aim to compensate for the slope, and fire away. If the greens had several little hills and valleys like real greens have, it would have made for a slightly more difficult game and less birdies.
In some instances, the sound just drops out altogether. You find the putt is on its way and the "click" of the putter on the ball has not been heard. These are minor problems to be sure, but they are annoying none the less. From a graphics standpoint, there is not much to complain about. The images are crisp and interesting. The designer could have designed more than one style of tree into the course. It is a bit boring to see nothing but the same tree everywhere.
Around the green, the play is a bit touchy. It is not very easy to hit very short shots. The soft touch that is required with a wedge for the 20-30 yard pitches onto the green is not easy to acquire. It is very east to plow the ball to the other side of the green if you are not careful. While on the green, putting is representative of the reaction of the ball on real grass.
Other Modula-2 Products Kermit — Contains full source plus 515 connect time to CompuServe Examples — Many of the C programs Irom ROM Kernel and Intuition translated into Modula-2.
524 95 $ 49 95 GRID — Sophisticated multi-key file access method with over 30 procedures to access variable length records TDI SOFTWARE, INC. Dallas, Texas 75238 ¦ (214) 340-4942 CompuServe Number: 75026,1331 10410 Markison Road Telex: 888442 AmigaBASIC P MM "...are you aware that palettes 4 through 31 are also setup with default colors, and are available for your immediate use?"
By Bryan Cat ley As Amiga users you are already familiar with the four default colors of Blue, While, Black, and Orange, and as Amiga Basic users you are probably aware they are available to you in palettes 0, 1, 2, and 3 respectively. But are you aware that palettes 4 through 31 are also setup with default colors, and are available for your immediate use? Of course, you must setup your own custom screen with an appropriate "depth" before you may access them, but that is no problem!
If you recall, the SCREEN statement looks like: SCREEN, width, height, depth, mode When it comes to available palettes, we're directly concerned with "width" and "depth". First of all, in Basic, width may only be specified as 320 (for lo-res, or 40 character width) or 640 (for hi-res, or 80 character width). When in lo-res, all 32 palettes are available. However, when in hi-res, only palettes 0 through 15 are available.
And this brings us to the "depth" parameter. When in lo-res, the depth may be set to 1 to 5; while in hi-res it may only be specified as 1 to 4. The actual number of palettes available for each depth may be calculated by using the depth as a power of two. Thus, we get: Pepth Palettes AvmWQ 1 0 and 1 2 0 through 3(Workbench depth) 3 0 through 7 4 0 through 15 5 0 through 31 (lo-res only) Any reference to a palette which is beyond the highest allowed for the current depth will result in a an error message.
Continued... Back to those default colors! The table at the end of this article lists screen depth, palette number, default palette settings, and colors for all 32 palettes. To see how they actually look, enter the two short accompanying programs, and then run them. You may also choose to save them so you can refer to them each time you need to review the colors which are automatically available to you.
Now, what happens if, one, the color you want is there, but it is in a palette beyond those available to you; or two, the desired color simply isn't there?
In the first case, do not increase the screen depth just to gain access to the desired color, (each increase in depth uses a substantial amount of memory) rather, pick an available color you do not need, and simply reset the palette values to those of the desired color. For example, if you have a depth of 3, and need a red palette, you could change palette 7 (one of two white palettes in the first eight) to red with the following statement: PALETTE 7,.8,.1,.1 The second situation is a little more complicated because you have to find out the palette values for the desired color (s) before you
can reset any existing palette (s). Essentially, you have three choices:
- copy the values from another program which uses t the desired
color
- write a short program for experimentation
- use a tool such as Stephen R. Pietrowicz's HSI to RGB
Conversion Tool which appeared in the June 1986 issue of
Amazing Computing.
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(213) 747-8498 Whichever method you choose, once you have the
correct settings, you can proceed as in the first
situation.
The variety of colors available with the Amiga is one of its strong points. Use them effectively!
L-istin? 1 Hi-Res Default Colors 1 Bryan D. Catley 1 July 1986 'SCREEN 1,640,200,4,2 Hi-Res Screen, 16 colors WINDOW 2.,0,1:'Full Size Window, no gadgets COLOR 5,2: CLS:'Magenta on Black LOCATE l,24: PRINT"Hi-Res (640x200) Default Palettes:" COLOR 6,2;’Cyan on Black FOR n=Q TO 15 LOCATE 3, n*3+16: PRINT USING ¦ ";n; LINE (n*24+128, 24} -STEP (16,156), n, bf NEXT LOCATE 24, 28: PRINT''Press Left Button to Quit."; WHILE MOUSE(0)=0: WEND:'Wait for Left Button WINDOW CLOSE 2: SCREEN CLOSE 1 END Lmuz2 Lo-Res Default Colors Bryan D- Catley ’ July 1986 'SCREEN 1,320,200,5,1:1LoRes Screen with
32 colors WINDOW 2.,0,1: 'Full size window, no gadgets COLOR 5,2: CLS:'Magenta on Black LOCATE 1,4: PRINT"Lo-Res (320x200) Default Palettes:" COLOR 6,2:'Cyan on Black LOCATE 3,15: PRINT"1111111111222222222233" LOCATE 4,5: PRINT"01234567890123456789012345678901" FOR n=0 TO 31 LIRE (n*8+32, 32) -STEP (8,150), n, bf NEXT LOCATE 24, 8: PRINT "Cress Left Button to Quit.”; WHILE MOUSE(0)=0: WEND:’Wait for Left Button WINDOW CLOSE 2: SCREEN CLOSE 1 END Table of Amiga Basic Default Palette Sellings.
Death Palette Default Color Palette Settina 12345 0 Amiga Blue
0. 0.3.6 12345 1 White
1. 0
1. 0
1. 0 2345 2 Black
0. 0
0. 0
0. 0 2345 3 Amiga Orange
1. 0,5
0. 0 345 4 Biue
0. 0
0. 0
1. 0 345 5 Magenta
1. 0
0. 0
1. 0 345 6 Cyan
0. 0
1. 0
1. 0 345 7 While
1. 0
1. 0
1. 0 45 8 Dark Brown.4.1
0. 0 45 9 Red-Orange.9.3
0. 0 45 10 Lime-Green.55
1. 0
0. 05 45 11 Gold.9.7
0. 0 45 12 Blue.3.3
1. 0 45 13 Violet.55.1
1. 0 45 14 Blue-Green
0. 0
1. 0
0. 5 45 15 Gray 12.75,75.75 5 16 Black
0. 0
0. 0
0. 0 5 17 Red.8
0. 1
0. 1 5 18 Black
0. 0
0. 0 0,0 5 19 Tan
1. 0.75
0. 6 5 20 Gray 4 (Dark).35.35.35 5 21 Grays.3.3.3 5 22
Grays.4.4 4 5 23 Gray7.45.45.45 5 24 Grays.5.5.5 5 25
Gray 9 (Medium).55.55.55 5 26 Gray 10.6.6.6 5 27 Gray 11
.7.7.7 5 28 Gray 12.75.75.75 5 29 Gray 13.8.8 8 5 30
Gray 14 (Light).9.9.9 5 31 While
1. 0
1. 0
1. 0 Notes: Palettes 16-31 are only available in lo-res mode;
i.e. a screen width of 320 pixels or 40 characters. 2.
Palettes 0-3 are those used by Workbench. Therefore, the
values shown for these palettes are the default values, before
any changes that may have been made to them via Preferences.
• AC- by Bryan Catley AmigaBASIC MUM "...how a program 'looks1
goes a long way" Would you like every Basic program you write
to be instantly recognizable as yours, regardless of the
function of the program? Chances are you would, for even if no
one other than friends and relatives will see the programs,
they will simply look more professional. And how a program
"looks" goes a long way, (sometimes too far), in determining
how it will be accepted.
A Common Ground Between Programs The big question, of course, is how do you give a number of programs, each of which performs a totally different function, a common appearance? The obvious answer is to always use the same colors and style in handling windows, requesters, displaying output, etc. This works, and you'll probably find that you'll have a tendency to do this anyway; but there is an even better method!
Think for a moment, every program, no matter what it does, has one thing in common with EVERY other program. They all start at the beginning! So if we provide a common beginning, in the form of a title screen, and if we keep the title screens similar in appearance, we will have achieved what we wanted. However, we will need more than just a program title to make it distinctive!
Just what should go on this title screen? Obviously the program name and or title, and it would be nice to include the author's name and address. Additionally, room should be available for a line or two of simple instructions (like, what to do next) and, depending on the program, rt might be appropriate to have a few gadgets, allowing the user to use the mouse to select the desired function. That could be classified as "necessary" information, but it is still not really "distinctive" information. To satisfy this last requirement, how about adding a logo, preferably a colorful one?
Continued,.. We now have everything that is necessary to make every program truly distinctive. What is more, the code to draw the logo and to insert the name and address may be placed in a subprogram which you may merge into, and call from, the using programs. The only requirement for the different programs is to insert the title, instruction line, and any gadgets that may be used.
The Logo, the Screen, and Colors When designing your logo, remember that you are going to have to draw it with some combination of LINE, AREA, CIRCLE, and or PAINT statements. This means it must be of a reasonably simple design. So get a piece of paper and a pencil, and start doodling!
Why not start with some combination of geometric shapes, maybe a circle and triangle somehow connected with a rectangle, and each one being a separate color? Dont forget diamonds, squares, ellipses, etc. Can't come up with anything that tickles yourfancy? Try your name or initials. For ease of drawing, block the letters into stylized shapes without the "holes" which appear in many of them. The most striking designs will, at least, involve some overlaying of the shapes you will be using, but this will not cause any problems when drawing the logo. For each shape, starting with the one furthest
"back", and moving "forward" one shape at a time is drawn separately. This approach simplifies the drawing and provides you with true "overlap"!
Once you've designed your logo, you must now design the title screen! Find some graph paper, (I'm sorry, but this will be very difficult to do without some), and draw a rectangle representing the screen. It should be drawn in such a way as to be easy to mark off 80 columns across the top, (or 40 if you plan on using a lo-res screen), and 25 down. Now it is time to decide where the various bits and pieces are to go. An obvious choice is to place the logo towards the top of the screen, with your name and address on the bottom line. The program title and instruction line will go between them.
This leaves the possible gadgets that may appear on the screen from time-to-time. Now, depending on the size of the logo, you may be able to place them between the logo and the program title. Otherwise, you may have to either place them on either side of the screen, or place them on top of your logo. With a larger logo, the latter can actually add to the appearance of the screen. See the accompanying example.
There is one more thing to do before we get around to designing the "logo" subprogram. Decide on the colors!
First of all, a screen with a depth of two will provide you with four colors (like the Workbench screen) while a depth of three will provide up to eight colors, and a depth of four will provide 16 colors. Now, each increase in depth uses a substantial amount of memory so you need to bear this in mind when deciding how many colors you wish to have available. A good comprise for Basic programs is a depth of three with eight colors, although if you only have 256K of memory, you may be forced to stay with two, Once you know how many colors you're going to use, decide on the colors for your title
screen. You'll need a background color, a color for each piece of your logo, and colors for the various pieces of text which will appear on the screen.
Remember, Basic provides you with a default set of colors which you may find satisfactory for your purposes. (See the article "Basic Default Colors" elsewhere in this issue).
The Logo Subprogram Finally, the subprogram may now be designed and written!
The accompanying example, which you will probably be typing in and using as a basis for your own, has the following logic: indicate SHARED color names if FIRST=0 then FIRST=1 open hi-res screen with passed depth open full sized window with typa=16 set background color clear screen set palettes 0-1 set color names for 0-1 If depth l then set palettes 2-3 set color names 2-3 endif if depth 2 then set palettes 4-7 set color names 4-7 endif endif set background color clear screen draw logo set n a color write n a end The following points are off interest:
- There is a first time switch. To do as much work as we can in
this subprogram, we will have to open the initial screen and
window, as well as set the palette values. However, we may need
to call "logo" more than once, especially if we use the window
for other purposes, tf we do, we can't go opening the same
screen, etc., more than once! This situation is taken care of
with a "first time" switch.
— Color names are established as the palettes are set, and since
these names are "Shared" with the main program, it becomes
possible to use color names rather than unintelligible numbers.
E.G. COLOR Cyn, Blk
• The desired screen depth is passed to the subprogram as an
integer parameter. As written, our example "logo" subprogram
will support a depth of up to three. Should you wish to use a
greater depth, it will be necessary to either expand "logo",
set the additional palettes in the main program, or use the the
default colors established by basic
- The actual logo we're using in our example consists of two
triangles, one point up, one point down, with a horizontal
rectangle on top of the first triangle, but beneath the second.
Note the drawing sequence requires only the three basic shapes be drawn.
Now that you (hopefully) understand what our "logo” subprogram is doing, type in Program 1, and save it with the ", A" extension. E.G. SAVE "Logo", A. This allows it to be saved in an ASCII format suitable for merging into other programs. N.B. You cannot use the "Project Save Save As" menu items to do this; you must use an immediate command.
Do not try to RUN this subprogram, it must be called from a using program.
Finally, we come to our example "using" program. It simply invokes "Logo" with a depth of three, inserts a program title and instruction line, and then draws four gadgets. Whether you use gadgets, and how many you use will always depend on the actual program. In this example they are not real gadgets, they are included simply as an additional example.
So, type in Program 2 and save it with any desired name.
Now, click in the Output window and type in the immediate command MERGE "Logo" (or whatever you called it). If you forgot the original ", A" you'll get an error message. Should this happen, just LOAD it, and re-SAVE it with the ", A".
When you have the two programs merged, save the combination, and then RUN it. Assuming there are no typing errors, you should be presented with a bright, instantly recognizable title screen! Follow the comment in the instruction line to terminate the display!
Now, are you wondering about those gadgets? How might they actually be used? Is there an easier way of drawing them? I thought you might be! And that's what we'll take a closer look at anothertime.
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Invoke "TitleScreen" Bryan D. Catley
* August 198 6 I TitleScreen 3 COLOR Mag: LOCATE 13,40: PRINT"A"
LOCATE 15,36: PRINT"DUMMY" LOCATE 17,34: PRINT"PROGRAM"
LOCATE 19,36: PRINT"TITLE" COLOR Yel: LOCATE
22,28: PRINT"Press Left Button to Quit" LINE (64, 36) -STEP
(80,16), Wht, bf LINE (64,36) -STEP (80,16), Blu, b COLOR
Blu, Wht: LOCATE 6,11: PRINT"Rtn 1" LINE (208, 36) — STEP (80,16)
, Wht, bf LINE (208, 36) — STEP (80, 16), Blu, b COLOR
Blu, Wht: LOCATE 6,29: PRINT"Rtn 2" LINE (352, 36) -STEP (80,16)
, Wht, bf LINE (352, 36) — STEP (80,16), Grn, b COLOR Gm,
Wht: LOCATE 6, 47: PRINT"Rtn 3" LINE (496,3 6) -STEP (80,16)
, Wht, bf LINE (496,3 6) -STEP (80,16), Red, b COLOR
Red, Wht: LOCATE 6,65: PRINT"Rtn 4" WHILE MOUSE(0)=0: WEND WINDOW
CLOSE 2: SCREEN CLOSE I END Sample Title Screen Subprogram '
Bryan D. Catley August 1986 I SUB TitleScreen (Depth%) STATIC
SHARED Blk, Blu, Grn, Cyn, Red, Mag, Yel, Wht IF FirstTime=0 THEN
FirstTime=l SCREEN 1,640,200, Depth%,2 WINDOW 2.,16,1 COLOR
,0: CLS PALETTE O,0,0,0: Blk=0Black PALETTE 1,0,0,1: Blu=l:'Blue
IF Depth% l THEN PALETTE 2,0,.75,0: Grn=2:'Green PALETTE 3,0,1,1
:Cyn=3:'Cyan END IF IF Depth% 2 THEN PALETTE 4,1,0,0
:Red=4:'Red PALETTE 5,1,0,1: Mag=5:'Magenta PALETTE 6,1,.8,0
:Yel=6Yellow PALETTE 7,1,1,1: Wht=7:'White END IF END IF COLOR
, Blk: CLS AREA(208, 8): AREA STEP (-168, 72): AREA STEP (336,0)
COLOR Grn: AREAFILL LINE (24, 24) -STEP (592, 40), Yel, bf
AREA(264,8): AREA STEP(168,72): AREA STEP (168, — 72) COLOR
Red: AREAFILL COLOR Blu, Blk: LOCATE 24,11 PRINT"Ima Basic
Programmer 244 Amiga PRINT"Street Commodore QQ 12345"; END SUB
• AC* by Jon Bryan Forth!
"...How the Amiga's audio device works, and how sound can be generated from Forth.
Last installment I presented a three-dimensional animation of a bouncing ball. I was planning at that time to add sound effects in this installment, but have decided instead 1o present a more general description of how the Amiga's audio device works, and how sound can be generated from Forth.
While the program presented here is very simple, it does demonstrate the basic steps necessary to generate sound and can be generalized to create waveforms of arbitrary complexity, including "digitized" sound.
Many of you probably own Compact Disc players by now.
The method of sound reproduction used on the Amiga is the same as that used on Compact Discs, and while the Amiga can't match a CD’s fidelity, the quality of sound that it can produce is still impressive. The Amiga's limitations compared to a Compact Disc result from the difference in sampling rates and in the number of bits per sample. A digital audio disc has an upper frequency response limit of about 20 kilohertz, while the Amiga is limited theoretically to about 14 kilohertz, and practically to about half that. A compact disc also uses more bits to represent each point on the sampled
waveform than the Amiga, and so has a larger "dynamic range."
In order for the Amiga to produce a sound, that sound must be defined as a series of numbers which represent the voltage level of the waveform sampled at fixed intervals. The voltages represented by those numbers must then be properly filtered, amplified, and sent (o one or more speakers to produce the desired sound. In this manner it is possible to create any conceivable sound within the limits imposed by the rate at which ihe waveform is sampled, which determines the frequency response; the number of bits in each sample, which determines the amount of noise on the signal and the dynamic
range; and the amount of memory at your disposal.
For a more detailed treatment of sound reproduction on the Amiga I would suggest that you read the section in the Hardware Reference Manual pertaining to audio. Now let's get on with the business of creating sound with Forth.
ALL THAT FOR A LITTLE BEEP?!
That's what my wife said when a sound finally issued forth from my Amiga. I couldn't blame her for being let down, since I had been working on it every night for more than a week.
Early on! Ran into serious problems which took longer lo solve than I could have anticipated.
First, Multi-Forth's support for audio is next to nil. There are no examples in the manual, and in fact as far as! Can tell there are no Multi-Forth words for generating sound at all. But this is Forth! If there is something you need, write it yourself, right?
I was able to determine almost immediately that one function that I would need was named Begin 10 in the reference manuals. The manual also indicated that the function expected as an argument the address of an lORequest structure. Neither existed in Multi-Forth. Search as I might I could find no reference to a word named BeginlO in Ihe Multi- Forth manual, or even one that seemed to have a similar function. The nearest that [could come was something named CalliO and it was essentially undocumented except for a brief mention in the manual glossary.
Before I berate Multi-Forth too loudly, I should mention that there was also no documentation on BeginlO in the official Amiga reference manuals either. The only reference that I could find was in appendix B of the Exec Manual, where this assembly language macro is given: _B«ginIO: mova. l 4(sp), al BEGIHIO rts Not much help. To make a long story short, after talking to Creative Solutions, Delta Research (J-Forth) AND Palo Alto Shipping (Mach 2), I decided that the only way to answer my question was to figure it out myself.
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plurals. Text wordcount totals. Uses Cli or Workbench, Mouse or keyboard, $ 49.95 Include 53.50 S&H MastercardA isa Accepted Calif. Residents Add 61 z% Sales Tax 'Wedtt&m *)ticU(4trUe& 3386 Floyd Los Angeles, CA 90068 (213) 851-4868 Order phone 1 800 621-0849 Ext. 494 I borrowed a copy of Metascope (a symbolic debugger from Metadigm} and a friend’s C compiler, bought the book inside the Amiga by J. T. Berry, and set to work. First I compiled an audio demo program from Inside the Amiga and determined that if worked as advertised, then started digging into it with Metascope. I found BeginlO
almost immediately and it disassembled into this: _BaginIO: moves. l 4(a7), al move. l a6, — (a7) moves. l $ 14(al), a6 jsr $ -lE(a6) moves. l (a7)+, a€ rts Given the address of an lORequest structure, BeginlO first picks up a pointer to a device node within that structure, uses that pointer to offset from the base of a jump table in low memory, and JSR's from there to the ROM kernel. What could be simpler, eh? I hope to convince Creative Solutions to include this and a few more primitive system calls in their next revision.
One difficulty in translating the routine to work in Forth lies in the different ways that C and Forth pass parameters. For proper operation in Multi-Forth the first instruction must be: moves. l (a7)+, al which moves the address of the lORequest structure from Multi-Forth's data stack (A7 is the stack pointer) into register A1. Then the RTS must be replaced with: mova. w (a2)+, d3 jmp $ 18(a6, d3.w) which is the macro for NEXT in Multi-Forth.
You'll see in the listing another CODE definition for NewList.
While it is possible to write that function in Forth, I thought that as long as I was defining BeginlO in CODE, why not throw in NewList as well? For both BeginlO and NewList, rather than require that the Assembler be loaded, I've comms'ecf the hex machine code values into the dictionary.
It was necessary to implement the OpenDevice call from the Exec library (which IS documented in Multi-Forth) in order to provide BeginlO with a device node pointer. The implementation of the other Exec calls was also straightforward, and I encountered no problems there.
The other preparatory work involves defining the data structures required by the Audio device. Message is one of the Exec structures, as is lORequestt which as you can see is a subset of the lOStdReq structure. LOAudio is the template for the data structure used by the audio.device. It includes an lORequest structure as well as information on the location and length of the sound data table, the period and volume of the waveform and the number of times to repeat It.
There are a number of constants which serve as device commands and are explained thoroughly in the reference manuals.
CreatePort and DeletePort are utilities available in C which I have translated into Forth. CreatePort requests and initializes a message port which provides a mechanism for communication between different tasks and interrupts. A port may be either public (named) or private. In the case of this audio device I've used a private, unnamed port because no other tasks in the system need to know about K. I apologize for rushing through the explanation of the preamble for the audio demo. Your best way to understand it ail is to study it in conjunction with the Exec Reference Manual. I found the manual
to be very clear in most respects, even if it did require several readings to understand some of the finer points. I expect to read it a few more times, and I’m sure that I will learn something new each time.
AND FINALLY, SOUND The listing given here provides for the generation of simple waveforms within a limited range of frequencies. I've provided data tables for sine, square, triangular and sawtooth waves which work well within a frequency range of 1200- 2400 Hz. The range between 600 and 1200 Hz doesn't sound too bad either, although it’s not strictly legal according to the guidelines laid down in the Hardware manual.
Frequencies outside the specified range will produce distinctly distorted sounds.
Each table of audio data consists of twelve samples which describe one complete cycle. Lower frequencies would require a longer data table, and higher frequencies fewer samples. In order to create a continuous tone it is only necessary to point the audio DMA at the wave table and tell it how many times to repeat the data. One cycle is therefore sufficient to generate a continuous tone, as the DMA automatically starts over at the beginning of the array each time it gets to the end until it has repeated the array the number of times specified.
A word of explanation is in order concerning the definition of Hz. The hardware manual gives what I think is an obscure method of determining the proper sampling rate needed to produce a given frequency from a fixed number of samples. It is based on the period of the audio timer and the period of the desired frequency. It is much easier to use frequencies to do the calculations as it requires neither reciprocals nor floating point calculations, This is the equation: Samplings«rind= AudioClock (Dasired_Fraqu«ncy*Sampi«8) where SamplingPeriod is the number of ticks the audio clock will count
down before fetching a sample, the frequency of the AudioCIock is 3.579546 Mhz, and Samples is the number of samples in one period of the waveform to be reproduced.
The word Hz calculates the period required to generate a given frequency from a table of twelve samples and stores that value in a variable named Period for later use.
I'll cover the other words by describing the action of the word Wave, The first thing that Wave does is attempt to open an audio port. The word AudioPort?. returns the address of the port allocated by the word CreatePort if it's successful, and a false flag (0) if it is unsuccessful, if the attempt to create a message port is unsuccessful Wave aborts with the message "Can't open Audio Port."
If a message port is successfully opened Wave continues by first initializing the sound lOAudio request structure with the values required by the OpenDevice system call. The priority requested is stored in the +lnPpri field of the lOAudio structure. The address of ChannelMask is stored in the +ioaData field, which will request all four audio channels. The channel request mask consists of one byte, so +ioaLength is set to one.
The word AudioDevice? Attempts to open the audio device with a call to the Exec library function OpenDevice and returns a true flag if it is successful, if the call is successful the sound lOAudio structure is reinitialized to point to the data for the waveform to be generated. Otherwise execution aborts with the message Can't open Audio Device after first YOU HAVE CONTROL OF GRADE MANAGEMENT WITH GRADE MANAGER!
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Telephone FORTH RUMORS I'm writing this in the middle of
November, and I expect to have a copy of J-Forth from Delta
Research any day now.
Palo Alto Shipping, which produces Mach 1 (and 2?), a version of Forth for the Macintosh, may have a product out tor the Amiga by the end of the year. Both of these implementations are subroutine threaded and so should provide an interesting comparison both to each other and to Multi-Forth's direct token threading. As far as I can tell UBZ- Forth is in limbo, and at this rate will probably never be produced. Meanwhile, aside from its obvious flaws Multi- Forth is a robust implementation which I am generally quite happy with. I just wish they had more support for low-level system IO, the audio
device, and that their manual was about twice as thick.
I enjoy hearing from you on CompuServe and PeopleLink.
By the time you read this I will probably be a SYSOP on the Forth forum on CompuServe, so feel free to GO FORTH and drop me a line.
: CloaaDavica (ioRaquaat ) Ial axac 75;: WaitIO (ioRaquaat amor) lal axac@ 79; SYMTABLE DEFINITIONS 4 wcomtant NT_MSGPORT 0 wconatant PA_SIGNAL atructura Maaaaga LinkNode atruct: +mnNoda ptr: tmnRaplyPort abort: — fmnLangth atructura.and 1 0 scale wconatant MEMF_PUBLIC 1 16 scala conatant MEMF_CLEAR atructura lOStdRaq note tha naated atructuraa atructura IORaquaat Maasaga atruct; 4-ioMaaaaga ptr: tioDevice ptr: tioDnit abort: tioCotumand byte: tiorlaga byta: tioError atructura. And long: tioActual long: tioLength ptr: +ioData long: +ioOffaat atructura. And 1 wconatant IOF_QUICK 3
wconatant CMD_WRITE 0" audio.device" conatant AUDIONAMZ 1 4 scala wconatant ADI0r_PEKV0L atructura IOAudio IORaquaat atruct: tioaRaqueat abort; +ioaAllocEay ptr: tioaData long: +ioaLangth abort: tioaPariod abort: +ioaVoluaa abort: tioaCycla* Maaaaga atruct: tioaWritaMag atructura.and FORTH DEFINITIONS Tha appropriate format for creating an unnamed port ia: 0 pri CreatePort.
: CreatePort (0" name" pri — MagPort or 0) LOCALS| pri name |
- 1 AllocSignal DDP -1 ™ NOT did wa gat a signal bit?
IF MaaaagaPort MEMF_CLEAR MZMF_PDBLIC OR AllocMam DUP 0- waa memory for tha port allocated? If not, than give up.
IT DROP rreeSignal 0 (return null) Otharvlaa, initialize it.
ELSE name OVER -fmpLinkNoda +lnName I pri OVER 4®pLinkNode tlnPpri Cl NTJ4SGPORT OVER -HapLinkNode tintype Cl PA_SIGNAL OVER -Hnprlaga Cl SWAP OVER -H&pSigBit Cl 0 FindTaak OVER -HapSigTaak I DUP name If tha port ia "public*' (named) AddPort makes it findabla by tha real of tha system.
0" name" TindPort will than return ita address.
Ir AddPort ELSE +mpLinkHeader NawLiat THEN THEN ELSE DROP 0 (return null) THEN; For thoaa confused as I was, -HnpLinkHaadar ia called -fmpMagLiat in tha Exec manual. Rather a dramatic change, if I do aay ao myself. I alae think that tlnPpri ia a typo and should be tlnPri.
: DalataPort (port ) LOCALS| port | port +mpLinkNod« +lnNama 0 IF port RamPort THXK 255 port -tmpLinkNod* +lnTypa Cf
- 1 port +mpLinkHaad«r +lhKaad 1 port -hnpSigBit C& rraaSignal
port MaaaagaPort rrttKtm; atruct IQAudio Bound sound IOAudio
ERASE DECIMAL CREATE ChannalMaak 15 C, will allot all four
channala CREATE Saieplaa 12, langth of tha sound data CREATE
Pariod 400 W, interval timar ticks par aampla CREATE Duration
400 W, numbar of timaa to rapaat VARIABLE Sound pointar to
sound data:: AudioData (nama ( ) CREATE DOES Sound t;
rAudioData Sina 0 c, 63 c, 109 c, 126 c, 109 c, 63 cr 0 c, -63
ci -109 c, -126 ct -109 c, -63 c, Sina by default: AudioData
Square 80 c, 80 c (80 c, 80 c, 80 c, 80 c,
- 80 c, -80 c, -80 c, -80 cr -B0 c, -80 c,: AudioData Triangle 0
c, 42 c, 84 c, 126 c, 84 c, 42 c, 0 c, -42 cr -84 c, -126 c,
-84 c -42 c, rAudioData Sawtooth 0 c, 25 c, 50 c, 75 c, 100 c,
125 c,
- 125 of -100 c, -75 c, -50 c, -25 c, 0 c, 3579546 (Hi) CONSTANT
AudioClock interval timer rate: Hi (freq ) Saaplea 8 *
AudioClock SWAP Period W1;: FraaAudioPort ( ) sound
-fioaRaquaat +ioMaaaaga tmnRaplyPort 8 DaletaPort: AudioPort?
( MagPort or 0) 0 0 CraataPort (wa don't need a named port)
DUP IF DUP sound tioaRaquaat tioMeaaage -fmnRaplyPort 1 THEN;
; Audi©Device? true or error) ADD10NAME 0 sound 0
OpenDovica NOT; r init Soundpost ( ) 10 sound tioaRaquaat
+ioMaaaaga tmnNoda tlnPpri Cf ChannalMaak sound fioeDate f 1
sound tioaLangth!;: initSoundStruct ( ) CMD_WRITE sound
tioaRaquaat +ioComaand Wf ADI0r_PIKV0L Ior_QDICK OR sound
+ioeRequaat +ioFlaga Cl Sound 8 sound tioaData I Duration W8
sound +ioeCyclea W!
Samples 8 sound +ioaXength f Period W0 sound +ioaPeriod Wf 64 sound +ioaVolume Wf;: Wave ( ) AudioPort?
IT initSoundPort AudioDevica?
IT initSoundStruct sound BaginlO sound WaitIO DROP sound CloaaDavica ELSE. M Can't opah Audio Davica" CR THEN FraaAudioPort ELSE. M Can't opah Audio Port" CR THEN; Tha uaaga ia "300 Hz Sina Wava" ate.
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(301) 984-0262 in MD or 1-800-FORTHOK "I've had to scrape hard to
find rumors that aren't covered by the developer conference
non-disclosure agreement, but I think you'll like these."
By John Foust Another Roomers column arrives. I've had to scrape hard to find rumors that aren't covered by the developer conference non-disclosure agreement, but I think you’ll like these.
Amiga Turbo Pascal According to a message posted by Larry Kraft, the SYSop of the Borland Programming SIG on CompuServe, Borland is going to market a version of Turbo Pascal for the Amiga. Kraft said that Borland had sent letters to every inquiry about Amiga Turbo Pascal, saying that they didn't plan to make the product, but now Borland will send another letter to these people, sayingthat they will.
Info wo rid Perhaps you saw Robert X. Cringely's column in the November 17 Infoworld, I can assure you that he is all wrong.
The new machine doesn't have most of the features he mentions.
Apparently, someone gave him some misinformation about the Amiga 2500. It's not going to be as great as he said. His column claimed the machine will have a 68020 CPU and a 68881 floating point processor. He’s also wrong on the number of expansion slots — he said two, there are more. But most rumors have confirmed that it does have a battery- backed clock.
Cringely had a confessional set up in the Infoworld booth.
You'd enter the box, sit down, pull the curtain behind you, and tell him your secrets. It was a great idea, and I'm sure he has column material for the next few months. When I went inside, I didn't even think about revealing what I had just heard atthe developer conference. Really.
Jay Miner At the developer conference, many developers asked "Where is Jay Miner?" The first answer was often "He couldn't make it," followed by "He's on call for the Atari trial," If you’ve been following Amiga history, you'll remember the lawsuit between Amiga and Atari, started during the summer of 1985. I might not have the complete story, so forgive my mistelling.
Amiga got a large sum of money from Atari when Atari began proceedings to license the Amiga chipset for future products. Amiga people insist the funding was presented as a loan, and that Atari never expected Amiga to be able to pay back the loan, therefore securing the chipset license agreement.
At the last moment before the loan due date, before Amiga was truly indebted to Atari, and before any license agreements were signed, Commodore stepped in and bought Amiga, and gave them the money for the loan. Of course, this didn't sit well with Atari. At the same time, Warner Communications sold Atari to Jack Tramiel. Amiga and Warner had agreed that Atari had no rights to the chipset, but Tramiel wasn't obligated to serve Warner's interests anymore, so he slanted a lawsuit.
So Jay Miner was on 10 minute call for the trial, and couldn't make it to the developer conference.
I've heard a lot of other rumors about Miner, the present head of Commodore-Amiga. Most accounts say he's unhappy about losing the best West Coast software development
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Team. Who can blame him for being depressed? Miner brought the people together that made the Amiga, and then he had to watch it being tom down. Some people say he’s thinking about retiring.
Los Gatos vs. West Chester I also heard about T-shirts that Amiga people designed.
Perhaps you've seen the "We Made Amiga" T-shirts on the backs of some of the Amiga original team. They made another that said "We Made Amiga’ on the front, and "But Commodore [expletive deleted) it up" on the back. Another shirt jested Commodore marketing skills. It said "Ready?
Fire! Aim."
The hostility between Commodore-Amiga Los Gatos and Commodore West Chester was almost palpable at the developer conference. Los Gatos is understaffed. From a one-time high of about 80 employees, they are down to thirteen.
The original Amiga building might be the next old friend to get a pink slip, some say. It's getting dusty and spooky echoes of former inhabitants ring through the halis.
Commodore officials may decide to move the Los Gatos team into smaller offices.
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Don’t forget, beyond the Amiga, they have to support the Commodore 64, the Plus-4, the Commodore 128, plus all those wacky C-64 peripherals. They complain that questions forwarded to Los Gatos go unanswered. It is unfortunate such hostility exists, but I have the feeling Commodore managers will soon root out any uncooperative elements, even if it means eliminating the Los Gatos team.
Manx 1.2 update According to Jim Goodnow of Manx Software, the new Aztec C for AmigaDOS 1.2 is in the works. "We are grinding away at finishing the release. Underestimated the effort involved at adding 68020 68881 support. We should have shipped without it. However, we are getting close."
TDI Modula-2 update The next release of TDI Modula-2, version 3.0, will take place in early 1987, according to Les Caudle. He also warned that there will be a price increase for the compiler at that time.
Public domain Regarding the recent uproar about Compuserve’s public domain policy, and a corresponding article in Compute!
Magazine, a friend said, "A network's public domain policy is like foreign policy, if you have to explain your policy every three days, you don't have a policy."
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• AC- Amazing Computing If you are reading Amazing Computing™ for
the first time, you have not seen Amazing Computing™.
Look what you have missed!
Volume 1 Number 1 Premiere February 1985 Super Spheres By Kelly Katittman An Abasic Graphics program Date Virus By John Foust There Is a disease that may attack your Amiga EZ-Teim by Kelly Kauttman An Abasic Terminal program Mgs Mania by Perry Kfrolowitz Programming rotes and mouse care inside CU by George Musser a guided insight Into the ArrigaDos™ CLI Summary by George Musser jr. A removable llsl or CLI commands Amiga Forum byBelaLubkin A quicktrp through Compuserve's Amiga S)G Commodore Amiga Development Program by Don Hicks What lo ask and where to go to bea developer Amiga Products A
listing of present and expected products.
Volume 1 Number 2 March 1986 Electronic Arts Comes Through A look ai the now software from EA Inside CLI: part two by George Musser George continues hb Investigation of CLI and ED A Summary of ED Commands Uvel by Rich Miner A review otlhB Beta version of Iho Lrrel Trame grabber Online and the CTS Fobite 2424 ADH Modem by John Foust Amiga Products Superterm VI0 3y Kelty Kauffman A terminal program written In Amiga Base A Workbench "More" Program by Rick Wirch Amiga BBS numbers Volume 1 Number 3 April 1986 Analyze I a review by Ernest Vtverlos Reviews of Racier, Baratecesa and Mndahadow Forthl
The first of our on going tutorial Deluxe Drawil by Rich Wired An Amiga Basic program lor the artist In us all.
Amiga Basic, A beginners tutorial The start of our tutorial of the most active Amiga language.
Inside CD: part 3 by George Musser George gives us PIPE Volume 1 Number 4 May 1986 SkyFox and Arti ctox Reviewed Build your own 51 4 Drive Connector By Ernest Vtveiros Amiga Basic Tips by Rich Wirch Scrimper Part One by Perry Klvolowrtz A C program to print your Amiga screen McrosoftCDROM Conference by Jim O'Keane Amiga BBS Numbers Volume 1 Number 5 19B6 The Hsl to RGB Conversion Tool by Steve Plelrowicz a basic program for color manipulation AmigaNotee by Rick Raa The first of Ihe Amiga music columns Sidecar A First Look by John Foust A first 'under the hood* look at the IBM cornpatbie
hardware J ohn Foust Talks with R. J. Mlcol at COMO ET“ How does Sidecar affect the Transformer an Interview will Dougins Wyman of Simile The Commodore Layoffs by John Foust John looks at the 'cuts' at Commodore Scrimper Part Two by Perry Krvolowitz Marauder reviewed by Rick Wirch Building Tools by Daniel Kary Volume 1 Number 61936 Temple of Apehai Triology reviewd by Stephen Piskrowicz The Haliey Project: A Maaion in our Solar System reviewed by Stephen Piet owlez Flow: reviewed by Erv Bobo Textereft Ptus a Bret Look by Joe Lowery How to start your own Amiga User Group by William Simpson
Amiga Uaer Group* MeiGng List by Kelly Kauflman a basic rail list program Pointer Imsga Editor by Stephen Pleirowicz Scrimper: part three by Perry Kivoicwfz Fun Wilh the Amiga Diak Controller by Thom Sterling Optimize Your AmlgaBaale Programe for Speed by Stephan Pielrowta Volume 1 Number 71986 Aegla Drew: CAD cornea to the Amiga by Kelly Adams Try 3D by Jim Meadows an Introduction to 30 graphics Aegis Images Animator: a review by Erv Bobo Deluxe Video Construction Set rwiewed by Joe Lowery Window requesters In Amlg* Basic bySteve Michel ROT by Colin French a 3D graphics editor ‘1C Whst I
Think" Ron Peterson with a tow C graphic programs Your Menu Ski by Bryan D. Catley programming menues in Amiga Basic IFF Brush Id Amlg •Basic' BOB' editor by Michael Swinger Convert IFF Brush Fllee lor use wth Amiga Basic Linking C Programs with Assembler Routines on the Amiga by Gerald Hull Volume 1 Number81966 The University Amiga By Gecfl Gamble Amiga's inroads at Washington Stale University Micro Ed a bok at a one man army for Ihe Amiga McroEd, The Lewis and Clark Expedition reviewed by Robert Frizelie Scribble Version 2.0 a review Computers in the Classroom by Robert Frizelie Twofer Study
by Robert Frizelie a review of Discovery and The Talking Coloring Book True Basic reviewed by Brad Grief Using your printer with the Amiga Marble Madness reviewed by Stephen Pletrowta Using Fonts from AmlgaBaale by Tim Jones Screensaver by Perry Krvolowitz A monitor protection program In C Lattice MAKE Utility reviewed by Scott P. Evernden A Taie of Three EMACS by Steve Poling. Bmap Rie Reader In Ami g a Bneic by Tim Jones A look into the.bmap files Volume t Numbers 1966 Instant Music Reviewed by Steve Pretrawrez MndwaBter Reviewed by Richard Knopper The Ategra Memory Board Reviewed by Rich
Wirch TxEd Reviewed by Jan and Cliff Kent Amazing Directory A gude to Ihe sources and resources Amiga Developers A listing of Suppliers and Developers Public Domain Catalog A condensed listing of Amicus and Fred Fish PDS Disks Dos 2 Dos review by Richard Knepper Transfer files Irom PC MS-DOS and AmigaBask: MaxIPtan review by Richard Knopper The Amiga versor of Lckur 1 -2-3 Grxmoz by reviewed by Peter Wagner A collection of Amiga extras I The Loan Information Program by Brian Catley basic prog, to lor your financial options Starting Your Own Amiga Related Business by Wiliam Simpson The possble
ways lo establish your business.
Keep Track of Your Business Usage for Taxes By James Hummer A program to justify your Amiga lo the IRS The Abeoft Amiga Fortran Compiler reviewed by Richard A. Reale Use your valuable Fortran programs.
Using Fonts from AmigaBssic, Part Two by Tim Jones The Amiga Baste program outlined last issue 66000 Macros on the Amiga by Gerald Hull Actvance your program's ability.
Tdf Modta-2 Amiga Compiler by Steve Faiwszewski Looking at an alternative to C and Forth.
To Be Continued Your Resource to the Commodore Amiga™ Plus, don't forget our regular columns: The Amicus Network (a "Newsletter" of the Amiga Computer Users) AmigaNotes (a music column) ROOMERS (an insider's look at the Amiga Development Community) Forth!
The Amazing C Tutorial Amazing Computing has been offering the Amiga community the best in technical knowledge and reviews for the Commodore-Amiga™ since our first issue in Febuary 1986.
We were the first magazine to document CLI We were the first to show Sidecar™ from COMDEX™ in full detail.
We were the first to document a 51 4 drive connector We were the first magazine to offer serious programming examples and help.
We were the first magazine to offer Public Domain Software at reasonable prices.
We were the first magazine with the user in mind!
However, Amazing Computing™ will not rest on past achievements. The Commodore-Amiga™ has more surprises for you and we are ready to cover them. We even have a few tricks that will "Amaze11 you.
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AMICUS: A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 AS A9 A10 All A12 A13 A14 Fred Fish: FF1 FF2 FF3 FF4 FF5 FF6 FF7 FF8 FF9 FF1D FF11 FF12 FF13 FF14 FF15 FF16 FF17 FF1S FF19 FF20 FF21 FF22 FF23 FF24 FF23 FF26 FF27 FF28 FF29 FF30 FF31 FF32 FF33 FF34 FF35 FF36 FF37 FF38 FF39 FF40 BACK ISSUES: $ 4.00 each VOL.Ill VOL.1*2 VOL.113 VOL.114 VOL.115 VOL.116 VOL.II7 VOL.118 VOL.149
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Warren Block Modula-2 is causing quite a stir in the
microcomputer industry. Some people are swearing by it,
others, just at it.
Programmers are unsure abobtihis latest language of Niklaus Wirth (creator of Pascal), a darkness covers the land, and swarms of bugs happily chew their way through even the most trivial programs.
...for the Ami (of course Much of the confusion isduetothegeneral lack of experience with Modula-2.1 was curious about this language, because the only other general-purpose compilers available for the Amiga (so far) are for the C language. AmigaBASIC Is good, but I wanted a compiler language, and, having seen the unreadable chicken tracks of C, I hoped that I would not have to resort to it for programming projects.
It was at this point that I saw a "pre-release" Modula-2 compiler included in a list of programs from the ubiquitous Fred Fish public domain library. According to the description, the compiler was from ETHZ, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology — where the language was actually developed by Wirth himself!
That "if it's too good to be true, it probably isn't" feeling crept into my mind, but I ordered the disk and waited hopefully for its arrival. What I received a short time later was at the same time both less and more than I had expected.
Overall Ail the Modula-2 programs that are created with this system are executable only with a loader program (called "ALoad") that is included on the disk. In fact, the compiler itself is executed by Aload. Also on the disk are libraries that allow programs to interface with AmigaDOS, Intuition, and the ROM Kernel routines The libraries ReallnOut (for input and output of real numbers) and MathLibO (math routines like sine and cosine) are both missing, however, and several procedures in InOut (basic input output routines) are unimplemented.
More on this in a moment.
Since Readint (read an integerfrom the keyboard) is also missing, I decided to test Moduia-2's power by writing these routines myself. After several trials and tribulations (after all, I am new to this), I was finally successful, and the results of my efforts can be seen in Listings 1 and 2.
With the addition of these routines, it becomes practical to "get the feel" of Modula-2 with this compiler and a good book like 'Modula-2: A Seafarer's Guide and Shipyard Manual,'by Edward Joyce. The combined cost of these two items is less than thirty dollars, the loss of which would be much easier to bear than $ 150 for a compiler you may not like.
Using The System To illustrate the use of this collection of programs, let’s step through the procedure of compiling the new Readint and Writelnt routines. Two files are necessary: Extra. MODand Extra.DEF. The file Extra.MOD contains the actual routines, while Extra.DEF describes them to the compiler.
Both files are ordinary text files, and can be created with ED, the AmigaDOS text editor, or any normal text editor.
MicroEMACS, on AMICUS disk 9 from PiM Publications, is an excellent alternative. It should be noted that both the Aload program and the compiler are case sensitive, so the file names should appear exactly as presented.
To run the system correctly requires a potential Modula-2 programmer to make a custom disk — see the text box "Creating a Modula-2 Disk."
After rebooting the Amiga with the new disk, move the mouse pointer into the Aload window, click the Select (left) mouse button to activate rt, and type "M4PM" to run the compiler. Aload will display a list of files as it loads them. It is a "smart" program and keeps track of what modules have been loaded, so they are loaded only once, residing in memory from then on.
The compiler itself seems to support most of the standard features of Modula-2. You can use real variables, but, without ReallnOut, there is no way to enter or display them. If you just want to see what the language is about, this is no problem, but it badly hampers any "serious" programming.
Unimplemented procedures in InOut are an even greater problem: rather than printing an integer on the screen, Writelnt displayed "Wrlteint not yet implemented." The lack of this procedure prevented programs from giving any numerical output at all!
After loading has completed, the compiler will stop and wait singlemindedly for the filename of a source file. Type "Extra.DEF" and press RETURN. When the compilation has finished, type "Extra.MOD" and press RETURN. If there are errors, a message will appear on the screen, and the error listing will be placed in a file called "err.LST" which can be displayed from AmigaDOS with the Type command. Either way, you are ready to leave the compiler. Press ESC and the space basto return to Aload.
If the modules compiled without errors, everything is ready to go, but, if there were problems (sigh), move the mouse pointer into a CL1 window and click the Select mouse button to activate it. To display the errors, type "Type err.LST" and press RETURN.
Sizes: Prices: $ 9.50 $ 15.00 Then go back into the Aload window, type "M4PM" to get back to the compiler, and try again. Once the Extra files have been compiled without errors, enterthe program shown in Listing 3. Htest.MOD" will test the new library routines Writelnt and Readlnt, as well as provide an example of a small but complete program in this Modula-2 system. It is entered and compiled just like the Extrafiles. Once the process has been completed, just type "Test" at the Aload prompt to execute the program.
Sometimes Aload’s "smartness" will work against it (and you).
Consider the rather common occurrence of modifying a program that has already been compiled and executed successfully. After you have compiled the new version of your program, attempts to execute it will re-run the old one — since Aload already has an object module of the correct name already in memory, it sees no need to load the new one.
An inelegant (but workable) solution is to leave Aload by typing CTRL-2 (or CTRL- 2) and pressing RETURN. Then rerun Aload by typing its name at the CLI prompt. Now you can type the name of your modified program, and the new version will load and execute.
(Another of the compiler’s problems will appear here, that being that error messages are numbers only. These are probably listed in a book somewhere, but I haven't found it yet, so the ones I believe i have identified are shown in Table
1.) Correct the errors with yourfavorite text editor.
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Maybe... The ease with which [added two routines to the libraries of this compiler demonstrated (1o me, anyway) just what Modula- 2 is capable of. The new Readlnt and Writelnt can be used by all new programs — instant modularity! The public domain compiler, despite itsfauits, provides a good opportunity to sample Modula-2 inexpensively. Several programs on the disk demonstrate the language's capacity to interface with the Amiga system, so it is also in the interest of more advanced programmers to obtain this system.
As to my original purpose in obtaining the system (finding out if I could live with the language), well, after working with it for three days, I ordered a commercial Modula-2 compiler!
Table 1 Compiler error codes and their meanings, deduced from the context they occurred in (yes, i know what you're thinking!).
This is definitely not a conclusive list, but the messages listed are those that occur most often. Due to my lack of information, I can't verify the validity of these assumptions, butthey should be of some assistance.
Conclusions At present, this public domain Modula-2 system has some faults, but it also has a large amount of potential. If programmers design modules like ReallnOut and MathLibO and contribute them to the public domain, it will have even greater value. Ifiheauthorsofthesystem could be convinced to write a linker that creates object modules that will run on the Amiga without Aload, there would be very few, if any, limits to what could be accomplished with it.
Humber1 Probable Meaning 10 Identifier expected 11 Syntax error 34 Unfinished statement 45 Expected 50 Undefined identifier 112 Overflow 117 Tyoe mismatch Since this is only a "pre-release" version of the compiler, one can only imagine what the final version will be like. I urge those generous folks at ETHZto hurry-Ihe software-starved Amiga community is definitely ready for it.
Software sources The public domain Modula-2 system is on disk 24of the Fred Fish publicdomain library. Yourlocal user group might have this disk. If not, it is available from PiM Publications. Check the public domain catalog in this issue of Amazing Computing.
Creating a Modula-2 disk It is much easier to use this system if you have created a custom disk exclusively for it. Here I will describe the steps necessary to create a bootable Modula-2 system disk. Your Amiga must have 512K of RAM, but only one diskdrive is required.
The first step is to make a copy of the norms! Workbench disk. Boot the Amiga with the Kickstart disk, then load the Workbench disk. Enterthe CLI (Command Line Interface) by pressing CTRL-D when the words "Release 1,1" appearer the screen, or bydouble-clicking the CLI icon in the System directory. When the "1 " prompt appears, type Diskcopy df0: to df0: and follow the prompts displayed by the Diskcopy program.: When the process is completed, press CTRL and the two "Amig a" keys at the same time to re-boot the computer with the newly-made copy of the Workbench disk in the drive.
From now on, well call this the "working disk."
Get back into the CLI by whichever method you prefer, and Li prepare to begin deleting files, Delete all files and directories except the following directories: c, I, devs, s, libs, and fonts.
This will take some time, and since AmigaDOS will not let you delete a directory that's not empty, you will have to use CD (change directory) to move about in the directories and delete ali the unwanted files before you can remove their parent directories.
The working disk is now only about half full, so there will be plenty of room for Modula-2programs. Let’s give it a name that distinguishes it from an ordinary Workbench disk: Relibel df0: Modula-2 The Modula-2 compiler expects all files to be found on a device called "M2:”, so we'll create directory 10 keep them all together: Makedir M2 The disk is now prepared, and it's time to start copying prog rams from the publicdomain disk onto it. First, Aload: Copy AmigaLibDisk24: Modula-2 c Aload: to RAM: Followthe on-screen prompts for switching disks. When; completed, replace the working disk in
the drive and type: Copy RAM: ALoad to: c Delete RAM:?
Aload is now ready to run, so let's give it something to run.. This command will copy all the Modula-2 files from the public domain disk to the RAM: device (it will also take quite a while): Copy AmigaLibDiak24: Modula-2 M2; to RAM: Again, followthe screen prompts. After it finishes, replace the working disk and type: Copy RAM: to M2 to copy all the files onto it.
At this point, the disk is almost ready. All that is needed now is a startup batch file to automatically set up the system when the disk is booted. Use the following sequence of commands to create it: Copy * to a Startup-Sequanc* Assign M2:: M2 CD M2 Stack 10000 NewCLI "C08:0 100 640 100 0ne Pass Modula-2" Aload Sequence in the s directory. When you have completed, type CTRL-V (the CTRL and backslash keys) to quit.
The Modula-2 disk is now complete. Allthe Modula-2 programs, including the compiler, will reside in the M2 directory of this disk. All that remains is the addition of the files Extra.DEF, Extra.MOD, and Test. MODtothisdirectory. Listing One.. (? Extra.DEF: Dafinition oodula for Writalnt and Raadlnt*) DEFINITION MODULE Extra; FROM InOut IMPORT Writa, RaadString; PROCEDURE Writalnt (x: INTEGER; a: CARDINAL); PROCEDURE Raadlnt (VAR x: INTEGER); END Extra.
Ustins Two (? Extra.MOD: Implamantation for Writalnt and Raadlnt *) IMPLEMENTATION MODULE Extra; FROM InOut IMPORT Writa, RaadString; PROCEDURE Writalnt (x: INTEGER; a: CARDINAL); VAR Indax, Start: CARDINAL; OutString: ARRAY[1..7] OF CHAR; Nag: BOOLEAN; Powar, Tamp: INTEGER; BEGIN (* Initializa variablaa *) OutString: — '1; (* Claar out string atoraga *) Powar: — 10000; (* Intagara aran't 32768, ao ATARI *) (* with 10000's digit *) Start: — l; (* Actual poa of nun chars in string *) (* Ram whathar or not tha orig numbar waa nagativa *) ir (ABS(x) x) THEN Nag: — TRUE; ELSE Nag: — FALSE; END; (* IF *)
(* Wa'll taka car of nag numbs tatar (yaah, right). *) x: — ABS(x); (* Convart tha numbar to a string *) FOR Indax: — l TO 5 DO T«ap: — x DIV Powar; (* Tigura digit *) OutString[Indax): — CHR(Tamp+48); (* Put in tha string*) x: — x-(Tamp*Povar); (* Subtract it from x *) Powar: — Powan DIV 10; (* Mova on to tha naxt ona. *) END; (* TOR *) (* Sat Start ao wa skip all tha landing zaroa *) WHILE (OutString[Start) — "0") AND (Start 5) DO INC(Start); END; (* WHILE *) (* Print tha minus sign, if naadad *) IF Nag THEN WritaC-'); END; (* ir *) (* Print out tha whola, uh, bit *) FOR Indaxr-Start TO 5 DO
Writa (OutString[Indax]); END; (* FOR *) END Writalnt; PROCEDURE Raadlnt (VAR x: INTEGER); VAR Indax Nag, NotANumbar Tamp InString CARDINAL; BOOLEAN; INTEGER; ARRAY[1..7] OT CHAR; BEGIN (* Initialixo variablaa *) x: — 0; (* Bagin calculations with x-zilch (* Allow ona apaca for minus sign, if praaant *) ir Nag AND (a 0) THEN DEC (a); END; (* ir *) (* Pad out raaf of fiald with apacaa if nacaaaary *) WHILE ((5-Start+l) a) AND (a 0) DO Writa 1 DEC (a); END; (* WHILE *) NotANumbar: — FALSI; (* Ain't Boolwa variablaa great? *) Indai:.2; (* Skip tha first Input char, because tha *) * following CAS
I at at ament will work over *) (* Read tha Input string *) RaadString (InString); (* Whether tha Input waa auppoaad to be poa or not *) CASE InString (1] Or: Nag:*TRDI; x: ”0; | " + ": Nag: — FALSE; x: — 0; I: Nag:»raise; x: R0 (InString [1)) -48; MOUSEWASH IS A SPECIALLY DESIGNED BALL WHICH:
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MOUSE WASH $ 7.95~SAVIT $ 14.95 $ 2.00 SHIPPING $ 3.00 FOR C.O.D. T & L PRODUCTS 2645 Wilson Street Carlsbad, CA 92008 (619) 729-4020 ™of Electronic Arts Corrections: In Volume 1 Number 9 the following items should be noted: Listings The article titled "68000 Macros on the Amiga" by Gerald Hull, contained several errors in the printed listings and a missed listing due to a confusion of revisions. Until a reprint of these listings is available, an electronic copy of the code is available by sending your request, a blank disk, and $ 1.00 for postage and handling to our corporate offices. The complete
code will be available with many other programs on a future AMICUS Disk.
Crystal Computer Inc. The Advertisement for Crystal Computer Inc.'s Mouse Trap Static Trapping Mouse Pad (page 63) should have read, “... because it’s not made of foam, you can write over it when your mouse is not in use."
ELSE (* Juxt in ca*« th«y typ*d southing nx. ty *) x: — 0; END; (* CANE *) Loop through xtring, xviluxting aa wa go... *) REPEAT CASE InHtring[Indart OF "0".„"9": x:«x*10+VAL(IirriaER, ORD(InBtring[Ind«x])) — 48; NotANumbxr: — FALSE;
* “: NotANunbar: — raise; | else NotANunbar: “TROTS; END; (* CASE
») INC(Indax); UNTIL NotANumbar; (* Bat you thought I forgot to
&aka it tha *) (* contact sign. But I didn't, ao thana. *) ir
Nag THEN x: x; END; (* IF *) END Raadlnt; END Extra.
Listing Three._ (* Taat.MOD: taat Writelnt and Raadlnt procaduraa *) MODULE Toat; FROM InOut IMPORT Writa, WritaLn, WritaString; FROM Extra IMPORT Raadlnt, Writalnt; VAR Number; INTEGER; BEGIN Writa (CHR (12)); (* Claar acraan *) WritaLn; WritaString ('Taata Raadlnt and Writalnt procaduraa.'); WritaLn; WritaLn; REPEAT WritaLn; WritaString ('Entar an intagar (0 to quit):'); Raadlnt (Nienhar); WritaLn; WritaString ('Your numbar waa: '); Writalnt (Numbar,0); (* Raplaca 0 with a fiald width *) WritaLn; UNTIL Numbar-0; WritaLn; WritaLn; WritaString ('Program complatad. Thank you.'); WritaLn; WritaLn;
END Taat.
• AC- Harve Laser In John Foust's AMICUS Network column, the
photographs of the WCCA were contributed by Harve Laser the
host Sysop on the People Link™ Amigazone. We appreciate Harve's
dedication and appologize for not crediting him in the issue.
A Look at Some... MIDI Interfaces "If you are about to buy one, this month's column may help a bit."
By Richard Roe CIS 72177,3516 Now that several MIDI oriented packages are shipping, I thought it would be worthwhile to take a look at the available interfaces. If you are about to buy one, this month's column may help a bit.
In mid-summer I sent out an open call for information on MIDI interfaces via several networks. I also phoned all the manufacturers! Knew and informed them of the upcoming article. The ground rules were simple: anyone who wanted to be listed was to send me, on editorial loan, a production MIDI interface exactly as it would be shipped 1o the customer; prototypes were not acceptable. As the deadline drew near I called everyone I had not heard from and reminded them that they would not be included unless I received an interface.
This listing is the final result. I am sorry to say that several companies did not come through, and they are NOT listed here. I have a reasonable amount of patience with slipped release dates and empty delivery promises, but this is a listing of what is available NOW. I have seen these, touched them, used them. They work, every one of them, exactly as advertised.
On the other hand, I am sure there are a few companies I was not able to track down, and to them I suggest contacting me so I can run an updated listing later.
So, onward... ECE R&D CORPORATION This interface is unique in that it provides a serial port feedthrough. This can be of great convenience to anyone who uses a modem (or serial whatever) and a MIDI interface, since they must share the serial port.
The interface is housed in a small black and cream plastic box.
The back panel sports MIDI In, Out, and Through ports, as well as a serial input and output. The serial input is on a 16” long hardwired ribbon cable; this is long enough to place the ECE MIDI on top of your second drive or on either side of the computer.
A front panel switch selects MIDI or RS232 operation; in the latter position the serial input and output ports are interconnected, with the MIDI ports bypassed. This means you don't have to unplug your modem every time you want to use the MIDI interface. As time passes and buss oriented ports become available this feature may lose value, but for the immediate future it is a handy addition. Without this switch, "MIDI Elbow" — a condition stemming from reaching around your Amiga to plug and unplug your MIDI interface -
- might become fashionable. Of course, you could always buy an AB
switch and do the same thing... for more money.
One point which ECE doesn't mention is that, even with the switch in the RS232 position, the MIDI Through port remains active as long as the computer is on. This allows you to play slave synthesizers from your master keyboard even if you are not using any MIDI software.
GOLDEN HAWK TECHNOLOGY This interface is without question the Rolls Royce of the group, it is housed in a remarkably sturdy (and heavy!)
Meta! Cabinet. The unit is painted black and beige, and silk screened with a very nice legend.
RS232 input is via a DB25 connector on the rear panel; a 35" serial cable is provided, which allows you to place the unit just about anywhere. The front panel houses MIDI In, two MIDI Outs, and a Sync out. The second output can be handy when using synthesizers without Through jacks; it can help avoid the purchase of a Through Box.
The Sync output is not a MIDI port, although it uses the same type of jack. This output can drive external drum machines or sequencers, but the software being used must support this output; the signals are not developed from the MIDI dals stream.
Simulator for the AMIGA 512K Only $ 24.95 THE ECE MIDI comes with a single folded sheet of instructions and a warranty card; the warranty period is one year. The retail price is $ 59.95. ECE Research and Development Corporation 1651 North Monroe Street Tallahassee, FL 32303 904-681-0786 Now play BLACKJACK on your AMIGA just like you were in Nevada. Deals up to nine players using a simulated shuffled deck. The program actually analyses and reports on your progress during the game so you can mathematically build your own system of betting and winning. With Hi res graphics and color, its like
you're playing with genuine cards. The instructions are built into the program so there are no manuals to lose.
BLACKJACK is educationally recommended for helping children with their addition.
Dealer inquiries invited. Free shipping in the U. S Send $ 24.95 to: THE SOFTWARE FACTORY 4574 Linda Vista Boise, ID 83704
(208) 322-4958 The obvious quality of this interface carries over
to the user's manual, which is the most comprehensive of
the lot. 32 pages in length, it includes a seclion on
installation, connector pinouts, schematic, theory of
operation, and information on driving the interface with
software. Sample source code in C shows howto interface to
both the MIDI and Sync ports.
Also included is source code for a very rudimentary MIDI recorder. An updated version of this program is also available on disk from Gofden Hawk Technology for $ 6.00. Considering the amount of typing required to enter the program, I'd paraphrase the punch line from an old joke: "Pay the man the six dollars". Or, since the program has been declared public domain, you could obtain a copy from a friend.
This demo program contains a wealth of information on interfacing to MIDI and the serial port, reading and writing disk information, and talking to the CZ101 synthesizer, in practical terms the record piayback function is very rudimentary: you can record and play back note events, and save to and load from disk. You cannot modify the tempo, edrt the recording, or even record pitchbends or patch changes. For a hacker, however, this source code could be a jump point for creating a truly useful recorder.
More valuable to the typical user are the patch functions. If you own a CZ101, the demo program will provide disk storage for both individual patches and entire banks. In addition, the disk contains 36 patches for the CZ101, plus the standard internal bank and a bank from the Music Studio disk. I didn't have easy access to a CZ while writing this column so I wasn't able to sample any of the patches, but someof the names sounded intriguing.
The warranty period is one year, and the Golden Hawk interface retails for $ 79.95 Golden Hawk Technology 427-3 Amherst Street Suite 389 Nashua, NH 03061 603-882-7198 MIMETICS, INC. if the Golden Hawk interface is a Rolls Royce, then the Mimetics interface is a sports car: small and elegant.
The hardware folks at Mimetics seem to have miniaturization down to an art. Their sound sampler is the smallest I've seen, and the same is true of their MIDI interface, in fact, upon opening the box you may wonder where the interface is, until you realize that it is the cable itsetl. They managed to shrink the circuitry to the point that it could be housed inside the DB25 hood. The entire device consists of three 13’ DIN cables (in, Out, and Through) tied to a DB25 connector.
The unit I received came without any instructions or warranty card. The Mimetics interface retails for $ 49.00. Mimetics, Inc. PO Box 60238, Station A Palo Alto, CA 94306 408-741-0117 MIDI-DESIGNS This interface can best be described as... well, "industrial". It is housed in an extremely heavy, welded metal box which is painted machine grey. I get the impression you could drive over this interface with a Mack truck and it wouldn't be phased in the least.
MIDI In, Out, and Through jacks are mounted on the back panel. A 19 inch serial cable is hardwired to the interface; as with the other interfaces, this is long enough to place the box on either side of the computer.
The MIDI-Designs interface comes with a single page of instructions and a warranty card; the warranty period is one year. Retail price is $ 49.95.
J. Michaels Company 2232 Summit Street Columbus, OH 43201
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As stated, these are the interfaces that (actually have on hand. There are three more reported to exist, and a couple more being designed. I will keep you posted as I receive information.
— ac- m d COMPARISON CHART MANUFACTURER RETAIL sizGihmm m OUT
THRU sync ECE R&D Cofp.
$ 59.95
1. 75x3.25x5.25 1 1 1 1 Golden Hawk $ 79.95
1. 40x5.70x3.25 1 2 1
J. Michaels Co.
$ 49.95
1. 50x3.75x4.20 1 1 1 Mimetics $ 49.00 N A- see text 1 1 1
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Easily design input forms and output reports with the mouse and pull-down menus. Just as simply — store, sort, review and print. The file size is limited only by disk space and the format is compatible with the industry standard dbase format.
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See pur local dealer or call: Brown-Wagh Publishing MICROSYSTEMS SOFTWARE, INC. 4301-18 OAK CIRCLE, BOCA RATON, FL 33431 INFL.CALL (305)391-5077 VISA, MASTERCARD For Nearest Dealer Call 1-800-327-8724 1-800-451-0900 1-408-395-3838 6n California) 16795 lark Avc., Suite 210, Los Gatos. CA 95030 Wordstar is a trademark of Micropro International Amiga is a registered trademark of Commodore-Amiga. Inc Amazing Reviews... ROUNDHILL COMPUTER SYSTEMS' "...a generalized data entry programming system, including a set of programs that can function as a simple stand-alone application."
Reviewed by Ray Lance 'PANEL' is described in a Lattice ad as 'Screen Layout Utilities'. However, it is somewhat more than that: a generalized data entry programming system, including a set of programs that can function as a simple stand-alone application.
The 'PANEL' package consists of 2 diskettes, in the version
6. 20 reviewed here, and a 229 page manual in the standard 5x7
dark blue Lattice binder, sans box. The manual is a fairly
thorough reference document, including a reasonable 10 page
index and a 5 page pull-out programming function reference
card.
The primary target machine is, of course, the IBM PC, with the preferred language being C. 'PANEL' was designed to be portable, however, and the documentation indicates it largely achieves that goal. Unix and work-alike environment compatibility is paramount, with a PANELTC program to interface to the termcap terminfo systems of cursor addressing.
Special considerations are given to the 'almost' IBM PC compatibles Wang, Tl, HP150, and Victor 9000 Sirius 1 ACT Apricot. The success of the portability design goal might be judged by the Amiga version, which functions quite nicely, but is not "Amiga-ized", except in trivial ways, with the menu button selecting an option to show the title bar, permitting the back and front gadgets and therefore accessibility to the multi-tasking capability of the Amiga. There are also sections on inter- facing to MS-FORTRAN and MS-BASIC.
The 'PANEL'system is comprised of these main elements:
1) A Tailoring sub-system, consisting of the programs PCMU, which
selects the screen colors; TAILOR, which selects the operating
environment; PANELTC and the PANEL.VDU file generated by it,
KEYBOARD and VDUGENC. Of these, PANELTC is only available for
environments using termcaps, and only the PCMU program is
available for the Amiga.
Any deeper customization for the Amiga must be done in the PNL1Cx5C. C low-level drivers module and or in the configuration files 'puleolors’, 'paiatt', or 'pnlmode'. The 'puleolors' file may be edited with PCMU, which shows the colors as they're changed, or with any text editor.
2) A screen editor, PANEL, and a screen test facility, PANTEST.
Source is provided for PANTEST, but not for the editor itself,
PANEL. Input and display fields are specified in up to 10
levels'. A level is a separate screen overlay of the fields
specified for it. As many as 127 levels may be used by a
program, but only 10 are used in PANEL Input fields may be
defined to be validated at Ihe character and or field level
using any of several validation routines, including multiple
selection pop-up menus or step-through... continued Ray Lance
is a New York City consultant with 19 years' experience in
data processing systems (or the financial news business,
primarily securities prices and their analysis for traders,
and communications protocols and drivers.
Displays. Help messages for each input field may be anything from simple one-liners to any of the boxes, menus, and even spoken messages on the Amiga.
3) Code generation facilities: the programs VDUGENC (mentioned
above as part of the Tailoring component, and not provided in
the Amiga version) and PANGENE, which generates. h and. c
files from the.PNL file created by PANEL.
These C source code modules can be compiled and linked with user application code and customizations of the validation routines and even low-leve! Drivers to produce totally stand-aione applications. Or the application can load the.PNL file at run time, as the developer wishes.
4) Run-time subroutines in library form, with source for the
character and field validation routines for further user
customization as needed.
5) A data management program, PD, for which the source is
provided. However, this program uses the C-Tree B++ ISAM
package from Faircom for which the library functions are not
supplied — they must be obtained separately or another
index access method used. It cannot be linked as supplied and
supports only 1 screen level (although up to 10 key fields),
thus limiting the capabilities of any stand-alone application.
Fields may be specified as having 'attributes' of no-input, key- field, upper-case, echo, CR-required, wipe, right-justify, integer, currency, and user-defined.
In addition, each field may have 'extended attributes' of help message and or box (and or narration on the Amiga), character list of valid characters, picture validation, values list (which may be matched, or displayed in a step-through fashion or a pop-up menu), borders and numeric field validations. Colors and highlighting methods are selectable for each field, as well as user-customizable character and field validation routines. Even though these attributes might seem like a lot, there could be more.
For instance, there are (very fixed format) European and American date validation routines, but no time stamping. The currency support merely gives an automatic two decimal places, but no thought of various currency symbols; true currency support is a much more complicated issue, as is the whole subject of international date standards.
One of the numeric field extended attribute functions permits specifying format prints strings, though, so specific examples can be handled. Warning: it is possible to bomb the system by attempting illegal format mismatches.
There are five 'exits' from each field, at which the user may customize the validation processing: at the key-code, at the data value, at the field value, after that to specify alternate paths through the fields, and before and after each field.
These are driven through a function pointer table, making additions, deletions and even on-the-fly changes easily accomplished.
Although PANEL only supports 10 screen levels, up to 127 may be used by a program. Levels are used to permit overlapping menus and fields. And if that's not enough, multiple panels may be accommodated by concatenating.PNL files, indexing them with the 'pnlindex' program, and loading via the PAMULT function. Panels may be compiled into your program (by running 'pangenc' and linking the compiled output with your program) or loaded at runtime via the PALOAD function.
The supplied "colour" scheme was found to be quite annoying, (That's the only British spelling noticed in the manual.) Even more annoying, though, is the lack of documentation, either in the PCMU program or in the manual, of what the eight colors are used for. This made it difficult to get the screen colors to something tolerable until it was discovered that the cursor color is the eighth (kept getting the screen and cursor colors too close, and there is no cursor in the PCMU program to permit this result to be noticed).
When multi-tasking the PANEL and PANTEST programs was first attempted for this review, 512K was insufficient memory to run both. The second program loaded chewed up all memory, and required rebooting the Amiga, since there was no way to exit the program, such as pressing CTRCC or clicking in the close box.
Removing an extra CLI shell program I use resolved the problem. This arrangement made development and testing of screen panels much quicker, although it's apparently somewhat marginal. I don't know how complicated a panel would again use up all available memory.
Working in this environment would be a real pleasure if the cursor could be moved by the mouse. Moving the cursor via repeated keypresses is just too slow. Having the attribute selectors available from the menu-bar in true Amiga fashion would also be an improvement, although the help key displays fairly helpful description screens everywhere a function key (not data) is required.
Printing of screens for documentation purposes is handy via PANTEST, but the same full screen print mechanism is all that exists in the PD program. So, to get even a reasonable listing of a file, one would have to construct special panels consisting of repeatedly merged lines of input only fields There is a merge function in PANEL which could be used.
Unwieldy at best; much better to just write your own file print program.
There are a couple of "strangenesses." It doesul seem appropriate to call them bugs until an explanation, or lack of one, is forthcoming. After writing a PNL file from the PANEL program, there is an opportunity to change the order of input field selection, or leave it the same as the fields were entered in the screen. The sense of the horizontal and vertical scan selections seems to be reversed.
Also, a single character input field lacking a "CR-required” terminates attribute skips to next field without waiting for the data character after its help message is requested. ("CR required " terminates means the field is finished when the last character is entered.)
Support The first time I called Lattice, I actually spoke to a technical support person who promised to call back with answers to my questions. They also gave the direct phone number into technical support. After calling this very busy number and the main switchboard number a half-dozen times in the next week, and never again speaking to anyone in technical support, I finally concluded it might be better to try the BIX network.
So, I joined the lattice utilities' interest group, and read all 93 messages since May 29. Forty-four were 'PANEL' related. It is supported, well and promptly, not by Lattice, but from Roundhill in England. Version 6.20d reached the US during the week of July 11, In message 66, a bug fix is given for freeing memory allocated by a help box, Several other of the messages are worth reading for general background and flavor of specific problems that other users encounter.
100% Add purchase price refund if not COMPLETELY satisfied!
$ 3.50 for shipping S hand ling SUNSMILE SOFTWARE 533 FARGO AVE.
BUFFALO. NY 14213 716 805 5670 I think, after this experience, and some thought on the matter, that this approach solves the support issue quite nicely for both the supplier and the user. I was initially reluctant to try it, but on reflection, I would have probably spent more, and gotten less real information with phone calls to Lattice. I remain quite annoyed, however, that Lattice never told me anything, but kept leading me on with "We'll have someone get back to you".
Documentation, and several more hacking around to get a true "feel" for the structure of the system, but the effort should be well worth it in terms of the resulting clean, robust, attractive and user-friendly data entry programs.
Summary All in all, 'PANEL' is a very powerful programmer's toolkit, permitting rapid design of data entry screens. As a system, it needs, but lacks, a thorough-going tutorial. The EXPLAIN program is only a sales spiel.
Panel from.
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Lattice C with only one disk drive By Douglas Lovell If
you're like myself, you are holding out on buying a second
disk drive for your Amiga until the hard disk market shakes
out. If you're in love with the C language, and cant wait
to sink your teeth into the Amiga's fantastic Intuition
user- interface and write some code... Well, you’re in
afix.
Working with the C compiler and one disk drive could leave you wondering whether you haven’t become a disk-switching slave to the machine you slaved to buy. The compiler, linker, libraries, include files, editor, and AmigaDOS simply do not fit together on a single disk. There is just no way to makethem fit, even if you use a much reduced set of DOS commands.
I favor the Lattice compiler as a professional compiler. When you buy your compiler, they might warn you that you should have two disk drives. I couldn't wait, however, because C programming is a love second only to my love for my spouse.
I took the plunge heedless of these warnings. 1 have built a system which lets me develop software in C with just one disk drive with a minimum of disk switching.
The general strategy is to boot with a complete DOS disk and make convenient disk volume assignments and copies, then use a second disk for editing and compiling code, and use a third disk for linking. Executable sequences and’ASSIGN’S are heavily advantaged.
You will need three formatted disks. To start, boot with your backup copy of the Workbench disk. For yourfirst disk, make a copy of this Workbench disk. You might take the precaution of write-protecting the source disk when making copies since Disk Copy doesn’t insure before writing that the disk you give it in response to the destination disk prompt isn’t in reality the source disk. This is a nasty thing to happen when you’re making yourfirst backup!
This new copy you’ve made of the Workbench will be altered a bit, mainly to enter CLI directly, without exiting to the Workbench, and with a customized startup-sequence for getting the programming environment set up.
Reboot with your new copy of the Workbench, open it, open the system drawer, then double-click the "CLI" cube.
Everything described here is done directly through the Command Line Interpreter as opposed to from the Workbench.
Unlike some operating systems, AmigaDOS commands are all disk resident. When you enter a command, and a directory path is not specified, Ihen the system looks for it in the current directory, then in the: ddirectory of the device ’SYS:’. ’SYS:’ is the Workbench disk you used to boot the computer.
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Century Systems 8033 University Ave, Des Moines, IA 5031 1 SALES 1-800-223-8088 24 HR. SERVICE 1-515-223-8088 Copy thefollowing DOS commands from the Workbench: c to RAM: Dir, Copy, Format, Relabel, Assign, Makedir, Delete, and Execute. I have renamed Execute to 'X1 in my command set because 1 use it often. Now change the default directory to RAM: using CD. Needed DOS commands are now available in RAM: and disks may bechanged independently of the system disk.
Format yourtwo additional disks. Using the 'RELABEL' command, relabelthe firs! 'WRK'which stands for "Work disk." For example: 1 RELABEL DFO: "WRK" Don't include a colon ’:' in the name you specify with Relabel or you'll never be able to specify the disk by its label. The second disk should be relabeled 'LNK', which stands for "Linker disk." Relabel your boot disk'CLI' — These are short, sweet, and descriptive names which are quick to type.
Delete the files 'Format' and 'Relabel' from the RAM: disk, since they will no longer be needed.
Now divvy up the C language files between the three disks, then write some "executable sequences" to help set up and carry out the software development cycle.
The disk labeled 'CLI' is the boot disk, and has a complete DOS command set. The ’startup-sequence’ is here, all system utilities, the system Preferences configuration, as well as all of the executable sequences used for compiling and linking. The 'startup-sequence'will copy installation, compilation, and link sequences to RAM: and make some volume label assignments.
The disk labeled 'WRK' isthe work disk, which will be in the drive most of tha time, during editing and compiling. It contains a reduced DOS command set, and the two program files of the compiler. It has the slew of Amiga 'include' files, plus your current’include' files and source files.
The disk labeled 'LNK' will only be needed at link time. It contains the linker, all libraries, and all object files.
Listing One gives a complete, directory-style rundown of each disk's contents.
There is a trick for moving files from one disk to another on a singledrive Amiga. The RAM: disk must be used as an intermediary storage location. If you try to copy directly from one disk to another, I think you will switch disks until the year
2000. I'm not certain 1he machine ever finishes a copy in this
manner because Ive never had the time to switch disks for
an hourjust to find out.
Here's the trick: Make a directory called Irans' on the "currently logged" disk, which should still be 'RAM:', if you're following along. Copy thef iles you want off the source disk into this directory. Then 'Copy'from the transitory directory to the destination disk: directory. Delete the files from RAM: trans and you’re in shape.
All of this is accomplished with the 'Copy' and 'Delete' commands resident in the current RAM: root directory. This way, no disk has to be accessed for these commands.
Remember, the RAM: disk is big, but not infinite. Keep the numberer files you transfer reasonable in number. The entire DOS command set is a reasonable limit on a system with512Kof RAM.
Dothat now. Copy the entire command set (c directory) into a transitory directory on RAM: These are for your work disk, however, Make a directory called WRK: c, using the MakeDir command, Before copying them into WRK: c, delete infrequently used commands.
Use your judgment, remembering that the commands you delete are always available on the CLI: boot disk, because of a handy device assignment, exaplined later. I keep the basic batch commands — Echo, If, Else, and Endif, and the basic DOS commands, such as Copy, Delete, Rename, Search, and of course Ed. Utilities like Install, Format, LoadWb, and such are not needed here. Every DOS command you can leave a little out will give you that much more room forthe source code you write.
Copy the compiler program files LC, LC1, and LC2from a backup of your Lattice_C distribution disk to WRK: c, via the RAM: disk.
N Copy the 'include' directory from Lattice to the 'include' directory of WRK: Make a directory called "work" on our WRK: disk. This will hold source code which you are currently working on. As your libraries grow you will want to copy finished work from this directory to other disks, both to make room on the work disk and to organize and archive what you have achieved.
Write your code in small modules which carry out a specified function and test well. Write these as if you expect to use them in dozens of programs. As you build your library of routines related to your applications, each new application will come to fruition more quickly. This is a side effect, since the primary reason to work this way is that you derive small, more or less self-contained pieces which can be tested and debugged thoroughly and then taken for granted.
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Scnc (check or money oreber for 119.95 ic: val s c(cj) t Software 2.0. 'Box 700701 San jjosc, Cft, 95170 Put the libraries and object modules supplied on the LNK: disk in like directories, along with the linker itself in the LNK: c directory.
Having the tools you need spread overthree disks could be rather a headache if it weren't for the Assign facility of Amiga DOS. Assign makes it possible to create a logical "device" which corresponds to a given disk volume and directory. In this mannerthe device DOS: can be made to referto Cll: C.
If you say, "DOS: Dir’lhe machine will ask for the Cll: disk and read the DOS command "Dir" from the cl (command) directory. Which disk does it do a directory of? Try it and see!
You have to specify disks with their labels or else the one in the drive asserts itself.
There are several devices defined by DOS at startup. They all assign to directories on the boot disk. The c directory is searched for all commands. The s directory is searched for all executable sequences. The Assign facility can be used to alter the default SYS: volume setting so that commands and sequences are searched for somewhere other than on the boot disk.
The second facility, the Execute command, ties the whole kit together. With the Execute command, a string of commands may be carried out which have been prepared in a text file.
Use Ed to create the fife.
To make this development cycle tick, we need to do a large number of Assigns. These can all be carried out at system- startup time, and an Execute-able sequence may be used to do it. There is a special sequence in the s directory of the startup disk called "startup-sequence," You should edit this file to make the needed assigns. Listing Two shows the contents of this file.
Note thatthe sequence starts by copying some commands to RAM: changing directories to RAM: and copying all of the sequences to RAM: s. Sequences which involve more than one disk, as do these, are best executed here. To make assignments to the WRK: disk from the startup-sequence, the Cll: disk would have to be swapped in before every command.
Instead, the startup-sequence does everything which needs to be done to Cll: then "chains" to a second sequence now resident in RAM: s. This sequence finishes the assignments to LNK: and to WRK: I have called this sequence "install-c" because it is a modification of that file on the Lattice distribution disk, which makes some vital assignments used to indicate to the C compiler where to locate nice things like include files.
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compiler and link command strings and sequences are so
intricate, I have chosen to automate these aspects of the
process similarly to the startup-sequence.
Lattice provides a loader called "LC.'but my personal preference has been to use my own executable sequence.
This handles the list of error flags if it is generated, or goes on to the second phase of the compiler as appropriate. In addition, it keeps tabs on intermediate files on the RAM: disk. It is good practice to have it make a copy of the newly edited source file (which I edit on RAM:) to something more permanent before proceeding with the compilation.
The advantage of having intermediate files in RAM: is that editing and compiling are just a bit snappier. The disk drive is a lumbering ox compared to the RAM: If I get another megabyte I'll let the two phases of the compiler or the include files sit in RAM: as well. I'm guessing the includes would be the most help provided they fit well into available RAM. You should leave at least 256K for programs to run in. Nearly 512K is even betterfor most programs.
The sequence file I use for compilation is simply titled "compile." I say, "x compile filename " and the sequence doestherest. I do a simifarthing forthe linker. Both sequences are shown in listing three (3).
I’ll leave with one last note about the linker, tf the RAM: disk is too full, because other applications are running, orfor whatever other reason the linker runs out of memory it will re-boot the computer. This type of thing is the primary reason to have the sequence make a minimal archiving of work in the RAM: disk before doing too much else. Beware and don't be bitten.
Now we can get down to the real work of writing software in C. SCIENTIFIC PLOTTING FOR THE AMIGA LISTING ONE: Directories of CLI: WRK: and LNK: CLI: This is a complete AMIGA DOS disk; DOS files are not listed.
Preferences CLI: Trashcan (dir) Cli: c (dir) This directory contains the entire AMIGA DOS command set, ornd Plus the Lattice Object Module Disassambler utility.
Cli: system (dir) All of the system files are included.
Cli:1 (dir) All of the "library" driver files are included.
CLI: devs (dir) This has all of the devices and the directory of printer information files, the "printers" directory included. The preferences program alters the file "system-configuration" found in this directory.
CLI: a (dir) compile Presented in listing three ica Invokes program "LC" links Simple linkage -presented in listing three dlink Multiple file link — presented in listing 3 revisions of these two files are presented in Iist2 startup-sequence install-c cli: t (dir) Some AMIGA DOS functions expect to find this directory for temporary use.
Cli: fonts (dir) AH of the fonts are included.
Cli: libs (dir) All of the "libs” files are included.
Cli: utilities (dir) All of the utilities are included.
WRK: WRK: c (dir) slink Assign CD Copy Delete Dir Echo Ed Else EndCLI Endif FailAt If lc lcl lc2 List NewCLI Run Search Skip Stack Status Type X Remember, I renamed the ’execute'command to just'x'.
WRK: work (dir) This directory contains source files which are currently under development. Archive them as they are completed. If you're real good, you'll back up this directory at the end of each work session.
WRK: includes (dir) These files are from the Lattice C distribution disks. Your own header files should go here as well.
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P. O. Box 61834 _Phoenix, AZ 85082-1834 LNK: obj (dir) Put your
own modules here. You may want to create subdirectories which
are namesakes of the libraries you may create, and which
contain the same modules as do the iibaries.
LNK: LNK: lib (dir) Your own object libraries will go here, also.
Amiga.lib c. o
lc. lib LNK: c (dir) a link LNKremd (dir) This directory holds
linker command files used with the 'alink' 'WITH'option.
LnSt2JMQ. n$ eW?nc? S This is the 'startup-sequence' file in the 's’ directory on the CLI disk.
LNK: s (dir) links LNK: t (dir) It seems no disk is complete without one. The ’execute’ command makes temporary files in the X directory.
;CLI: s startup-sequence;is executed when the CLI: disk is booted, echo " " echo "CLI C Language boot disk"; One drive system date echo " " echo "This startup sequence will require" echo " disk volumes LNK: and WRK:" echo " “ copy c assign to ram: copy c x to ram: copy c copy to ram: makedir ram: a makedir ram: t cd ram:;CLI: assignments echo "Use DOS: to access extended DOS commands."
Assign dos: eli: c echo "Use AUX: to access extended sequences."
Assign aux: clirs echo " " echo "Putting edit, compile, and link sequences in RAM:.." assign s: ram: s copy c11: b to ram: s all quiet;chain to executable in RAM: to;maka assignments to other disks.
X install-c if exists file. c echo "Making disk copy of source.
Copy fila. c to w: echo "Preprocessor..." lc: lcl file.1st -ilNCLUDE: — i INCLUDE: lattice file type file.lst;L2 if exists file. q echo "Code Generator..." delete file.lst lc: lc2 file else echo "There were errors..." echo "COMPILATION ABORTED."
Endif;li else echo "Source file not found."
Endif This is the 'install-c'script.
;RAM: s install-c (in RAM: after startup-sequence).
;this file is chained-to by CLI: s startup-sequence.
Install-C; One drive system echo "Creating Assignments..." echo " ";LNK: assignments assign link: LNK;c assign lib: lnk: lib assign obj: Ink: obj assign emd: lnk: emd;WRK: assignments assign lc: W! RK: c assign include: wrk: includes assign c: wrk: c assign w: wrk: work delete ram: assign delete ram: s startup-sequence echo " Current directory is RAM:" echo " Sequence directory is RAM: S" echo " Command directory is WRK: C" echo " " Sequences for compiler and linking.
This is the 'Compile'script. To use this file, enter"x compile fiia ".key file a;compile;work file in ram:;one drive system failat 20 echo "Compilation commenced."
;L1 This is the 'linka' script. Use this link sequence when only one object file additional to 'c. o'is required, and no libraries additbnalto ic. lib'and 'amiga.lib'..key file a;links;link individual file as executable echo "Linker..." if exists file. o link: slink from obj: c, o, file. o to file library lib:lc.lib, lib:amiga.lib else echo "File not found," endif This is the 'dlink' script. Use this link sequence when more than one object file (additional to 'c. O') is required. This is normally the case. Edit the 'WITH'file and keep it in the 'emd:' directory. Here it may be referenced to
find which files are required by any given program.
.key file a;dlink.'link using command file echo "Linker..." if exists file.cmd link: slink with emd: file.cmd else if exists mod: file. Cmd link: slink with emd: file.cmd else echo "Command file not found."
Endif endif;EOF Here is an example 'WITH'command file, called 1est1. emd;. FROM obj: c. o+testl. o+obj: intuitn. o+obj: initgraph. o* +e vents. o+pencil. o TO testl LIBRARY lib: lc. lib+lib: amiga. lib
• AC- If you have tried to do any serious development work with
C, or if you have worked with memory-intensive programs like
Aegis Draw, you have undoubtedly become acquainted with the
Amiga's biggest limitation... its lack of memory.
A Megabyte without Megabucks "For about $ 70 and an evening of hacking, you can internally expand your 512K Amiga to a full megabyte."
By Cris Erving Copyright 1986, All Rights Reserved Although 512K seems like a lot at first, it is very easy to use it all up, especially if you do a lot of graphics. The conventional solution is to go out and buy an external memory expansion board. Although these boards are nice, they cost about $ 350 and up, which puts them out of the reach of many of us impoverished Amiga users. Fortunately, there is a solution. For about $ 70 and an evening of hacking, you can internally expand your 512K Amiga to a full megabyte. A word of warning first: this hack is not supported by Commodore, and voids your
warranty. If you arent comfortable playing around inside your computer, you would probably be better off saving upfor an external board, orfinding somebody who can do the upgrade for you...ask around at your local users' group. That being said, let's start hacking!
First, you will need to get some memory chips from your favorite chip supplier. IC Express, Microprocessors Unlimited, and JDR Microdevices are good sources of memory chips.., look them up in ’Byte' or 'Computer Shopper’. You need sixteen 4464-type 256K RAM chips, rated 150 nsorfaster. These are NOT the same 256K RAM chips that the iBMPC uses... those are 41256-type RAM chips, and will NOT work in the Amiga! You will also need some wire 28-gauge wire-wrap wire is nice), eight 18-pin solder-tail sockets(NOT 16-pinl), and eight 33 ohm, 1 4 watt resistors. You will also need a low-power
soldering Iron with a very fine tip; I recommend that you use one rated under 20 watts. Radio Shack sells a decent 15-watt iron with a grounded tip for about $ 6... ask for stock number 64-2051, OK, disconnect everything from your Amiga, and lay it upside-down on a table. Unscrew the phillips-head screws that hold the top on. They are inside deep recesses, and there are 5 of them. Also remove the two smaller screws near the front of the computer, which hold on the bezel (See Photo 1). After you have done this, put a piece of tape over the holes to keep the screws from falling out, and turn the
computer rightside-up. With a flat-blade screwdriver, carefully pry the lid off the top of the computer; you will hear a pop as each of the four catches comes off.
Lift the lid off, and you will see a large metal shield (See Photo 2). Remove it; you will have 1o twist afew metal tabs to get it completely off. There are about 15 screws holding this shield on, so if it won't come off you probably missed a screw. Lift off the bezel; you will have to pull two small plastic tabs back to remove the two LED's from the bezel.
You will now see the main board, with a smaller "daughter" board piggybacked upside-down on top of the mainboard (See Photo 3). This is the Kickstart RAM board. Remove the 3 screws holding the daughter board, and carefully pry the daughter board out of its sockets by gently rocking it back and forth. Use care, as the header pins that connect the daughter board bend easily if you apply too much force.
If you look at the front and the left side of the Amiga's mother board, you will see some letters and numbers silk screened on the board. Chips on the Amiga's PC board are located at the intersection of a row number and a column letter. For example, a chip located at 1C is in the firstrow, column C. Near the expansion RAM port, you will see three IC’s — two 74F138's and a 74F399. From left to right, these It's are located at position 1H, 11, and 1J. Also, you will see the eight RAM chips on the Amiga's motherboard, located at 1B-1E and 2B-2E. These RAM chips will be marked "4464", "41464" or
"50464" (See Photo 4).
Take the eight 18-pin sockets, and clip pin 16 off of each one, as close to the socket as possible. Now, solder a socket on top of each of the RAM chips on the Amiga's PC board, making sure that the socket matches the RAM chips’ orientation. Don't use any more solder than it takes to get a good connection, and let the RAM chips cool down a few seconds between each solder joint. A solder bridge here is extremely difficult to remove, so be careful and take your time. If you did this correctly, you will have soldered all 18 pins except for pin 16, which you clipped off each socket See Photo 5)
With a pair of fine cutting pliers, CAREFULLY clip pin 3 of the two 74F138's (at 1H and 11) as close to the PC board as possible, and bend the pins up away from the PC board. IC pins are numbered counterclockwise from the notch (or dot) at one end of the chip, so pin 3 will the the third pin from the front on the right side. Do the same with pins 11 and 12 of the 74F399 at 1 J. Connect a wire between pin 3 of both 74F138's and pin 10 of the 74F399. Connect another wire between pin 12 of the 74F399 and pin 8 of the 74F399 (which should still be soldered to the PC board). Cut a wire about 8"
long, and solder it to pin 11 of the 74F399; leave the other end loose tor now. Label the loose end of this wire "A19" with a small piece of tape; this will make life easier later on (See Photo 6). Check your work before you go any further.
Take the sixteen 4464-type RAM chips you bought, and CAREFULLY cut the narrow part of pin 16 off of each chip.
Do NOT cut the pin off entirely... only cut off the narrow part!
Now comes Ihe tricky part. Solder one of these chips on top of another one, being very careful that you have them pointed the same direction. You can tell by the notch on one side. You will be soldering all pins EXCEPT for pin 16, which you clipped short. These chips are static and heat sensitive, so it's a good idea to use a grounded soldering iron and as little heat and solder as is necessary to get a good electrical connection. Be extremely careful not to accidentally create any solder bridges between the RAM chip pins, It wouldn't hurl to solderthem together over a piece of aluminum foil to
reduce static, either. Repeat the process for the other chips. What you will end up with is eight "piggybacked" RAM chip pairs, that is, eight sets of two RAM chips stacked on top of one another.
Make eight wire jumpers about 1 1 2" long. Take two of the piggybacked RAM chip "stacks", and solder a jumper from pin 16 of the top RAM chip on one of the stacks to pin 16 of the top RAM chip on the other stack. Solder a 6" wire top in 16 on one of the chips; the other end should be left free. Do the same for the bottom RAM chips. You should now have two stacks with two short wires connecting them, and two longer wires attached to them. Repeat this process for the other RAM chip stacks. When you are done, you should have four sets of two chip stacks, with each set connected by two jumpers and
each set having two longer free wires.
Insert a set of RAM chip stacks into the RAM sockets on the mother board at 18 and 1C, making sure the orientation is correct. The notches on the RAM chips should be facing towards the front of the computer. Do the same for the other three RAM chip stacks, placing them in the sockets at 1D and 1E, 2B and 2C, and 2D and 2E. Now, label the eight free wires coming from the RAM chip stacks as follows: (See Photo 7) From the Bottom RAM at 2E 2D: LC4 From the Top RAM at 2E 2D: LC6 From the Bottom RAM at 1 E 1 D: LC5 From the Top RAM at 1 E 1 D: LC7 From the Bottom RAM at 2C 2B: UC4 From the Top
RAM at 2C 2B: UC6 From the Bottom RAM at 1 C 1 B: UC5 From the Top RAM at 1 C 1 B: UC7 Take the eight 33 ohm resistors, and trim the leads of each one to about 1 4". Solder one resistor to pin 7 of the74F138 atlH. Do the same at pins 9,10, and 11. Repeat the process with the other four resistors and the 74F138 at1!.
Solder the eight wires coming from the RAM chip stacks to the free end of the eight resistors as follows (See Photos) UC7 to the resistor at 1H, pin 7 UC6 to the resistor at 1H, pin 9 UC5 to the resistor at 1H, pin 10 UC4 to the resistor at 1H, pin 11 LC7 to the resistor at 11, pin 7 LC6 to the resistor at 11, pin 9 LC5 to the resistor at 11, pin 10 LC4tothe resistor at 11, pin 11 Solder the wire marked "A19" to pin 3 of the Icon the daughter board marked "DPALCAS", It is located at the rear end of the daughter board at location 6K, and the Icis marked "PAL16L8" on it (Photo 8). Put the
daughter board back, making sure that all of the header pins fit into the header sockets on the daughter board. Finally, replace the 256K expansion ram cartridge in its slot.
You are now ready for the moment of truth. With the cover off (in case you need to debug this mess!), hook the keyboard, monitor, and power to your Amiga. Turn it on. If the computer wont boot (i.e. you dent see the Kickstart or Workbench screens), you have wired something incorrectly or you have a solder bridge somewhere. Turn the Amiga off and retrace your work. Pay particular attention to the order of the wires; this is quite critical.
If you made it to Workbench, you will need to use the AddMem utility to tell your Amiga to make the extra memory available. This utility came with the developer's package, and is also on AmicusDisk 4 (along with the C source!). To add all 512K to free memory, type 'AddMem 80000 FFFFF'.
You should now have a total of 1 megabyte to play with; if something seems wrong, turn the computer oft and check your wiring.
There is another utility called Avail on the utility disks, which will tell you how much memory you have. To use it, simply type 'Avail'; it will tell you how much Chip and Fast RAM you have. (The'Maximum'column should read 1048568). You can also use the Gfx mem utility to show you how much memory you have; this program appears on several of the Amicus and Fish disks. A hint: if AddMem seems to work, but you get an AmigaDOS error when you do a DIR, you might have reversed the UC and LC wires... go back and check your work.
When you are satisfied of the memory’s operation, replace the RF shield, the bezel, and the covers, and you are in business.
OK, time tor the technical discussion. The reason this works is that Amiga most generously did not fully decode the lower 2 megabyte RAM space that the internal 256K and 256K expansion RAM fit into. They DID decode 1 megabyte, but they only used half of the available memory select lines.
This makes it fairly easy to add the other 512K, because we dent even need to add any decoding IC’s, just some jumpers.
Basically, we take the memory Column Address Strobe (CAS) signals that are unused, and connect them to our piggybacked memory. The only problem with doing this is that we have to restrict the 3 custom chips to the lower 512K. Fortunately again, there is already a multiplexer on board which selects between Chip and 68000 addresses (the 74F399, which is a latched quad 2 1 multiplexer), and it has some unused sections. So, we connect input IOC at pin 11 of this IC to A19, which is the source for the extra address line from the CPU, then we connect input 11C at pin 12 to ground, which assures us
that the custom chips will always "see" the lower 512K.
The output of the multiplexer, QC at pin 10, drives the upper address bit of the two 74F138 3 8 demultiplexers, which are gated with UDS and LDS to produce the extra upper and lower CAS signals the new RAM chips need. The 33ohm RMIGR 512K 1M MOD U1J A 12 11C lac 11B IBB 11A iai=i s =r 10 A 11 0c QB Ofl (=119? — IHLERE FIN 3 CUSO fi17 — fils — W CUU, PB S) V AGNUS DRR8 — 74F74 Q (U4H1 — C4 — RE* — UCEN — FBDHIPFLCBS ui i A CLIP RT PCB AND BEND 52 SI 53 00* 01* 02* Lcfe-lCfc TO 512K RfiM 33 cm, 1 4 mrr W? LC4 VW? LC5 WA? L. C6 WV? LC7 Cl (SYSTEM CLOCK) y El* 03* E2* 04* E3 OS* 06* 07*
IK.10 LCQ'iiV ffim iFFtene RMIGR 512K 1M MOD DESIGN: CRIS ERVING COPYR. 1986 resistors help reduce ringing on the CAS lines; this is especially important with long lengths of fine wire, such as we are using. Each pair of 74F138 outputs represents 128 Kof memory; since there are four selection pairs available, we can select up to 512K. See the schematic above for all the gory details.
What you end up with is your normal 512K of Chip RAM, mapped from $ 000000 to S07FFFF, and another 512K mapped from $ 080000 to $ 0FFFFF. This 1 megabyte "shadows" over the next 1 megabyte, (from $ 100000 to $ 1FFFFF) because the next highest address bit (A20) is not used for decoding.
This 1 megabyte was "reserved" by Commodore for internal memory expansion, and you could theoretically add another megabyte of RAM chips (along with a few more decoder and glue chips to decode this address space), giving you 2 megabytes of RAM. I say theoretically, because you will run out of power long before you have reached 2 megabytes.
One megabyte, however, does not tax the Amiga's power supply, and leaves you with enough left overforafew goodies like A-Time and Digi-View.
A few other topics before I sign off. First, you may be wondering whether this is "Fast" memory or "Chip" memory.
The answer is that it is neither.
Fast memory resides directly on the processor buss, with no possibility of contention by the custom chips. Chip memory is memory which the custom chips can access. What we have here is Chip memory which the custom chips cannot access. (Of course, AmigaDOS thinks it's Fast RAM...). A better term for this memory might be "Synchronous" memory, since it is synchronized to the custom chips because it is on their memory bus, but it is not available to them. This means that it will slow down when heavy DMA activity is going on. In practice, however, this seldom happens. Also, because this memory is
not on the 68000's expansion buss, it cannot auto- configure. This is why you need to use AddMem. Of course, this also means that it doesn't use up any of your auto- config address space.
You may also be concerned about compatability with future Amiga hardware, namely Sidecar and Zorro expansion boxes. Since the lower 2 megabytes of address space "shadows" if it is not fully decoded internally, it is not possible to use this address space from the expansion port, because both the expansion buss and the internal memory would try to be on the processor’s buss at the same time.
Because of this, there is no way an external expansion box could conflict with your synchronous RAM. Since this RAM does not map into the auto-config space, you dent have to worry about conflicts with any Zorro boxes you may add later, since Zorro boxes only map into auto-config space.
There is one question... if it’s so easy to add the memory, why didn't Amiga do it themselves? I don't know why.
Maybe they thought 512K was plenty of memory.
Considering the software they had at introduction (i.e. Textcraft), that may have been understandable.
It would have been so easy for Amiga to allow us to expand to 1 or even 2 megabytes by simply plugging in a RAM cartridge that any excuse on their part is unforgivable. Not nMIGR 512K 1M MOD TOP: UC6 TOP: LC6 RMIGfl 512K 1M MOD DESIGN: CRIS ERVING COPYR. 1986 BOTTOM: LC4 IMIERBD.
Dpfijeas Ufifc PIN 3 TOP: UC7 BOTTOM: UC5 r- d 16 P fri14 3 mi 16 r 16 m U1B U1C U1D U1E TOP: LC7 BOTTOM: LC5 (1 [16) 16 'Ti11 1 mi BOTTOM: UC4 only are the CAS lines already on the board, but there are a bunch of lines on the expansion RAM cartridge which are arbitrarily tied to +5 volts or ground, so there's already plenty of room on the connector for the extra RAM select lines. The extra power required for 2 megabytes would only have been a few amps, so it wouldn’t have cost them very much to upgrade the power supply.
Special Note One final note is in order. If you try to use this memory with Workbench 1.2, you will find that Workbench 1.2 tries to auto- configure the extra memory as Chip RAM. This is probably due to the fact that the new "Fat Agnus"graphics chip will be able to address 2 megabytes, rather than the 512K that the current Agnus chip supports.
If there was no fix, this would cause serious problems, because graphics and other chip data could be loaded into a location which the chips could not access, resulting in an almost certain visit from the Guru. Fortunately, there is an easy way around this.
A Program Fix The program listed below, which is a Lattice C program called make 512k, will automatically turn your computer back into a 512K machine. Then you can use AddMem to make the extra memory available, just as you would with Workbench 1.1, Make sure that make 512k and AddMem are called at the very beginning of your s startup-sequence file, and you will have no problems. I have been running with late beta versions of 1.2 for over 2 months without any problems.
The Hardware Fix Since you may have software that is copy-protected, keeping you from adding Make512k to these disks, there is also a hardware solution to the 1.2 problem, which you can put together for about 2 bucks. The simple two-IC circuit shown below fixes the problem, but in a somewhat different way. What it does is to disable the extra 512K until the Amiga tries to validate the Workbench disk, thereby preventing Kickstart from auto-configuring the extra 512K.
I won't go into the assembly of this circuit, on the assumption that if you are technically proficient enough to do the memory upgrade, you probably can put together a small circuit from the schematic.
The theory of operation goes like this: the WPRO* signal (DAUGCAS pin 13, located at 6J on the daughter board) is the Amiga’s Kickstart write-protect signal, and it stays high until the Kickstart code begins to execute, at which time it goes low. The disk drive LED signal is used to latch the state of WPRO* (actually, WPRO* inverted), and this signal is AND gated with the original A19 (from DPALCAS pin 3, at 6K on the daughter board). The output from the AND gate is A19, delayed until the first time that the disk drive light goes OFF after Kickstart has been loaded. Since the drive iightgoes
off before Kickstart configures the memory, this keeps the upper 512K from being selected until well after the memory has been configured. This makes your computer boot up as a 512K machine. Doing the AddMem call will bring up the additional 512K.
Mnn V Is U1 — U2 — 'f, b
12.
Li D Q U2a R* P~
- +5
1. 2 FIX FOR 1 MEG HOD R19 DpflLCRS P. 3* WPRO* 2 dpugersp.
Ld m Pr 13
1. 2 FIX FORI DRIVE LED — WHITE?
+5v — DuflGCflS P. 20? —
P. 10? *GND n19
- F399 +5 GND U1 14, V, HZ' U2 4,10,14 7,11,12,13 DESIGN: CRIS
ERVING 11-19-1986 74LS00 74LS74 All tn all, it's a nice little
hack, and 1 hope a lot of you take advantage of this cheap way
to double your memory. It is amazing how many uses for more
memory you can find once you have it. You can copy your C:
directory to RAM: do an ASSIGN C: RAM: and your Cll commands
will execute almost instantaneously. You can use RAM: for all
your workfiles, then copy them to the disk when you are all
through... a large Aegis Draw drawing takes much less time to
save this way. Lattice C compiles speed up enormously when you
copy the include and library files to RAM: You can finally
takefull advantage of the Amiga’s multi-tasking without
worrying about the Guru...! Like to play Reversi while I’m
waiting for Aegis Draw to redraw the screen. It sure makes
using the Amiga a lot more fun. After all, that's what we
bought an Amiga for!
About the Author Cris Erving is the Systems Manager of a Digital Equipment VAX 8600 installation at a large California heavy equipment dealership. He is very active in the AmigaTech Users Group, which is based in the Los Angeles area. His interests are C programming, CAD CAE, hardware hacking, and "taking the Amiga apart".
The Software Fix: * thia program make* tha computer a 512k computer * include "axac typaa. h" include "ftxac vtac. h" I include "Mac exacbaaa. H" | in elude " txs c mamory. H11 main () i ULONG diff; ¦truct ExecBaae **Sy*Ba*a — (atruct SxecBaso **) 4; ¦truct Li*t **ysteci_mam_li*t header; atruct MamHaadar *thi«_mam haadar; forbid (); ayatam_iaam_list_haadar — & *SyaBaaa) — MamLiat; th13_mam_hoador — (atruct MamHaadar *)
* yatam_mem_li»t_hander — lh Head; prints ("mh_Uppar:
%8x n", thi«_mam_haadar — mh_Dppar); prints (Mmh_rraa: %8x n",
thi _mam_haadar — mh_rraa); diff ¦= ((ULONG) thia_mam_haadar
~ mh JJppar) — 0x80000; prints (“%*: Diff: %8x n", diff);
thi«_iaam_haadar — mh_Dppar « (ASTR) (ULONG)
thi*_mam__haadar — mh_Upper) — diff); thi»_mam_Jieadar —
mh fran — «¦ diff; prints ("mh_Uppar: %8x n**, thi*_mam_h*acier —
ahJJpper); prints ("mh_Free: %8x n‘, this mam haadar — mh
Fraa); Parmit ();) Editor’s Note: Cris has done an excellent
job in his presentation and few additional comments appear to
be necessary. However, I would like to make the following
recommendations.
. RAM chips generate a considerable amount of heat during operation and stacking them directly on top of one another only aggravates the situation, this heat generation can be ¦ minimized by providing a gap between the two stacked chips through which air can flow. This is easily accomplished by placing a spacer between the two chips prior to soldering, use the thickest spacer possible, and then remove afterwards.
Use 30 AWG wire wrap wire for all jumpers. They require less heat to solder and are easier to route to their destinations.
Further, I would route the jumpers directly on the printed wiring board and bond them in pface. This later recommendation is important if you have a mobile Amiga.
Finally, the most difficult decision you will face is how and. Where to mount the additional circuitry required by the 1.2 Fix for 1 MEG Module, t took two wirewrap sockets and bonded them together along their length; wirewrapped the circuit and then bonded this assembly to the edge of the kickstart board. Make sure your leads are long enough.
Well, thats about it; but, speaking of hardware projects, I know there are many budding hardware authors out there, perhaps, a little too timid to write that first article, give me a call or write and we will work something out. After all, this is your magazine.
Happy Hacking Ernie Viveiros Sr.
CAUTION: This hardware project will positively void your Commodore Amiga™ warranty. There is no doubt!
However, we have installed the upgrade and the hardware fix and both are working well. The added memory has a great potential and "customizes" your system. But, due to the unknowns of working on your own system, we are forced to make this disclaimer,
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ORDER OR FOR A DEALER NEAREST YOU Amazing Controversy On The
Contrary § ¦ From time to time, Amazing Computing™ receives
letters from software and hardware producers who have disagreed
with our printed review of their product. AC feels that neither
Manufacturers or Publishers are perfect and we attempt to
understand these views, In that vain, we are printing a letter
received from Central Coast Software's Principal, George E.
Chamberlain.,.
Dear AC Central Coast Software was initially very pleased to learn of the review of our product, Dos-2-Dos, by Richard Knepper, which was printed in your issue number 9. We were greatly disappointed to find that the review was full of inaccuracies and misleading statements (not to mention typos). Your reviewer (or, at the very least your technical editor) should verify the accuracy of his findings with the vendor before printing such a review, as other publications routinely do.
The review just doesn’t have the feel of a professional review.
We are particularly disturbed by the suggestion that Dos-2- Dos has bugs and that it does less than we claim. We know of no bugs in the program. It works as it should and has no "quirks" otherthan those which afflict all Amiga programs.
Dos-2-Dos does NOT crash the Amiga and does NOT create read write errors on AmigaDOS disks. You can get a GURU message while running Dos-2-Dos if you run out of memory as with any AmigaDOS program. Dos-2-Dos works very well in a multitasking environment, subject to the obvious limitation of AmigaDOS access to the disk drive which contains the MS-DOS disk. But there are no "bugs" to correct!
As for our claims, please read our ad on page 43. Which of these listed features requires "qualification"? We have now shipped more than 1000 copies of the program. The response from our users is overwhelmingly favorable.
It is true that Dos-2-Dos does not use the Intuition interface.
The Intuition interface does not exist on the IBM-PC. Dos-2- Dos was designed to work in a very familiar and intuitive way for people who have MS-DOS PC-DOS experience. Our surveys of user requirements reveal few requests for the Intuition interface.
There are some applications which work better with a CLI interface. For example, try setting the date and time using he mouse in the Preferences program. Many AmigaDOS utility programs are available ONLY from CLI. And the most popular Amiga spreadsheet program, VIP Professional, does not use the Intuition interface. Moreover, had we added the necessary logic to incorporate menus and the mouse into Dos-2-Dos, the program would be at least twice its current size, would have taken taken much longer to develop and debug, and would be more expensive.
[must clarify other inaccuracies of the review: "No external drives may be used as the destination." This is completely false.
First, since Dos-2-Dos only works with external drives and it goes BOTH ways, the external MS-DOS drive is always the destination when copying from AmigaDOS to MS-DOS.
Second, if your Amiga has both external 3,5-inch and 5.25- inch drives, the external 3.5-inch drive (DF1) is always a valid destination or source for copies to or from the 5.25-inch drive. If your Amiga has only an external 3.5-inch drive, then it must be used as the MS-DOS drive, and then, of course, the internal 3.5-inch drive (DFO) must be used as the AmigaDOS drive.
"Since your disk drive will be all screwed up, you will have to reboot your computer to regain normal use of the drive that previously held the IBM format disk." This statement suggests that somehow Dos-2-Dos damages the hardware.
This is, of course, not true. If you use the external 3.5-inch drive as the MS-DOS drive, DOS-2-Dos shuts down the AmigaDOS device driver task for that one disk drive, to avoid interference from AmigaDOS while Dos-2-Dos accesses the drive. We found, the hard way, that this was necessary. We were unable to find a way to restart the drivertask reliably, so Dos-2-Dos warns the operator to reboot the computer if it is necessary to access that one drive after running Dos-2-Dos. This problem does not exist on the 5.25-inch drive, and no warning is issued in that case.
BY the way, since the 3.5-inch format is new to the IBM world, most of our customers are using the 5.25-inch external drive with Dos-2-Dos. It appears that your reviewer did not test with that hardware configuration.
Central Coast Software™ "... the program sometimes does not listen to commands and does not copy into sub-directories, but instead copies to the main directory." This is not a bug. The program works the same way every time. But it does what you tell it to do, and if you fail to follow AmigaDOS path rules, you may not get the result you want. Dos-2-Dos works exactly the same way as the AmigaDOS COPY command with regard to path names.
"TYPE... but wildcards aren't accepted." Give me a break!
Wild cards aren't accepted by the TYPE commands of AmigaDOS or MS-DOS, and for Good reason! This kind of comment is superfluous.
So there is no way for Dos-2-Dos to cause a "read write" error on any AmigaDOS diskette. If such a problem realty exists with Dos-2-Dos, why haven't we heard of it before now?
The most common cause of problems such as this on the Amiga is rebooting the Amiga or removing the AmigaDOS diskette belore the computer has completed all disk 1 0. We have ail experienced the problem of seeing the drive light go out, and then removing the AmigaDOS disk just as the light comes back on, two or three seconds later. This is the way the AmigaDOS on, two or three seconds later. This is the way the AmigaDOS multitasking operating system works.
This "problem" shows up with any program which writes to an AmigaDOS disk, it is not a "bug" with Dos-2-Dos!
Dos-2-Dos is an efficient, high-quality, bug-free, low-cost, easy-to-use utility program designed to meet the needs of those Amiga users who must deal with the world of IBM.
According to our many satisfied users, it does just that.
And that is what you should have told your readers.
"Dos-2-Dos does seem a bit quirky in that the destination AmigaDOS disk may acquire a read write error." If a diskette really has a read error, the error will exist no matter which program attempts to read it. Therefore, the copy step will fail. So the problem, as described in the review, makes no sense. But more than that, Dos-2-Dos does not write anything directly to the AmigaDOS disk. Dos-2-Dos uses the standard AmigaDOS DOS library routines to open, read, write, and close all AmigaDOS files. And Dos-2-Dos does NOT modify or in any way affect the performance of the standard AmigaDOS disk
drivers forthe AmigaDOS disks.
Sincerely, George E. Chamberlain Principal Central Coast Software 268 Bowie Drive Los Osos, California 93402
• AC The Mmmm Network "...the Amiga developer conference in
Monterey, California and COMDEX Fall in Las Vegas.
By John Foust This past month held my long-anticipated vacation. It was a busman's holiday, since it spanned both the Amiga developer conference in Monterey, California and COMDEX Fall in Las Vegas.
The second annual Amiga developer conference took place in Monterey, California from November 4 to 7. It began with an exchange of non-disclosure agreements. Because of this, this report contains no mention of some restricted information.
Of course, many things did happen, and some of it was available to the public on the last day of the conference, so I am free to talk about that. In this spirit, this report can talk about all the things that did not happen at the conference.
I can assure you that my predictions in last month’s AMICUS and Roomers columns are very near the mark. In reality, we did not get to hear anything more juicy than the usual rumor mill stories, so do not feel left out.
They did not show the group any new computers. A hand- picked group of hardware developers saw the Amiga 2500 machine, since certain aspects of it affect them most. You could say the 2500 demonstrates an almost German cleverness.
In most respects, the 2500 is a conservative move on Commodore's part, and does not carry any of the much- rumored improvements to the Amiga line. If you read Cringely's column in the November 17 Infoworld, I can assure you that he is mostly wrong. Also, the name of the new machine is not set in stone, some conference papers referred to it as the 2000 and the 2500 on the same page. A new name will be chosen when it finally comes to market.
The 'baby Amiga' was not shown to anyone. Developers learned only a few more details about the new low-end machine — no more than what I presented last month.
Marketing plans Developers did learn a little more about Commodore's overall marketing plans. There was a presentation of Commodore sales figures in Europe, which seemed to be very rosy numbers to me, until a British developer explained it all to me.
The figures intentionally left out the most popular computer in the European market and did not include sales figures from 1985, when Commodore took a real dive in the European market.
Commodore promised to start advertising again, and promised never to stop again. Yes, they did stop advertising for a period this summer. Amiga sales continued at a steady pace, and summer is a traditionally slow computer sales period, so this may have been a financially sound move.
Neither the future marketing or future product line plans were laid out in a straight-forward fashion. Even if you listened closely, there were still a few fill-in-the-blank aspects to Commodore’s plans. Something tells me that they are getting strong instructions from their financial planners and bankers, and that their word is law. This would belie a future strategy based on maximizing profits by selling more computers, not by pouring money into research for new machines, or new advertising campaigns.
The week of the conference, Commodore announced a profitable quarter, the second in a row. This announcement has triggered a rise in the Commodore stock price, a pleasant signal in itself.
Ft was pleasing to see high-ranking Commodore officials such as marketing head Frank Leonardi using the Amiga to make his own charts for his presentation. He used a soon-to-be- released third-party presentation graphics program. It stepped through his 'slides' at the louch of a button.
Conference flaws The conference did have some major flaws. The most serious of these was the lack of deep technical information. I got the distinct impression that Commodore felt a developer conference could somehow be too technical, and that they toned it down to a lower common denominator. After all, some of the conference attendees had never read the ROM Kernel manuals. The trouble is, most developers have read them cover to cover, several times.
If someone had a particular question, they had time to collar the programmer responsible for that particular part of the operating system. Programmers present included Carl Sassenrath, author of the Exec, RJ Mical, author of the first revision of Intuition, Glenn Keller, Sam Dicker, and Jim Mackraz, programmerfor the 1.2 updates.
Tim King, formerly of Metacomco, also gave a short talk about the new commands in version 1.2 of AmigaDOS. King knows the low-level details of the operating system. He could have discussed the operating system internals all day, and most hard-core developers would have been pleased.
Negative press I am sure there will be some negative press about the conference. The Apple II GS developer conference was held the week before. It was much more slickly organized than the Amiga conference, and I'm sure there will be some comparison. Other press representatives included Greg Williams, the senior editor at Byte magazine, and Byte columnist Bruce Webster, of "According to Webster."
The conference attracted some local developers, but most had travelled large distances. The cost of the conference was $ 300, rooms were about $ 100 a night, plus meals, plus airfare, plus car rental or taxi, plus any regular wages missed for taking a minimum four-day vacation. In all, the conference was an expensive proposition, and this high cost certainly colored the impression of some low-budget developers.
One East Coast developer estimated he and his partner’s total expenses at $ 2500. He qualified this by saying "[The conference] was a 'be there or be square’ kind of deal. Not attending would have cost more than attending."
Unhappy developers One disgruntled Amiga enthusiast wrote a long letter to Commodore, by hand, and circulated it as a petition among the developers. It stressed Commodore’s mix-ups and screw- ups, and asked for new machines based on new technologies, instead of conservative, IBM PC type moves.
That petition serves as a parable of the Amiga development community. The low-down hackers are attracted to the Amiga's powerful chipset and flexible operating system.
They recognize it as far superior to other machines on the market, and therefore want it to succeed. They resent the token acknowledgement of the IBM PC in the 2500. Others, such as Commodore's marketing people, are interested in selling machines and software, the more the better. These two philosophies are at odds, when it comes to capital investment.
There was another clash of philosophies. Because of a few undiplomatic statements, some low-budget developers grew painfully aware of the favoritism shown to high-budget developers. While mainstream developers were struggling for technical information, some well-funded developers would stop by the Amiga Los Gatos offices to get their daily fill of technical support.
On one hand, this could have been a wise move, since it fostered the development of keystone Amiga products such as Deluxe Paint. On the other, countered the low-budget developers, Commodore could have been more balanced in their support, since they shouldn't have bet against the success of their products. It is easy to predict the success of a Deluxe Paint, but harder to predict a product like Digi-view or Infominder.
Graphics chip demo Since this information was available to the public before the show, I feel safe talking about the new high resolution graphic chip. Dale Luck demonstrated the new 1024 by 800 resolution on a monochrome Sun monitor, running Workbench and CLI windows. Apparently, the software was truly flexible enough to run with the higher resolution. Luck changed a Workbench compile-time constant for screen size, and Workbench worked the first time.
New developer policy A new technical support policy was announced at the conference. Official developer status benefits have changed since the Amiga was introduced. At first, if you knew the address, you could write to Commodore-Amiga, convince them that you could develop software, and send a checkfor$ 1900.
Soon after, you received a 512 K Amiga, a monitor, an extra disk drive, the 1.0 manual set, plus development software worth at least a thousand dollars, which included the C compiler, the assembler, and cross-development software forthe IBM PC.
Two thousand dollars (or a new, untried machine was a high- stake gamble for many developers. For a developer, this official package was very cost-effective in the long run. In the months to come, they got software and documentation updates beyond the ability to call the technicians to have questions answered.
This cannot go on forever, of course, especially with a cash- strapped company such as Commodore. Technical support will cost a little more in the future. The new policy will take effect in January.
It classifies developers into two categories, certified and commercial. A certified developer can be anyone interested in the Amiga, such as a university student or an Amiga user group. They get the Amiga Mail newsletter, internal documentation, technical updates, a discount on Amiga hardware, invitations to future developer conferences. This costs S50 a year, in essence, this keeps you on the mailing list.
A commercial developer gets all of the above benefits, plus access to a closed conference on Byte's BIX computer network. The present Amiga group there will continue to exist, but a second, closed conference will be created for official Amiga support. Commercial developers will also get priority response to questions asked via electronic mail on BIX.
Also, they can call Los Gatos or West Chester for technical support over the phone. They might be able to test prerelease versions of future Commodore products. They get a discount on future conferences. This costs $ 450 a year. Commercial developers will undergo a screening process, you must fill out an application form to be classified 'commercial'. See the address bebw.
Of course, BIX costs money, and lots of it. If you wanted to download all the message base on the open and closed Amiga conferences on BIX, this could easily amount to more than $ 1000 a year in network access charges. The cost of being a developer has risen.
Developer conference attendees have been given commercial status without question. The conference fee was also credited towards the annual developerfee.
Developer Fair Two of the most exciting software were Deluxe Paint II from Electronic Arts, and Digi-Paint, from New Tek. These are described in a separate article in this issue.
The name-changing Amiga software house, variously known as Tardis Software, Maximillian Software, MaxiSoft, are now called Intuitive Technologies. At one time, their products were distributed by Electronic Arts, but now they are back to distributing their own products. At the fair, they announced Encore, a macro system that can record and play back mouse and keyboard events, Shortcut, a program that allows quick abbreviations 1o be expanded to full text, with any program, and Wow, a disk caching and memory optimizatton program to speed upthe Amiga.
The ever-controversial Amiga Live! People, A-Squared, promised they would deliver their first 50 units in two weeks, but they said the first 150 units have been reserved for special representatives. While every anxious Amiga video nut is cursing them for missing delivery schedules, over and over again, the people working closely with A-Squared say something else. According to one developer, who wished to remain anonymous, "They are just so nice, it is hard to get mad at them. They really are sincere."
Mimetics showed a new version of Soundscape, which includes bug fixes, a MIDI event splitter, mouse control of MIDI bender events and program change. If you are not into MIDI, this means they continue to add new features to the program.
New Horizons Software showed ProWrite, a WYSIWYG editor. Priced at $ 124.95, it has the ability to edit with multiple fonts and in color. Look for a review in an upcoming issue of Amazing Computing.
Absoft showed their Amiga Basic compiler. In side-by-side comparisons, it looked quite fast, both for compilation and executable times. It is not ready yet, though. Absoft makes the Basic and FORTRAN compilers that Microsoft sells for the Macintosh, so they have a lot of experience in the field.
Hard disk speedups Former Metacomco programmer Tim King made a point of talking 1o each hard disk developer at the developer fair. He explained the apparent slowness of Amiga hard disks. He claimed the trouble is all in the software. He should know, he wrote most of it. The nice thing about software is that it can be rewritten. King offered to do just that.
To prove his point, King single-clicked on the Preferences program icon on the Workbench. Then, he selected Duplicate from the Workbench menu. The hard disk flashed for a moment, and I was fooled. I thought the program had been copied, since the file is about 50K in size. King said no, just wait and see. And so ten, fifteen seconds elapsed, and the hard disk light started blinking, and finally the copy was finished.
King explained that the Amiga version of the Tripos operating system was optimized for floppy disk access, not hard disk access. Several techniques could dramatically increase hard disk speeds, such as pre-reads and better seek algorithms.
Since the operating system is extensible, King offered to make a custom version of the operating system for each hard disk manufacturer, for a price. He countered that Commodore-Amiga has made overtures that they might pay him to do this, but it could be done independently, for their company. Something tells me he has this optimization sitting on a disk back home, ready to go.
FAUG banquet The First Amiga User Group hosted the buffet banquet that closed the developer conference. The framework of the event was a series of awards for Amiga products. See the sidebar for the award winners. Between awards, video and live presentations were shown on with a projector television.
Even within the world of computers, it is hard to imagine a standing ovation for the author of a compiler. This crowd did applaud Manx Aztec C in that way.
The well-oiled crowd responded positively to anything vaguely pro-Amiga. The video presentations were very pro- Amiga and somewhat self-congratulatory.
The theme of the conference was "The dream comes alive.* The T-shirts and posters for the conference featured a screen shot of the RoboCity demo. RJ Mica! Explained that 'RoboCity' could be pronounced two ways, one as 'rho-bo city', the other as 'rho-bah-city'. One is the city, the other is a state of mind. Mica! And Cheryl Gibbons, the receptionist at Los Gatos, dressed in costumes of the two robot characters for one segment of the banquet.
Amiga videos There was a fine video about the Amiga 9000, a super-duper future Amiga, being forced to become PC compatible, it started with a Workbench screen. The entire window was filled with two dozen small 'dotty window' demos, all running at the same time. The voice-over was clips from the movie
2001. (At the end of this movie, the character Dave is pulling
boards from the giant computer's memory, while the computer
is still conscious.) In this case, Dave was shutting down
the computer to install IBM PC compatibility, One by one,
very slowly, the mouse pointer moved over the close gadget
on each 'dotty' window.
"My mind is going, I can feel if,* said the computer voice.
Finally, as the computer has lost consciousness, the word 'endcli' appears in the last CLI window, followed by the opening screen from the Transformer, which says "Booting transformer."
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invited (Formerly Amiga Project) Another video was from Viper
Optic Studios, by Jo Ann Gulerman. The Amiga Live! Digitizer
output was combined with several other video sources,
including other video synthesizers. This video is significant
because it portrays the Amiga as just another video tool
available to a video artist.
This is a realistic approach; some people seem to think the arrival of the Genlock will signal a new renaissance in Amiga video production. In reality, accessory tools such as the Genlock exist as standard video equipment, available from many other sources — but not at the same $ 295 price as Commodore has announced.
Banquet guests also saw several 8 mm films from Allan Hastings. They were super, an execellent proof-of-concept for animation on the Amiga. The films were somewhat grainy and jerky, but the software was superb. In one film, the camera viewpoint flew over and through a rotating Boing ball, as it changed shape, as a complete, shaded three- dimensional object, then through a house, and past a Porsche. In another clip, space ships dueled in outer space, and battled over alien landscapes.
Hastings added an interesting note about his work. "First of all, I'd like to say that I'm not officially an Amiga developer. I did all this in my spare time, after work... I’m kind of surprised by all this. I set up a Super-8 movie camera about five feet in front of the Amiga screen, and just clicked on the singleframe every few seconds as my C program generated [the images]." Hastings works for Lockheed. He uses a standard 512K Amiga. He wrote his own three-dimensional shape editor to complement the movie-script type editor that guides the animation.
It is unfortunate that relatively unknown developers like Hastings will fall through the cracks of the new technical support plan. There are many non-official Amiga developers, and they will not have free access to technical support after January 1. However, Hastings added that several software houses have asked to market his program, If all goes well, the FAUG group will be distributing a video cassette with the video sequences from the developer conference, plus other examples of fine Amiga video, such as Caligari.
COMDEX Fall An Amiga enthusiast at COMDEX Fall in Las Vegas had to burn a lot of shoe leather to find Amiga products.
The largest Amiga display was by an English company, in fact, Progressive Peripherals and Software of Surrey, England.
They showed three Amiga products — the Superbase database manager, the Logistix spreadsheet, and Climate, an Intuit ion-based CLI replacement.
Simon Tranmer, the author of Superbase, was present at the developer conference, and demonstrated Superbase at COMDEX. He steps through the program's menus at a blinding speed. Remarkably, he was at a disadvantage when he started the program on February 1, 1986. Tramner said "I didn't know C, and I didn't know the Amiga." The First Amiga User Group uses the Commodore 128 version of Superbase lo maintain their mailing list, according to Tranmer, Commodore-Amiga did not display at COMDEX, held in Las Vegas from November 11 to 15. According to John Campbell, manager of recreational software at
Commodore West Chester, "We want to talk less about vaporware, and more about realware. We felt that coming to COMDEX with nothing to say didn't make a lot of sense."
This was consistent with statements made at the Amiga developer conference in Monterey. There, Commodore explained their absence from COMDEX Fall, and confirmed their expected showing at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas in January 1987. Commodore's new product positioning deems the Amiga line to be consumer machines, and they felt COMDEX was a business computer show, and that CES would better present the product line.
Amiga WordPerfect WordPerfect will be ported to the Amiga, according to Mark Hamilton, the manager of Amiga development at WordPerfect Corporation. This version promises complete file compatibility with versions of WordPerfect on other computers.
VT100 Emulation for the Commodore Amiga™ The Amiga version has a some unique features. Hamilton said "We are taking advantage of multitasking. We will allow up to 32 windows, so each window will be a separate process, so you could be spell-checking all of them simultaneously, or running macros in each separately." Also, you will be able to print a document from the Workbench without calling up the program. Amiga WordPerfect will include a thesaurus.
Hamilton said WordPerfect has preliminary plans for other Amiga products, such as a spreadsheet, calendar and rolodex, all cross-compatible in terms of file format.
WordPerfect has a team of six programmers working on Amiga WordPerfect, the same number working on the Mac and Atari versions. Hamilton did not want to promise a firm release date, claiming it will be available between February and June 1987, He joked that his job is on the line if it isn't out by June.
Atari booth Several Amiga developers were present in the Atari booth at COMDEX Fall. Atari had a large booth subdivided into desksized compartments for each developer, as they have done in many past shows.
This is a great trick to make the booth look busy — Commodore used it at the last COMDEX. The developers themselves fill half the booth, and must stand aside to demonstrate their products.
This method is also cost-effective, since the cost of the booth is absorbed by charging rent to the companies in the booth.
Developers gain exposure at a large computer show without paying big-show prices.
This generation of ST software is much better than what was shown at COMDEX Spring in Atlanta and the summer Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago. The Atari software at Those shows looked like quick ports from the IBM world. This generation looks like Mac and Amiga software. I was surprised to see an version of Aegis Animator for the Atari ST. Metacomco Even Metacomco was present in the Atari booth. England- based Metacomco wrote the underpinnings of AmigaDOS.
They were showing a BCPL compiler for the Atari ST. According to Mary Hill of Tenchstar, Metacomco's US branch, MiddleMan™ Communicate with information services, mainframes, and other personal computers
• Provides true DEC™ VT100™ emulation
• Emulates the VT100 numeric keypad
• Supports uploading and downloading of text files
• Supports baud rates from 300 to 19200
• Displays text at a rate of approximately 7000 baud
• Provides eight user definable macros
• Uses a four color text screen
• Executes comfortably on a256KAmiga
• Utilizes the full capabilities of the Amiga graphical interface
and multi-tasking operating system
• Upgrade plans include Tektronix® 4105 color graphics terminal
emulation Available Now-only $ 59.95 Benaiah Computer Products,
Inc.
P. O. Box 11165 Huntsville, AL 35814-1165
(205) 859-9487 the Amiga version of BCPL has been postponed,
pending some assurance that BCPL would sell well on the
Amiga.
BCPL is more popular in Europe than the US. The Atari ST enjoys a larger following in Europe, since it is priced much lower than the Amiga. However, Hill said Tenchstar was surprised at the US sales figures for the BCPL compiler.
Hill also expressed frustration at Commodore's marketing of the Metacomco Lisp and Pascal. When the Amiga was first released, Commodore purchased a large number of copies from Metacomco. Since then, Metacomco has improved their software, but Commodore insists on selling the existing outdated stock. They still had no word about interfacing either product to the Amiga operating system.
Long distance mouse In the Electrohome booth, Tracy McSheery demonstrated his light pen for the Amiga. McSheery also had a booth at the developer fair. Unlike most light pens, the McSheery device works well at a distance, up to thirty feet, it also works with a projection television screen. The light pen has two buttons that function the same as the mouse buttons, and it works with any Amiga software. McSheery is contemplating other applications of his technology, such as mouse interfaces for the handicapped.
Supra, a well-known hard disk manufacturer in the Mac and Atari ST markets, has announced a 20 meg Amiga hard disk for $ 995. The interface card does pass the expansion bus, and it has provisions for adding between one-half and four megabytes of expansion memory. They plan to have a tape backup unit for $ 795 several months after the release of the hard disk, ft uses cartridge tapes that can back up 40 megs each.
Polaroid showed an interface for making direct images of the computer screen. The Palette package includes 35 mm camera back, a 3 1 4 x 4 1 2 camera back, and the Polarchrome film processor. According to the press release, "All at a price even a starving artist can afford." In reality, the Palette retails for $ 2495.
A company called Liquid Light did the Amiga software, and modified the standard cable to work with the Amiga. Rather anonymously, Liquid Light showed slides from it at the developer conference. At the party, they circulated Polaroid prints of screenshots.
Versasoft showed dbMan, a Dbase III compatible database manager. The data files are compatible across the IBM, Macintosh and Atari ST versions of the program.
No more Tecmar It is official, Tecmar is out of the Amiga peripheral business, according to Gene Della Tome, a major account manager at Tecmar. He stressed that they based their hardware on the earliest hardware and software specifications from Commodore. When those specifications changed, they were forced to redesign the products. Their market response was not great, so they decided to pull out. Tecmar was in serious financial trouble for a while, but they were recently bailed out and purchased by Rexen, along with another company called WangTek.
Several distributors, including Soft Kat and Computer Software Service had Amigas in their booths. These booths had one of every kind of computer, if seemed.
MichTron, more well-known for their Atari ST software, announced that the VIVA video authoring system, is expected to be released in early 1987. It is an interactive scripting system for video disks. For example, they took the video disk from the Dragon's Lair video game, and turned it into a computer game. The system includes an interface to connect the video disk player to a computer. It was featured in an AmigaWorld article in 1986.
I've mentioned that third-party genlocks exist, and I saw one at COMDEX. A company called Avas showed the TELEcomp
2000. It retails for $ 1595. It interfaces to any computer video
output. It allows you so set up windows for video or
computer images, and to control the display of those
windows.
It includes the ability to do opaque and transparent overlays, and to control the intensity of those overlays, ft can switch between video sources, and can convert between digital RGB and analog RGB video, and between composite and analog RGB video. I think this is a clear example of "you get what you pay for." The Commodore Genlock will be much cheaper, but many video enthusiasts will soon outstrip its capabilities.
Amiga World reception AmigaWorld magazine hosted a reception Tuesday night at a Las Vegas country club. The attendance demonstrated the number of Amiga fans at COMDEX. Nearly 300 people attended. Commodore supplied Amiga systems so developers could demonstrate their products. It is too bad more COMDEX attendees could not have seen this display of enthusiasm for this computer. If this many people had been crowded around a Commodore booth at the show, we would have seen a lot of good press for the Amiga.
I met two Amiga enthusiasts who had a hand in an upcoming episode of Amazing Stories. They used Amiga Live! To create a video sequence for part of a story about a person trapped inside a computer.
One of them asked me if the name of this magazine had anything to do with the television program. They had a copy of the magazine around the Amazing Stories offices, and several people commented on 1he name.
The Amiga has appeared on several other television programs, mostly as an icon representing high-tech computer power. Perhaps you saw an Amiga on Saturday Night Live in October, or in the offices at headquarters on Miami Vice.
Just to flaunt the creative edge that the Amiga inspires, there were three or four guys at the party wearing moose baseball hats. Not content with a stitched moose design on a patch, or even foam antlers, these hats were more the size of a small stuffed moose head, and included antlers. Yes, they all live in California.
Rabid Amiga owners A friend once joked that all Amiga owners are rabid — that they are constantly chanting a litany about "4096 colors" and "multitasking."
This is true, of course. There is a test of Amiga rabidity.
Rabid Amiga fans never tire of the Boing demo. Non-Amiga owners are very tired of the Boing demo, and will strangle the next person who shows it to them.
At COMDEX Fall in Las Vegas, the Boing demo was present in several booths, but 1 never saw it running on an Amiga, it was running on a Macintosh in one booth, on an IBM-PC compatible in another, and on Atari Sts in another. There is even a version for the Commodore 64.
I understand Atari has seen bad press about its use of the Boing demo, when used to compare the Amiga and the Atari ST. Not every Boing demo was done to compare that machine to the Amiga, however.
A Los Gatos Amiga engineer stopped at the Victor Technologies booth and saw a Boing demo running on their IBM compatible machines. He asked the programmer about the demo, it turned out they did not intend to compare themselves to the Amiga, they just recognized the Boing demo as a eye-catching demonstration of speed and graphics.
We do have reason to be rabid. The Amiga has a lot going tor it, beyond unpleasant rumors about Commodore, marketing screwups and Atari misinformation campaigns. We have a real, functional multitasking operating system, with superior graphics capabilities. While everyone else is trying to catch up, we'll still be moving ahead to new machines with more power than before.
Companies Mentioned... For info about the developer program; Kim Montgomery Amiga Tech Support 1200 Wilson Drive West Chester PA 19380 Liquid Light 2301 W. 205th st Torrance, CA 90501
(213) 618-0274 Tenchstar 5353 E Scotts Valley Dr. Scotts Valley,
CA 95066
(408) 438-7201 Absoft 4268 N. Woodward s Royal Oak, M! 48072
(313) 549-7111 Versasoft 4340 Almaden Expressway Suite 250 San
Jose, CA95118
(408) 723-9044 Tracy McSheery Laser Gamesmanship Box 7519 Alta
Loma, CCA91701
(415) 891-9968 WordPerfect Corp 288 West Center St. Orem, Utah
84057
(801) 227-4280 Ai as Corp. 196 Holt St. Hackensack, NJ 07602
(201) 487-6291 Viper Optics Jo Ann Gillerman 950 61st St.
Oakland, CA 94608 Supra 1133 Commercial Way Albany, OR
97321
(503) 967-9075 TsMe
P. O.Box 11746 Santa Ana CA 92711
(714) 639-6545 Intuitive Technologies 2817 Stoat Road Pebble
Beach, CA 93953
(408) 373-4018 The IBM marketplace is stili waiting for a
multitasking operating system. They might get it a year
from now at the earliest, and it will only work on 80286
and 80386 machines, so people will have to upgrade if they
want multitasking.
People are buying enhanced graphics adapters like mad, just to get primitive color abilities. Of course, the EGA is not very fast, especially when compared to the Amiga's blitter chip.
The vanilla PC marketplace is trying to agree on standards for RAM-resident programs, such as Sidekick, that bring some of the benefits of multitasking to the PC.
Have you ever complained about having two versions of the Amiga operating system? If you know a Macintosh owner, ask him about operating system revisions. Some programs only work with one version, and others depend on the size of expanded memory. Others require a change of ROM. It is not pretty, and it is getting worse for Macintosh owners.
Amiga trinkets I meant to plug this company last month. I met the people at Ts Me at the WCCA show in Los Angeles. They sell color Amiga checkmark shirts and Amiga bumperstickers, along with all sorts of other Amiga-imprinted goodies. Write for a catalog.
¦AC- Amiga Developer Conference Product Awards Best Graphic Adventure Hacker, from Activision, by Steve Cartwright and Gene Smith.
Best Amiga Original Game Marble Madness, from Electronic Arts, by Larry Reed.
Best Animation program Aegis Animator, from Aegis Development, by Jim Kent Best Ported Program One on One, from Electronic Arts.
Best Spreadsheet MaxiPlan, from Maxisoft, accepted by Mike Lehman.
Best Paint Program Deluxe Paint, from Electronic Arts, by Dan Silva.
Best Accounting Package Rags to Riches, from Chang Labs.
Best Communications Program Online!, from Micro-Systems Software, by Steve Paglirulo.
Best Database Program Infominder, from Terrapin Software, by Jim Becker.
Best Graphics Application Deluxe Video, from Electronic Arts, by Mike Posehn and Tom Casey.
Best Educational Software Halley Project, from Mind scape.
Best Music Program Soundscape, from Mimetics, accepted by Bob Hoover.
Best Languages and Utilities Aztec C, from Manx Software, by Jim Goodnow.
Best Word Processor Scribble!, from Micro-Systems Software, by Steve Paglirulo.
Best Hardware Digi-View, from NewTek, by Tim Jenison.
Distinguished service Fred Fish, for his public domain disks. This award was selected by past and present Commodore-Amiga employees. They wished to reserve one award for themselves.
SKE Software has kept a promise that was made last January. Our customers told us what SKEterm™ needed to make it the most outstanding communications emulator package available for the Amiga™ and we listened. We listened so well in fact, we completely rewrote SKEterm™ so that now it's faster and more feature enriched than ever before.
Just look at some of the features SKEterm provides: Script file processing to speed you through connections with costly bulletin boards.
User definable macro keys to store Long key sequences for immediate execution.
Extensive online help — no books to losel Text displays on your screen at speeds up to 9600 baud.
Split screen mode for conference sessions so what you're typing doesn't gel mixed in with text you're receiving.
Windowed Xmodem, Xmodem CRC, Xmodem checksum, Kermit, SKEferand autochop!
Baud rates up to 19200; 7 or 8 bit character length; even, odd, mark, or no parity; 1 or 2 stopbits.
Data capture to any disk or file including the RAM: disk as well as a Hardcopy toggle to print your session as it happens.
Supports any asynchronous modem upto 19200 baud with auto redial for auto-dial modems. Set up a call list to dial multiple PhoneBook entries as many times as you like or until a complete connection is made.
Unsurpassed terminal emulation including TTY, ADM3A, ANSI, VT100, with applications mode, function key & character graphic support, and D200 with support for 60 function keys.
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(813) 787-3111 The AMICUS & Fred Fish Public Domain Software
Library This software is collected from user groups and
electronic bulletin boards around the nation. Each Amicus
disk is nearly full, and is fully accessible from the
Workbench. If source code is provided for any program, then
the executable version is also present. This means that you
don’t need the C compiler to run these programs. An
exception is granted for those programs only of use to
people who own a C compiler.
The Fred Fish disk are collected by Mr. Fred Fish, a good and active friend of the Amiga.
Nate: Each description line beOw may include something like 'S-O-E-D', which stands for 'source, object tile, executable and documentation', Any combination o (these letters indicates what forms of the program are present. Bask: programs are presented entirely In source code format.
Abasic programs: Graphics 30Sofids 3d solids modeling program w sample data files Blocks draws blocks Cubes draws cubes Durer draws pictures In the style of Duras Fseape draws fractal landscapes Hidden 3D drawing program, wr hidden line removal Jpad simple paint program Optical draw several optical Illusions Paintbox simple paint program Shuttle draws the Shuttle in 3d wirelramo SpaceArt graphics demo Speaker speech utility Sphere draws spheres Spiral draws color spirals ThreeDee 3d function plots Topography artificial topography Wheeb draws circts graphics Xenos draws fractal planet
landscapes Abasic prog rams: Tools AddressBook simple database program lot addresses CardFlle simple card file database program Demo multiwind (w demo KeyCodes shows keycodes for a key you press Menu run many Abasic prog rams from a menu MoreColors way to get more colors on the screen at once, using aliasing shapes simple color shape designer Speatdt speech and narrator demo Abasic programs: Games BrickOut classic: computer brick wall game Othello also known as 'go' Saucer simple shoot-em-up game Spelling simple talking spelling game ToyBox selectable graphics demo Abasic programs: Sounds
Entertainer plays that tune HAL9000 pretends its a real computer Police slope police siren sound Sugarplum C programs: piays "The Dance of the Sugarplum Fairies' Aterm simple torminal program, S-E cc aid to compiling with Lattice C decynt opposite of CONVERT for cross developers Dotty source code tD the 'dotty window demo echo* uniX’Styie filename expansion, partial
S. O-D faslerfp explains use of fasl-tbaling point math FixDale
fixes future dates on all files on a disk, S-E freedraw simple
Workbench drawing program, S-E GlxMem graphic memory usage
Indicator, S-E Grep searches for a gtven string in a file,
with documental Ion ham shows cfl the hoid-and-modify method
of cobs generation IBM2Amiga fast parallel cable transfers
between an IBM and an Amiga Man del Mandetoroi set program,
S-E moire patterned graphic demo, S-E objlbr makes Lattice C
object tile symbols vtsbleto Wack, S-E quick q ulck sort
strings routine raw example sarrpte winttow VO sat ace turns
on interlace mode, S-E sparks qix-type graphic demo, S-E Other
executable programs: SpeochToy speech demonstration WhlchFont
displays all available fonts Texts: saoao describes 68020
speedup board Irom CSA Aliases explains uses of the ASSIGN
command Bugs known bug list in Lattice C 3.02 CLCard reference
card lor AmigaDCS CLI CLICo remands guide to using the CLI
Commands shorter guide to AmigaDOS CLI commands EdCommands
guide to the ED editor Filenames AmigaDOS filename wildcard
conventions HattBrighl explains rate graphics ch ps that can
dc more colors ModemPins description of the serial port pinout
RAMdisks tips on setting up your RAM: disk ROMWack tips on
using ROMWack Sounds explanation of the Instrument demo sound
Lie formas Speed refutation of the Amiga's CPU and custom chip
speed WackCmds tips on using Wack AMICUS Disk 2 C programs:
alib AmigaDOS object library manager, S-E as text tile
archive program, S-E fixobj auto-chope executable tries 6 hen
simple CLI shell, S-E sq, usq fi to co rrpreesion prog rams,
S-E YachtC a familiar game, S-E Make a single 'make'
programming utility, S-E Emacs an early version of the Amiga
text editor, S-E-D Assembler prog rams: boearch.asm binary
search code qsort.asm Unix compalble qsortf) function. source
and C test program setjmp.asm setjrrpO code for Lattice 3.02
Svprintf Unix system V cotrpatibie printfQ trees. d Untx
compalble tree () function, O-D (This disk formerly had IFF
specification files and examples. Since this spec is
constantly updated, the IFF spec flies have boon moved to
their own disk in the AMICUS collection. They are not here.)
John Draper1 Amiga Tutorials: Animate describes animation algorithms Gadgets tutorial on gadgets Menus learn about Intuition menus AMICUS Disk 3 C programs: Xref a C cross-reference gen., S-E Bbitcofor axtra-hatf-bright chip gfx demo, S-E Chop truncate (chop) files down to size, S-E Cleanup removes strange characters from text files CR2LF converts carriage returns to line feeds In Amiga fifes, S-E Em* adds compile errors to a C fits. S Help window ax. Fromthe RKM, S Kermit generic Kermit implementation, flakey, no terminal mode, S-E Scales sound demo piays scales, S-E Skews Ribik cube demo in
hi-res cobra, S-E AMIGABeafcProgs (dir) Automata cellular automata simulation CrazyElghls card game Graph function graphing programs WitchingHour a game ABASIC programs: Casino games of poker, blackjack, dice, and craps Gomoku also known as 'othello' Sabotage sod of an adventure game Executable program*: Disassem a 68000 disassembler, E-D DpSIPe shows a given set at IFF pictures, E-D Arrange a text formatting program. E-D Assembler programs: Argoterm a terminal program with speech and Xmodem. S-E Amicus Disk 4 Files from the original Amiga Technical BBS Mote that some of these files are old,
and refer Id didos versions of the operating system. These files came from the Sun system that served as Amiga technical support HQ for most of 1935. These files do not carry a warraniy.
And are for educational purposes only. Of course, that’s not to say they doni work.
Complete and nearly up-to-date C source to 'image. ed'. an early version of the icon Editor. This Is a little flaky, but compiles and runs.
An intutllon demo, in full C source, including flies: demomenu. c, demomonu2. c, demoreq. c, getascS. c, idemo. c. Idemo.guide, idemo.maks, Idemoali. h, nodos. c, andtxwrtts. c addmemc add externa) memory to the system bobtesLc example of BOB use consolelO. c console 10 exanpe creaport. c create and delete ports cr eas'd-c create standard 10 requests creatastoc creating task examples diskk. c example of track read and write dotty. c source to the 'dotty window' demo dualplay. c dual playfield example flood. c flood fill example lteemap. c old versor of treem d geitoois. c tons for Vsprites and Bobs gtxmem. c
graphic memory usage indentor heila. c window example Irom R KM Inputdev. c adding an input handier to the Input stream joystitc reading the joystick keybd. c direct keyboard reading layertes-c layers examples mousportc test mouse port own ltd, own lb asm example of making your own library with Lattice paralest. c tests parallel port commands seritesLo tests serial port commands serisamp-c example of serial port use prinintuc sample printer interface code prtbase. h printer device definitions reglntes. c region test program 6etlace. c sourca to Interlace orVoft program setparaliel. c set the attrbules
of the parallel port SetSeriaf. c set tie attrputee (partly, data bits) of the seriatport singplay. c singe pfaytlekf exarrpto speechtoy. c source to narrator and phonetics demo fimsdely. c simpe timer demo timenc exec support timer functions timrstut. c more exec support timer lunctboB WhlchFont. e toads and displays ait aval iabfe system fonts process.I art prtbase. i assmebler Indude files: Amiga Baste Programs: Printer DRIVEn: autorqstr.txl warnings of deadlocks with (Nola: Many of these programs are present on AMICUS Printer drivers tor the Canon PJ-1060A. The C Itoh autorequesters Disk 1.
Several of these were converted to Amiga Ba61c, Prowrtter, an Improved Epeon driver that eliminates console O.txt copy of the RKM console I O chapter and are Included here.)
Streaking, the Epeon LQ-800, the Gemini Star-10, the dsktoulbrt warning of disk font loading bug Add rest Book a simple address book database NEC 8025S, the Okidata ML-82, the Panasonic KX-P1Qxx fullunc-bd list of Sdefines, macros, functions Sal draws a ball family, and the Smtth-Corona D300, with a document inputdev.txt preliminary copy of the input device Clead program to convert CompuServe hex files desaibing the Installation process.
Chapter to binary, S-D AMCUS Disk 10 Instrument eound damns License Information on Workbench distribution license Clue the game, Intuition DRIVEn This is an Icon-driven demo, decollated to many dealers.
Printer pre-release copy of the chapter on printer drivers, Colorant art drawing program It Indudes the sounds of an acoustic guitar, an aiann, a from RKM 1.1 v11ld.txt diff ot.Id file changes from DeluxoDraw the drawing program In the 3rd Issue of ban|o, a bass guitar, a bolnk, a calliope, a car horn.
Version 1.0 to 1.1 v28v1.diff diff of Include tile changes Amazing Computing, S-D daves, water drip, electric guitar, a (lute, a harp arpegio, a from version 28 to 1.0 Eliza conversational computer psychologist kickdrum, a marimba, a organ minor chord, people AMICUS Disk 5 Hies from the Amloi Ur* Othello the game, as known as 'get talking, pigs, a pipe organ, a Rhodes piano, a saxophone, Amiga Information Network RatMaze 3D ratmaze game a sitar. A snare drum, a steel drum, bons, a vbrophone, a Note that some of these tiles are old, and refer to older ROR boggling graphics demo violin, a
wailing guitar, a horse whinny, art a whistle.
Versons of Ihe operating system. These files are from Shuttle draws 30 pictures of the space shuttle AMCUS Disk 11 Amiga Link. For a lime, Commodore supported Amiga Spelling simple spelling program C programs Unk, aka AIN, for online developer technical support. It YoYo wierd zero-gravity yo-yo demo, tracks yo- dirut il IntuHbn-based, CLI replacement tile was only up and running tor several weeks. These files y° to the mouse manager, S-E dc not carry a warranty, and are for educaibnal purposes Executable programs: epri showe and adjusts priority of CLI only. Of course, that's not to say they
don't work.
3DcUbe Modula-2 demo of a rotating cube processes, S-E A demo of Intuition menus called menudemo', in C Attlcon sets a second icon image, displayed ps shows Into about CLI processes. S-E source when the icon is dlckod vidlex displays CompuServe RLE pidure6. S-E wherels. c find a fie searching all subdirectories AmlgaSpeH a slow but simple spelling checker, E-D AmrgaBasic prog rams bobtestc BOB programming example arc the ARC file compression program, pondered porrler and sprite editor program sweep. c sound synthese example must-have tor telecom, E-D optimize optimization ex ample Irom AC artide
Assembler files: Bertrand graphics demo calendar targe, animated calendar, diary art date mydev sm sample device driver disksalvage a program to rescue trashed disks, E-D book program myfib.asm sample Ibrary example KwikCopy a quick but nasty disk copy program: amortize loan amortizations rrylb. l ignores errors. E-D brushtoBOS converts sinal IFF brushes to mydev.1 LbOv lists hunks In an object fifo E-D AMIGABasic BOB OBJECTS asmsupp. l SavelLBM 6, — wos any saeen as an IFF pldure grids draw and play waveforms macro6. l assembler include tiles E-D??
Hrbert draws Hbert curves Texts: ScreenDump shareware saeen dump program, E only madib mad lib story generator amigatucks tips on CLI commands StarTerm version 2.0. term program, Xmodem mailtalh talking mailing list program extdlsk external disk specification E-D meadows30 3D graphics program, (rom Amazing gameport game port spec Texts: Computing™ article parallel parallel port spec LatticeMain tps on fixing _main. c in Lattice mousetrack mouse tracking example In hires mode serial serial port spec GDIskDrive make your own 51 4 drive slot slot machine game vt. tupdale list of new features In
version t.1 GuruMed explains the Guru numbers tictadoe the game v1.1h.brt 'diff of Include tile chargee from versor La13.03bugs bug list of Lattice C version 3.03 switch pachlnko-like game
1. 0 to 1.1 MforgeRev users view of the MicroForge hard dwe weird
makes strange sounds Files lor building your own phuter
drivers. Inducing PrintSpooler EXECUTE-based punt spooling
program Executable programs dospedai. c, epsondala. c, init.asm,
printer. c, printer.link..BMAP files: up unix-llke copy
command, E printertag.asm, render. c. and walt.asm. This disk
does These are the necessary links between Amiga Basic and ds
saeen dear. S-E contain a number of tiles desorbing the IFF
specification.
The system Ibrarles. To take advantage of the Amiga's diff urfx-Nke stream editor uses diff output These are not the latest and greatest tiles, but remain capabilities in Basic, you need these lies. BMAPs are to fix tiles here lor historical purposes. They Indude text files and C inducted tor 'disr, 'console1, 'disklonr, exec', 'Icon'.
Pm chart recorder performances indicator source examples. The latest IFF spec Is elsewhere in this 'intuition'.
Layers'. 'mathftp', malhleeedoubas'.
Assembler programs Ibrary.
'malhieeesingbas', 'mathtrans', 'potgo'. Timer and ds screen dear and CLI arguments AMICUS Disk 6 IFF Pictures translator.
Example Thes disk Indudes the DPSIide program, which can view AMCUS Disk 9 Modula-2 a given series of IFF pictures, and the shewpic1 program, Amiga Basic Programs: trails moving-warm graphics demo which can view each tile al the dick of an Icon, and the FlightSim 5Imp 19 flight simulator program caseconvert converts Modula-2 keywords to 'saveibm' program, to turn any screen into an IFF pldure.
HuePalette explains Hue. Saturation, and Intensity uppercase The pldure6 Indude a screen Irom ArtlcFox, a Degas Requester ex. Of doing requesters Irom Amga Forth Breshehan drde algorithm example dancer, tbo guys a! Electronic Arts, a gorilla, horses. King Basic Analyze 12 templates lor the spreadsheet Tut, a lighthouse, a screen from Marble Madness, the ScrollDemo demonstrates saofling capabilities Analyzel Bugs Bunny Martian, a still from an old movie, the Dire Synthesizer sound program There are lour programs here that read Commodore 64 Straits moving company, a screen Irom Pinball WoridMap
Craws a map of the world picture tiles. They can translate Koala Pad, Doodle, Print Contrudion Set, a TV newcaster, the PaintCan, a work) Executable programs: Shop art News Room graphics to IFF format Ot course, map. A Porsche, a shuttle mission patch, a tyrannosaurus Boingl latest Boingl demo, with selectable getting the tiles from your C-64 to your Amiga Is the hard rex, a planet view, a VISA card, and a ten-speed.
Speed. E part.
AMICUS Disk 7 Dial View HAM demo picture disk Brush2C converts an IFF brush to C data AMCUS D»k 12 This disk has pictures Irom the OlgiView hold-and-modify InstrudPus, Initialization code, E Executable programs video digitizer. It includes the ladies with pencils and Brush21oon converts IFF brush to an loon, E blink 'allnk' compatible linker, but taster, E-D lollypops, the young girt, the bulldozer, the horse and Dazzle graphics demo, tracks to mouse, E dean spins the disk for use with disk deaness, buggy, the Byte cover, the dictionary page, the robot and DeciGEL assembler program tor
stepping 68010 ED Robert. This indudes a program to view each picture errors, S-E-D epsonset sends Epson settings to PAR: from menu.
Separately, and all together as separate, slidable screens.
Klock men u-bar dock and date display, E E-D AMICUS Disk 8 life the game of life, E shewbig view hl-res pictures in low-res C programs: Times at Intuition-based way lo set the time and S'jporbitmap, E-D Browse view text tiles on a disk, using menus date, speaklime tell the time, E-D S-E-D EMEmscs another Emacs, more oriented to word undelete undeletes a tile, E-D Crunch removes comments and white space processing, S-E-D envapkihm converts Apple](low, medium and high from C tiles, S-E MyCll a CLI shall, works without the res pfcture6 to IFF, E-D conExec EXECUTE a series o! Commands from
Workbench. S-E-D menued menu editor produces C code lor menus.
Workbench S-E Texts: E-D PDScreen Dump FndnKeys explains hew to read tundion keys tram quick quick disk-to-disk nbbie copier, E-D dump6 Raslport of highest screen to Amga Basic quicken copies Etedronc Arts disks, remeve6 printer Hackers In explains hew to win the game 'hacker protection, E-D SetAltornato sets a second Image lor an Icon, when isteeoio guide to installing a 68010 in you r Amiga txed 1.3 demo of text editor from Mlcroemiths, E-0 dicked once S-E Print erTip tips on sending escape sequences lo C programs SetWindow makes windows tor a CLI program to run your printer spirt rotating
blocks graphics demo, S-E-D under Workbench S-E StartupTip tps on setting up your startrb- pope* start a new CLI at the press of a button, SrralCiock a small digital dock that sits in a window sequence file 8to Side kick. S-E-D menu bar XI rmr Review list of programs that work with the vsprite Vspnte example code from Commodore, Scrimper the 6creen printer In the lourth Amazing Transformer S-E-D Computing. S-E AmigaBBS Amiga Basic bulletin board program, S-D A&sombler programs starlO makes star fields like Star Trek intro, S-E-D Piduras Mount Mandebrot 3D view of Mandebrot set likes Star Wars
starship robot arm grabbing a cylinder Program to toggle Interlace mode on and oil.
A ruble’s cube type demo moving snake Graphics demo lattfp accessing the Motorola Fasl Floating Point I orary from C palette Sarrple program for designing color Demonstrates use of the trackdisk driver.
John Drapers requester tutorial and example program.
Sarrple speech demo program. Stripped down "speechtoy'.
Another speech demo program.
Trackdisk requesters Star Destroyer Robot Texts vendors card co dududo speech 6peechtoy Fr j Fish pisjtl; alib dbug make mako2 microemacs portar xri amiga3d ArgoTerm arrewOd Id4 IconExec SetWindow toybox azspeak mandlebfot 3dsotids addbook algebra amgseqi amlga-copy band box brickout canvas circle coiorcircles Copy cu paste dale dogs tar draw dynarrictriangle ezterm filibuster fractal gomoku dart haiku haltoy hauntedM hidden toz mandel menu mouse Drthelb patch pinwbeel gbox randorrvcirctes rgb rgbtos!
Rord salestalk Bhadee shapae sketchpad spaceart speecheasy spell spiral striper superpad talk terminal terrrtest topography triangle xonos xmoetrpef fraemap input dev joystick keyboard layers mandel brat mouse one. window parallel printer print.support prod eel region samplelont serial singlePlayfiekf speechtoy speech.demo text, demo timer trackdisk dado micros mats mull scales setparatlel setserlai sorlc stripe proti list of Amiga vendors, names, addresses lixes to early Cardco memory boards cross-reference to C indude files, who Indudes what mindwaiker dues to piaying the game well slideshow
make your ewn slideshews from the Kaleidoscope disk AMICUS Disk 13 Amiga Basic programs Routines from Carolyn Scheppner of CBM Tech Support, to road and display IFF pictures from Amiga Basic. With documentation. Also inducted is a program to do screen prints In Amiga Basic, and the newest BMAP files, with a corrected ConvertFD program. Wrth example pictures, and the SavelLBM screen capture program.
Routines to load and play FulureSound and IFF sound files from Amiga Basic, by John Foust lor Applied Visions. With documentation and C and assembler source for writing your own libraries, and interfacing C to assembler in libraries. With example sound.
Executable programs gravity Sei Amer Jan 86 gravitation graphic simulation, S-E-D Texts MlDt make your ewn MIDI insirumen! Interface, with documentation and a hi-res schematic picture.
AMICUS Disk 14 Several programs from Amazing Computing Issues: Toos Dan Karyte C structure index program, S-E-D Amiga Basic programs BMAP Reader by Tim Jones IFFBrush2B03 by Mike Swinger AufoRequester exampke QOSHeiper Windowed help system for CLI commands.
S-E-D PETrans translates PET ASCII files to ASCII tiles, S-E-D Csquared Graphics program from Scientific American.
Sept 85. S-E-D or adds or removes carriage returns from files, S-E-D dpdecode decrypts Deluxe Paint, removes copy protection, E-D queryWB asks Yes or No Irom the user, returns exit code, S-E vc VisJCaic type spreadsheet, no mouse control, E-D view views text files with window and slider gadget, E-D Oirig, Sproing, yaBoing, Zoing are sprite-based Being I style demob, S-E-D CLICfocK, sCiock, wCioc* are window border docks, S-E-D Text* An article on long-perslstanoe phoepor monitors, tips on making brushes of odd shapes In Deluxe Paint, and recommendations on icon Interfaces from Commodore-Amiga
Fred Fish Public Domain Software Fred Fish DiatOi amlgadema Graphical benchmark for comparing amigas.
Amgaierm simple communications program with Xmodem balls simulation of the 'kinetic thingy" with balls on strings colartul Shove ott use ai hold-and-medify mode.
Dhrysione Dhrystone benchmark program.
Dotty Source lo the "dotty window demo on the Workbench disk.
FrBedraw A small "paint* type program with lines.
Boxes, elc.
Gad John Draper's Gadget tutorial program gfxmem Graphical memo- usage display program haffbrite demonstrates "ExtrarHalf-Brite" mode. 11 you have It hello simple window demo banner Prints horizontal banner bgrop A Boyer-Moore grep-like utility bison CNU Unix replacement Vacc’, not working, bm Another Boyer-Moore grep-like utility grep DECUSgrep hermit simple portable Kerrrit with no con rrect mode.
MyCLi ReplacementCLI tor the Amiga. Version 1.0 mandel A Mandelbrot set program, by Robert French and RJ Micai FredFahCisfcS: cons Console device dBmo program with supporting macro routines.
Creates avisual diagram of (roe memory sample input handler, traps key or mouse events Shows how to set up the gameport device as a joystick.
Demonstrates direct communications with the keyboard.
Shows use of the layers library IFF Mandebrot program hooks up mouse to right Joystick port console window demo Demoestrales access to the parallel port, opening and using the printer, does a screen dump, not working Printer support routines, not working, sample process creation code, not working demos split drawing regions sample font with info on creating your own Demos the serial port Creates 320 x 200 playfield latest version d cute speech demo simplified version of speechtoy, wth 10 requests displays available fonts dor roc limer, device use demos trakeddk driver Fred Rah Disk 5: compress
like Unix compress, a file squeazer analog clock impersonator tpgradad version of microemacs from disk 2 removes multiple occuring lines In lites demos using sound and audio functions Allows changing parallel port parameters Allows changing serial port parameters, quicksort based sort program, In C Strps comments and extra whitespace from C source Fred Fieh Disk 7: This diskoontains the executables of the game Hack, version 1.0.1. Fred Fish Disk 8: This disk contins the C source to Hack on disk 7.
EredFish Disk 9: moire Draws moire patterns in black and while MVP-FORTH Mountain View Press Forth, versor
1. 00.03A, A shareware version of FORTH Irom Fantasia Systems, a
more powerful text formatting program Object module ibrartan.
Unlx-Ske frontend for Lattice C compiler.
Macro based C debugging package.
Machine independent.
Subset of Unix make command.
Another make subset command.
Small version d emacs editor, with macros, noextenstons Portable file archiver.
OECUS C cross reference ufillly.
Fred Fish Disk 3: gothic Gothic font banner printer, rdf A Totri type text formatter.
II A very fast text formatter dorth A highly portable forth Implementation. Lots d goodies.
Xltsp Xlisp 1.4, pot working correctly.
Two programs tor launching programs from Workbench that presently only work under. CLI.
SetAlternate Makes an icon shew a second image when dicked ones StarTerm terminal emulator, with ASCII Xmodem, dialer, more.
Freti Fisft. Pi5k.13; A Bundle of Basic programs. Including; Jpad xmodem ror bounce cardfi cubes1 dragon Eliza I scape ha19000 join mhlpajut pens Readme sabotage shuttle speakspeach sphere suprshr tom wheels (note: some programs are Abasic, most are Arrigabasic, and some programs are presented in both languages) Fred Fi «Fi DidKH: amiga3d updateot 12, Includes Csourcstoafull hidden surface removal and 3D graphics beep Source for a function that generates a beep sound dex extracts text front within C source files dimensions demonstrates N dimensional graphics fitezap update of disk 10. A file
patch utility gfxmem update of dtok 1, graphic memory usage indicator gl converts IFF brush files to Image struct, In C text.
Pdterm slrrple ANSI VT100 terminal emulator.
In 80 x 25 screen shell sluple Unix tosh’ style 6hell termcap mo6tly Unix compaibie lermcap’ implementator.
Fred Hah Disk 15: Bktos g raphes demo, like Unix ‘worms’ Clock simple digital clock pregramfor the title bar Dazzle An eight-fold symmetry dazzler program Really prettyl Fish double buffBrBd sequence cycle animation of a fish Monopoly A really nice monopoly game written In AbasC.
OkidataDump Okktata ML92 driver and Workbench screen dump program.
Polydraw A drawing program wriSen In Abasic.
Polyfractals A fractal program wrltlen In AbasC.
Set ace skewb sparks Fred Fish Disk 10: conquest An interstellar adventure simulation game dehex convert a hex (lie lo binary filezap Patch program (or any type of tile.
Tixob| StripgartagooffXmodemtransferredfiles.
Ill Routines to read and write Iff format files.
Id simple directory program Is Minimal UN IX Is, with Unlx-style wiJdcarding, inC sq.usq lite squeeze and unsqueeze trek73 Star Trek game yachtc Dtoe game.
Fred FI eh Disk 11: dpslkJe slide show program for displaying IFF images with miscellaneous pictures Fred Rsh Disk 12; Shows a rotating 3 dimensional solid “Amiga sign".
A terminal emulator program, written in assembler Shows a rotating 3 dimensional wire frame arrow.
Directory listing program Fred Flth Disk 16: C-kermit Port of the Kermrt tile transfer program and i Fred Rib Disk 32 A complete copy of the lalesl developer IFF disk server.
Address Extended address book written in Fred Reh Disk 17: Ps Display and set process prorities AmlgaBaslc.
The NewTek Dgi.View video digitizer HAM demo disk Archs Ye! Another program lor bundling ip text files Calendar Calendar diary program written in FredRsfiDi. k IB: and mailing or posting them as a sing le file AmgaBaslc.
AmlgaDisplay dent: terminal program with bell.
Unit.
OcePlusl First volume of CLI oriented tools tor selectable lords EredFish Disk 27 developers.
Ash Prerelease C Shell-like shell program, history, loops, etc. Abdemoe Amiga Bask; demos (ram Carolyn Scheppner, DosPlus2 Second volume ci Cli oriented tods far developers.
Browser warders a Ilia tree, displays Wes, all wtlh the NewConvertFD creates. bm xs from Id files.
Executables only: mouse BtlPlanes finds addressee of and writes lo Macview Views MacPaint pictures in Amiga tow or high MC68010 docs on upgrading your Amiga to use a bfbianes of tha screen s btmap.
Res, no sample pictures, by Scott Fvemden.
68010 Abo ulB maps A tutorial on creation and use of bmaps.
Puzzle Simulation of puzzle with mwing square MuAldim rotate an N dimensional cube with a|oystick LoadlLBM loads and displays IFF ILBM pics.
Ikes.
PigLatln SAY command thatlaiks in Pig Latin LoadACBM loads and displays ACBM pics.
ShowHAM View HAM pictures from CLI.
Scrinper Screen image printer ScreenPrint creates a demo screen and dumps It to a Solitaire AbasC games of Canfield and Klondike, Xllsp1.6 source, docs, and executable tor a Lisp graphic printer.
From David Add bon.
Interpreter.
Disassem Simple 68000 disassembler. Reads Spine Grtphtes dome of spinning cubes. Double- Eisd Eisti Hik 1f; standard Amiga object tiles and buffersd example.
Blackjack text-oriented blackjack game disassembles the code sections. Data Sword Sword of Fallen Angel text adventure game JayMinerStkles Slides by Jay Miner, Amiga graphics ch sections are dumped In hex. The actual written in Amiga Basic.
Designer, shewing flowchart of the Amiga drsassember routines are set up to be Trails Leaves a trail behind mouse, in Modula-2 internals, in 640 x 400.
Callable 1 rom a user program so ir stuccoes FredRWi Disk 33 Keymap_Tesl test program to test the keymapping routines in memory can be disassembled dynamically.
3dstars 3d version of Ihe "stars' program below.
LockMon Find undoeod file locks, lot pvograms that By Bril Rogers.
Bigmap Low-level graphics example scrolls bitmap don't dean up.
DvorakKoymap Example of a keymap structure for the Dvorak with ScrollVPort.
Fred Flth Hik 2D: keyboard layout U ntesled but included DhuLgofs Double-buffered animation example for AmigaToAlan converts Amiga object code to Atari lormat because assembly examples ate lew and far Bobs and Vsprttea.
DskSaiv program to recover liiee from a trashed between. By Robert Bums of C-A DskMappet Displays sector allocation of floppy disks.
AmigaDOS disk.
Hypocydoids Spirograph, from Feb. 84 Byle, Mem View View memory in real time, move with joystick Hash exanpte of the AmigaDOS disk hashing Lines Do mo Example of proportional gadgets to scroti a Okig Bouncing balls Oemo function SuperSnMap.
Sproing Oing. With sound effects.
Hd Hex dump utility ala Corrpulor Language magazine. April 86 MumExpansbn Schematics and directions for Building your own homebrew 1 Mb memory expansion, by Scree nDump Dumps trig hest screen nr window to the printer.
MandelBrots Mandelbrot coolest winners Michael Fellinget.
Sdb Simple database program from a DECUS Mult Flashing Tutorial and examples lor Exec level SaieMaioc Program to debug 'mallocO' calf tape.
Multitasking SoenceDemos Convert Julian to solar and sidereal time, Stars Star field demo, like Star Trek.
Pack strips whitespace Irom C source stellar positions and radial velocity epoch TermPlus Terminal program with capture, Ibraiy.
Port Handler sample Port-Handier program that performs.
Calculations and Galilean satellite plotter.
Function keys, Xmcdem, CtS-B protocols.
Shows BCPL environment dues.
By David Eagle.
WOO Version 2.0 of Dave Weckerfs VT-100 Random Random number generator in assembly, tor emulator, with scripts and function keys.
C or assembler, A Base games by David Addison: Backgammon, Cribbage.
Fred Flih Disk 34 SetMousa2 sets mouse port to right or left port.
Milestone, and Othello AIM Support hies for Gimpefs ‘lint syntax checker SpeecPTerm terminal emulator with speech capabilities.
Cpp DECUS cpp' C preprocessor, and a modified Blink PD ‘slink conpatble Inker, faster, better.
Xmodem 'cc'that knows sbout the 'cpp'.tor anx C. Browser Updated to FF 18 'browser, In Manx, with TxEd Demo editor from Microsmiths Charlie Heath Shar Unix-cornpaffdeshBil archiver, for packing scroll bars, bug fixes.
Fred Fish Disk 21 Wes for travel.
Bfreo b-tree data structure examples This Is a copy of Thomas Wilcox's Mandebrot Set Explorer SiperBitMap Example of using a Scroll Layer, syncing B1rea2 Another version of Mree' disk Verygoodi SuperSitM ss lor printing, and creating Calendar Appointment calendar with alarm, Fred Rsh Disk 22 dummy RastPorts.
Less File viewer, searching, posit on by percent, This disk contains two now 'strains’ of mcroemacs.
Fred Fish Disk 29 line number.
Lemacs version 3.6 by Daniel Lawrence. For Unix AegisDraw Domo N wFonts Sel of 28 new Amiga foots from Bill Fischer V7, BSD 45, Amiga, MS-DOS. VMS. Uses Demo program without save and no docs.
Pr Background print utility, style optorts, Amiga function keys, status line, execute.
Animator Demo Player for Aegis Animator files wildcards.
Startup tiles, more.
Cc Unix-like fronl-end (or Manx C. Requestor Deluxe Paint-type tile requester, win sample.
Psmacs By Andy Poggio. New features indude Enough Tests (or existence d! System resources, liiee.
Fred Rsh Fred RliLDiitSS ALT keys as Mata keys, mouse support.
Devices.
AsendPacket C example of making a6yrehronous FO calb higher priority, backup fibs, word wrap, Rubik Animated Rubik's cube program to a DOS handler, written by C-A function keys.
StringLb Pubic domain Unix string Ibrary 1u notions.
ConsotoWindow C example of getting the Intuition pointer a Fred Rsh Disk 23 VI100 VT-100terminalemulatorwith Kermrtand CON: or RAW: window, for 12, by C-A Disk of source lor McroEmacs, several versions lor most Xmodem protocols DirtJtil Walk the directory tree, do CLI operations popular operating systems on micros and maiulrames. For Fred Rsh Disk 30 from menus people who want to port M icroEmacs lo their lavorDe machine.
Several shareware programs. The authors request a DtrUtie Another variant of Diruill.
Fred Rsh Disk 24; donation H you lind their program useful, so they can write File Requester Lattke C lite requester module, with demo Conques InterstalJer adventure simulation game more software.
Driver, from Charilo Heath.
Csh update to shell Dn Dis k 14, with built In BBS an Arrega Basic BBS by Ewan Grantham MacView Views MacPaint pictures In Arriga low or high commands.named variabfee, substitution.
Fine Art Amiga art res, with sample pictures, by Scott Evornden.
Modula-2 A pre-retease version of the single pass FontEdtor edit fonts, by Tim Robinson Plop Simple IFF reader program Modula-2 compiler originally developed tot MenuEditor Create menus, save them as C source, by Popal S idekick-styte program invokes a new CLI.
Macintosh al ETHZ This code was David Pehrson with automatic screen bianking.
Transmitted 1o the AMIGA and is executed on 5tarTermt3.0 Very r ice telecommunications by Jim duickCopy Devonport disk copiers duplicate copythe AMIGA using a special toader. Binary Nangano protected d*ks.
Only.
Fred Fish Disk 31 ScroliPt Dual piaytlekl example. Irpm C-A, shows 400 Fred Rah DiokiS Lhe Life game, uses blitter to do 13.8 generations X 300 x 2 bit piano plays iold on a 320 x 200 x Graphic Hack A graphic version of the game on disks 7 a second.
2 plane deep playflek).
Anc 8 Mandelbrot Versor 3.0 of Robert French's program.
SendPaPxet General purpose subroutine lo send pmd Rsh Disk 25 MxExampie Mutual exclusion gadget example.
AmgaDos packets.
This is the graphics-oriented Hadr game by John Toobes.
Only the executable $ present.
Fred Rsh Diik.26 l inHunk Processes the Amiga 'hunk' badfi les.
RamSpeed Set Measure relative RAM speed, chp and fast.
Replacement for the Manx ’set' command for Sprit eMaker Sprite editor, can save work as C data structure. Shareware by Ray Larson.
Environment variables. With improvements.
T racket Converts any disk Into files, for electronic Tree Draws a recu reive tree, g reen leafy tyixe. NM transmission. Preserves entire tile structure.
Collect code, data, and bss hunks together, lites.
Shareware by Brad Wilson.
Allows individual spectficalio of code. Data.
TxEd Crippled demo version of Microsmith's text TrClops 3-D space Invas ion game, formerly comroerdai.
And bss origins, and generates binary itle ed'tor.TxEd. now public domain. From Geodesic with forma! Remtniscart of Unix ‘a.out" lormat.
Vdraw FulMsatured drawing program by Stephen Rubrical bos.
Tha rxjtput file can be easily processed by a Vermeulen.
Tsize P riot total size of art fries In subdirectories.
Separate program to produce Motorola’S- Xkzm invokes CLI scrpts from icon Unlfdef C preprocessor lo remove Given tritderid recordo" sellable for downloading to PROM Tlcon Displays text files from an icon.
Sections of a file, leaving Ihe rest alone. By programmer. By Erie Black.
Dave Yost.
Vrest VT-100 emulation 1es1 program. Requires a Unix system.
Fred Fifth DiaL3S Acp Clock Csh DiatAid Echo FixHunk Fm KckBench Lex TunneiVision Vc VttOO YaBoing Csquared FixObj Handler Fb-lQc IFFEncode IllOjmp Jsh NewStat Reversi Uudecode Vdraw VoiceFiier Window Ans-Echo Display Driver Xlisp Unix-like 'cp' copy program Updated version of dock on disk 15.
Manx 'csh’-lika Cll, history, variables, etc. Diet planning aid organizes recipes, calories Inproved 'echo* command with color, cursor addressing Fixs programs to let them run in external memory.
Maps the sectors a file uses on the disk.
Docs, program to make a single disk that works like a Kicks tart and Workbench.
Computes Fog, Flosch, and Kincaid readability of text files, David Addison A Base 3D maze perspective game, Visicaic-like spreadsheet calculator program.
Version 22 of Dave Weckers telecom program Oingl style game program shows sprite collision detects FredFiahDiaLlZ This disk is a port of Timothy Budd's Little Smalltalk system, done by Bill Kinnereley al Washington State University.
Fred Fish Disk 35 Sep BG Set Amsncati, Circle Squared aigorthm Strps gaitoage off Xmodem transfered object files AraigaQOS handler (device) example from C-A Mimics a HP-10C calculator, written in Modula-2 Saves the screen as an IFF llio Dumps Inlo about an IFF file BDSC-liks Cll shell STATUS-like program, shows priority, processes Game of ReverBl. Version 6.1 Translate binary files to text. Unix-like programs Drawing program, version 1.14 DX M Idl synthesizer voice filar program Example of creating a DO S window on a custom screen Fred Hah Disk 22 'edict, touch','isr.'ds'written in assenther.
Displays HAM Images Irom a ray-lracing program, with example pidurea.
Example device driver sou roe. Ads like RAM: disk Xlisp 1.7, executable only These Public Domain software pieces are presented by a world of authors who discovered something fun or interesting on the Amiga and then placed their discoveries in the Public Domain for all to enjoy. You are encouraged to copy and share these disks and programs with your friends, customers and fellow user group members!
Amazing Computing™ has vowed, from our beginning, to amass the largest selection of Public Domain Software in the Amiga Community, and with the help of John Foust and Fred Fish, we see a great selection of software for both beginners and advanced users.
FmlRthPiHHh Terminal emulator with Xmodem, Kermit and CIS 3 protocols, function keys, Bcrpts, RLE graphics and conference modo.
DynAMIGAJly displays the machine state, such as open Lies, active tasks, resources, device states, interrupts, Ibraries. Ports, etc. Popula- tile compression system, tho standard tot transiting tiles Program that decodes area codes into state and locality.
'allnk1 replacement linker, version 6.5 An 'asteriods' done.
Data General D-210 Termlnai emulator Windowed DOS Interface program, version
1. 4 Windrwed AmigaDOS Cll hep) program Prints text files with
headers, page breaks, line numbers Starts a new Cll with
asingie keystroke, from any program. With a screen-saver
feature.
Version 2. With source.
Sprite Editor edits two sprites at a time Spelling checker allows edits lo tiles Amost AmigaMooitor Arc A encode Blink Cosmo Dg210 OrUtil OOSHelper PagePrinl PopCLI Sprte£d X-Spell (Fred Fish Disk 30 is tree when ordered with al least three dherdieks from the collection.)
In Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, the materials in this library are freely distributable. This means they were either publidy posted and placed In the Public Domain by their Author. Or they have restrictions published in their files lo which we have adhered. If you become aware of any violation of the author's wishes, please contact us by mail. *AC* The disk are very affordable!
Amazing Computing™ subscribers $ 6.00 per disk.
Non subscribers..$ 7.00 per disk This is extremely reasonable for disks with almost 800K of information and programs. If you agree, please send check or money order to: PiM Publications Inc.
P. O. Box 869 Fall River, MA 02722 All Checks must be in US funds
drawn on a US Bank Please allow 4 to 6 weeks for delivery
Amazing Computing™: Your resource to the Commodore Amiga 'C'
Programmers and (Developers ’IntuiSeeds' Intuition Application
Library features:
• ‘Easy Building of Screens, ’Windows, requesters, Menus and a
full complement of gadgets and Images.
• Window Management * includes the option to monitor ad windows
through a single IlDCM Tort
• Management of pointers for Screen, Windows and Hippies tors,
• Automatic linking and updating of gadgets to Windows and
Requesters.
• Memory Management through the use of a single routine.
• full documentation for ad routines.
To etdtr, strut I S9. SS fll$)Uud.ar rvruy enter (pius SZJOS H) to; QrtadlhumS Softurare 2J ‘Dtunison Avc.
P. O. Bo lSW
• Binghamton, 1JSCZ Intuition is a trademarkif Commador-Amiga
IntuiSeeds is a trademarfof grterflhumS Software QreerdlJtumb
Software 'Seeds for tfte Creative' SciCalc™ Scientific
Calculator For The Amina™ $ 19.95 |H| SciCalc 5 I** 1.23456789
123] 0 0 0 0 for- 0 0 0 0 0 (Exp) 0 0 0 0 CD 0 0 0 (StoJ 0 0 @
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 [Cos] 00 0 0 [Sirnl 0 0 0 (l“L.
Don't lot the price fool you! SciCalc has lull algebraic hlorarcy and features an automatic constant that is a delight to use. CbooSB from 3 display modes: Floating Point, Scientific, or Fitted Point.. Press th9 Hyp (arbolic) Koy twice and a whole now page of functions is al your fingertips. No long wails — SciCalc has boon available since March. Your order with manual will bo sent by First Class mail.
Feature* ¦ Large Equals Key (Display) — Color Highlighting ¦ Adjusiibis Size ¦ Fuil Error Trapping
• 10 Memories ¦ 2 Dim ensional Statistics
• Powers * Linear Regression
• Logarithms "Linear Estimation
• Trigonometry (Dfl G) Correlation Coe'tcienl
• Hyporbolics ‘ • Factorials to 170
• Polar Rectangular Conversions, and more.
Dealers Inquires Welcome Send Check for $ 19.95 to: DESKWARE
P. O. Box 47577 St. Petersburg, FL. 33743 Index of Advertisers
Access Associates 7 Aclionware 59 Adept Software 67 ASDG 14
Akron Systems 32 Ami Project 86 Applied Visions B2 Associated
Computer Services 43 BCD 55 Benaiah Computer Products 87
Bethesda Softworks 11 Byte by Byte CIV Cardinal Software 10
Century Systems 66 Creative Solutions 45 Crystal Computer 18
Deskware 96 DigiPix 21 Discovery Software A1 En Route Books 33
Felsina Software 36 Gimpel Software 16 Greenthumb Software 96
Interactive Analytic Node 40 Jagware A2 Lattice 5 MacroWare 47
Marksman Technologies 20 Megaport Computer Center 13 Memory
Location, The 22 Meridian Software. 39 Metadigm, Inc. 2 Micro
Systems Software 60 Microiliusion 27 Microsearch 64
MicroSmiths, Inc. 85 NewTek B1 Overland Laboratories, Inc. 68
Pacific Cypress 79 Phase Four Software Distributers 26 PiM
Publications, Inc. 48,49,95 Progressive Peripherals CI, C! II,28
Promiga 69 R & S Data Systems 30 Rankin Systems Software 52
SKE Term 90 Software Factory, The 58 South Park Software 19
Sunsmile Software 63 T & L Products 56 T’s Me 53 TDI Software
Inc. 34 Westcom Industries 42 Support the Amiga™ and Amazing
Computing™, Write!.
Your thoughts, experiences, and programs are need by others.
For an Author's guide, write to: Author's Guide, PiM Publications, Inc., P.O.Box 869, Fall River, MA. 02722.
VIEW DICT bring the wirkl into your Amiga!
Rith Digi-View and a video camera, your Amiga can see! Faces, logos, artwork... anything you can imagine!
W!
Simply point your camera and click the mouse. In seconds, whatever the camera sees is painlessly transformed into a computer image that can be printed, stored on disk, or transferred to other programs. Imagine how quickly and easily you can generate stunning video art and animation when you start with high quality digitized photographs or artwork.
Fi Sophisticated software included with Digi-View makes it easy to produce dazzling, broadcast-quality color images. Intuitive, on-screen controls are as easy to use as the knobs on your T.V. set, Digi-View can capture images in several modes, including 320x200 pixels with up to 4096 colors on screen (“hold- and-modify" model, and the incredibly detailed 640x400 high resolution mode.
$ 199.95 includes video digitizer module, color separation filter, software and manual.
Only NewTek I N C O R P O 701 Jackson • Suite B3 1 RATED Topeka, KS • 66603
• IFF disk format works with Digi-Paint™, DeluxePaint1'',
DeluxeVideo™, DeluxePrint, Aegis Images1'1, Aegis Animator, and
more!
• Saves time! No more hours of freehand drawing and redrawing.
• Send photos over the telephone with your modem and terminal
software.
• Capture images for scientific image processing or pattern
recognition.
• Spice Lip business graphics slide show program included.
• Incorporate photos in posters and greeting cards,
• Use Digi-View pictures in your BASIC programs
• Catalog images with IFF database programs.
• Make red blue 3D photos.
• A powerful tool for commercial graphic artists Panasonic
WV-1410 video camera w ions....S280 CS-1L Copy stand
w lights.....S 75 Amiga is a trademark of
Commodore-Amiga, Inc. Digi-View and Digi-Paint are trademarks
of NewTek, Inc. DeluxePaint. DeluxeVideo. And DeinxePnnt are
trademarks of Electronic Arts. Inc. Aegis Images and Aegis
Animator are trademarks of Aegis Development Inc.
* Digi- iew software version 2.0 (or newer! Required to use
color camera. For maximum resolution use monochrome camera with
2.1 interlace High-res color modes require I Meg expansion RAM
: 1986 NewTek. Inc. “Open the pod bay doors, HAL...”
Programmers cast their vote!
Right now, leading software developers are hand at work on the next generation of Amiga® products. To add the spectacular sound effects we've all come to expect from Amiga software, they are overwhelmingly choosing one sound recording package... FutureSound. As one developer put it, "FutureSound should be standard equipment for the Amiga."
FutureSound the clear winner... Why has FutureSound become the clear choice for digital sound sampling on the Amiga? The reason is obvious: a hardware design that has left nothing out. FutureSound includes two input sources, each with its own amplifier, one for a microphone and one for direct recording; input volume control; high speed 8-bit parallel interface, complete with an additional printer port; extra filters that take care of everything from background hiss to interference from the monitor, and of course, a microphone so that you can begin recording immediately.
What about software?
FutureSound transforms your Amiga into a powerful, multi-track recording studio. Of course, this innovative software package provides you with all the basic recording features you expect.
But with FutureSound, this is just the beginning. A forty-page manual will guide you through such features as variable sampling rates, visual editing, mixing, special effects generation, and more. A major software publisher is soon to release a simulation with an engine roar that will rattle your teeth.
This incredible reverberation effect was designed with FutureSound's software.
Question: What can a 300 pound space creature do w ith these sounds?
Answer: Anything he wants.
Since FutureSound is IFF compatible (actually three separate formats are supported) your sounds can be used by most Amiga sound applications. With FutureSound and Deluxe Video Construction Set from Electronic Arts, your video creations can use the voice of Mr. Spook, your mother-in-law, or a disturbed supercomputer.
Programming support is also provided.
Whether you're a "C" programming wiz or a Sunday afternoon B ASIC hacker, all the routines you need are on the non-copy protected diskette.
Your Amiga dealer should have FutureSound in stock. If not, just give us a call and for $ 175 (VISA, MasterCard or COD) we'll send one right out to you. Ahead warp factor one!
Applied Visions, Inc., Suite 2200, One Kendall Square Cambridge, MA 02139 (617)494-5417 Amiga Is a registered trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc. Deluxe Vtceo Construction Set is a trademark of Electronic Arts. Inc. LOGiSTiX- IS?
Spreadsheet+Timesheet+Database+Graphics+Project Management- Successful Management!
Computer software has always been the limiting factor in your business operation.
Now Progressive Peripherals & Software, Inc.has broken through this barrier tobringyou a completely new concept in integrated business software. Logisticn, the software that outweighs all other business software products!
Logistix is the planning tool designed to provide professional business people with a solution to the limitations of current spreadsheets and project management software. With time and project management built in to the same work area, you can now solve the simultaneous problems of time and money that effect your business for today and tomorrow, Logistix is the first and only business software program to actually integrate both time and financial functions. Face it: Time is Money. With Logistix, you can schedule personnel, manage shipments, plan work schedules and production flows. This allows
you to monitor, project, and protect your business interests better than ever before.
Logistix offers you the four dynamic features needed to widen the horizons of success for your business. Logistix combines together, in one worksheetarea, a large and sophisticated spreadsheet, presentation quality color graphics, database functions and, of course, powerful and flexible time and project management. Best of all, it is all designed with the business person in mind.
Logistix has built-in sideways print functions, supports over 20 international currency symbols, and offers compte te support documentation, including a examples diskette. Logistix reads 1-2-3 files and many other file formats, so no time is lost reformatting existing data. You'll be finding business solutions faster than ever before.
PROGR€ TIV€ 464 KALAMATH STREET DENVER, COLORADO 60204 303-025-4144 TELEX: 688S3T 'hot HEWLETT rim PACKARD Logistix is the most modern and intelligent planning tool ever designed for business people, by business people. It's loaded with featuresyou expect to find in programs costing hundreds of dollars more. When it comes to business software, Logistix helps you see the future possibilities of your business.
For more information about Logistix call or write us today.
AMIGA IBM PC XI A I, HP' I Mi. Amiga a nil, Lotus l -2** arc registered trademarks of Interns titm. il Business Machines, I lewlett Packard Corp, Commodore Business Machines, and last us Developentent Corp respccmly I.OGISI IX is a registered trademark of CdlAl OX of England jud no part of this ad may be reprised in any manner without sole written permission from Progressive Peripherals & Software, Ini WITH PAL SYSTEMS
• Supports Three Hah Height Devices
• Hard Disks
• Tape Backup
• CD ROM
• Five DMA Fxpansion Slots
• Battery Backed Clock Calendar
• Whisper Fan
• Auto-Configure
• 200 Watt Power Supply
• DMA Hard Disk Controller (ST506 412)
• Optional additional SCSI
• 100% Zorro Compatible
• 1 to 9 5 Megabytes of Fast RAM WITH PAL Jr
• One Megabyte of Fast RAM
• DMA Hard Disk Controller
• 20 Megabyte Hard Disk
• Auto-Configure
• DMA SCSI Pass-through for further expansion Suggested retail
price only S1495 The TIC provides your Amiga with a tiny
battery backed clock calendar lhal conveniently plugs into
the second joystick port. The Tic's 3-year battery will main
tain time even if temporarily removed from the Amiga. Change
the Amiga's internal time simply by moving the displayed
clock's hands with the mouse. Set your Amiga's time once and
for all. It's about time for TIC. Suggested retail price only
S59.95. The Information Manager. Hierarchial Database that
allows you to organize and display text and graphical files,
e.g. Real Estate Listings, Personnel Files, Digitized X-rays,
Geographical Maps, etc. Fully supports multi-tasking. Fast
access by menu or outline. INFOMINOER will revolutionize the
way you store and access both textual and graphical
information.
Get INF0MINDER today at the special introductory price of only S89.95. Arboretum Plaza II 9442 Capital of Texas Suite 150 Austin. TX 78759
(512) 343-4357 Highway BYTE buBYTE riBnKvarf AMIGA is a trademark
of Commodore-Amiga, Inc.

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